Fate of Environmental Pollutants

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adsorption capacity of the alum sludge. BTEX/MTBE. A full-scale biosparging operation was conducted at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site by Kao et al. (2008) ...

Fate of Environmental Pollutants Christophe J. G. Darnault1* and Shooka Karimpour Ghannadi2

doi:10.2175/106143009X12445568400656

The purpose of the present literature review is to cover

Chesnaux and Allen (2008) simulated nitrate transport in

studies published during the calendar year 2008 on the fate

vadose zone using SEEP/W for water seepage and

of environmental pollutants in the atmosphere, soil,

CTRAN/W for contaminant transport. Nitrate leaching

groundwater and surface waters. Studies related to soil

profiles were modeled in vadose zone using SEEP/W and

remediation, water quality and sources of environmental

CTRAN/W. Heterogeneity and permeability had effects on

pollution as well as reaction kinetics and modeling are

nitrate transport in vadose zone. Eriksen et al. (2008)

reviewed. Included in the coverage of the present review is

investigated the impacts of grassland proportion in mixed

research on pollutants, such as: nutrients, xenobiotics,

crop rotations on soil C and N accumulation, fertilizer

metals, pathogens, and nanomaterials.

replacement by residuals as well as annual and accumulated nitrate leaching losses. It was observed that over time,

Nutrients

differences between grasslands existed and cumulative

Nitrate and Nitrogen. Crevoisier et al. (2008)

impacts were significant. At crop-rotation level, nitrate

investigated the transfer of water and nitrogen using the

transport was governed by that from grasslands and over

HYDRUS-2D model under different irrigation methods on

time, nitrate transport from the rotations with fertilized

Chromic Luvisol in Bulgaria. This model was used to

ryegrass was higher than from those with unfertilized

assess environmental risks resulting from irrigation

grass–clover. Theses differences increased with increasing

methods associated with fertilization practices.

amount of grassland in the rotation. Domagalski et al.

—————————

(2008) investigated the fate and transport of nitrate in a

1*

Department of Civil and Materials Engineering, 842 West

groundwater transect from an almond orchard to the

Taylor Street, ERF # 2071, University of Illinois at Chicago,

Merced River, California, USA. The movement of water

Chicago, IL 60607; Tel. 312-996-2429; Fax. 312-996-2426; e-

and chemicals along transect from an orchard where

mail: [email protected]

chemicals were applied to a river discharge outlet were

2

Department of Civil and Materials Engineering, University of

monitored to investigate the processes controlling the

Illinois at Chicago

distribution and fate on nitrate. It was found that about 63%

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Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

of the applied nitrogen was transported through the vadose

transport of nitrate in groundwater discharge passing

zone Variois transport times from recharge locations to the

through streambed. Flow rates and water residence times

various location in the riparian zone were reported Isotopic

on nitrate removal were investigated on five sites across

measurements and concentrations of excess N2 in aqueous

USA. Residence times of groundwater in the streambeds of

environment indicated

N-rich

denitrification

processes.

The

watersheds

an

in

River. Bruland et al. (2008) surveyed soil NO3-N

Therefore, it was found that streambeds can decrease

distributions across various land uses and soils in the Santa

nitrate concentrations in groundwater that bypasses riparian

Fe River watershed to compare NO3-N levels in forested

zones and serve as a nitrate sink.

lower

forested

Phosphate and Phosphorous. Zhang et al. (2008) combined experiments and modeling to investigate

environment across all sampled depths and in the soil

impacts of sediment concentration and loading on

profile.. It was demonstrated that land-use is a more

phosphorus adsorption on sediments from sites of Yangtze

important contributor to soil NO3-N concentration than soil

River in China. Their experiments revealed that time,

itself. Gonçalves et al. (2008) assessed the transport of

sediment concentration and initial phosphorus loading

nitrate and potassium under various temperature treatments

played a role in the phosphorus adsorption. Among the

including ambient temperature (25 - 28 ºC), temperature of

various model used, the Langmuir model gave the best

40 ºC and temperature of 50 ºC. It was found that

adsorption isotherm. Similar observations were found for

temperature had a impact on the velocity of solution in

phosphate sediment dynamics. Jiao et al. (2008) modified

porous media and on dispersion coefficient as they

the non-deal competitive adsorption model (NICA) to

observed breakthrough curves shifting to left and greater

model hydroxyl and phosphate adsorption to soil samples

value of the dispersive effect by increase in temperature

from sites of McGill University. It was found that nitrate

solution. Abit et al. (2008) evaluated the fate of nitrate in

adsorption is controlled by pH. Also due to the high

the capillary fringe and shallow groundwater. Results

compatibility of adsorption model to observation, it was

showed not only that nitrate was transported horizontally in

suggested that NICA model may predict the adsorption of

the capillary fringe as well as that nitrate persisted longer

phosphate and the competitive adsorption in soils. Siemens

in the capillary fringe than in the water table. It was also

et al. (2008) conducted experiments to investigate whether

reported that relying on groundwater samples may lead to

the accumulation of phosphorous in soils due to excess

underestimating

traveling

phosphorous additions enhances the leaching of colloids

horizontally through the subsurface environment. Puckett et

and colloidal phosphorus from sandy soils. Their results

al. (2008) studied the processes that govern the fate and

demonstrated that an accumulation of phosphorous in

quantity

of

than

concentrations.

non-forested

the

in

nitrate

factor

denitrification

significantly

decrease

important

highest denitrification rates were located below the Merced

versus non-forested environments. Soil NO3-N was

to

played

nitrate

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Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

sandy soils did not always lead to an increased in transport

degradation under various electron acceptor (nitrate or

of colloids and colloidal phosphorus, because various

sulfate) reducing conditions and in the presence of a mixed

factors control the mobility of colloids in soils. In contrast,

cultures enriched from gasoline contaminated soil. The

phosphorous accumulation generally increases dissolved

experiment for substrates - benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene,

phosphorous concentrations in noncalcareous soils due to

o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene - demonstrated that higher

the saturation of the phosphorous sorption capacity. Yang

concentrations of BTEX were toxic to the mixed cultures

et al. (2008) investigated the effects of ageing time on the

and that BTEX degradation rates decrease. They showed

structure as well as the phosphate adsorption of a

that nitrate was a more efficient electron acceptor than

dewatered alum sludge from Ireland. Testing on samples of

sulfate. Raynal and Pruden (2008) explored the effect

sludge stored for various times aims at establishing their

BTEX on MTBE biodegradation on the microbial

chemical properties, phosphate adsorption capacities and

consortium and the reactor configuration. Two enrichment

structures. The results for phosphate adsorption showed

cultures were monitored and compared: “originally

that the adsorption capacity of the alum sludge decreases as

enriched on MTBE-only (MO)” and “originally enriched

pH increases, while ageing seemed to not affect the P-

on MTBE and BTEX(MB)”. The impact of batch versus

adsorption capacity of the alum sludge.

semi-batch reactor configuration was also established using MO culture. Study suggested that MTBE bioremediation

BTEX/MTBE

with BTEX is possible and its performance may be

A full-scale biosparging operation was conducted at a

increased by factors, such as microbial consortium. It was

petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site by Kao et al. (2008).

also demonstrated that a semi-batch reactor may perfom

Natural attenuation was found to be the major cause of the

better. Youngster et al. (2008) examined the effect of

decrease in BTEX concentrations in groundwater before

environmental

biosparging operation. Biosparging operation resulted in

Effects of BTEX, methoxylated aromatic compounds and

the field in a shift of from anaerobic to aerobic conditions

inhibitors were studied for MTBE biodegradation. It was

inside the plume. During the operation of biosparging,

reported that none of these compounds had a significant

aerobic biodegradation was the dominant degradation

effect on the degradation process.

conditions

on

MTBE

biodegradation.

processes of BTEX and a significant decrease in BTEX concentrations within the plume was observed. Farhadian et

Metals

al. (2008) also reviewed the microbiology and metabolism

Bhavsar et al. (2008) examined the effects of differences in

of monoaromatic biodegradation and in situ bioremediation

estimates of the fate of cationic metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and

under aerobic and anaerobic conditions for BTEX removal

Zn) in Ross Lake, Kelly Lake and Lake Tantare using the

from groundwater.. Duo et al. (2008) studied the BTEX

Windermere humic aqueous model (WHAM) and the

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Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

minicomputer equilibrium+ model (MINEQL+). The

concentrations. Therefore, the presence of small valley

results of these geochemical models were used as input for

bottom wetlands in forested landscapes is ecologically

the transport model TRANSPEC. WHAM and MINEQL+

significant because of the net increase in total mercury and

models estimated that the speciations and complexations

methyl

for these metals were similar for Lake Ross and Lake Kelly

ecosystems. Garrido et al. (2008) conducted experiments to

but different for Lake Tantare. The main differences

determine the physiochemical factors involved in Pb and

between the WHAM and MINEQL+ models were observed

Cd transport and sorption in soils. Breakthrough curves

for partition coefficient. Bhavsar et al. (2008) extended

analysis by temporal moment demonstrated that the mass of

TRANSPEC-II model from their previous model called

Cd transported is higher than that Pb and that the travel

TRANSPEC that was applicable to most cationic metals

time for Cd is lower than that of Pb. It was found that Pb

and surface aquatic systems. The extended version,

had a high affinity and retention for these soils while Cd

TRANSPEC-II, accounted for interactions between air–soil

had a high mobility. A functional relationship between

and soil–lake. In TRANSPEC-II, the partition coefficient

sorption and transport parameters through a linear

between the soil-solid and -soluble phases was obtained

regression and canonical correlation analysis was also

using site-specific data and a semi-empirical regression

estimated. Hutzell and Luecken (2008) used version 4.6 of

model. TRANSPEC-II was applied to the Kelly Lake

the CMAQ modeling system that simulates urban and

watershed where several mining operations are located and

regional air quality to model the fate and transport of

where the watershed is naturally enriched in Ni, and Cu.

metals lead, manganese, total chromium, nickel, and

Their results showed that soil runoff contributes about 20%

cadmium over USA during January and July 2001. To

of Ni entering into Kelly Lake and that leaching to

evaluate their predictions, they observed metals in PM2.5

groundwater was a major loss process for Ni in the soil. It

(Particulate Matter with diameters less than 2.5 µm) from

was also demonstrated that with a decrease in soil pH,

the USEPA's Air Quality System database. It was found

metal runoff, leaching, and Kelly Lake inflow metal

that CMAQ had highest skill in lead and manganese

concentration increase exponentially. Selvendiran et al.

predictions and over residential and commercial areas in

(2008) investigated mercury dynamics within two forest

the eastern United States. Nickel and chromium predictions

wetlands in a northern forest ecosystem, especially their

also improve over these land use categories. Rural areas

influence on methyl mercury production and mercury

showed larger errors because these simulations did not

transport. Stream water chemistry and hydrology were

include emissions from aerial suspension and biomass

monitored and it was concluded that wetlands markedly

burning. Cadmium predictions showed the largest error.

altered the chemistry of upland stream water by increasing

Gnecco et al. (2008) examined the speciation and transport

total mercury, methyl mercury, DOC and decreasing SO4

of Zn and Cu as well as the transport of total suspended

mercury

transport

to

downstream

aquatic

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Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

solids and total organic carbon for airside (boarding area) and landside (vehicules parking area) aviation land uses at

Xenobiotics

the international airport of Genoa in Italy.. It was

In a review of fate of xenobiotics, Kemper (2008) studied

concluded that Zn2+ dominated Zn speciation and Cu

the fate of antibiotics used in animal husbandry, focusing

complexes with carbonate or dissolved organic matter,

especially whith the antibiotic resistance and their

dominated Cu speciation. Pazos et al. (2008) studied the

extensive use. It was reported that thousands of tones of

effect of solubility and chemical speciation of metallic

antibiotics per year are released by animal husbandries.

species (Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn) and their interactions during

Information

their transport through kaolinite clay. Dungan and Dees

degradation processes of antibiotics into and in the

(2008) used toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

environment was also provided. Gianfreda and Roa (2008)

(TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP),

presented the interactions in a soil among xenobiotics,

and ASTM water leach test to assess total metals in ferrous

especially pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

and non-ferrous waste molding sands and their potential for

and microbial and enzymatic soil activities. They also

leaching. To conduct their experiments, they collected 43

discussed the use of microorganisms and enzymes to

sets of waste molding sand were collected in June 2005,

remediate xenobiotic polluted soils. Soares et. al (2008)

from 37 different foundries located in 13 states and 7

made a review on nonylphenol including its origin,

agricultural reference soils for comparison of the total

occurrence, treatment and accumulation in environment.

about

the

occurrence,

transport

and

metal data with that from the waste molding sands. Total Pathogens

metal concentrations in most of the waste molding sands were at the low end of the range measured in agricultural

Bacteria. Gargiulo et al. (2008) studied the fate

soils., with the exception of a few sands, only Co, Cu, and

and transport of hydrophilic and hydrophobic bacteria

Ni were above the range found in the soils. Due to the high

strains, respectively

amount of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, and Pb none of samples met

Rhodococcus rhodochrous in variably saturated sand.

the Resource RCRA characteristic. Metal concentrations

Several models were used to characterize the bacteria

were found to be lower in the SPLP and ASTM that the

transport and retention. A 2 site model was able to fit the

TCLP extracts due to the buffering capacity of the

breakthrough curve for both bacterial strains and for all

extraction fluids. Poissant et al. (2008) made a critical

water contents. It was observed that straining increased

review about the fate of Hg in the Arctic tundra, including

with increasing hydrophobicity of the bacteria and

fate of Hg in the Arctic ecosystem. They also assessed the

decreasing water saturation. They also concluded that the

impacts and potential risks of Hg contamination on the

bacteria attachment to solid–water and air–water interfaces

health of Arctic people and environment.

can not be the only mechanism responsible for bacteria

Deinococcus radiodurans

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Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

and

retention into soil particles and can not be mechanically

pore system. Bacterial transport was described by a one

separated

et al. (2008)

dimensional transport model with air–water interface

investigated the retention of Escherichia Coli in a series of

representing an additional sink for bacteria under in vadose

column and batch experiments in sand with solutions of

zone. They applied their model to the retention and

different

Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-

interactions of E. coli, P. fluorescence and B. subtilis

Overbeek (DLVO) analysis and results showed that

within the pore system. Naclerio et al (2008) performed

breakthrough curve and retention of bacteria is related to

field

ionic strength. The bacteria retention mechanism is not

microbiological characteristics of a site in Italy as well as

only dependant of the solution chemistry but also of the

laboratory column experiments to investigate the reliability

pore space geometry which can create hydrodynamically

of thermotolerant coliforms and fecal enterococci as

disconnected regions. In theory, the number of bacteria that

bacterial indicators. It was found that structure and

may be transported to these "immobile'' regions will be

macropores distribution may affect the retention of

dependent on the secondary energy minimum. Borges et

bacteria. They also concluded that differences in physical

al. (2008) investigated the effect of nitrogen starvation on

properties

cell surface hydrophobicity and cell adhesion to soil

Enterococcus faecalis cells migration, than Escherichia coli

particles by bacterial strains that were known to be able to

cells. Fecal enterococci were also found to be a more

use benzene, toluene or xylenes as carbon and energy

reliable indicator than

sources. It was showed that nitrogen starvation of most

detecting contamination. Kim et al. (2008) made some

bacterial strains decreases not only the adhesion to soil

modifications to an already existing model developed by

particles but also the strength of cell adhesion to the soil

Niemet et al. in 2002 to analyze the influence of the AWI

particles.

Haznedaroglu et al. (2008) examined the

area on the transport of bacteria in vadose zone. The

influence of starvation conditions on the metabolic,

bacterial transport model was used to fit data from the

phenotypic, and adhesive nature of E. coli and on its fate

literature on the bacterial breakthrough data in vadose zone,

and transport in the subsurface environment. The non-

and the results demonstrated that the model matches well

starved cells were found to be more “adhesive” than

with the data at different air contents by varying the AWI

starved cells. Extracellular polymeric substance in starved

area.

from

ionic

straining. Torkbazan

strength.

experiments

have

a

on

the

more

hydrogeological

significant

influence

and

on

thermotolerant coliforms for

cells induces cells hydrophobicity and increases cells

Protozoa. La Mantia et al. (2008) investigated

adhesion. Chen (2008) investigated uncertainty associated

the fate and transport of Giardia and Cryptosporidium and

with bacterial transport model structures and formulations.

Campylobacter spp. in fractured aquifer in Salento, Italy.

Bacterial transport modeling uncertainty was eliminated by

The natural microorganisms decay during the passage

the use of surface thermodynamic characterizations of the

through the investigated area was monitored by sampling.

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Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

A considerable decrease of microbial indicators and

oocyst concentrations in the soil was observed at the

pathogens was observed during the natural passage of

beginning of the vegetative buffer.

microorganisms. These results indicated the possible

Virus. Knappett et al. (2008) investigated the

removal or inactivation of pathogens in aquifer fractured

impacts of grain size and solution chemistry on the

flow. Miller et al. (2008) investigated the environmental

transport of bacteriophage (MS-2) and 1.5-µm carboxylated

occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts on dairy farms in

microspheres. It was found that the colloid filtration theory

California. Other parameters included cattle age, 24h and

under estimated the effect of decreasing grain size on

cumulative seasonal precipitation. It was showed that the

physicochemical filtration of bacteriophage MS-2 and 1.5-

vegetated

protozoa

µm carboxylated microspheres by several orders of

concentrations and loads in runoff. Keeley and Faulkner

magnitude. Results generally indicated that small changes

(2008) characterized the seasonal effects on the presence of

in ionic strength and/or grain size significantly impacted

Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and other microorganisms and

virus removal in saturated porous media. Zhoa et al. (2008)

determined the effects of land use on pathogens in a

conducted batch and incubation experiments to analyze the

reservoir watershed characterized by recreation, farming,

effects of soil properties, water content, and the

and a potential drinking water source. Results from samples

presence/absence of autochthonous microorganisms on

collected from Lake Texoma, demonstrated seasonal

bacteriophage MS2

variations. Especiallu, Cryptosporidium and Giardia

effects of sterilization and soil water content on virus

oocysts concentration were found to be significantly high in

inactivation were assessed on Ustisandic Primosols and

summer and and higher in fall, as the fall season has the

Ferriudic Cambosols. No virus adsorption and differences

wettest months and is also the calving season. Chambers et

in activation in both presence and absence of soil

al. (2008) studied an Alaskan community that uses hauled

autochthonous

water and sewage to examine the contamination of drinking

Ustisandic Primosols. Virus inactivation in Ferriudic

water and the environment by fecal matter. It was found

Cambosols was sensitive to combined effects of soil water

that surface water flow transported both bacteria and

content and sterilization. Charles et al. (2008) conducted

protozoa during spring thaw, but flow from the dump did

experiments with MS2 and PRD1 to investigate the

not induce contamination in the community. Hussein et al.

mechanism responsible of the fate and transport of viruses.

(2008) investigated the retention of Cryptosporidium in

Experiments included laboratory and field experiments. It

vegetative buffers. Slurries containing oocysts were applied

was observed that mechanisms for virus removal varied

to soils and the resultant oocysts retention from the runoff

significantly depending on the virus susceptibility to

were compared. Suspended sediment loads from the soil

environmental chemistry. Kenst et al. (2008) investigated

were reduced by vegetative buffers and an increased in

the effect of vadose zone processes on the transport of

buffer

strips

decreased

the

adsorption and inactivation. The

microorganisms

were

found

in

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Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

the

viruses. Experiments included soil columns made of

fold increase for rye-grass in Al concentration in the leaves

Memphis

Virus

was reported. Ghosh et al. (2008) performed experiments to

concentrations decreases exponentially with travel distance

study the effects of pH and humic acids on the fate of

in

conditions.

Al2O3 nanoparticles. It was found that nanoparticles surface

Adsorption of virus to soil particles was observed

charge decreased with increasing pH and with humic

throughout the

result

substances. Humic substances improved nanoparticles

virus retardation during transient

stability at the pH of zero point charge and above, and

both

aquifer

saturated

and

and

entire

demonstrated that

bacteriophage

unsaturated

column

φX174.

soil

length. Their

unsaturated flow is similar to virus retardation during

facilitate

aggregation

of

nanoparticles

in

acidic

steady-state saturated flow.

environment. Loux and Savage (2008) developed an approach to characterize the self aggregation of metal oxide

NanoMaterials Christian

et

al.

nanomaterial by incorporating “diffuse layer model surface (2008)

studied

the

properties

of

complexation theory” and “historical Derjaguin– Landau–

nanoparticles and their fabrication and presented how these

Verwey– Overbeek (DLVO) procedures”. Zhan et al.

parameters can play a role in the fate and transport of

(2008) investigated the transport of iron nanoparticles

nanoparticles in the environment. Zhang et al. (2008)

entrapped in porous silica particles. Their findings

investigated the dispersion and stability of metal oxide

demonstrated that the entrapment of iron nanoparticles into

nanoparticles in water and also studied their removal by

silica particles limits their aggregation and maintains their

water treatment. It was observed that nanoparticles

reactivity which is a critical component for effective

aggregation impacts their fate in the aqueous environment

delivery of iron nanoparticles during groundwater in-situ

and that the electrolytes present in aqueous environment

remediation.

impact nanoparticles aggregation due to electrical doubleReferences

layer compression. Another review study on nanoparticles was made by Ju-Nam and Lead (2008) in which an

Abit S. M., Amoozegar A., Vepraskas M. J., Niewoehner C.

overview of the chemistry of nanoparticles in the aquatic

P.(2008) Fate of nitrate in the capillary fringe and shallow groundwater in a drained sandy soil, Geoderma, 146: 209–

and terrestrial environments was performed. Doshi et al.

215

(2008) investigated the transport of, nano-aluminum

Bhavsar S. P., Gandhi N., Diamond M. L. (2008) Extension of

particles, Alex and L-Alex in porous media as well as the

coupled multispecies metal transport and speciation

environmental impacts of nano-aluminum on soil and

(TRANSPEC) model to soil, Chemosphere, 70: 914–924

plants. The presence of nano-aluminum did not show

Bhavsar S. P., Gandhi N., Diamond M.L., Lock A.S., Spiers G.,

adverse effect on growth of tested plants. For California red

De la Torre MCA (2008) Effects of estimates from different

beans no uptake of aluminum was reported, while a 2.5-

geochemical models on metal fate predicted by coupled

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Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

speciation-fate models, Environmental Toxicology and

on the transport of nitrate near the Merced River, California,

Chemistry, 27: 1020-1030

USA, Hydrogeology Journal, 16: 675–690

Borges M. T, Nascimento A.G., Rocha U.N., Totola M. R.(2008)

Doshi R., Braida W., Christodoulatos C., Wazne M., O’Connor

Nitrogen starvation affects the bacterial adhesion to soil,

G. (2008) Nano-aluminum: Transport through

Brazilizan Journal of Microbiology, 39(3): 457-463

columns and environmental effects on plants and soil

Bruland G.L., Bliss C.M., Grunwald S., Comerford N.B., Graetz

sand

communities, Environmental Research, 106: 296–303

D.A. (2008) Soil nitrate-nitrogen in forested versus non-

Doua J., Liu X., Huc Z., Deng D. (2008) Anaerobic BTEX

forested ecosystems in a mixed-use watershed, Geoderma,

biodegradation linked to nitrate and sulfate reduction,

148: 220–231

Journal of Hazardous Materials, 151: 720–729

Chambers M.K., Ford M. R., White D. M. , Barnes D. L. ,

Dungan R. S. , Dees N. H. (2008) The characterization of total

Schiewer S. (2008) Distribution and transport of fecal

and leachable metals in foundry molding sands, Journal of

bacteria at spring thaw in a rural Alaskan community

Environmental Management, 90(1): 539-548

Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, 22(1): 16-37

Eriksen J., Askegaard M. & Søegaard K. (2008) Residual effect

Charles K. J., Souterc F. C., Baker D. L., Davies C. M., Schijven

and nitrate leaching in grass-arable rotations: effect of

J. F., Roser D. J., Deere D. A., Priscott P. K., Ashbolt N. J.

grassland proportion, sward type and fertilizer history, Soil

(2008) Fate and transport of viruses during sewage

Use and Management, 24: 373–382

treatment in a mound system, Water research, 42: 3047 –

Farhadian M., Vachelard C., Duchez D., Larroche C. (2008) In

3056

situ

Chen G. (2008) Bacterial interactions and transport in unsaturated

bioremediation

of

monoaromatic

pollutants

in

groundwater: A review, Bioresource Technology, 99: 5296–

porous media, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 67:

5308

265–271

Gargiulo G., Bradford S. A., Simunek J., Ustohal P., Vereecken

Chesnaux R. & Allen D. M. (2008) Simulating Nitrate Leaching

H., and Klumpp E.(2008) Bacteria Transport and Deposit

Profiles in a Highly Permeable, Vadose Zone Environ

on under Unsaturated Flow Conditons: The Role of Water

Model Assess, 13:527–539

Content and Bacteria Surface Hydrophobicity, Vodose zone

Christian P., Von der Kammer F., Baalousha M., Hofmann Th.

Journal, 7(2): 406-419

(2008) Nanoparticles: structure, properties, preparation and

Garrido F., Serrano S., Campbell C.G., Barrios L., Garcia-

behavior in environmental media, Ecotoxicology, 17:326–

Gonzalez A.T. (2008) Evidence of physical and chemical

343

nonequilibrium in lead and cadmium transport and sorption

Crevoisier D., Popova Z., Mailhol J.C., Ruelle P. (2008)

in acid soils, Soil Science Society of America, 72(5): 1434-

Assessment and simulation of water and nitrogen transfer

1444

under furrow irrigation, Agricultural water management,

Ghosh S., Mashayekhi H., Pan B., Bhowmik P. and Xing B.

95: 354– 366

(2008)

Domagalski J. L., Phillips S. P., Bayless E. R., Zamora C.,

Colloidal

Behavior

of

Aluminum

Oxide

Nanoparticles as Affected by pH and Natural Organic

Kendall C., Wildman R. A. & Hering J. R. (2008)

Matter, Langmuir, 24: 12385-12391

Influences of the unsaturated, saturated, and riparian zones

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Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

Gianfreda L. and Roa M. A. (2008) Interactions between

Keeley A., Faulkner B. R. (2008) Influence of land use and

Xenobiotics and Microbial and Enzymatic Soil Activity,

watershed characteristics on protozoa contamination in a

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology,

potential

38:269–310

Research, 42: 2803 – 2813

Gonçalves A. D. M. A., Miranda J. H., Rossi P., Sabadin J. F. G.,

drinking

water

resources

reservoir,

Water

Kemper N. (2008) Veterinary antibiotics in the aquatic and

Kamogawa M. Y. (2008) Temperature effect in potassium

terrestrial environment, Ecological Indicators, 8: 1-13

and nitrate ions in soil transport. Eng. Agríc., 28(3): 438-

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Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with or without a vetiver

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on microbial contamination of groundwater in fractured

Adsorption in the Chongqing Reach of the Yangtze River,

carbonate aquifers, Hydrogeology Journal, 16: 1057–1064

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(2008) Wetland influence on mercury fate and transport in a temperate forested watershed, Environmental Pollution,

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