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30 Jun 2011 ... Bompa, Tudor O. Periodization, 1999. Periodisation is an empirical descriptive guideline with many open questions: HOW are adaptations.

30.06.2011

Periodisation

Sportwissenschaftliche Fakultät – Institut BTW der Sportarten

(Definition from HARRE, based on MATWEJEW)

Faculty of Sport Science – Institute for Movement and Training Science in Sports

4th Training Science Congress Ankara, Turkey, 28. – 30.06.2011

Training Load and Fatigue Interaction in Periodization

„Periodisation is the continuing result of periodic cycles in the process to create a sport performance ability. Each single periodic cycle is characterized by a licit caused periodic change of (training) aims, tasks and content as well as characterizes therefore the structure of the training“. (translated from HARRE, 1986, 99ff)

Ulrich Hartmann [email protected]

30.06.2011

Monocycle or single-peak annual plan for a speed-power sport

Periodization: Commercial sport events / disciplines......

HOW are adaptations inducedMatveyev ? model (1965)

Bompa, Tudor O. Bompa, Tudor O. Periodization, 1999

Periodization, 1999

WHICH factors are stimulating further adaptations ?

Bi-cycle for a sport (track and field) in which speed and power dominate

Performance

How to “rectangular do 360 day peeking” ?? multiple peaking

Periodisation is an empirical descriptive guideline with many open questions:

Dubble peaking

WHY does the cellular mechanism behave in a given way ? etc…

January

Monocycle annual plan (modified after Ozolin 1971)

December

Bompa, Tudor O. Periodization, 1999

Bompa, Tudor O. Periodization, 1999

The original problem

The (different) causes

Performance level

energy supply, training content Overtraining Training workloads Time Performance level

New improvement in performance

mechanism of muscle adaptation

individual level of performance

Time

(Viru, A. & Viru, M., 2001, p. 194)

1

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aerobic

share of energy (%)

Necessitative components of performance by the view of total metabolism capacity • The physical performance / power of a high trained athlete has two components: • 1: An about 60% increased max. oxidative power of the act. MuM by an increased mitochondria mass from normal 3,0 % to 5.5 % per kg of act. MuM (60%). This is the result / function of an extensive endurance training

time (min)

Values for the relative VO2max at different levels of endurance

Mitochondria - Powerhouse of the cell

rel. VO2 max untrained

Mitochondria: Site of aerobic respiration - Amount - Size - Surface - Location - Volume (+ 500%)

women (20-30 years) men (20-30 years)

32-38 ml / kg / min 40-55 ml / kg / min

hightrained endurance athlets women men

60-70 ml / kg / min 80-90 ml / kg / min

norm values for a fitness condition

Marieb 1992

THE CARDIO RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

women men

35-38 ml / kg / min 45-50 ml / kg / min

endurance athletics endurance athletics (international level) endurance athletics (international high level)

55-65 ml / kg / min 65-80 ml / kg / min 85-90 ml / kg / min

Necessitative components of performance by the view of total metabolism capacity

OXYGEN TRANSPORT VO2max (ml/min/kg) ADAPTATION - lung surface - Hb - heart size - muscle mass - mitochondria

% 15 15--20 20 50 35 500

• The physical performance / power of a high trained athlete has two components: • 1: An about 60% increased max. oxidative power of the act. MuM by an increased mitochondria mass from normal 3,0 % to 5.5 % per kg of act. MuM (60%). This is the result / function of an extensive endurance training •

2: The „maximal glycolytic power“ is very much related with the „maximal lactate formation rate“ (= VLamax mmol/s*kg). This is maximally and only usable until the 10. to 20. sec during a (supra)maximal load.

2

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anaerobic lactic

aerobic

Variation of lactic formation rate in untrained / specific trained individuals in 100m sprint

share of energy (%)

anaerobic alactic

VLAmax (mmol/l*s) measurement procedure: 100m sprint (14s), one single max. load, untrained individual (max. post exercise lactate ~ 8 - 10 mmol/l (VLA max: 10 mmol/l - 2 mmol/l) / 12 s = 0,7 mmol/l*s). 100m sprint (12s), singular maximal load, medium anaerobic trained individual (max. post exercise lactate ~ 10 - 14 mmol/l (VLA max: 14 mmol/l - 2 mmol/l) / 10 s = 1,2 mmol/l*s). 100m sprint (10s), singular max. load, specific trained high class sprinter (max. post exercise lactate ~ 14 - 18 mmol/l (VLA max: 18 mmol/l - 2 mmol/l) / 8 s = 2,0 mmol/l*s).

time (min)

Performance development during season

1.4

early prep. phase

1.3

1st comp. phase

late prep. phase

2nd comp. phase

102,0% Anteil Bestleistung % of an best performance(%)

Lactate formation rate VLAmax [mmol/l*s]

Development of anaerobic-lactic performance in young talented soccer players

 Maximal anaerobic (glycolytic / lactic) metabolic “capacity” / performance for short distance running

1.2 1.1 average VLAmax

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

100,0% 98,0% 96,0% 94,0% 92,0% 90,0% Okt Nov Nov Dec Dez Jan Jan Feb Feb März Apr May Mai Jun Juni Jul Juli Aug Aug Oct Mar Apr

0.5

Mitte mid ofdes the Monats month

0.4 age (y) / (n) 11-12 (5)

13-14 (15) 15-16 (16) 17-18 (5) 14-15 12-13 (7) 16-17 (13) 18-19 (4) (16)

Possible shares of energy supply mechanisms for an identical load / power output of a rower (♂ ♂, 95kg) at same VO2 max but different glycolytical conditions

80,0%

VO2 = 6000 ml/min VLAmax = relative high glycolytic VO2 < 90%; ph ca. 6,4; 18,0mmol/l LA blood

85,0%

VO2 = 6000 ml/min VLAmax = normal low glycolytic VO2 > 90%; ph ca. 6,7; 13,0mmol/l LA blood

82,6%

VO2 = 6000 ml/min VLAmax = medium glycolytic VO2 = 90%; ph ca. 6,6; 16,0mmol/l LA blood

P4

P2000m

The interaction of the oxidative and the glycolytic system 1. Oxidative share needs long time to develop 2. Oxidative share is never too big 3. Glycolytic share needs only short time to increase 4. Glycolytic system is very limited in development

anaerobic alactic

anaerobic lactic

aerobic

5. Is seldomly too small, mostly too big (specifity of training) 6. None system can be trained independently.

3

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Variation of energy metabolism during year round – early preparation phase

Variation of energy metabolism during year round – competition phase

Anaerobic lactic

anaerobic alactic

Anaerobic lactic anaerobic alactic

aerobic aerobic

Share of energy supply mechanism during different track and field events (according to MADER / HARTMANN):

How to train? Consequences for the practice? Knowledge about the load / energetic profile of the sport / discipline Individuality of muscles fibers would be good to know Increase of amount, intensity more seldom Training load must be orientated at the energy/caloric turnover

distance

ATP / CRPH %

anaerobic-lac anaerobic%

aerobic %

30 m

80

19

1

60 m

55

43

2

100 m

25

70

5

200 m

15

60

25

400 m

12

43

45

800 m

10

30

60

1500 m

8

20

72

3000 m

5

15

80

5000 m

4

10

86

10000 m

3-2

1212-8

8585-90

marathon

0

5-2

9595-98

Training schedules are recommendations, no bibles

Share of energy supply mechanism / Lactate level (blood) during different track and field events / (HARTMANN HARTMANN) HARTMANN : Distance

anaerobic anaerobic--lactic %

blood-lactate blood[mmol mmol/l] /l]

rest

0.5

0.8 – 1.8

30 m

19

2- 5

60 m

43

5- 9

100 m

70

14--16 14

200 m

60

18

400 m

43

24

800 m

30

21

1500 m

20

15

3000 m

15

?

10

?

5000 m 10000 m

12--8 12

8

42195 m

5- 2

3- 4

The (different) causes energy supply, training content

mechanism of muscle adaptation

individual level of performance

4

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change of performance

Dynamic of muscle cell adaptation

Dynamic of muscle cell adaptation

change of performance

training load

cell proteinmass

+ 0

high Catabolic hormons corticosteroids sympathic level (cortisol) catecholamines low

maximum of protein-synthesis

proteinsynthesis

hypertrophy

hypertrophy

basic stress

proteinsynthesis

training load

training

Coactivation load 1. Anabolic hormons stress level Testosteron 2. Common transcripvagotonyfactors tion activating

max. stress

decrease of performance

cell proteinmass

+ adaptationperiod

steady state

adaptationperiod

0

-

steady state

-

load increase = (intensity * amount) anabolic adaptation-phase

load increase = (intensity * amount) anabolic adaptation-phase

catabolic-phase

time

time

Annual change (%) of Pmax depending of age

The (different) causes 120

energy supply, training content

118

1.8

Änderung Change Pmax (%)

116

0.5

-0.3

0.5

0.6

-0.5 -0.8

0.6

2.5

114 2.8

112 110

4

108 106

4.5

104

mechanism of muscle adaptation

individual level of performance

102 100 18

20

22

24

26

28

30

Age Alter(years) (Jahre)

Summary:

Spare time ≠ Recovery time

1. Existing points of view about adaptation and periodisation have their origins in the “Russian school” 2. It is a phenomenological way of thinking 3. It has no respect to biology 4. It includes a hypothetic / self full-filling assumption of possible adaptations (“master´s teaching”) 5. Adaptation and periodisation show in athletes very individual responses depending of many other influencing factors (age, level of performance, load tolerance etc.)

Thank you very much for your attention!!

6. There are only few existing (energy) demand / load profiles and its specific adaptation in disciplines.

5