FINAL Supplementary tables

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Puberty and menarche In girls born SGA, the age at pubertal onset and the age at menarche were advanced by about 5–10 months compared to girls born ...

Human  reproduction  and  health:  an  evolutionary  perspective     Supplementary  online  material     G.  Jasienska,  R.  G.  Bribiescas,  A.-­‐S.  Furberg,  S.  Helle,  A.  Núñez-­‐de  la  Mora   The  Lancet  390:  510-­‐520,  2017   If  you  would  like  a  pdf  of  full  text  of  this  article,  please  send  email  at   [email protected]       Table  1.  Summary  of  evidence  linking  prenatal  and  postnatal  nutritional  and  energetic   conditions  on  reproductive  function   FACTOR  

REPRODUCTIVE  TRAIT  

Ref  

KEY  FINDING  

  Evidence  linking  infancy  and  childhood  diet  with  reproductive  function Diet  

Puberty  

Diet  

Puberty  

Diet    

Puberty  

Diet  

Menarche  

Diet  

Menopause

Infant  diet  

Menarche  

Infant  diet  

Ovarian  function  

Children  with  higher  vegetable  intake  reached  puberty  later  than   average  whereas  those  with  higher  animal  protein  intake  reached   puberty  earlier  than  average   Children  with  lower  diet  quality  pre-­‐puberty,  experience  pubertal   growth  spurt  at  an  earlier  age  than  children  with  a  higher  diet   quality     Protein  intake  from  dairy  but  not  animal  meat,  particularly  at  age   5–6  years,  is  associated  with  earlier  indices  of  puberty  (e.g.   pubertal  growth  spurt,  menarche,  voice  break),  independently  of   BMI.   Increased  milk  intake  from  5  to  12  years  of  age  was  weakly   associated  with  earlier  menarche   High  consumption  of  carbohydrate  vegetable,  fibre  and  cereal   products  were  inversely  related  to  age  at  menopause;  Women   with  higher  intake  of  total  fat,  protein  and  meat  experienced  a   delayed  onset  of  menopause.     Longer  duration  of  exclusive  breast  feeding  was  associated  with   later  onset  of  menarche   Formula  feeding,  independently  of  infant  size,  was  associated  with   higher  oestradiol  levels  in  boys  and  girls  and  with  higher   testosterone  in  girls  

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Reviews:  8-10  

  Evidence  linking  prenatal  growth  and  reproductive  function     Small  for  gestational  age   (SGA)*   Small  for  gestational  age   (SGA)   Small  for  gestational  age   (SGA)  

Gynaecological   characteristics   Ovarian  development  

Small  for  gestational  age   (SGA)  

Ovarian  function  

Small  for  gestational  age  

Ovarian  reserve  

Ovulation  

Adolescent  women  born  SGA  were  shown  to  have  reduced  uterine   and  ovarian  volume     SGA  infants  had  reduced  primordial  follicle  number  compared   with  gestationally  matched  appropriately  grown  infants   Prevalence  of  anovulation  in  adolescent  girls  was  higher  among   SGA  than  in  matched  appropriate  for  gestational  age  (AGA)**   group     SGA  infants  exhibited  hypersecretion  of  follicle-­‐stimulating   hormone  (FSH)  in  early  infancy,  and  girls  who  were  born  SGA  also   during  early  post-­‐menarche.     No  significant  reduction  in  indicators  of  ovarian  reserve  in  

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(SGA)  and  low  birth   weight  (LBW)***   Small  for  gestational  age   (SGA)  

Small  for  gestational  age   (SGA)  

adolescent  girls  and  young  women  born  SGA  or  LBW  controlling   for  gestational  age.   Puberty  and  menarche  

Testicular  function  

Low  birth  weight  (LBW)  

Ovarian  function  

Low  birth  weight  (LBW)  

Menarche  and  adult   body  height   Pubertal  growth  

Very  low  birth  weight   (VLBW)   Ponderal  index  

Ovarian  function  

Birth  size  

Gonadal  function  

In  girls  born  SGA,  the  age  at  pubertal  onset  and  the  age  at   menarche  were  advanced  by  about  5–10  months  compared  to   girls  born  appropriate  for  gestational  age.  There  was  no   corresponding  difference  for  boys.       Age  at  onset  of  puberty  was  significantly  lower  in  persistently   short  SGA  children  as  compared  to  short  children  born   appropriate  for  gestational  age  (AGA).     Menarche  was  advanced  in  girls  born  SGA.   Adult  males  born  SGA  exhibited  elevated  levels  of  oestradiol,   dihydrotestosterone  and  inhibin  B.     Post-­‐pubertal  males  born  SGA  had  reduced  testicular  volume,   lower  testosterone  and  higher  LH  levels   Female  infants  with  low  birth  weight  had  an  exaggerated  response   to  GnRH  and  increased  ovarian  production  of  anti-­‐Mullerian   hormone  (AMH)  compared  with  appropriately  grown  infants     Girls  with  low  birth  weight  experienced  a  faster  progression  to  an   early  menarche  and  to  a  reduced  adult  height   The  pubertal  growth  spurt  occurred  significantly  earlier  in  preterm   VLBW  individuals  than  in  controls  born  at  term,  regardless  of   whether  they  were  born  SGA  or  AGA   Ponderal  index  at  birth  (indicator  of  neonatal  nutritional  status)   was  positively  associated  with  concentrations  of  17b  oestradiol   during  adulthood     Women  with  low  ponderal  index  show  greater  sensitivity  to   energetic  stress  in  adulthood. Taller  maternal  height  and  larger  birth  size  were  associated  with   lower  oestradiol  levels  in  girls  and  higher  testosterone  levels  in   boys  infants

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BUT  SEE:  

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Reviews:  33 *  SGA  -­‐  small  for  gestational  age:  infants  whose  birth  weight  is  <  the  10th  percentile  for  gestational  age   **  AGA  -­‐  appropriate  for  gestational  age:  infants  whose  size  is  within  the  normal  range  for  his  or  her  gestational  age   ***  LBW  -­‐  low  birth  weight:  infants  whose  birth  weight  is  less  than  2,500  g  regardless  of  gestational  age   Evidence  linking  postnatal  growth  and  reproductive  function  

  Body  weight  

Puberty  

Body  weight   Body  weight  

Menarche   Menopause  

Weight  gain   Weight  gain  

PCOS  (Polycystic  ovary   syndrome)   Menopause  

Weight  gain  

Reproductive  strategy  

Excessive  weight  gain  

Puberty  

Nutritional   supplementation  

Age  at  menarche  

 

BMI  at  7  years  of  age  was  inversely  correlated  with  the  start  and   peak  of  a  child’s  growth  spurt  as  indicators  of  puberty  timing   Girls  with  high  BMI  were  at  higher  risk  of  early  menarche   Duration  of  lactation  and  weight  at  2  years  of  age  were  positively   related  to  age  at  menopause   Higher  risk  of  PCOS  for  women  born  SGA  followed  by  catch-­‐up   weight  gain   Low  weight  gain  in  infancy,  rather  than  low  birth  weight,  is   associated  with  earlier  menopause     Males  with  rapid  weight  gain  from  birth  to  6  months  of  age   reached  puberty  earlier  and,  as  young  adults,  had  higher   testosterone  levels,  were  taller,  more  muscular,  had  higher  grip   strength,  and  were  more  sexually  active   Excessive  increase  in  BMI  between  the  ages  of  2  and  8  years  was   related  to  an  advancement  of  puberty,  and  ultimately  a  loss  in   adolescent  height  gain.     No  relationship  between  nutritional  supplementation  during   childhood  and  age  at  menarche.  Year  of  birth  and  socioeconomic   status  were  negatively  associated  with  age  at  menarche   suggesting  an  effect  of  early  life  conditions  on  reproductive   maturation.  

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Evidence  on  the  association  between  prenatal  growth,  postnatal  growth  and  reproductive  function     Prenatal  and  postnatal   interactions    

Adrenarche  

 

Prenatal  and  postnatal   interactions  

Puberty  

Prenatal  and  postnatal   interactions  

Menarche  

 

Prenatal  and  postnatal   interactions  

Ovarian  function  

Girls  small  at  birth,  who  experienced  catch-­‐up  growth  with  a  BMI   higher  in  childhood  than  at  birth,  were  at  risk  of  an  earlier   adrenarche,  as  manifested  by  increased  dehydroepiandrosterone   sulphate  (DHEAS)  secretion     Adrenal  androgen  concentrations  were  highest  in  those  small   infants  who  become  heavier  than  average  during  early  childhood   A  relatively  low  body  weight  and  rapid  weight  gain  between  birth   and  24  months  were  independently  associated  with  an  earlier  age   in  onset  of  puberty   Girls  who  were  relatively  long  and  thin  at  birth  (>49  cm,