FOOD

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For free roaming chickens: insects are part of their feed. ... Farming the sea: macro,micro Algae (Spirula – High tech). • Artificial proteins: meat (120.000$/kg), ...

DAGLI INSETTI UN CONTRIBUTO PER NUTRIRE IL PIANETA

OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS FOR INCLUSION OF INSECTS in the FOOD CHAIN Paul [email protected]

overview 1. Context and Drivers in our Food and Feed supply: The (animal!) Protein crunch 2. Why Insects ? Most suitable alternative, globally 3. FAO’s role ? Awareness and info sharing

The Economist, 20 dec 2014 China’s insatiable appetite for pork is a symbol of the country’s rise. It is also a danger to the world. • Since 1970: pork consumption X 7 • China produces now 500 m swine a year, increasingly relying on imported feed (50% of total global soy market)....causing deforestation in the Amazon.

Feeding chickens, fish,pork in China

2050 China bought a record 70 million tonnes of soy (FAO, 2013) Since 2011, China is the world largest “Food” importing country (80 B$)

1 May 2014 Nature, Vol 509

China produces almost 30% of the world’s pork, and its farmers use FOUR TIMES more antibiotics than their US, EU counterparts to produce the same amount of meat. Antibiotic resistance genes(ARGs) are enriched by up to 28,000-fold in manure and soil on Chinese pig farms “But the animal industry is less developed in coping with manure and waste water”

Phasing Out Certain Antibiotic Use in Farm Animals • CAN INSECTS HELP US TO REDUCE LEVELS OF ANTI-BIOTICS IN FARMED ANIMALS!!!

Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs)

INSECT AMP

1. Context and Drivers in our Food and Feed supply

Can we produce enough, safe food ?

Previous forecasts on feeding the planet Thomas Robert Malthus An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) "The power of population growth is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man". (world population in 1800: approx. 1 billion)

Club of Rome :The Limits to Growth (1972) food

2010 World population 1972: 4 billion

Feed the WORLD in 2014 We are feeding: • 7 billion people (42 kg of MEAT/ 20 Kg of FISH (average capita food availability)

• < 1 billion pet animals (dogs, cats, birds, fish, horses, .......zoo’s) Farmed animals for human consumption • 20 billion chickens/ 1,5 cattle,pigs/ 1,2 ducks/ 1,1 b sheep/ 1 b goats/ 0,8 b rabbits/.... • 70 million tons of food fish (aquaculture).......

What food ? Animal • Milk • Meat:

( b$ / mTons) 226 / 723

– Cattle 169 / 62 – Pig 169 / 109 – Chicken 132 / 93

• Eggs

55 / (751)

................

By 2050: 70% more

66

8.4 billion tons

(FAO, 2012)

Vegetal (b$/mTons) • • • • • • • • • •

Rice 186 / 738 Wheat 79 / 671 Soy 61 / 241 Tomato 59 / 161 Sugarcane 58 / 1842 Corn 54 / 873 Potatoes 49 / 365 Vegetables 46 / 270 Fruits (4) 122 / 186 Cassava 25 / 269 (739) By 2050: 50% more

To feed the WORLD in 2014 Global food/feed production requires: • 40% of world ice-free land surface is for AGRICULTURE (forest: 30%; deserts-mountains:25; wetlands,urban,....

• 70% of total agriculture land use is for feeding livestock • 30% of all grains fed to animals (Soy:80%/Corn:50%)

• 70% of total fresh water use is for agriculture • 110 million tons of chemical fertilizer • 2,3 million tons of pesticides • 14 a 17% of total GHG emissions (6 b tons of manure)

Feed the planet: summary • Global agriculture production tripled in last 50 years with only 12% increase in farmed area (population doubled during the last 50 years!)

• Water consumption growing twice as fast as population growth • Food loss and waste at 1.3 billion tons/year (out of the 8.4b). Net food availability: 1 ton/ person/ year

Context to feed the WORLD by 2050 We will need to feed: • 9 billion people (with higher demands for animal derived proteins up to 80 kg of MEAT/ 35 Kg of FISH (average capita food availability)

• > 2 billion pet animals (dogs, cats, birds, fish, horses, .......zoo’s) Farmed animals for human consumption chicken and aquaculture: 7% annual increase • 60 billion chickens ? • 140 million tons of food fish (aquaculture) ?.......

Pressure: more PROTEIN •

Per capita consumption of major food items in developing countries (19612005) → increasing demand for meat and other animals products

between 1980 and 2005 (FAO):per capita consumption

eggs x 5

meat x 3 milk x 2

FAO, 2009

Per capita MEAT consumption

Italy: 91 kg

BUT CAN THIS PRODUCTION KEEP GROWING AT THIS PACE ?

And, What is the

FEED ???

What FEED ?

SOY

China

India

SOY

To feed our animals In 2012-2013 795 million tonnes of cereals (1/3 cereal production) By 2050 an additional 520 million tonnes (1/2 cereal production) Monogastric sector (chickens, pigs, aquaculture,.) In 2013 Consumed 155 million tonnes of feed protein (mainly Soy) In 2050 Additional 110 million tonnes of feed protein (50% from cereals/soy and rest from other protein sources – incl. INSECTS !) In 2013 110 million tonnes of course grains used for bioethanol

FOOD - FEED - ENERGY (+bioplastics) COMPETION 60%

30%

10%

Carnivore fish in nature does not eat soy

www.igiornielenotti.it

For free roaming chickens: insects are part of their feed......

2. Protein alternatives • • • •

Capture more out of oceans: Medusae, Jelly fish, krill,... Farming the sea: macro,micro Algae (Spirula – High tech) Artificial proteins: meat (120.000$/kg), synthetic (6$/kg) More out of Agro-industry processing byproducts: mais gluten, brewers grains,... • Farming Less common plant protein sources: oil seeds; legumes, forages, trees (Moringa),....... • ......... Compete for land, water, fertilizers, farm inputs OR High capital/tech (spirula) potential: regional- niche markets

• • • • • • •

• • • •

Why Insects ?

Food for 2 b people + natural feed of chickens, carnivore fish, pigs,... Good proteins, fats, minerals, + micro nutrients Feed conversion efficiency: 4x cattle Can be Fed with organic waste, not competing with foods for humans Fast breeding cycle (10 days to 1 month) Less water, land, CHG,.. Socially more inclusive – easy to farm, no need for huge investment o “high tech” skills Opportunities for business and jobs at any level, everywhere May help reduce use of antibiotics in feed...... Interdisciplinary: food-feed-health-waste disposal- climate change... Global market potential........

“one stone....many birds”

Black Soldier Fly larvae production Alicante, Spain

0,4 kg seed larvae

100 Kg brewery waste 10 days 25ºC

33 kg fertilizer

Bio digester

33 kg larval biomass

12 kg fly meal

Good for business • Company Start-ups: – food: Chapul, Six Foods, Ento, ...... – Feed: Enviroflight, Agriprotein, Protix, Ynsect, BioFlyTech,..

• New products – gastronomy & health – – – – – –

Energy bars Biscuits and sweets Insect burgers Pesto’s and spreads Health products ..........

3. FAO’s role ? • Improve and focus awareness (Media, sectors: food, feed,... .... • Events, projects, gastronomy... Academia

Consumer acceptance

• Increase knowledge generation, dissemination, networking.... (incl. protection of (indigenous) knowledge, nutrition data, environmental benefits, LCA, socio-economic contribution, jobs, ....

• Legislation and regulatory frameworks (food, feed,

Policy makers

waste disposal, insect inclusive nature conservation strategies, habitat protection, gathering, processing, trade, consumer protection, health, ..... (Codex Alimentarius)

• Economic’s and technology:

Private sector

automation, business innovation and new products, .......

reduce costs, improve efficiencies,

Field projects

TRAINING 1000 INSECT FARMERS IN KINSHASA

LAOS

THAILAND

CONGO

2013 Edible Insect publication

• Recycling pig manure to chicken feed using fly larvae • Proteinsect EU project: http://www.proteinsect.eu/ • Greeinsect Denmark project: http://greeinsect.ku.dk/ • Thailand cricket farming video

MANY THANKS .....a good appetite !