(IAP) proteins in extracellular vesicles

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Oct 5, 2017 - Quick™ method was used to isolate EV from both plasma and sera of African-American ... EVs could serve as reservoirs of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets ... vorable disease outcomes, and the recent identification of molecular .... a race-associated differential release of Survivin, plasma and serum ...

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Racial differences in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins in extracellular vesicles (EV) from prostate cancer patients Salma Khan1,2, Jennifer Simpson1,2, James C. Lynch1,2, David Turay1,2, Saied Mirshahidi2,3, Amber Gonda1,2, Tino W. Sanchez1,2, Carlos A. Casiano1,2‡, Nathan R. Wall1,2‡*

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1 Center for Health Disparities & Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, California, 2 Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, California, 3 Cancer Center and Biospecimen Laboratory, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, California ‡ These authors are joint senior authors on this work. * [email protected]

OPEN ACCESS Citation: Khan S, Simpson J, Lynch JC, Turay D, Mirshahidi S, Gonda A, et al. (2017) Racial differences in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins in extracellular vesicles (EV) from prostate cancer patients. PLoS ONE 12 (10): e0183122. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0183122 Editor: Daotai Nie, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, UNITED STATES Received: March 6, 2017 Accepted: July 31, 2017 Published: October 5, 2017 Copyright: © 2017 Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability Statement: All data files are deposited into figshare at: https://figshare.com/ articles/Prostate_Cancer_onc607_Data_xls/ 5284378. All relevant data are within the paper. Funding: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities under award numbers P20MD0016321 and P20MD006988. The authors thank Loma Linda University School of Medicine

Abstract African-American men with prostate cancer typically develop more aggressive tumors than men from other racial/ethnic groups, resulting in a disproportionately high mortality from this malignancy. This study evaluated differences in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), a known family of oncoproteins, in blood-derived exosomal vesicles (EV) between African-American and European-American men with prostate cancer. The ExoQuick™ method was used to isolate EV from both plasma and sera of African-American (n = 41) and European-American (n = 31) men with prostate cancer, as well as from controls with no cancer diagnosis (n = 10). EV preparations were quantified by acetylcholinesterase activity assays, and assessed for their IAP content by Western blotting and densitometric analysis. Circulating levels of the IAP Survivin were evaluated by ELISA. We detected a significant increase in the levels of circulating Survivin in prostate cancer patients compared to controls (P