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Nov 9, 2014 - Shweta Tripathi, Sumit Kumar Sonkar and Sabyasachi Sarkar. Growth stimulation of gram (Cicer arietinum) plant by water soluble carbon ...

JCBPS; Section B; Nov . 2014 – Jan. 2015, Vol. 5, No. 1; 384-392.

E- ISSN: 2249 –1929

Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences An International Peer Review E-3 Journal of Sciences Available online atwww.jcbsc.org

Section B: Biological Sciences CODEN ( USA): JCBPAT

Research Article

Effect of Chemically Synthesized CeO2 Nanoparticles on Growth parameters of (Cajanus cajan. L) Red gram Seeds N.Jayarambabu1 , B. Siva Kumari1 , K.Venkateswara Rao2 , Y.T. Prabhu2 1 2

Department of Botany, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh - India

Centre for Nano Science and Technology, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Telangana-500085, India Received: 25 October 2014 2014; Revised: 31 October 2014; Accepted: 09 November 2014

Abstract: The synthesis, characterization and application of chemically synthesized nanomaterial have become an important branch of nanotechnology. In this paper, we report CeO2 Nanoparticles were characterizations with different techniques like XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA, PSA and SEM etc. In present investigation, different concentration (0.0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 mg) of CeO2 NPs were prepared in distilled water and used for the treatment in red gram seeds to study the effect on seed germination and early seedling growth. We observed in 70, 80 and 90 mg treatments of CeO2 Nanoparticles, as shown root length, shoot length, germination percentage, vigor index, seed germination increased. When compare to other concentrations and control. Keywords: CeO2 NPs, Characterizations, Red gram seeds, Germination, Growth parameters

INTRODUCTION The nanoparticles research is advancing due to their unique properties the properties and applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Cerium is a block F, Period 6 element, while oxygen is a block P, Period 2 element. Cerium oxide is an oxide of the rare earth metal cerium 1 . Cerium oxide nanoparticles appear in a brown to yellow powder form 2 . Cerium dioxide nanoparticles have been proposed for an increasing of 384 J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. B, Nov. 2014 – Jan. 2015; Vol.5, No.1; 384-392

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applications in biomedicine, agriculture, and cosmetic, as polishing materials and also as by products from automotive fuel additive 3 . Several methods have been developed to preparation ultrafine CeO2 nanoparticles powder; the methods are hydrothermal, co-precipitation, polymeric precursor, microwave method, green synthesis methods 4-13 . In this work we report a co-precipitation method for synthesis of CeO2 nanoparticles using (NH4 )Ce(NO3 )6 , KOH and PVP as a surfactant. The prepared sample was calcined, ceria nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution. The obtained nanoparticles were characterization by diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Particle size Analyzer (PSA), Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG/DTA). Then CeO2 nanoparticles act as anti- oxidants, absorbing ROS free radicals. In agriculture field cerium oxide nanoparticles treated for seed germination. Red grams are major group of pulses are an important legume crop of rain fed agriculture in semiarid tropics red grams are both a food crop and a cover crop. In combination with cereals, red grams make a well-balanced human food. Red grams contain high levels of protein and the important amino acids methionine, lysine, and tryptophan. MATERIALS AND METHODS Chemical synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles using precursor is cerium ammonium nitrate, reducing agent potassium hydroxide and surfactant poly vinyl pyrollidone (PVP). 0.1M cerium ammonium nitrate taken in 100 ml distilled of baker and stirring for 30 minutes with heat up to 40 o C then add PVP, after 30 minutes stirring add drop wise to potassium hydroxide solution appeared precipitate in this solution continuing stirring for 4 hrs. Then washing with ethanol for four time remove any impurities, drying at oven for 12 hrs at 80 o C, calcined the sample at 800 o C for 6 hrs.

RESULTS

Fig.1. XRD pattern of CeO2 nanoparticles From Figure 1, the characteristic peaks are located at 2θ = 28.5, 33.9, 47.8, 56.2, 58.5 and 69.10 and they correspond to (111), (200), (220), (311), (222) and (400) lattice planes, respectively. The obtained lattice parameters for ceria nanoparticles are observed to be in good agreement with the data reported in the literature (JCPDS 43-1002). The powder XRD pattern of CeO2 nanoparticles shows broad peaks, which 385

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confirmed the formation of small-sized nanoparticles. The particle size of nanoparticles was determined using the Scherer’s relation. For the various reflection peaks of the XRD pattern, the particle size was estimated and the average size of nanoparticles of the sample was found to be around 27 nm.

Fig.2. FT-IR spectrum of the CeO2 nanoparticles

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is the sophisticated instrument which can be used to identify the functional groups of samples of nanomaterial, crystals and other types of materials. An FTIR spectrum is recorded between percentages of transmittance (%T) and wave number of IR radiation. By observing the absorption bands or peaks in the wave number range 400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 of FTIR spectrum, one can ascertain the functional groups of the sample and hence the chemical formula and the sample can be identified. The FTIR pattern of cerium dioxide nanoparticles is shown in the Figure 2. The broad absorption band located around 3400 cm-1 . The FTIR pattern of cerium dioxide is shown in the Figure 2. The broad absorption band shown around 3404.1-1743.4 cm-1 corresponds to the O-H vibration of water and hydroxyl groups, the absorption band at 11588.3- 1021.1cm-1 due to the scissor bending mode of water. The strong broad band below 700 cm-1 is assigned to the Ce-O stretching mode. Table.1. FT-IR spectrum of the CeO2 nanoparticles Bands/peaks(cm-1 ) 3404.1 - 1743.4 1588.3 - 1021.1 800 - 725.8 Below 700

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Assignments OH bond stretching CH2 bond CH2 bond Metal oxide bond (CeO)

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Fig.3. TG\DTA of the CeO2 nanoparticles. The TG curve in the Figure 3 shows that there is a weight loss taking continuously up to 650 °C. The maximum weight loss is observed in the temperature range 100 °C – 450 °C, the total weight loss is 2.3%. From DTA curve, it is observed that there is no exothermic peak in the temperature range 400 °C -800 °C which represents the decomposition of the sample.

Fig.4. Dynamic Light Scattering of the CeO2 nanoparticles Particle size measurements the particle size distribution of the CeO2 powder prepared by the chemical precipitation method. The particle distribution (histogram) indicated by the bars the measurement of particle size distribution of CeO2 was done by Dynamic Light Scattering. In the prepared sample it was observed that, particle have a wide size distribution, but the majority of them were dispersed within a narrow range, as shown in Figure 4. The average particle size from the figure was found to be 44.7 nm. 387

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Fig.5. Scanning electron microscopic studies of CeO2 nanoparticles SEM images of the CeO2 powder prepared by the chemical precipitation method are shown in Figure 5. From the SEM images, it was found that all the CeO2 particles are porous. The pore size of the powder is in the range 10μm. DISCUSSION

Fig. 6. CeO2 NPs different concentrations (0.0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 200 mg) with red gram seeds. 388

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Table.2. RL indicate - Root length, SL indicate- Shoot length, GP indicate- Germination percentage, SVIindicate- Seedlings vigor index. CeO2 NPs Control 5mg 10mg 20mg 30mg 40mg 50mg 60mg

RL 12.8 13.1 15.4 14.9 15.5 15.3 16.7 14.5

SL 9.6 9.4 12.3 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.2 10.6

GP % 80 100 80 60 60 60 80 60

SVI 780.8 955.4 997.1 647.4 639.5 697.3 1024.7 650.5

70mg 80mg 90mg

15.4 16.1 15.8

10.8 10.9 10.7

100 100 100

1072.6 1104.1 1082.8

100mg

11.8

10.2

40

419.8

1500

Red gram seed germinatio n

1000 500 0

CeO2 NPs Concentrations RL SL GP% SVI Fig.7. RL indicate -Root length, SL indicate- Shoot length, GP indicate- G germination percentage, SVIindicate-Seedlings Vigor index. Seed preparation and treatment: Seeds of the plant species were collected from NG Ranga Agriculture University Hyderabad, for testing the CeO2 nanoparticles effects of various concentrations (0.0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 mg). We cannot use any seed surface sterilization agent for seed sterilization, we dipped seeds in different concentrations CeO2 NPs suspensions. The CeO2 NPs suspensions were prepared with ultra sonicator the particles dispersed in solution, each sample was placed in ultra sonicator for 30minutes. The selected seeds were soaked in this solution for 12 hrs.

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Paper towel method for seed germination: We are collected the germination paper from NG Ranga Agricultural University, first was dipped in water and placed on table the seeds were put on germination sheet, cover with other sheet, these sheet was role properly keep in polythene cover up to germination the data was collected after completed germination. Our observed red gram seed germination, Root length, Shoot length, Germination percentage, Vigor index, with different concentrations of CeO2 NPs. In this paper towel method red gram seeds shown good growth with CeO2 NPs suspension solution whereas the control. The seeds were considered to be germinating at the moment of Root length, Shoot length measurement in centimeters (cm). The number of germinated seeds was recorded daily and the final percentage of germination was measured after 10 days. The germination characteristics of red grams were calculated. The seedlings grown in germination sheet with CeO2 NPs increased length when compared to the control seedlings (Figure 2). The maximum height of the seedlings was found in 70,80 and 90mg CeO2 NPs, whereas the control. The results of the present study may be helpful to improve the % of seed germination and seedlings growth. In our experiment shown positive effects of CeO2 NPs on seed germination and root length, shoot length elongation, germination percentage, vigor index compare with the control. The pathology test was conduct on these seeds with CeO2 NPs treated and control, in this test control effected by aspergillums organisms, CeO2 NPs treated did not shown any effect any other organisms in this experiment, CeO2 NPs shown antibacterial activity. In this paper towel method we observed 70, 80, 90mg concentrations of CeO2 nanoparticles appeared good results, Root length, Shoot length, germination percentage, seedlings vigor index. It may be CeO2 nanoparticles penetrate through seed coat, and influence on the seed germination. The seeds placed in germination sheet containing CeO2 NPs showed 99% germination, whereas 90% germination was observed in control seeds. The reason could be that the CeO2 NPs can penetrate through seed coat and may be activate the embryo.14 Mentioned that the carbon nanotubes can effectively penetrate through seed coat, and influence the seed germination. Exposure of tomato seeds to Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) resulted in enhance seed germination and growth rate. Carbon nanotubes, results indicated that at the concentration ranges of CNTs (mg) dramatically enhanced the seed germination and growth of chick pea, tomato plants 15 . It may effect of nanomaterials arose from the capability of them to penetrate seed coat and therefore promote water uptake. Tolerance of maize seedlings to Nickel and Aluminum gradually decreased with the increasing concentrations of Nickel and Aluminum as compared to control. Nickel treatments at 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/L produced 94.12, 82.35, 74.51, 72.56 and 27.45% of tolerance in maize, respectively. Aluminum treatment at similar range of treatments produced 92.15, 80.39, 64.7, 41.18 and 11.76% of tolerance in maize respectively. It might nanoparticles penetrate into seed coat and therefore promote germination, shoot length, root length and water uptake. The concentrations of Ce in cucumber, alfalfa, tomato and corn seedlings treated with nanoceria. The Ce concentrations in alfalfa and tomato increased significantly, and cucumber showed similar in tissue for the 1000-400mg L-1 treatments. The Cerium oxide nanoparticles effect on root shoot elongations report in this paper 16 .CNTs effect on alfalfa and wheat germination under the conditions examined, both species increased them in high concentrations. The germination percentage (GP) and germination index (GI) was significantly affected by CNTs 17 .

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In this paper our synthesized CeO2 Nanoparticles, application on seed germination of red gram collected from NG Ranga Agriculture University. In our investigation on germination of seeds with different concentrations (0.0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and100 mg) of CeO2 Nanoparticles suspensions exposed to red gram seeds for 12 hrs. In this experiment observed the root length, shoot length, germination percentage, seedlings vigor index. The results shown 70, 80 and 90 concentrations of CeO2 NPs suspensions appeared good results compare to other concentrations and control. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Authors are thankful to the University Grants Commission for financial support. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

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* Corresponding author: B. Siva Kumari Andhra Loyola College, Department of Botany, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh - India Email: [email protected]

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