Glycemic Control and Self-Care Practice among ...

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Global Journal of Medical Research: B Pharma, Drug Discovery, Toxicology and Medicine

Volume 14 Issue 7 Version 1.0 Year 2014 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA) Online ISSN: 2249-4618 & Print ISSN: 0975-5888

Glycemic Control and Self-Care Practice among Ambulatory Diabetic Patients in Ambo General Hospital, West Showa, Ethiopia By Gobezie Temesgen Tegegne, Awoke Shiferaw, Belayneh Kefale Gelaw, Amsalu Degu Defersha, Minyahil Alebachew Woldu & Jimma Likisa Linjesa Ambo University, Oromia region, Ethiopia Abstract- Background: The main goal in diabetes care is to improve the patient’s quality of life, to maintain satisfactory metabolic control and to retain minimal complications caused by diabetes mellitus (DM). To accomplish these goals, self-care has a great role. However, most patients don’t control their blood sugar label. The objective of this study was to investigate status of glycemic control and self-care practice among Ambulatory diabetes patients in Ambo General Hospital. Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted from 01 February to 30 May 30/ 2014. Sample population includes all diabetes patients who will come for checkup during data collection period. The data was collected with structured questionnaires and check list by trained data collectors. Data was cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20.

Keywords: diabetes, self-care, fasting blood sugar, glycemic control, ambo general hospital. GJMR-B Classification : NLMC Code: WD 200

GlycemicControlandSelfCarePracticeamongAmbulatoryDiabeticPatientsinAmboGeneralHospitalWestShowaEthiopia Strictly as per the compliance and regulations of:

© 2014. Gobezie Temesgen Tegegne, Awoke Shiferaw, Belayneh Kefale Gelaw, Amsalu Degu Defersha, Minyahil Alebachew Woldu & Jimma Likisa Linjesa. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons AttributionNoncommercial 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Glycemic Control and Self-Care Practice among Ambulatory Diabetic Patients in Ambo General Hospital, West Showa, Ethiopia

Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted from 01

February to 30 May 30/ 2014. Sample population includes all diabetes patients who will come for checkup during data collection period. The data was collected with structured questionnaires and check list by trained data collectors. Data was cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20.

Results: The study showed that 58.5% of the respondents had type 1 diabetes and the remaining 41.5% were type2 DM. Mean FBS of three consecutive month was183.28 mg/dL. Only23.4%, 34.2% and 28.8% of the respondents were able to control their Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) to level below 126 mg/dL during their last first, second and third visit to the hospital. 20(18.01%) of the respondents do exercise daily and attend their follow up program as scheduled respectively. Conclusion: The present study illustrates that the level of

knowledge about diabetes and self care practices amongst diabetic patients was low. In addition, it showed that respondents’ level of physical activity, their educational status and time of insulin injection was low. Type 1 DM is the most prevalent type identified during the study period. In general, self-care practice was inadequate, especially in terms of physical self-care activity and a deficit in terms of knowledge related to diabetes; this could be explained by factors such as limited education and low levels of economic status

Recommendation: Health care providers should educate and

promote health to address the lack of information on a healthy diet, benefits of exercise and how exercise should be undertaken for ambulatory DM patients when they come for regular follow up regularly at the hospital. Primary care physician must interpret (preferably in patient’s language), for each diabetic patient, the short and long-term benefits of adhering to diet and exercise recommendations, insulin storage site in the hospital as well as at home must be given special emphasis.

Author α σ ρ Ѡ ¥ §: Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Science, Ambo University, Oromia region, Ethiopia. e-mail: [email protected]

Keywords: diabetes, self-care, fasting blood sugar, glycemic control, ambo general hospital. I.

Introduction

a) Background

D

iabetes mellitus is not a single disease entity but rather a group of metabolic disorders sharing the common underlying feature of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia in diabetes results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or, most commonly, both. The chronic hyperglycemia and attendant metabolic dysregulation of diabetes mellitus may be associated with secondary damage in multiple organ systems, especially the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and blood vessels. It also greatly increases the risk of developing coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease. In concert with great technologic advances, there have been pronounced changes in human behavior, with increasingly sedentary life styles and poor eating habits. This has contributed to the simultaneous escalation of diabetes and obesity worldwide, which some have termed the "diabesity" epidemic. (6) Prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 DM is increasing worldwide, type 2 DM is rising much more rapidly, presumably because of increasing obesity, reduced activity levels as countries become more industrialized, and the aging of the population [1]. According to IDF diabetes Atlas, 5th edition 2012 report, currently, more than 80% of people with diabetes live in low and middle income countries. The African region is expected to experience the highest increase in coming years withestimated increase in prevalence rates of 98% for sub-Saharan Africa, and 94% for North Africa and the Middle East (10, 11, 12, 13).It also said regional prevalence of 3.8%. This would rise to 4.3% 2030.Based on the IDF Atlas 5th edition, 2012 report, number of cases of diabetes in Ethiopia to be estimated about 1.4 million in 2011 (7, 8). The diagnosis involves evaluation of blood glucose levels which are normally maintained in a very narrow range; usually 70 to 120 mg/dl that is established by elevation of blood glucose by any one of the following three criteria (1, 3) © 2014 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Year

improve the patient’s quality of life, to maintain satisfactory metabolic control and to retain minimal complications caused by diabetes mellitus (DM). To accomplish these goals, selfcare has a great role. However, most patients don’t control their blood sugar label. The objective of this study was to investigate status of glycemic control and self-care practice among Ambulatory diabetes patients in Ambo General Hospital.

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Global Journal of Medical Research ( B ) Volume XIV Issue VII Version I

Abstract- Background: The main goal in diabetes care is to

2014

Gobezie Temesgen Tegegne α, Awoke Shiferaw σ, Belayneh Kefale Gelaw ρ, Amsalu Degu Defersha Ѡ, Minyahil Alebachew Woldu ¥ & Jimma Likisa Linjesa§

Glycemic Control and Self-Care Practice among Ambulatory Diabetic Patients in Ambo General Hospital, West Showa, Ethiopia

A random blood glucose concentration of 200 mg/dL or higher, with classical signs and symptoms; A fasting glucose concentration of 126 mg/dL or higher on more than one occasion, or; An abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in which the glucose concentration is 200 mg/dL or higher 2 hours after a standard carbohydrate load (75 gm of glucose). (2)

Year

2014

b) Statement Of The Problem

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DM is a life-long challenge that requires behavioral change and adequate self-care practices for better glycemic control. In the absence of appropriate self-care practice, the desired therapy targets are difficult, or even impossible, to achieve. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess self-care practices and glycemic control among diabetes patients in Ambo general hospital. Non- communicable diseases including diabetes account for 60% of all deaths worldwide andmore than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. According to IDF Atlas 5th edition2012 report, Diabetes caused 4.6 million deaths in 2011 globally. World Health Organization projects that diabetesdeaths will double between 2005 and 2030. Statistics for medical complications from diabetes are also concerning. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications in sub Saharan region ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66%for neuropathy and 10-83% for nephropathy. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections inthe region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis (14).Diabetes being a chronic illness requires continuous selfmanagement practices bysufferers so that they can contribute meaningfully in the management of their lives. A situation where diabetes patients visit clinics regularly and their blood glucose levels still remain high despite the treatment they receive is problem that calls for attention. This is a very common observation in many diabetes patients. Severe complications, like gangrene that may lead to amputation and possible premature death, this might be because of lack of appropriate selfmanagement practices (4). Despite the benefits of engaging in a recommended self-management practice, research remains limited on determining recommended self-care practices level and its associated factors among diabetes patients. Researchers have suggested that self-care activities vary extensively according to the nature of the activity itself, with taking of medication often occurring as recommended and exercise frequently falling below recommended levels. For example, results from one study showed that 97% of respondents’ with diabetes always or usually took their medication, whereas only 41% always or usually exercised, as cited by NancyE. Schoenberg (14). Furthermore, we currently lack an in-depth understanding of level and associated factors of type2 diabetes patients to ward diabetes self-care practices. © 2014 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Although all forms of diabetes mellitus share hyperglycemia as a common feature, the underlying causes of hyperglycemia vary widely. The vast majority of cases of diabetes fall into one of two broad classes: (1) Type1diabetes is characterized by an absolute deficiency of insulin secretion caused by pancreatic βcell destruction, usually resulting from an autoimmune attack. It accounts for approximately 10% of all cases (5).

c) Significance Of The Study

The major problematic condition about diabetes self-care practices is that there is limited research findings on diabetic patients in our country, even there is no enough published material and little research is done on this areas. To address these deficits, this research explores for diabetes self-management practices. So the findings of this research can help diabetic patients to know how to control their sugar level and improve their self-care practice. Based on the findings of the research, patients of DM at Ambo hospital will be advised to strengthen those positive practices and will also be advised to practice appropriately by discouraging improper practices. The study can also serve as starting material for those who want to undertake further research on this area. II.

Objectives of The Study

a) General Objectives

 The aim of this study was to assess factors prevalence of glycemic control and selfmanagement practices among ambulatory diabetic patients in Ambo general Hospital

b) Specific Objectives

 To determine prevalence of poor glycemic control.  To assess dietary self-care practices among diabetic patients at Ambo General Hospital.  To assess the physical activity and foot care practices among diabetic patients at Ambo  General hospital.  To assess blood glucose monitoring practice among the diabetic patients within three months. III.

Methods and Participants

a) Study area and period

This study was conducted in Ambo General Hospital, which is found in Ambo town, west showa, Ethiopia. Ambo has a total population of 260, 193 of whom 131, 922 are men. It is located in the west Showa zone of the Oromia region, 114 km West of Addis Ababa, the town has a latitude and longitude of 8.983O N 37.850O E and an elevation of 2101m. The town has an annual rain fall of 1012 mm with 18 CO average temperatures. The Hospital is found in 01 kebele of Ambo town near West Shewa zone prison House. The hospital give serves for about 10,000 People. The study was conducted from February 1/2014 to .May/2014

Glycemic Control and Self-Care Practice among Ambulatory Diabetic Patients in Ambo General Hospital, West Showa, Ethiopia

Source population includes all diabetes patients that attend their follow up schedule in Ambo general hospital.

d) Study population

Study population includes all diabetes patients that follow their diseases status in Ambo general Hospital for the last three months.

e) Sampling size Determination

All DM patients who came to Ambo general hospital for follow up during data collection period were considered to be included in the sample. Accordingly 111 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Six of the patients that didn’t fulfilled the inclusion criteria were excluded from the study.

f)

Inclusion and exclusion criteria i. Inclusion criteria

Patient that has been part of a follow-up program for at least three follow at Ambo General Hospital was included in the study. ii. Exclusion criteria Patients with mental health problems, hearing impairments or any other serious health problems and those patients who were unable to provide the appropriate information were excluded.

g) Study Variables i. Dependent variables

Self-care practice among diabetic patients, glycemic control ii. Independent variables Socio demographic characteristics of study population

h) Data collection procedure and Instrument

Patients were interviewed using structured questionnaires and check lists was used to gain information from their card. The data collection was conducted by the joint collaboration of the investigator, nurses and health care professionals that are involved in delivery of care to the specified patients in the hospital by orienting them on how to collect the data. Questionnaires were prepared in English and translated into Amharic and Afan Oromo (local languages) and translated back into English to check its consistency. To identify the patterns of glycemic control, patients’ charts was reviewed, retrospectively; the last three successive FBS or RBS results was recorded from the patient’s card.

i)

Data quality control

Pretest was done in 10 patients at Ambo Hospital to assure validity of the check list and

j)

Data analysis

The data was cleaned, coded, entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Categorical variables were described by frequencies and percentages, and continuous variables were described by means and standard deviations. Figures and tables were used to summarize the results.

k) Ethical consideration

Formal letter was obtained from Research Ethics Committee of Ambo University and submitted to Ambo General Hospital, so the letter was given to the hospitals and they allowed us to do the research. Verbal consent was taken from the patient.

l)

Operational definition

The level of glycemic control was indicated as ‘adequate glycemic control’ when FBS results were less than 126 mg/dL (7 mm/L) (i.e. an average of three visits), or when RBS results were less than 200/dL; ‘inadequate glycemic control’ takes place when a parameter is beyond the criteria of adequate glycemic. i.

Knowledge

Knowledge of patients’ relating to diabetes and self-care practice was assessed by making use of ‘yes/no’ questions. A correct answer will be coded as ‘1’ and an incorrect answer as ‘0’; the score is then computed. Respondents are labeled as having knowledge of diabetes and self-care practices if he or she scored ≥ the mean value, and having poor knowledge if he or she scored less than the mean. ii. Physical activity The levels of physical activity of the patients were classified into three levels based on their physical activities as light, moderate and heavy. 1. Light activity: Patients are in a sitting position most of the time, less than half of the time they are standing or walking, they seldom carry heavy things, and travel by car or motorbike. 2. Moderate activity: Patients are sitting, standing and walking about half of their time. They spend some time carrying heavy things and use public transport during non-leisure hours. 3. Heavy activity: Patients spend almost none of their time sitting and almost all of their time standing or walking, most of the time carrying heavy things, and they use public transport, cycle or walk everywhere.

Self-care

Self-care means looking after yourself in health way. This includes changes to your diet, different types © 2014 Global Journals Inc. (US)

2014

c) Source population

questionnaire. Language experts who were qualified with second degree with linguistic and are Ambo University stuff members were used to translate the questionnaires from English to Amharic and Afan Oromo version. The questionnaires were revised for its completeness and consistency.

Year

Cross-sectional study was conducted from 01 February to May 30, 2014.

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Global Journal of Medical Research ( B ) Volume XIV Issue VII Version I

b) Study design

Glycemic Control and Self-Care Practice among Ambulatory Diabetic Patients in Ambo General Hospital, West Showa, Ethiopia

of exercise or different types of medication you may need to make.

m) Limitations of the study

The findings from this situational analysis may not be generalized to the total population because of the lower sample size than the expected. IV.

respondents 63 (56.75%) were male, regarding the age of participants, 33 (29.7%) of them were younger than 30 years of age and the remaining 78 respondents (70.27%) were above age of 30. Most of them completed grade 7-12 and 29 patients had monthly income of 500-800 birr.

Results

a) Socio-demographic participants

characteristics

of

the

Year

2014

A total of 111diabetic patients were participated in the study giving a response rate of 100%. From total

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Table 1 : socio-demographic characteristic of the patients in ambulatory diabetic patients Characteristic type

Characteristic

Sex

Male Female

Age

Marital status Religion

Ethnicity

Occupation

Education level

Income

63( 56.75) 48(43.25)

1-29 30-44 45-64 Above 65

33(29.7) 31(27.9) 37(33.3) 10(9)

Single Married Widowed Orthodox Muslim Protestant Others

42(37.8) 65(58.5) 4(3.3) 64(57.6) 8(7.2) 37(33.3) 2(1.8)

Oromo Amhara Tigre

96(86.7) 14(12.6) 1(0.9)

Farmer Merchant Civil servant Others

38(34.2) 20(18) 28(25.2) 25(22.5_)

Illiterate & non formal edu. Grade 1-6 Grade 7-12 Above grade 12

18(16.2) 26(23.4) 44(39.6) 23(20.7)

1500

51(45.9) 29(26.1) 16(14.4) 15(13.5)

b) Clinical characteristics of the patients

Regarding the clinical characteristics of the patients, from the total of 111 patients 65 of them were diagnosed for type 1 DM (58.5%) and the remaining 46 of them (41.5%) were type 2 DM.70.27% say no family member with DM and the rest 29.73% say there is a family member with DM. Concerning the presence of other co morbidities 17. 11% have hypertension and 6.3% of the patients have CKD. When we look their respective drug use, 35 patients which contribute 31.53% use glabinclamide, 22 patients which contribute © 2014 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Frequency (%)

about19.81% use metformin, 6 patients which contribute 5.1% use both insulin & metformin, and 65 patients which contribute about 58.55% use insulin. Out of the 65 insulin users, 10 patients (15.38%) use refrigerator, 55(84.61%) use home prepared cool sites. Of the patients who were using insulin, only 23 (20.7%) took meals 30 minutes after each insulin injection, and the remaining patients were used to eat before injection while 70.2% took meals after one hour of taking an injection. The majority of the respondents (104, 93.7%) follow their medication strictly to avoid

Glycemic Control and Self-Care Practice among Ambulatory Diabetic Patients in Ambo General Hospital, West Showa, Ethiopia

raise in blood sugar level. From the total respondents, 96 of them (86.5%) attend their follow up program as per the schedule.10.8% patients have habit of alcohol or smoking and the remaining 99 respondents (89.2%) do not have any habit. Means of communication was assessed to know how diabetic patients can obtain information or

education from Medias and from newspapers as well as to know whether they have phone in case they face emergency conditions(hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia) to obtain health services. The results shows the majority of the patients have access to radio, TV and phone services and 91 respondents (82%) do not have the chance to get newspapers.

Table 2 : clinical characteristics of the patients Variables Frequency (%)

c) Knowledge about diabetes

Participants were asked whether DM is a chronic disease or a curable disease and whether it is possible to control it by interventions, such as a healthy diet, exercise, and administering insulin and hypoglycemic drugs. Accordingly, 72 respondents (64.86%) responded that it is chronic disease 39 respondents (35.14%) said that DM is curable and 96respondents (86.48%) reported that it is possible to control diabetes. Furthermore, the majority (83.78%) of the respondents knows the sign and symptoms of DM and the remaining (16.22%) do not know the signs and symptoms of DM.

d) Self- care practice i. Dietary self -care practice

2014

65(58.55) 46(41.44)

Year

6(5.4) 33(29.7)] 72(64.89)

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33(29.73) 78(70.27) 7(6.3) 19(17.11) 1(0.9) 0(0) 13(11.71) 65(58.55) 22(19.81) 35(31.53) 6(5.4) 83(74.8) 28(25.2) 60(54) 51(46) 58(52.2) 53(47.8) 20(18) 91(82)

answered that injera (i.e. a stable food diet in Ethiopia made of Teff cereal), barely and kocho (i.e. a traditional staple food made of a false banana plant called enset or Ensete Scitamineae) have a low glycemic index and could be eaten freely by diabetic patients; Only 74 respondents (66.7%) stated that fibrous food (e.g.whole grain cereals) has a high glycemic index and similarly 29 respondents (26.1%) do not know the sign and symptoms of hypoglycemia.From those who know the sign and symptoms of hypoglycemia, 50% uses candy to control their sugar, 46% uses table sugar and the remaining uses soft drinks. 59.5% have regular time for meal whereas the remaining 41.5% do not have regular meal time. The majority of the respondents (103, 92.8%) eat three times per day.

Concerning to food items that they consume to control their sugar level, the majority of the respondents © 2014 Global Journals Inc. (US)

Global Journal of Medical Research ( B ) Volume XIV Issue VII Version I

Type of DM Type1 DM Type 2 DM Time since DM d

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