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International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(2) Feb’16

Influence of Gastrointestinal Parasites on Productive and Reproductive Performances of Black Bengal Goat under Farm Condition K. C. Dhara1, N. Ray1, P.K. Bandopadhyay2, S Biswas4 and A. Goswami3 Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, West Bengal- INDIA 1

West Bengal University of Animal & Fish, Scs, Kolkata-700037, West Bengal, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, West Bengal, 3 Professor Deptt Vety and Animal Husbandry Extension, WBUAFS, West Bengal 4 DREF, WBUAFS, West Bengal 2

*Part of the PhD work of Corresponding author: [email protected] Rec. Date:

Dec 18, 2015 01:58

Accept Date:

Jan 22, 2016 01:23

Published Online:

February 25, 2016

DOI

10.5455/ijlr.20160122012326

Abstract An experimental study was made for assessing the influence of parasitic infestation as well as variability of productive and reproductive performances of Black Bengal goat before recommendation of selection and breeding using an experimental design under farm condition and the productive and reproductive performances of sixty six progenies of the does were recorded. The average body weight in both first and second generation at nine months of age of T1 (10.12 kg and 10.23 kg) and T2 (10.01 kg and 10.36 kg) were significantly higher than T3 (9.68 kg and 9.79 kg). The average body weight at birth, three months and six months showed no variation among the groups. The result of physical characteristics of Black Bengal goat progenies showed that the overall heart girth of T1 (49.42 cm) and T2 (49.32 cm) were significantly higher than T3 (47.23 cm) at nine months of age. The result of heart girth at birth, three months and six months revealed no significant variation. Other physical characteristics i.e. body height and body length showed no significant difference between groups. No significant change was observed in any of the above traits between generations. The result of reproductive traits only for first generation progenies showed similar findings as that observed in field condition i.e. significant variation in WFK, SP and KI among the high and low EPG groups. It has been observed that the progenies of does having EPG count more than 1200 have no effect on body weight and physical characteristics only upto six months of age indicating the existence of maternal immunity upto six months. But give poor productive and reproductive performance at their adulthood. They also give birth to inferior progenies generation after generation and the progenies are also susceptible to infection. Key words: Gastrointestinal Parasites, Black Bengal Goat, Productive and Reproductive Performances

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Gastrointestinal Parasites on Productive and Reproductive Performances of Black Bengal Goat under Farm Condition. International Journal of Livestock Research, 6 (2), 2536. doi:10.5455/ijlr.20160122012326

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How to cite: Dhara, K. C., Ray, N., Bandopadhyay, P. K., Biswas, S. & Goswami, A. (2016) Influence of

International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(2) Feb’16

Introduction In India goat is the most adaptable and geographically widespread livestock species which contribute to the rural economy where all other means of agriculture is a failure. It plays a leading role in eradication of poverty in small farmers and landless laborers by self employment. The goats are used by the farmers as cash crop and farmers usually sale them at the time of particular financial needs or during festival of rural people. It also plays a leading role in eradication of poverty in small farmers and landless laborers by selfemployment. Improvement of goat production is necessary to benefit the rural community and smallholder farmers through research and policy-making on the physical characteristics, reproductive ability, feeding systems, productivity and health aspects of goats because increased animal production should be achieved rather than by increasing animal numbers, but enhanced disease control, integration of fodder production, improved husbandry and controlled breeding are essential steps to intensify animal production. (Dhollander et al., 2005) Among the indigenous breeds of goat in India, Black Bengal is the most important breed. West Bengal is one of the major home tracts of Black Bengal goat. This breed has advantages of early maturity, high prolificacy, delicacy of meat and excellent skin quality. Inspite of adaptability of Black Bengal goat in harsh environment this breed is found to be affected mainly by parasitic diseases particularly gastrointestinal nematodes which impair its productivity. The most important helminthes infections of livestock are infections of grazing ruminants by nematodes residing within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the vertebrate host. Strongyle infestation significantly affects the body weight gain of sheep and goat and lead to economic loss (Tinar et al., 2005). Among strongyle group of nematodes, Haemonchus sp. reduces productivity through reduced efficiency of nutrient utilization and growth rate, in addition to mortalities which occur at severe infestation levels. In small ruminants, GI nematodes are often one of the most important impediments to the successful raising of the animals (Dhara et. al 2011). Keeping in view of the above aspects, the present study was conducted with the aim for assessing the influence of parasitic infestation as well as variability of productive and reproductive performances of Black Bengal goat before recommendation of selection and breeding using an experimental design under farm condition. Materials and Methods The experiment was started with selecting eighteen non pregnant does from the base stock i.e. farmers’ flock, six does from each group viz. Group 1(Low EPG < 600), Group 2 (Moderate EPG >600 < 1200) and Group 3 (High EPG > 1200) selected during July 2005. For the experimental study the groups were

per field study (Dhara et al. 2011).Only one buck was allowed to mate to all the does under this

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experimental study to avoid the sire effect. All the animals utilized for the experimental study were reared

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named as T1 (Low EPG), T2 (Moderate EPG) and T3 (High EPG). Selection of buck was also made as

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International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(2) Feb’16

in the livestock farm at Integrated Cattle Breeding Programme (ICBP) shed no. 4 at Haringhata Farm, West Bengal under semi intensive system of management. Does of different groups were kept in different house with separate enclosure for grazing. The buck was also kept in separate shade and grazing field. The animals were provided with floor space as per standard rule (Buck -20 sq. ft. /buck, pregnant doe -15 sq. ft. /doe and Kid -6 sq. ft. /goat). Vaccination against PPR, goat pox and FMD was done in every year. Animals were clinically checked routinely and dewormed regularly viz. does and buck were dewormed for four times in a year where as kids were dewormed first at two months age and then four times in a year. Animal’s sheds were cleaned regularly and they were given dips from time to time to protect them from ecto-parasites. Regular grooming of the animals had been practiced. Other health care and treatment was given whenever needed. All the experimental animals were allowed for grazing on natural pasture from 8 A.M. to 3 P.M. in winter. During summer and monsoon animals were grazed in two shifts viz. from 7 A.M. to 10.30 A.M. and 2.30 P.M. to 5.30 P.M. The pasture comprised mainly of doob grass (Cynodon dactylon) with other grasses like goose grass (Eleusine indica), horse purseane (Trianthema monogyna) and anjan grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). In addition to grazing all the animals were offered about 50g concentrate as mentioned in the section 3.5.2 and little amount of tree leaves of jack fruit, banyan, pipal etc. as per availability after grazing in the evening. Ad libatum water was provided to all the animals in all seasons. Since the does of different groups were maintained in a different pasture throughout the year, it was assumed that all the progenies in a group had got equal dose of gastrointestinal nematode infection from the grazing field. Faecal samples were collected per rectally from all the progenies starting at three months of age for a year and EPG level was examined as mentioned earlier. Recording of body weight and reproductive traits of the progenies of the experimental does was done regularly for generations by using the method mentioned earlier. Data of reproductive performances were statistically analyzed to show the effectiveness of different experimental groups as described earlier. Statistical Methodology

The effect of the intensity of GI nematode infection (EPG) of the base stock on the variability of different important productive and reproductive traits of the progenies was estimated by analysis of variance. (Snedecor and Cochran, 1994) The formulae used for statistical analysis were: Yijk = μ+Ai + eik

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Where: Yijk = kth animal of the ith EPG group μ = overall mean Ai = Effect of EPG (j = 1 to 3) eik = Random error on observation distributed NID (0, σ2e)

DOI 10.5455/ijlr.20160122012326

International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(2) Feb’16

From the above model, it was calculated CF = Grand Total (GT) 2/N (Number) Sum Squire (SSA) (Between EPG group) = ∑ Ai2 – CF Sum Squire (SST) (Total) = ∑ Yik2 – CF Sum Squire (SSe) (error) = SST – SSA The critical difference test (CD test) was carried out for the traits, which showed significant differences. This is done to compare between the means of sub-classes by applying the following formula. | B1- B2 | > t1/2α (N-5) X √MSe (Mean sum square error) (1/N1 + 1/N2) Result and Discussion The experimental study was conducted from July 2005 and it was continued till January 2008 for recording of the performance of second generation to an extent to draw certain inference. Despite

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mortality of around 6%, a total of forty progenies in first generation and twenty six progenies in second generation were available for the study of physical characteristics and productive performance (body weight). Productive Performance The body weight in different ages (up to nine months) of sixty six progenies of the selected does of three groups under the experimental study was recorded and is presented in Table 1. The analysis of variance is presented in Table 2. Average birth weight in first and second generation of T1 (1.31 kg and 1.34 kg), T2 (1.23 kg and 1.33 kg) and T3 (1.23 kg and 1.18 kg) was in the same range without any significant variation. Similarly, average body weight at three months and six months of age of T1, T2 and T3 in both first and second generation was not significantly varied. But the body weight in both first and second generation at nine months of age of T1 (10.12 kg and 10.23 kg), T2 (10.01 kg and 10.36 kg) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher than T3 (9.68 kg and 9.79 kg). The variation between T1 and T2 was nonsignificant. In all the ages there was no significant variation observed in body weight between first generation and second generation within a group. Physical Characteristics The average body height of sixty six progenies of the three groups of Black Bengal goat in first and second generation upto nine months of age is presented in Table 3 and the analysis of variance is presented in Table 4. The variation in body height at birth, three months, six months and nine months of

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significant. There was no variation in body height between generations within a group.

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age among T1, T2 and T3 was non- significant and the changes in different generations was also non-

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International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(2) Feb’16

Table 1: Body Weight (Kg) of the Progenies in Different Generations of Black Bengal Goat in Different EPG Level under Farm Condition (Mean ± SEM) Age group

T1 1st Gen.

Birth

3 months 6 months 9 months

1.31 ±0.05 (15) 5.40 ±0.20 (15) 7.40 ±0.16 (15) 10.12 ±0.10 (15)

2nd Gen. 1.34 ±0.05 (11) 5.55 ±0.20 (11) 7.57 ±0.28 (11) 10.23 ±0.14 (11)

T2 Overall

1st Gen.

1.32 ± 0.03 (26)

1.23 ±0.05 (14)

5.47 ±0.14 (26)

5.08 ±0.21 (14)

7.48 ±0.15 (26)

7.20 ±0.20 (14)

10.17±0.08 10.01±0.16 a (14) (26)

2nd Gen. 1.33 ±0.04 (9) 5.62 ±0.12 (9) 7.64 ±0.19 (9) 10.36 ±0.26 (9)

T3 1st Gen. 1.27 ±0.03 1.23 (23) ±0.05 (11) 5.29 ±0.15 5.08 (23) ±0.16 (11) 7.37 ±0.15 7.07 (23) ±0.33 (11) 10.15±0.26 9.68 a ±0.16 (23) (11) Overall

2nd Overall Gen. 1.18 1.21±0.03 ±0.04 (17) (6) 5.28 5.15 ±0.15 ±0.11 (6) (17) 7.40 7.19 ±0.25 ±0.23 (6) (17) 9.79 9.72±0.11 b ±0.12 (6) (17)

Values bearing same superscript or no superscript within a row do not differ significantly. Data in parentheses are the number of observations in each sub-class

Table 2: Analysis of Variance of Body Weight of the Progenies in Different Generations of Black Bengal Goat in Different EPG Level under Farm Condition Source Dependent df Sum of F Variable Squares Mean Square Birth 2 0.14 0.07 2.65 3 months 2 0.86 0.43 1.02 Group 6 months 2 0.62 0.31 0.49 9 months 2 2.33 1.17 4.21* Birth 1 0.01 0.01 0.49 3 months 1 1.37 1.37 3.22 Generation 6 months 1 1.45 1.45 2.30 9 months 1 0.53 0.53 1.93 Birth 2 0.04 0.02 0.82 Group 3 months 2 0.51 0.26 0.60 X 6 months 2 0.21 0.11 0.17 Generation 9 months 2 0.19 0.09 0.34 Birth 60 1.55 0.03 3 months 60 25.47 0.43 Error 6 months 60 37.97 0.63 9 months 60 16.60 0.28 ** P < 0.01

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* P < 0.05

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International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(2) Feb’16

Table 3: Body Height (Cm) of the Progenies in Different Generations of Black Bengal Goat in Different EPG Level under Farm Condition (Mean ± SEM) Age group

Birth

3 months 6 months 9 months

T1 1st Gen. 24.29 ±0.89 (15) 37.60 ±1.38 (15) 39.68 ±0.87 (15) 43.94 ±0.43 (15)

2nd Gen. 24.93±0 .95 (11) 38.55±1 .42 (11) 40.59±1 .48 (11) 44.41±0 .62 (11)

T2 Overall

1st Gen.

24.56±0 .64 (26) 37.94±0 .99 (26) 40.07±0 .79 (26) 44.14±0 .35 (26)

22.91±0 .88 (14) 35.22±1 .47 (14) 38.61±1 .09 (14) 43.46±0 .67 (14)

2nd Gen. 24.67±0 .68 (9) 39.02±0 .80 (9) 40.94±1 .01 (9) 44.94±1 .11 (9)

T3 Overall

1st Gen.

23.60±0 .62 (23) 36.71±1 .01 (23) 39.52±0 .79 (23) 44.04±0 .60 (23)

23.78±0 .86 (11) 36.24±1 .08 (11) 38.91±1 .78 (11) 43.00±0 .70 (11)

2nd Gen. 23.00±0 .66 (6) 37.67±1 .07 (6) 40.67±1 .34 (6) 43.50±0 .53 (6)

Overall 23.51±0 .60 (17) 36.74±0 .79 (17) 39.53±1 .23 (17) 43.17±0 .48 (17)

Data in parentheses are the number of observations in each sub-class.

Table 4: Analysis of Variance of Body Height of the Progenies in Different Generations of Black Bengal Goat in Different EPG Level under Farm Condition Source Dependent df F variable Sum of Squares Mean Square Birth 2 16.2 8.1 0.91 3 months 2 14.6 7.3 0.36 Group 6 months 2 1.9 0.9 0.05 9 months 2 10.3 5.2 0.99 Birth 1 4.3 4.3 0.49 3 months 1 66.0 66.0 3.23 Generation 6 months 1 41.8 41.8 2.30 9 months 1 10.0 10.0 1.93 Birth 2 14.7 7.4 0.82 Group 3 months 2 24.6 12.3 0.60 X 6 months 2 6.1 3.0 0.17 Generation 9 months 2 3.6 1.8 0.34 Birth 60 537.0 9.0 3 months 60 1227.2 20.5 Error 6 months 60 1090.7 18.2 9 months 60 312.6 5.2

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* P < 0.05 ** P < 0.01

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International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(2) Feb’16

The average heart girth of sixty six progenies of T1, T2 and T3 in first and second generations at birth, three months, six months and nine months of age has been presented in Table 5. Analysis of variance (Table 6) indicated that the variation among the groups was significant (P< 0.05) only in nine months. Table 5: Heart Girth (Cm) of the Progenies in Different Generations of EPG Level under Farm Condition (Mean ± SEM) Age T1 T2 group 1st 2nd Overall 1st Gen. 2nd Overall Gen. Gen. Gen. 26.07± 26.75 26.36±0. 24.58±0 26.47±0 25.32±0. Birth 0.96 ±1.02 69 .95 .73 66 (15) (11) (26) (14) (9) (23) 41.44± 42.60 41.93±1. 38.93±1 43.12±0 40.57±1. 3 1.53 ±1.57 09 .63 .88 17 months (15) (11) (26) (14) (9) (23) 44.42± 45.44 44.85±0. 43.22±1 45.83±1 44.24±0. 6 0.98 ±1.66 89 .22 .13 89 months (15) (11) (26) (14) (9) (23) 49.20± 49.73 49.42±0. 48.67±0 50.33±1 49.32±0. 9 0.48 ±0.69 40a .75 .24 67a months (15) (11) (26) (14) (9) (23)

Black Bengal Goat in Different T3 1st Gen. 24.45±0 .92 (11) 38.94±1 .20 (11) 42.44±1 .99 (11) 47.03±0 .78 (11)

2nd Gen. 23.61±0 .71 (6) 40.53±1 .18 (6) 44.40±1 .50 (6) 47.59±0 .60 (6)

Overall 24.15±0. 64 (17) 39.50±0. 88 (17) 43.13±1. 38 (17) 47.23±0. 54b (17)

Values bearing same superscript or no superscript within a row between columns do not differ significantly. Data in parentheses are the number of observations in each sub-class.

Average heart girth of T1 (49.42 cm) and T2 (49.32 cm) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher than T3 (47.23 cm) at nine months of age. The variation between T1 and T2 was non-significant. The variation among the generations was not significant. Result of average body length upto nine months of age of sixty six progenies of T1, T2 and T3 in first and second generation (Table 7) and their analysis of

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variance (Table 8) revealed that there was no significant variation among the groups and generations.

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International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(2) Feb’16

Table 6: Analysis Of Variance of Heart Girth of the Progenies in Different Generations of Black Bengal Goat in Different EPG Level under Farm Condition Source df F Dependent Variable Sum of Squares Mean Square Birth 2 54.68 27.34 2.65 3 months 2 50.75 25.37 1.02 Group 6 months 2 22.39 11.20 0.49

Generation

Group X Generation

Error

* P < 0.05

9 months Birth

2 1

55.06 4.98

27.53 4.98

4.21* 0.48

3 months

1

80.53

80.53

3.23

6 months

1

52.32

52.32

2.30

9 months

1

12.56

12.56

1.92

Birth 3 months 6 months

2 2 2

16.90 29.96 7.61

8.45 14.98 3.81

0.82 0.60 0.17

9 months Birth 3 months

2 60 60

4.48 618.32 1498.25

2.24 10.31 24.97

0.34

6 months 9 months

60 60

1366.82 392.29

22.78 6.54

** P < 0.01

Table 7: Body Length (Cm) Of the Progenies in Different Generations of Black Bengal Goat in Different Epg Level under Farm Condition (Mean ± Sem) Age T1 T2 T3 group 1st 2nd Overall 1st Gen. 2nd Overall 1st Gen. 2nd Overall Gen. Gen. Gen. Gen. 23.62 24.24±0 23.89±0 22.28±0 23.99±0 22.95±0 23.26±0 22.49±0 22.99±0 Birth ±0.87 .93 .63 .86 .66 .60 .84 .65 .58 (15) (11) (26) (14) (9) (23) (11) (6) (17) 37.45 38.49±1 37.89±0 35.17±1 38.96±0 36.65±1 36.19±1 37.61±1 36.69±0 3 .42 .98 .47 .80 .01 .08 .06 .79 months ±1.38 (15) (11) (26) (14) (9) (23) (11) (6) (17) 40.20 41.12±1 40.89±0 39.12±1 41.48±1 40.04±0 39.41±1 41.18±1 40.03±1 6 .50 .80 .10 .02 .80 .80 .36 .25 months ±0.89 (15) (11) (26) (14) (9) (23) (11) (6) (17) 44.14 44.61±0 44.34±0 43.66±0 45.15±1 44.24±0 43.19±0 43.69±0 43.37±0 9 .62 .35 .68 .11 .60 .70 .54 .48 months ±0.43 (15) (11) (26) (14) (9) (23) (11) (6) (17)

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Data in parentheses are the number of observations in each sub-class.

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International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(2) Feb’16

Table 8: Analysis of Variance of Body Length of the Progenies in Different Generations of Black Bengal Goat in Different EPG Level under Farm Condition Source df F Dependent Variable Sum of Squares Mean Square Birth 2 13.10 6.55 0.77 3 months 2 14.57 7.29 0.36 Group 6 months 2 2.01 1.00 0.05

Generation

Group X Generation

Error

9 months Birth

2 1

10.47 4.10

5.24 4.10

1.00 0.49

3 months

1

65.75

65.75

3.22

6 months

1

42.90

42.90

2.30

9 months

1

10.10

10.10

1.92

Birth 3 months 6 months

2 2 2

13.92 24.48 6.23

6.96 12.24 3.12

0.82 0.60 0.17

9 months Birth 3 months

2 60 60

3.61 507.88 1223.59

1.81 8.47 20.39

0.34

6 months 9 months

60 60

1119.66 315.73

18.66 5.26

* P < 0.05 ** P < 0.01

Reproductive Performances The data on reproductive performances of the progenies of does under present experimental study was recorded only for one generation. Inspite of mortality of around 6%, a total of twenty five does form first generation was available for assessment of reproductive performance. The reproductive performance of the three groups has been presented in Table 9 and analysis of variance has been presented in Table 10. From the result it was evident that age at first service (230.09 days, 230.67 days and 231 days), weight at first service (10.75 kg, 10.62 kg and 10.40 kg), age at first kidding (376.64 days, 377.89 days and 379.17 days), number of services per conception (1.09, 1.11 and 1.17) and gestation period (144.64 days, 144.89 days and 144.67 days) of T1, T2 and T3 respectively was not varied significantly among the groups. But weight at first kidding (15.31 kg, 15.38 kg and 13.63 kg), service period (53.82 days, 54.22 days and 62.50 days) and kidding interval (198.45 days, 199.11 days and 207.17 days) of T1, T2 and T3 respectively were varied significantly (P< 0.05). The critical difference test indicates that weight at first

kidding, service period and kidding interval there were no significant variation among T1 and T2.

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interval of T3 was significantly (P< 0.05) lengthy in comparison to T1 and T2. In respect of age at first

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kidding of T3 was significantly (P< 0.05) lower than T1 and T2 while the service period and kidding

International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(2) Feb’16

Table 9: Reproductive performance of the progenies of Black Bengal goat in different EPG level under farm condition (Mean ± SEM) Reproductive T1 T2 T3 Overall traits AFS WFS AFK SPC WFK GP SP KI

230.09 ± 2.46 (11) 10.75 ± 0.25 (11) 376.64 ± 2.65 (11) 1.09 ± 0.09 (11) 15.31 ± 0.47a (11) 144.64 ± 0.34 (11) 53.82 ± 1.95a (11) 198.45 ± 1.86a (11)

230.67 ± 1.91 (9) 10.62 ± 0.25 (9) 377.89 ± 3.56 (9) 1.11 ± 0.11 (9) 15.38 ± 0.27a (9) 144.89 ± 0.35 (9) 54.22 ± 1.97a (9) 199.11 ± 1.98a (9)

231 ±1.81 (6) 10.46 ± 0.19 (6) 379.17 ± 3.13 (6) 1.17 ± 0.17 (6) 13.63 ± 0.12b (6) 144.67 ± 0.42 (6) 62.50 ± 0.99b (6) 207.17 ± 1.33b (6)

230.50 ± 1.26 (26) 10.63 ± 0.14 (26) 377.65 ± 1.76 (26) 1.12 ± 0.06 (26) 14.94 ± 0.26 (26) 144.73 ± 0.20 (26) 55.96 ± 1.28 (26) 200.69 ± 1.27 (26)

Values bearing same or no superscript within a row do not differ significantly. Data in parentheses are the number of observations in each sub-class.

The result of the experimental study regarding productive performance was almost similar to that of field study but the significant changes in both body weight and heart girth were recorded at an earlier age than the field study i.e. at nine months of age which might be due to the fact that does and their progenies of different groups were maintained in separate house with enclosure for grazing which prevented the pasture contamination and direct infection among the groups. The experimental verifications of these concepts were provided by Gruner et al. (2002) and Leathwick et al. (2002). In both cases, the grazing of fields by susceptible sheep led to considerably heavier pasture contamination, increased FEC and reduced performance, than grazing by resistant sheep. As the experimental study was conducted for two generations, birth weight showed a decreasing trend in the progenies of higher EPG group (T3) though the result was not significant. Reproductive performance of the progenies under experimental study showed a similar result as observed in the field study. However, the result regarding productive and reproductive performance of the progenies of different groups was comparatively better than that of field study which might be due to better managemental practices. The progenies of does having EPG count more than 1200 have no effect on body weight and physical characteristics only upto six months of age

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reproductive performance at their adulthood. They also give birth to inferior progenies generation after

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indicating the existence of maternal immunity upto six months. But give poor productive and

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Vol 6(2) Feb’16

generation and the progenies are also susceptible to infection. Thus the elimination of the animal with more than 1200 EPG count will be a useful tool for improvement of productivity of goat. Table 10: Analysis of Variance of Reproductive Performance of the Progenies of Black Bengal Goat in Different EPG Level under Farm Condition Source Reproductive traits df Sum of Mean F Squares Square Between groups 2 3.59 1.80 0.04 Within groups 23 1024.91 44.56 AFS Total 25 1028.50 Between groups 2 0.48 0.24 0.44 Within groups 23 12.48 0.54 WFS Total 25 12.96 Between groups 2 25.62 12.81 0.15 Within groups 23 1978.27 86.01 AFK Total 25 2003.89 Between groups 2 0.02 0.01 0.10 Within groups 23 2.63 0.11 SPC Total 25 2.65 Between groups 2 13.44 6.72 5.22* Within groups 23 29.58 1.29 WFK Total 25 43.02 Between groups 2 0.35 0.17 0.15 Within groups 23 26.77 1.16 GP Total 25 27.12 Between groups 2 334.27 167.14 5.29* Within groups 23 726.69 31.60 SP Total 25 1060.96 Between groups 2 329.09 164.54 5.28* Within groups 23 716.45 31.15 KI Total 25 1045.54 * P < 0.05 ** P < 0.01

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1. Dhara, K. C. Bandopadhyay P.K and Goswami A. (2011) Influence of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites on Productive and Reproductive performances of Black Bengal Goat under Field condition. International Journal of Science and Nature. 2(3): 638- 647. 2. Dhollander,S., Kora, S., Sanneh, M., Gaye, M., Leak, S., Berkvens, D. and Geerts, S. (2005). Parasitic infections of West African dwarf goats and their Saanen crosses in a zero- grazing farming system in the Gambia. Revue. Elev. Med. vet. Pays. trop. 58(1-2): 45-49

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Reference

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DOI 10.5455/ijlr.20160122012326

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