Research Article ISSN: 0974-6943
Anant Deshpande et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(10),2512-2513
Available online through www.jpronline.info Flower Extract of Ixora coccinea as a Natural Indicator in Acid Base Titration Anant Deshpande *1 , Dhanraj Jadge 1 , Shashikant Dhawale2 , Ramling Patrakar3 ,Ajay Gadgul3 1 Dayanand College of Pharmacy, Latur, M.S. India 2 Government College of Pharmacy, Karad, M.S. India 3 Shree Santkrupa College of Pharmacy,Ghogaon ( Karad) M.S. India
Received on: 17-06-2010; Revised on: 18-08-2010; Accepted on:13-09-2010 ABSTRACT Ixora coccinea Linn is a species of the genus Ixora, belonging to the family Rubiaceae. The present study reported the use of Ixora coccinea flower extract as an acid base indicator in different types of acid base titrations. The equivalence point obtained by the flower extract coincident with the equivalence point obtained by standard indicators. The results obtained by the flower extract matched with the result obtained by standard indicator in case of weak acid and weak base titration. This natural indicator was found to be a very useful, economical, simple and accurate for the said titration. Key words: Ixora coccinea, Acid base indicator, Natural indicator.
INTRODUCTION Ixora coccinea Linn. (Rubiaceae) is known as Jungle of Geranium (or) flame of the woods in Ayurveda . It is a common flowering shrub native to Asia. The common name, Ixora is usally used for Ixora coccinea, is a dense, multi-branched ever green shrub commonly 4-6 ft (1.2-2m) in height1. Leaves are simple, opposite, blade usually elliptic to oblanceolate, 3-10 cm long, dark green, sub sessile. Flowers continuously through the year, mostly 15-50, in several clusters short, terminal, panicle like inflorescences, with a pair of leaf like bracts below. Corolla with fused petals, acute, elliptic lobes 9-14 mm long orange in color2. It is traditionally used as hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, anti-mitotic and anti-inflammatory activities. Decoction of roots used for nausea, hiccups and anorexia. Powered roots used for sores and chronic ulcers In indo-china , root decoction used to clarify the urine, poultice fresh leaves and stems for sprains, eczema, boils and contusions3. Phytochemical constituents were anthocyanins from flowers, methyl ester of palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids in root oil and octadecadienoic acid from root bark 4. The flowers of Ixora coccinea Linn are orange. The appearance of orange color is due to presence of flavonoids and anthocyanins5. The biological activities of plant have been extensively reviewed. Some of them have been found to possess antioxidant6, anti-inflammatory7, cytotoxic and antitumor8, antinociceptive activities9. Flavonoids have also been found to inhibit a wide range of enzymes involved in oxidation systems such as 5-lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, monooxygenase, or xanthine oxidase10. As flavonoids, anthocyanins are present in flowers of Ixora coccinea Linn and are pH sensitive11, it was hypothesized that the flower extract could be utilized as an indicator for different types of acid base titrations. Hence the flavonoids were extracted, and identified for their potential use as an acid base indicator in various acid base titrations. MATERIAL AND METHODS Analytical grade reagents were made available by Shree Santkrupa College of Pharmacy, Ghogaon. Reagents and volumetric solutions were prepared as per standard books12, 13. The Flowers and Leaves of Ixora coccinea were collected from the hilly region of Ghogaon (Karad) in the month of April 2010 The plant was authenticated at Department of Botany, Sant Gadge Maharaj Institute of Science, Karad.
*Corresponding author. Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shree Santkrupa College of Pharmacy, Shivajinagar, Ghogaon Tal-Karad, Dist-Satara, Maharashtra, India - 415111 Tel.: +91-2164-257374 ,+919890879742 Fax no: +91-2164-257404 E-mail:[email protected]
The fresh petals were cut into small pieces and kept at room temperature. The petals were dried, ground into fine powder with a mechanical blender. The resulting powder was extracted with methanolic hydrochloric acid and the anthocyanins were converted into their corresponding soluble chlorides. From this solution, anthocyanins were isolated by using ether14. Finally extract was filtered and used as indicator. The experimental work was carried out by using the same set of glasswares for all type of titrations. As the same aliquots were used for both titrations i.e. titration by using standard indicators and flower extract. The equimolar titrations were performed using 10 ml of titrant with three drops of indicator. All the parameters for experiment are given in Table-1. A set of five experiments was carried out and mean and standard deviation were calculated from results. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The flower extract was screened for its use as an acid base indicator in various acid base titrations, and the results of this screening compared with the results obtained by standard indicators methyl orange, mixed indicator [methyl orange: bromocresol green (0.1:0.2)] for strong acid v/s strong base (HCl and NaOH), Strong acid v/ s weak base (HCl and NH4OH), weak acid v/s strong base (Oxalic acid and NaOH), and weak acid v/s weak base (Oxalic acid and NH4OH) titrations respectively 15. All these parameters are shown in Table-1. For all titrations the equivalence point obtained by the flower extract matched with the equivalence point obtained by standard indicators. The results of screening were listed in Table-2. Table. 1: Parameters Used For Analysis and the Comparison of Color Change. Titrant
Indicator Color Change Standard Flower Extract ( pH range ) ( pH range )
NH 4 OH
Oxalic acid Oxalic acid
Yellow to Red (8.6-3.7) Yellow to Red (8.2-3.4) Yellow to Red (8.7 -3.9) Blue-green to Orange (7.5-4 .4)
NH 4 OH
Green to Pink (11 - 4.16 ) Green to Pink (11 -4.50 ) Green to Pink (11-5.22 ) Blue to Pink (11-5.12 )
HCl: Hydrochloric Acid, NaOH: Sodium Hydroxide, NH 4 OH: Ammonium Hydroxide.
Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.3.Issue 10.October 2010
Anant Deshpande et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(10),2512-2513 Table. 2: Screening Results of various titrations. Sr.No Titration (Titrant v/s Titrate)
Strength in Indicator Moles
Readings with S.D. (±)
10.1±0.15 10.18 ± 0.19 10.12 ± 0.13 10.06±0.08 10.1 ± 0.07 10.2 ± 0.10 5.08 ± 0.08 5.14 ± 0.05 5.16 ± 0.11 5.04± 0.08 5.14 ± 0.11 5.08 ± 0.13 10.3± 0.15 10.06 ± 0.11 10.08± 0.19 10.2 ± 0.14 10.18 ± 0.14 10.12 ± 0.13 4.7 ± 0.15 4.72 ± 0.08 4.74 ± 0.11 4.66± 0.11 4.68 ± 0.14 4.78 ± 0.10
HCl V/S NaOH
0.5 1 2
NH 4 OH V/S HCl
0.1 0.5 1
Oxalic Acid V/S NaOH 0.1 0.5 1
Oxalic Acid V/S NH4 OH 0.1 0.5 1
Methyl orange Flower extract Methyl orange Flower extract Methyl orange Flower extract Methyl orange Flower extract Methyl orange Flower extract Methyl orange Flower extract Methyl orange Flower extract Methyl orange Flower extract Methyl orange Flower extract Mixed indicator Flower extract Mixed indicator Flower extract Mixed indicator Flower extract
simplicity and availability, it is advantageous to use Ixora coccinea flower extract as an indicator in all types of acid base titrations. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are also grateful to Prof. B.D. Mohite, Department of Botany, Sant Gadge Maharaj Institute of Science, Karad for support in research work. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. 7. 8. 9.
HCl - Hydrochloric Acid, NaOH - Sodium Hydroxide, NH 4 OH- Ammonium Hydroxide. S.D.Standard Deviation.
CONCLUSION Ixora coccinea flower extract alone can serve the purpose of indicator in weak acid and weak base titration, where generally mixed indicators are employed. Another benefit of this titration is that it gives colorless end point at the equivalence point. If we add more amount of titrant (acid) it gives pink colored solution. From results it can be concluded that it was due to the presence of flavonoids, sharp color change occurred at the end point of the titrations. Because of economy,
11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
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Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.3.Issue 10.October 2010