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Jul 6, 2016 - Abstract. Retrospective study of ruminant cases (cattle, sheep and goats) presented to the Veterinary Teaching. Hospital, University of Ibadan, ...

International Journal of Livestock Research eISSN : 2277-1964

Vol 6 (7) Jul’16

A Retrospective Study of Ruminant Cases Presented Between 1996 and 2005 at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University Of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Olusoji John Abiola, Sunday Charles Olaogun, Oluwatimileyin Martina Emedoh, Olalekan Taiwo Jeremiah Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria *Corresponding author: [email protected] Rec. Date:

Jun 17, 2016 10:49

Accept Date:

Jul 06, 2016 09:22

Published Online:

July 15, 2016

DOI

10.5455/ijlr.20160706092259

Abstract Retrospective study of ruminant cases (cattle, sheep and goats) presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan between a period of ten years (January1996 to December 2005) was conducted to determine the most prevalent diseases using clinical case file records. Within the period of study, a total of 601 cases were handled out of which 394 (65.56%) occurred in goats, 171(28.45 %) sheep and 36(5.99%) cattle. The most prevalent infections in the three species were ectoparasitism (31.11%), endoparasitism (16.97%) and reproductive cases (13.31%). Among caprine species, endoparasitism was 27.16%, while ectoparasitism and reproductive conditions had 20.96% and 13.96% respectively. As for ovine species endoparasitism was 38.01% while ectoparasitism 9.94% and reproductive conditions had 9.94. But among bovine species, endoparasitism was 41.67%, reproductive conditions had 22.22% and bacterial diseases had 16.67%. The high prevalence of these conditions may be due to poor management practices, improper health/veterinary care, stress on pregnant animals, and neglect of prophylactic measures for disease prevention. There is therefore need for awareness and education of livestock farmers/owners on effective prevention and control measures through livestock extension services and proper management system that restrict animals from roaming freely thereby preventing injuries caused by trauma. Key words: Cattle, Diseases, Goats, Ibadan, Retrospective Study, Sheep

How to cite: Abiola, O. J., Olaogun, S. C., Emedoh, O. M. & Jeremiah, O. T. (2016) A Retrospective Study of Ruminant Cases Presented Between 1996 and 2005 at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University Of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. International Journal of Livestock Research, 6 (7), 1623. doi:10.5455/ijlr.20160706092259

Introduction

sheep and 13.9million cattle. Importance of ruminant animals in the social and economic wellbeing of

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Nigeria populace cannot be over emphasized. Livestock sector play significant role in Nigeria economy

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Nigeria ruminant animals’ population was estimated by RIM (1992) to be 34.5million goats, 22.1million

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Vol 6 (7) Jul’16

as they represents about one third of the country agricultural gross domestic product and is a major source of animal protein , and also provides flexible income for family units, employment, farm energy and manure just as in many other countries of Sub-Saharan Africa Ogbaje et al.(2012). In general, farm animals especially ruminants are mostly managed on free range/extensive system and semi-intensive system in Nigeria. These management systems are basically influenced by cheap means of feeding the stock all year round. Based on this, the animals are thus allowed to roam the streets and neighborhood to fend for themselves with little or no special or conscientious provision of supplements for the animals. Although, the animals may feed on freely available pasture and forages, these systems exposed the livestock to environmental dangers, ranging across stealing and death of the animals LawalAdebowale (2012). Also, Jabbar et al. (1995) stress that farm animals kept under the extensive and semiintensive management systems are burdened with high incidence of diseases, parasites, low productivity and small contribution to household’s earnings. Disease is an abnormal condition or derangement that affects the normal body functions of an animal. The etiology may be infectious such as virus, bacteria, mycoplasma, parasite, rickettsia, protozoa, and some metabolic disorders caused by inappropriate feeding and poor standard of management. This affects productivity, income and profit of the animal’s owner and sometimes death. Ruminant production is seriously hampered by tropical diseases. It increases cost of production by prolonging production time; stunted /reduced growth reduces the quality and quantity of animal products and generally causes great loss to the farmer Rabiu et al. (2013). It has also been observed that the high prevalence rate of livestock diseases in most developing countries especially in Nigeria is a major constraint to livestock production and reports on common diseases of livestock have been well analyzed in different parts of the country Annatte and Ogundipe (2003). Retrospective study of animal diseases is a rapid and cheap means to identify the strategy for effective disease control when analyzed statistically. Therefore the objectives of this study are to determine the most prevalent diseases of ruminants among the cases presented to the large animal ward of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan and formulate policies for future management, prevention and control of the prevalent diseases. Also, this study is aimed at supplementing and updating existing literature on diseases of domestic ruminants prevalent in Ibadan. The studied species are food animals which are of serious public health concern as a result of zoonosis through consumption. Materials and Methods The data obtained were from clinical case files of sheep, goats and cattle presented to the University of

period). Diagnosis was based on clinical evaluation and laboratory work. The clinical evaluation and

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laboratory work results were as in the clinical case files recorded appropriately, the clinical parameters

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Ibadan, Veterinary Teaching Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria from January 1996 – December 2005 (Ten-year

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Vol 6 (7) Jul’16

such as rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, appearance of the mucous membrane, capillary refill time, body coat/hair coat appearance, surface lesion category, generalized swelling, lymphadenitis, color, types and nature of the discharges from the body orifices as related to each of the condition were all considered. Laboratory examinations such as haematological, serum biochemistry, wet mount , floatation and Mac master eggs count technique, skin scrapping were also employed as listed in the case files during the period of the study. The data were analysed based on species and disease conditions using simple descriptive statistic. Results The prevalence of different cases in goats reported to University Of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria from January 1996 to December 2005 for treatment. The result revealed that out of the total of 394 goats presented for treatment within this period, endoparasitism had the highest prevalence of 27.16% (107goats),conditions grouped as endo parasitism include; helminthosis, verminous pneumonia and piroplasmosis made up of Babesiosis and trypanosomiosis ,followed by ectoparasitism with 21.07%(83) ectoparasitism conditions includes; mange, myiasis and ticks , fleas and lice infestation, reproductive conditions with 13.96% (55) theseincludes, mastitis, vulvaaplasia, dystocia, uterineprolapse, placentalretention, metritis, vulvitis, abortion, pyometrial, vagina prolapse, viral such as peste de petit ruminante, contagious ecthyma with 10.42%(41),musculoskeletal conditions such as trauma, fracture, arthritis with 9.64% (38), other conditions such as poisoning, snake bite, malnutrition, conjunctivitis, dog bite, hernia, urolithiasis, keratitis, toxicosis and minerals deficiency with 6.10%(24), bacterial condition such as tetanus, foot rot, septicaemia, pasteurellosis, streptothricosis with 4.57%(18),respiratory such as pneumonial with 3.81%(15)while the least prevalent condition was gastrointestinal tract condition such as diarrhoea with prevalence of 3.30%(13) (Table 1).

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Number of cases

Prevalence (%)

107 83 55 41 38 24 18 15 13 394

27.16 21.07 13.96 10.41 9.64 6.10 4.57 3.81 3.30 100

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Diseases Endo parasitism Ecto parasitism Reproductive Viral Musculoskeletal Others Bacterial Respiratory Gastro intestinal tract Total

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Table 1: Summary of the prevalence of the diseases in goats brought to University of Ibadan, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, from January 1996-December 2005

International Journal of Livestock Research eISSN : 2277-1964

Vol 6 (7) Jul’16

Table 2 shows the summary of prevalence of diseases/cases in sheep brought to University Of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria from January 1996 to December 2005 for treatment. Endoparasitism was the most prevalent condition with 37.79 %( 65sheep), followed by musculoskeletal with 11.05% (19), ectoparasitism with 10.47% (18),reproductive with 9.88% (17),bacterial with 9.30% (16),viral with 6.98% (12), other conditions with 5.81% (10), gastrointestinal with 4.65% (8),while respiratory condition was the least presented case with 4.07% (7) prevalent rate out of the total of 172 sheep presented. Table 2: Summary of the prevalence of the diseases in sheep brought to University of Ibadan, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, from January 1996-December 2005 Diseases Number of cases Prevalence (%) Endo parasitism 65 37.79 Musculoskeletal 19 11.05 Ecto parasitism 18 10.47 Reproductive 17 9.88 Bacterial 16 9.30 Viral 12 6.98 Others 10 5.81 Gastro intestinal tract 8 4.65 Respiratory 7 4.07 Total 172 100 Table 3 gives summary of prevalence diseases in cattle presented to University Of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria from January 1996 to December 2005 for treatment. The result showed that out of total of 36 cattle presented to the clinic, endoparasitism had the highest prevalent rate of 41.67% (15 cattle), followed by reproductive with 22.22% (8),bacterial with 16.67% (6), musculoskeletal 13.89% (5), ectoparasitism with 5.56% (2), while animals with gastrointestinal, viral,

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Table 3: Summary of the prevalence of the diseases in cattle brought to University of Ibadan, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, from January 1996-December 2005 Diseases Number of cases Prevalence (%) Endo parasitism 15 41.67 Reproductive 8 22.22 Bacterial 6 16.67 Musculoskeletal 5 13.89 Ecto parasitism 2 5.56 Viral 0 0 Others 0 0 Gastro intestinal tract 0 0 Respiratory 0 0 Total 36 100

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respiratory and other conditions were not presented at all.

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Vol 6 (7) Jul’16

Table 4 reveals summary of prevalence diseases in all the 3 species that constitutes ruminant animals (goats, sheep and cattle) presented to University Of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria from January 1996 to December 2005 for treatment. The results revealed that out of overall total of 602 presented cases comprises of 65.45% (394 goats), 28.57% (172 sheep) and 5.07% (36 cattle). The disease/condition with the highest overall prevalence was endoparasitism 31.06% (187 animals), followed by ectoparasitism 17.11% (103 animals), reproductive with 13.29 %( 80 animals), musculoskeletal with 10.30% (62 animals), viral with 8.80% (53 animals), bacterial with 6.64% (40 animals), other conditions with 5.65% (34 animals), respiratory with 3.65% (22 animals) and the least prevalent disease was gastrointestinal with 3.49% (21 animals). Table 4: Summary of the prevalence of the diseases in goats, sheep and cattle brought to University of Ibadan, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, from January 1996-December 2005 Diseases Goats (%) Sheep (%) Cattle (%) Total (%) Ecto parasitism 83 (13.79) 18 (2.99) 2 (0.33) 103 (17.11) Endo parasitism 107 (17.77) 65 (10.80) 15 (2.49) 187 (31.06) Bacterial 18 (2.99) 16 (2.66) 6 (0.10) 40 (6.64) Gastro intestinal tract 13 (2.16) 8 (1.33) 0 (0) 21 (3.49) Viral 41 (6.81) 12 (1.99) 0 (0) 53 (8.80) Respiratory 15 (2.49) 7 (1.16) 0 (0) 22 (3.65) Musculoskeletal 38 (6.31) 19 (3.16) 5 (0.83) 62 (10.30) Reproductive 55 (9.14) 17 (2.28) 8 (1.32) 80 (13.29) Others 24 (3.99) 10 (1.66) 0 (0) 34 (5.65) Total 394 (65.45) 172 (28.57) 36 (5.07) 602 (100) Discussion The small number of bovine species cases handled (5.07%) in comparison with the small ruminants is as a result of the nomadic nature of cattle owners, high cost of rearing and high cost of transporting sick cattle from various farms to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan. This finding is in consonance with the report of William et al. (2000) in which only 2.42% of the cases studied were bovine cases while sheep and goats had prevalence rates of 4.97% and 4.92% respectively of the reproductive cases seen. This is also in line with the reports of Mohammed et al. (1995) and Waziri et al. (2006) but disagree with that of Wosu et al. (1990) as they have reported from cases in other Veterinary Teaching Hospitals in other locations in Nigeria. The high number of small ruminant cases reported at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital when compare to large ruminant may be as a result of low cost of rearing small ruminant animals

the diseases of large ruminants. The high number of Caprine species (65.45%) presented to the clinic may

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ambulatory service. However, extension services to the farmers will help in the reduction of occurrence of

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and space requirement which make them suitable to be reared indoor. Cattle are therefore treated based on

International Journal of Livestock Research eISSN : 2277-1964

Vol 6 (7) Jul’16

be due to the social value of goats. Goats (particularly doe) are required as part of bride price and are kept in memory of the enacted marital relationship. This has made goats to be more common than sheep in this part of the country. This finding also corroborates the census figure of small ruminants by LawalAdebowale (2012) that in Nigeria, there are more goats than sheep. This finding is not in agreement with the earlier findings of Unigwe et al. (2016), where they reported more ovine species than caprine species at the Mokola Veterinary Clinic Ibadan. Endoparasitism was the condition with the highest prevalence among the three species of ruminant, this corroborates the findings of other authors such as (Ragassa et al., 2006;Osakwe & Anyigor, 2007; Ahid et al., 2008; Nath et al., 2011; Tefera et al., 2011; Tesfaheywet, 2012; Elele et al., 2013; Vanessa et al., 2014),who have reported endoparasitism as one of the major diseases of ruminant, ectoparasitism was the second highest reported condition among ruminant animals which can be as a results of environmental conditions, availability of vectors, increase in livestock trade, irregular animal movement control, lack of veterinary regulations for ectoparasites control, poor awareness of farmers, poor level of management, irregular ectoparasite control and possible development of resistance to ectoparasiticides (Cunha,2000) as well as high temperature and sunlight that also favoured ectoparasitic infestations , Van-den-Broek et al.(2003). The next prevalent condition was reproductive disease, where Dystocia (4.33%) was the most prevalent reproductive condition. This is in accordance with the report of Umaru et al. (2009) and Waziri et al (2006) in which they found dystocia to be the prevalent reproductive condition presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, at Sokoto and state veterinary clinic Maiduguri respectively, the extensive system of management may contribute to the high occurrence of dystocia. When animals are allowed to roam, there is possibility of indiscriminate Mating; early pregnancy especially in young does which may result in dystocia. Relatively high to moderate prevalence of musculoskeletal, viral, bacterial and other conditions as seen in this retrospective study is in line with the findings of Biu and AbdulMajeed (2009), who reported high to moderate prevalence of viral, bacterial and other conditions after an appraisal of clinical cases admitted and treated at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Maiduguri between 2001 and 2005. Gastrointestinal condition was the least prevalent condition diagnosed and treated at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan during the period under review; this may be due to the complex stomach nature of ruminant animals or manifestation of gastrointestinal symptoms by the animals which may tempt or make the animal owners to want to attempt self-medication, which would reduce the number of animals brought to the clinic showing gastrointestinal manifestation

pregnant animals including proper nutrition to reduce complications during parturition.Other conditions

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such as Snake bite, Dog bite, Conjuctivitis, Toxicosis, Hernia, Urolithiasis, Keratitis, Malnutrition and

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Therefore there is need to educate animal owners about proper management practices and care of

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Mineral deficiency as seen in this present study showed low prevalence this might be due to the fact that animals owner’s did not present the animals to the clinic for diagnosis they employed the usage of ethno veterinary medicine on their animals Sandabe et al. (2006) Conclusion The small number of cases of cattle reported at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital during this period when compare with small ruminant cases called for the establishment of primary Veterinary clinics in the rural communities where these animals were predominantly located for easy accessibility, endoparasitism and ectoparasitism were the most prevalent conditions, therefore, there is need for the government and the stakeholders to formulate policies on veterinary regulations for parasites control,

awareness about

parasites and approaches to management and control of parasites and their vectors. Client education may also go a long way in alleviating many of the diseases condition and be made compulsory for the welfare of the animals.. Acknowledgement The authors are grateful to the management and staff of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan for allowing us access to their treatment record files for the generation of data for this publication.

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1. Ahid SMM, Suassuna ACD, Maia MB, Costa VMM and Soares HS. 2008. Parasitosgastrintestinaisemcaprinos e ovinos da regiaoOeste do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. CiêncAnim Bras, 9(1): 212-218. 2. Annatte IA and Ogundipe GAT. 2003. Prevalence of Pestes des petit ruminantes (PPR) in goats in Lagos, Nigeria.Nigeria Veteterinary Journal, 24(3): 133-136. 3. Biu AA and Abdul Majeed I. 2009. An appraisal of clinical cases handled at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Maiduguri between 2001 and 2005, Borno State, Nigeria. International Journal of Biomedical and Health Sciences , 5(1): 15-17 4. Cunha BA. 2000. Tick-borne infectious disease, diagnostic and management. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Publication, New York, 283. 5. Elele K, Owhoeli O and Gboeloh LB. 2013. Prevalence of species of helminthes parasites in cattle slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Port Harcourt, South-south, Nigeria. International Research on Medical Sciences, 1(2): 10-17. 6. Jabbar MA, Reynolds L and Francis PA. 1995. Sedentarisation of cattle farmers in the derived savanna region southwest Nigeria: results of a survey. Tropical Animal HealthProduction, 27: 55 – 64. 7. Lawal-Adebowale OA. 2012. Dynamics of Ruminant Livestock Management in the Context of the Nigerian Agricultural System. In: Livestock Production (Eds. Khalid Javed). Intech. USA. ISBN978953-51-0814-6. DOI: 10.5772/52923. 61. 8. Mohammed A and Ahmed BC. 1995.An analysis of surgical cases at the University of Maiduguri Veterinary Teaching Hospital.Annals of Borno.11 (12):303 - 308.

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