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Jul 1, 2017 - in Kastamonu Province Depending on Weather. Conditions and Locations. Isinkaralar Öznur,1, Isinkaralar Kaan2 , Ekizler Ayse2 and Ilkdogan ...

JCBPS; Section D; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 643-650.

E- ISSN: 2249 –1929

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.64350]

Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences An International Peer Review E-3 Journal of Sciences Available online atwww.jcbsc.org

Section D: Environmental Sciences CODEN (USA): JCBPAT

Research Article

Changes in the Amounts of CO2 and Particulate Matter in Kastamonu Province Depending on Weather Conditions and Locations Isinkaralar Öznur,1, Isinkaralar Kaan2 , Ekizler Ayse2 and Ilkdogan Cansu3 1

Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Kastamonu, Türkiye

2

Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Kastamonu, Türkiye

3

Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Kastamonu, Türkiye Received: 01 July 2017; Revised: 12 July 2017; Accepted: 19 July 2017

Abstract: Air pollution is one of the most significant issues brought about by modern urban life. Thousands of people are affected by air pollution and millions of people lose their lives due to air pollution related medical conditions worldwide every year. The increase in air pollution in urban areas constitutes a major risk particularly for the people with various medical conditions. For this reason, conducting studies on air pollution on a locational basis and identifying the factors that have a bearing on air pollution are of great importance in terms of determining the measures for tackling this issue. This study aims to identify the impact of locational change in the Central County of Kastamonu Province on the air quality. Air quality values are found based on the measurement of the CO 2 amount and the particulate matter quantities of 6 different sizes (at 0,3 µm, 0,5 µm, 1,0 µm, 2,5 µm, 5,0 µm and 10,0 µm) depending on the weather condition. The results of this study account for how the study parameters change in line with the sunny, rainy and snowy weather conditions and in various different urban locations. Key words: Air quality, particulate matter, CO2, Kastamonu

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J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 643-650, DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.64350.]

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INTRODUCTION Air pollution can be generally described as the presence of one or more pollutants in the atmosphere, the quantity and duration of which cause harm to the humans, animals and plants, commercial and personal commodities and the overall environmental quality1. It is pointed out that respiratory tract diseases increase in parallel to the periods in which the air is polluted 2. Air pollution poses a major health concern especially for children, elderly, pregnant women and patients who are considered to be susceptible to the risks caused by air pollution. Without a shadow of a doubt, the elimination of air pollutants tops the list of measures to be taken against air pollution. However, since the current circumstances do not enable us to implement this option for the time being, the identification of factors that alter air pollution on a locational basis and taking measures accordingly appears to be a viable option. Being two of the leading air pollutants, particulate matters and CO2 threaten human life when they reach significant levels 3. Particulate matter is described as the suspension of small solid and liquid particles originating from natural resources such as wind, sea and volcanoes or through anthropogenic activitiesinside a gas and generally referred to in the literature as aerosols. There have been many studies conducted on the subject of particulate matter so far, most of which concluded that the amount of particulate matter result in consequences that negatively affect the human health 4-8. In this respect, the air quality values have been measured in the areas with different features. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in 9 different locations of the Central County of Kastamonu Province, each possessing different characteristics, by taking into account various weather conditions (WC) including sunny (SU), rainy (RA) and snowy (SN) weather conditions and measuring the levels of CO2 and particulate matter of 6 different sizes. Table 1: Characteristics of the Locations N

Urban Characters

1

Major Urban Areas

Locations Cumhuriyet Square (CS) Kastamonu University Kuzeykent Campus (KU) Old Industry (OI)

2

Nodes

Daday Junction (DJ) Kuzeykent Junction (KJ) Airport Junction (AJ)

3

Polluting Sources

Chipboard Factory (CF) SFC Integrated Facilities (SFC) TAŞİKO (T)

The locations of measurements include the public square (CS), university complex (KU) and a small inner city industrial zone (OI), all of which are located in the busiest sections of the city and constitute the most 644

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 643-650, DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.64350.]

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actively used major urban spaces. Daday Junction (DJ) -situated at the junction of transit routes and thus serving as the county’s connection point-, Kuzeykent Junction (KJ) -situated inside the university complexand the Airport Junction (AJ) -situated outside the city and serving as the connection point of the airportwere chosen as nodes. Measurements were made at the premises of the biggest polluting sources of the city, namely the Chipboard Factory (CF), SFC Integrated Facilities and TAŞİKO -the place where large motor carriers are kept. The locations of the premises where measurements were made are presented in the Figure 1.

Figure 1: Map of the Locations

In this study, the amount of particulate matter was measured by using the “CEM DT-9880” device; while the amount of CO₂ was measured by using the “EXTECH Easyview 80 CO₂ Analyzer” device. Both the devices and the method in question have been employed by many studies conducted on the subject matter so far 9- 11. The measurements were repeated for 10 times on sunny, rainy and snowy days and the averages of the obtained results were interpreted. RESULTS AND DISCUSION The average values of the amounts of CO2and particulate matter in the study locations under different weather conditions are presented in the Table 1. According to the measurements, the highest values for PM0.3 and PM0.5 were obtained from the CS, CF and DJ respectively on snowy days. For PM1 the highest values were obtained from the DJ, CS and CF respectively on snowy days. For PM2.5, the highest values were obtained from the CF on snowy days, T on sunny days and CS on snowy days respectively. For PM5, however, the highest values were obtained from T on sunny days, CS on snowy days and CF on snowy 645

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 643-650, DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.64350.]

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days respectively. For PM10, the highest values were obtained from T, SFC and DJ on sunny days. The highest values of CO2 were measured at the OI on sunny days (775ppm) and snowy days (746ppm) respectively. Lastly the combined effect of the two factors was evaluated using surface response plots. The following sections describe the effect of Cooking time and temperature on the responses using these four approaches. Table 2: The Amounts of CO2 and Particulate Matter (PM)

Major Urban Areas

Location

CS

KU

OI

Nodes

DJ

KJ

AJ

Polluting Sources

CF

SFC

T

WC Ra Su Sn Ra Su Sn Ra Su Sn Ra Su Sn Ra Su Sn Ra Su Sn Ra Su Sn Ra Su Sn Ra Su Sn

PM (pieces) 0,3 0,5 1 2,5 14990 4158 323 82 43996 12240 1385 175 131497 38495 3983 445 1058 264 37 5 7026 1572 143 23 21924 3490 323 51 33470 9700 1015 143 27052 7917 901 137 91867 26018 2689 336 6605 1484 214 19 17799 4975 615 101 123304 37067 4191 426 1946 563 62 8 11660 2646 234 27 48548 10459 1163 119 3333 646 96 31 7576 1895 229 33 23364 5185 432 72 3103 751 160 29 8055 2190 252 55 126909 37272 3958 473 1428 394 37 6 9481 2785 426 97 27980 5654 621 46 1328 470 37 5 26003 9884 1761 473 19255 4572 433 32

CO2 5 10 (ppm) 12 8 355 16 9 663 45 14 574 0 0 444 0 0 444 5 4 348 22 6 472 33 18 775 26 6 746 1 1 584 29 19 284 37 14 629 1 1 470 6 6 628 17 7 403 11 7 309 8 2 577 6 2 583 4 3 519 15 10 395 42 13 316 1 1 340 33 21 665 7 7 404 0 0 466 145 112 666 2 2 654

As seen in the Table 3, the highest and lowest values for the CO2amount were measured in the OI (633.7 ppm) and in the AJ. The highest values for PM0.3, PM0.5, PM1, PM2.5 were measured in the CS and for PM 5 and PM10 in T.

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J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 643-650, DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.64350.]

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Table 3: Changes in the Average Particulate Matter and CO2Values Based on Locations

Locations CS KU OI DJ KJ AJ CF SFC T

PM (pieces) PM0,3 PM0,5 PM 1 PM 2,5 63494,3 18297,7 1897 234 10002,7 1775,3 167,7 26,3 50796,3 14545 1535 205,3 49236 14508,7 1673,3 182 20718 4556 486,3 51,3 11424,3 2575,3 252,3 45,3 46022,3 13404,3 1456,7 185,7 12963 2944,3 361,3 49,7 15528,7 4975,3 743,7 170

PM 5 24,3 1,7 27 22,3 8 8,3 20,3 13,7 49

PM 10 10,3 1,3 10 11,3 4,7 3,7 8,7 9,7 38

CO2 (ppm) 588 430,3 633,7 483,7 471,3 430 514,3 526,3 493,3

According to the results presented in the Table 4, the highest values for CO 2, PM0.3, PM0.5, PM1 and PM2.5 were measured on snowy days and for PM5 and PM10 on sunny days. The lowest values for CO 2 were measured on sunny days and for particulate matters on rainy days. Table 4: Changes in the Average Particulate Matter and CO2Values Based on Locations PM (pieces) PM0,5 PM 1 PM 2,5 WC PM0,3 7473,4 2047,8 220,1 36,4 Ra 17627,6 5122,7 660,7 124,6 Su 68294,2 18690,2 1977 222,2 Sn

PM 5 5,8 31,7 20,8

CO2 (ppm) PM 10 3 517,4 21,9 439,9 7,7 566,3

CONCLUSION The examination of the values suggests that the areas where the highest values were measured are located in the city center with limited air circulation, whereas the areas where the lowest values were measured are located outside the city center with high air circulation. This fact is consistent with the findings of the literature. The impact of air circulation on the air quality of urban areas has been emphasized by many studies thus far 9. The studies conducted in Krakow 12, Rome 13, Korea 14, Kastamonu 15, Hawaii 16 suggest that the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere changed depending on various different factors such as weather conditions, traffic intensity and season change 17-19. The most significant among those factors are the air circulation and presence of vegetation in urban areas6, 20 The present study, conducted exclusively for the province of Kastamonu, shows that the lowest values for major urban areas are found to be in the Kuzeykent Campus of Kastamonu University. This is because the campus site, albeit being situated inside the development zone of the city center, is remote from the city center as compared to the other locations. Therefore the amount of particulate matter is comparatively lower in this particular location. On the other hand, the values of CO2 are also lower in the campus than they are in the city square and small industrial zone. An examination of nodes suggests that the airport junction, due to being outside the urban settlement, has the lowest values in all parameters except for the 647

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 643-650, DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.64350.]

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amount of PM5. Being the main connection point of the province, Daday Junction has higher CO 2 and particulate matter values than Kuzeykent Junction, which is an inner neighborhood junction. An examination of the polluting areas reveals that the SFC integrated facilities has high values of CO2, whereas the Chipboard Factor has high values of small particulate matter and TAŞİKO has high values of large particulate matter. In this study, the amounts of CO2 and particulate matter have been identified in the province of Kastamonu exclusively. However, the atmosphere contains many more pollutants as well. The most effective way of reducing such pollutants is to eliminate the source of the pollutant. Moreover, vegetation landscaping allows the reduction of all kinds of air pollution in addition to the preservation of soil, promotion of wildlife and regulation of water regime 21-26. For this reason, ensuring air circulation and vegetation is critically important in developing settlement plans in urban areas.

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* Corresponding author: Isinkaralar Öznur Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Kastamonu, Türkiye Email: [email protected] On line publication Date: 19.07.2017

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J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; May 2017 – July, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3; 643-650, DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.3.64350.]