heat transfer handbook

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J. A. Jones Professor of Mechanical Engineering. Department of ..... Wataru Nakayama, Therm Tech International, Kanagawa, Japan 255-0004. Pamela M.

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HEAT TRANSFER HANDBOOK

Adrian Bejan

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J. A. Jones Professor of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Duke University Durham, North Carolina

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Allan D. Kraus

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Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Akron Akron, Ohio

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JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.

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Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. In all instances where John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is aware of a claim, the product names appear in initial capital or all capital letters. Readers, however, should contact the appropriate companies for more complete information regarding trademarks and registration. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, e-mail: [email protected] Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Bejan, Adrian, 1948– Heat transfer handbook / Adrian Bejan, Allan D. Kraus. p. cm. ISBN 0-471-39015-1 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Heat—Transmission—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Kraus, Allan D. TJ250 .B35 2003 621.402'2—dc21 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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To Warren Rohsenow and James Hartnett

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PREFACE

Heat transfer has emerged as a central discipline in contemporary engineering science. The research activity of a few decades ago—the material reviewed in the first handbooks—has distilled itself into textbook concepts and results. Heat transfer has become not only a self-standing discipline in the current literature and engineering curricula, but also an indispensable discipline at the interface with other pivotal and older disciplines. For example, fluid mechanics today is capable of describing the transport of heat and other contaminants because of the great progress made in modern convective heat transfer. Thermodynamics today is able to teach modeling, simulation, and optimization of “realistic” energy systems because of the great progress made in heat transfer. Ducts, extended surfaces, heat exchangers, and other features that may be contemplated by the practitioner are now documented in the heat transfer literature. To bring this body of results to the fingertips of the reader is one of the objectives of this new handbook. The more important objective, however, is to inform the reader on what has been happening in the field more recently. In brief, heat transfer marches forward through new ideas, applications, and emerging technologies. The vigor of heat transfer has always come from its usefulness. For example, the challenges of energy self-sufficiency and aerospace travel, which moved the field in the 1970s, are still with us; in fact, they are making a strong comeback. Another example is the miniaturization revolution, which continues unabated. The small-scale channels of the 1980s do not look so small anymore. Even before “small scale” became the fashion, we in heat transfer had “compact” heat exchangers. The direction for the future is clear. The importance of optimizing the architecture of a flow system to make it fit into a finite volume with purpose has always been recognized in heat transfer. It has been and continues to be the driving force. Space comes at a premium. Better and better shapes of extended surfaces are evolving into networks, bushes, and trees of fins. The many surfaces designed for heat transfer augmentation are accomplishing the same thing: They are increasing the heat transfer rate density, the size of the heat transfer enterprise that is packed into a given volume. The smallest features are becoming smaller, but this is only half of the story. The other is the march toward greater complexity. More and more small-scale features must be connected and assembled into a device whose specified size is always macroscopic. Small-scale technologies demand the optimization of increasingly complex heat-flow architectures. A highly distinguished group of colleagues who are world authorities on the frontiers of heat transfer today have contributed to this new handbook. Their chapters provide a bird’s-eye view of the state of the field, highlighting both the foundations ix

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PREFACE

and, especially, the edifices that rest on them. Because space comes at a premium, we have allocated more pages to those chapters dedicated to current applications. The latest important references are acknowledged; the classical topics are presented more briefly. One feature of the handbook is that the main results and correlations are summarized at the ends of chapters. This feature was chosen to provide quick access and to help the flow of heat transfer knowledge from research to computer-aided design. It is our hope that researchers and practitioners of heat transfer will find this new handbook inspiring and useful. Adrian Bejan acknowledges with gratitude the support received from Professor Kristina Johnson, Dean of the Pratt School of Engineering, and Professor Kenneth Hall, Chairman of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University. Allan Kraus acknowledges the assistance of his wife, who has helped in the proofreading stage of production. Both authors acknowledge the assistance of our editor at John Wiley, Bob Argentieri, our production editor, Milagros Torres, and our fantastic copy editor, known only to us as Barbara from Pennsylvania.

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EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

Cristina Amon Department of Mechanical Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3980

Sadik Kakac Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Miami Coral Gables, FL 33124-0624

Benjamin T. F. Chung F. Theodore Harrington Emeritus Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering 302 East Buchtel Mall University of Akron Akron, OH 44325-3903

G. P. Peterson Provost Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, NY 12180-3590

Avram Bar-Cohen Professor and Chair Department of Mechanical Engineering 2181B Martin Hall University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742-3035

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James Welty Department of Mechanical Engineering Rogers Hall Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97330

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Michael M. Yovanovich Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 Canada

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CONTRIBUTORS

A. Aziz, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258-0026 Avram Bar-Cohen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0213 Current address: Glenn L. Martin Institute of Technology, A. James Clark School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2181 Glenn L. Martin Hall, College Park, MD 20742-3035 Adrian Bejan, J. A. Jones Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 277080300 Robert F. Boehm, University of Nevada–Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4027

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J. C. Chato, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801

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C. Haris Doumanidis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02150

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R. T Jacobsen, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3790 Yogesh Jaluria, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1281 Yogendra Joshi, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 M. A. Kedzierski, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 Allan D. Kraus, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3901 José L. Lage, Laboratory of Porous Materials Applications, Mechanical Engineering Department, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0337 E. W. Lemmon, Physical and Chemical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80395-3328 R. M. Manglik, Thermal-Fluids and Thermal Processing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Nuclear Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 598 Rhodes Hall, P.O. Box 210072, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072 xiii

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CONTRIBUTORS

E. E. Marotta, Senior Engineer/Scientist, Thermal Technologies Group, IBM Corporation, Poughkeepsie, NY 12801 Michael F. Modest, Professor of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, College of Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-1412 Wataru Nakayama, Therm Tech International, Kanagawa, Japan 255-0004 Pamela M. Norris, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 Jay M. Ochterbeck, College of Engineering and Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0921 S. G. Penoncello, Center for Applied Thermodynamic Studies, College of Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1011

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Ranga Pitchumani, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 Ravi S. Prasher, Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ 85225

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Z. Shan, Center for Applied Thermodynamic Studies, College of Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1011

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Andrew N. Smith, Department of Mechanical Engineering, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402-5000 Richard N. Smith, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590 John R. Thome, Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer, Faculty of Engineering Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Abhay A. Watwe, Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ 85225 N. T. Wright, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21250 M. M. Yovanovich, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada

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