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May 20, 2018 - An International Peer Review E-3 Journal of Sciences ... subject of this study was natural food products from Bosnia and Herzegovina, honey, ...

JCBPS; Section B; May 2018 – July 2018, Vol. 8, No. 3; 521-535,

E- ISSN: 2249 –1929

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.52135.]

Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences An International Peer Review E-3 Journal of Sciences Available online atwww.jcbsc.org Section B: Biological Sciences CODEN (USA): JCBPAT

Research Article

Bioavailability of total antioxidants from natural food products (honey, cereals, herbs and wines) based on physicalchemical characteristics Aldina Kesić1*, Inela Zaimović1, Nadira Ibrišimović Mehmedinović1, Almir Šestan1, Suad Kunosić1 1

University of Tuzla, Faculty of Science, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina,

Received: 23 March 2018; Revised: 13 May 2018; Accepted: 20 May, 2018

Abstract: There is an increasing interest in research on the quality of certain nutritional substances as well as the way of food preparation and the correlation of possible risks from the emergence and development of some chronic illnesses in the scientific and research sense. Healthy life and foods rich in antioxidants are the only solution to struggle against the illness of the modern age. Degenerative processes leading to aging and the occurrence of various diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis and diabetes include oxidative and other reactions in which free radicals are formed. Fighters against the harmful effects of free radicals in our body are endogenous and exogenous antioxidants. Exogenous antioxidants from food are extremely important and their bioavailability research is a very important field of the research. The subject of this study was natural food products from Bosnia and Herzegovina, honey, cereals, herbs and wine. Based on the physical-chemical characteristics of these food products, evaluation of the bioavailability of natural antioxidants in them was performed. The results have shown that these natural products are a significant source of antioxidants. Keywords: antioxidants, natural products, FRAP

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INTRODUCTION The awareness of people about the importance of healthy eating to overall health is increasing every day. There is an increasing interest in the scientific and research sense related to the causal link between the quality of certain nutritional substances and the way of food preparation with a potential risk of the emergence and development of some chronic diseases1-3. Degenerative processes that lead to aging and the occurrence of various diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis and diabetes include oxidative and other reactions in which free radicals are being educated. Reactive Oxygen Types (ROS) are consistently trained in living organisms during the cellular process itself or stimulated by exogenous sources such as contamination, ionization radiation and drugs. Living organisms are protected from oxidative damage to the endogenous antioxidant defense system or food-borne antioxidants. In this regard, natural food products that are a significant source of natural antioxidants are particularly important4. Healthy nutrition is a major factor that maintains our health in balance. Our body provides many essential ingredients - from the sufficient amount of fluid to the required protein, vitamins and minerals. Proper diet also helps to successfully carry out the detoxification process and dispose of waste materials 5. Such nutrition includes foods naturally obtained, organic cultivation without harmful additions such as toxic pesticides or dangerous modified seeds6. Many phytohemics or phytonutrients - substances of vegetable fruits and cereals that are beneficial to the health, neutralize free radicals7. Phytochemicals actually make a plant defense system and are very powerful antioxidants that effectively protect against many diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, increased blood pressure, osteoporosis, pulmonary disease and cancer8. Following the trend of exploiting what nature offers directly, bee products have an increasing importance as essential natural products in healthy eating9. The honey contains phenolic and nonphenolic substances with antioxidant potential. Small amounts of honey include polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which can act as natural antioxidants. Of the nonphenolic substances, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is particularly significant10,11.

Figure 1: Structural L-Ascorbic Acid Formula (Vitamin C) Honey is an easy-to-digestible diet that contains significant nutrients. Thanks to its high nutritional value (energy value: 304 kcal, protein: 2.8 g / kg, carbohydrates: 824 g / kg, total fat: 0.0 g / kg of honey) and high absorption of carbohydrate, honey is acceptable for every age. It is recommended for feeding children and athletes, and as a therapy to improve the resistance of older and disabled people12-14. 522

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According to the chemical composition, honey is a natural food of enduring quality and if it is ticky when it is mature, it can never be spoiled because it contains antibacterial agents that prevent the development of microflora by making its durability unlimited15-17. White bread and white flour products are used massively. The consequences of consuming such foods are extremely unfavorable: energy balance disturbances, disadvantages to the body's protection requirements and plant fibers. White flour is the result of a bigger digestion so it contains less protein and essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals necessary for normal functioning of the organism. Everything reflects on the disorder of health and the onset of illness18. Integral grain cereals and whole grain cereal products include whole grain, with all its nutrients. They contain well digestible unrefined carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates in cereals are physiologically much more beneficial for the organism as far as the usability and the load of the organism are concerned19. During digestion, they are first divided into simple sugars, and blood sugar gradually increases. The germ that is a part of the whole grain contains the most important ingredients for life. Integral grain cereals have low fat content, without cholesterol and rich in essential fatty acids. Integral grain of all grains is rich and a good source of plant fibers. White wheat flour and white bread are deprived of this because they have been removed by processing. Plant fibers have a great importance in nutrition in preventing and treating many diseases. Integral grain products are rich in vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B (B1, B2, B6, biotin, choline, inositol, PABA, folic acid, pancreatic acid, pantothenic acid) and minerals (potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium magnesium, iron, chlorine, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium), unsaturated fatty acids and rich with plant fibers20,21.

Figure 2: Different types of integral cereals All grains contain carbohydrate complexes, resistant starches, dietary fibers, minerals, vitamins, phytochemicals and other substances. Fitohemical components of integral cereals can also serve as antioxidants and as phytoestrogens, which is especially important for the feeding of some particularly risky groups such as feeding children, pregnant women , a nurse, a third person, etc22-24. Integral cereals act on different risk factors for coronary diseases. They are rich in soluble fibers that reduce the values of serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol fraction, while bran have a specific effect of triacylglycerol reduction. Soy foods are most widely studied and current evidence suggests that both soy protein and soy isoflavones make the desired effects on the regulation of lipid serum concentrations.Cereals are rich in antioxidants, including vitamins, minerals, phenolic acids, lignans and estrogens. Vitamin E and 523

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selenium are particularly concentrated in all grains. Other minerals such as copper, zinc and magnesium are also found in the outer layers of cereals17. Integral cereals are a potential source of numerous antioxidant compounds that can help prevent oxidative stress.In addition to their antioxidant properties, integral cereals may reduce the risk of coronary diseases, antithrombotic activity, and the effect of plate-like groups. Coagulation and fibrinolysis control the opening and dissolution of fibrin, which can cause the risk of atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. Nutrition plays a major role in primary and secondary coronary heart disease by modification in coagulation and fibrinolysis. Antioxidant activity of wheat cereal grains is 30-60% higher than white wheat flour. When the antioxidants in the grain are damaged during processing, lipid protection may disappear.Increased consumption of foods rich in integral grain cereals is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease in women19. Possible protective constituents concentrated in the integral grain are copper. Coppr nutrients can affect the risk of coronary heart disease.Copper deficiency causes an increased level of cholesterol, blood pressure and uric acid, and has a detrimental effect on the electrocardiogram, slows glucose tolerance, causes thrombosis and oxidative damage. More than 75 anatomical, chemical and psychological similarities were found between copper and animal deficiencies ischemic heart disease15. Plants represent the basic link of the microelement flow that takes place almost always in the geobiochemical cycle: soil-plant-animal-man. Herbal plants include plant species of which one or more parts contain a biologically active substance that can be used for therapeutic purposes or for chemical pharmaceutical synthesis. For processing only those parts of the plant that contain the active ingredient: leaf, fruit, flower, root or stem. The microelement content in plants depends on: soil types, soil concentrations, chemical shape, and other factors of the environment. In general it can be said that the content of microelements in plants is an indicator of the environment. Most microelements are essential for normal physiological functions. However, any essential element may be toxic if the organism is injected to a greater extent than the allowable. Microelements: zinc, selenium, copper, iron, manganese and others, affect immunity. Significant role of some microelements as a cofactor of numerous enzymes, among other things, is the oxidoreductase that represents the first system of defense of free radicals. Antioxidant effects have elements: copper, zinc, manganese, selenium, and iron prooxidation effect. An antioxidant is a substance that, present at much lower concentrations than oxidants (free radicals), significantly reduces or prevents oxidation. The total content of all antioxidant components, as oxidation process inhibitors in a biological system, is called antioxidant capacity. In addition to known substances having antioxidant effects (vitamins E and C, minerals Se, Cu, Mn, Zn, carotenoids, coenzyme Q10, polyphenols and enzymes), it is possible to have biologically active compounds in plants whose antioxidant effect is not yet proven. It is believed that the antioxidant substances act synergistically, and in that sense the value of antioxidant capacity provides a true picture of the antioxidant power of a particular plant species but also of different types of the same species12-16. Studies show that medicinal plants have high antioxidant capacity. It is also known that antioxidant blood capacity increases after consuming medicinal herbal products.A plant represent a complex system and the ways of adopting mineral matter differ significantly in different plant species, plants mostly absorb metals through the root from the soil, and a smaller part and through the overhead organs from the atmosphere20. With high iron content in the soil, plants less accept other metals such as manganese, copper, zinc etc. The average iron content in plants is 100 mg / kg. In the plants there are two groups of hitherto defined iron proteins: hem-proteins and iron-sulfur proteins. The iron sulfur protein is the superoxide dismutase FeSOD isoenzyme. 524

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This enzyme plays an important role in the detoxification of superoxide radicals. Other important redox enzymes are catalase and peroxidase. The excess of iron in nature is rarely reported and is accompanied by a lack of phosphorus and manganese. Toxic critical concentrations of iron in dry matter of plant leaves exceed 500 μg / g dry matter.

Figur 3: 3D superoxide dismutase structure ( FeSOD ) The natural copper content in plants is 1-15 mg / kg of dry matter or 2-20 mg / kg of dry matter. If the copper content in dry matter of the leaf is less than 4 mg / kg it is considered that the plants are not sufficiently provided with this element and the content of more than 20 to 50 mg / kg of dry matter indicates its excess. The excess copper can cause a lack of other elements, especially manganese and iron. Copper acts antagonistically with iron and manganese. It is an integral part of many enzymes involved in oxidation processes. In matter traffic, it has a predominantly catalytic role, i.e. it has a share in redox reactions. The average zinc content in plants is 20-100 mg / kg of dry matter. The natural zinc content in plants varies between 0 and 100 mg / kg. Of the total present amount of zinc in plants, 17% is related to only two enzymes: carboanhydrazine and superoxide dismutase, which together represent about 1.6% of the cell protein.Adopting manganese may be reduced in the presence of higher amounts of iron, copper and zinc. The most important role of manganese in plant life processes is enzyme activation. It activates a large number of enzymes, but its presence so far has been found only in two enzymes in Mn- proteinufotosystem II (PSII) and MnSOD. The content of manganese in dry matter of plants ranges from 50 to 250 mg / kg on average. The selenium from food mainly comes from plants that absorb selenium from the soil in inorganic form and synthesize the most selenomethionine. Increased selenium content in plants reduces nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur levels and synergistically affects manganese, tin, copper, iron, and cadmium.According to recent studies, the number of organic and inorganic chemical compounds in wine is higher than 600, while the number of those still unspecified with respect to the chemical composition is estimated at over 3000. Antioxidants present in wine are those substances that prevent the oxidation of wine, which, if it comes, changes the taste, smell and color of the wine (it becomes yellow to the amber). While oxidants are easily oxygenated to other substances and are used for disinfection, antioxidants block oxidative enzymes and thus prevent oxidation. In the wine sector, such funds have been used for exact data for more than 7,400 years. In order to prevent wine oxidation, the use of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or carbon (IV) oxide, argon and nitrogen gases) is allowed to indirectly

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prevent wine from unwanted processes as it prevents contact with air- about 21% of oxygen and its partial pressure is higher than other gases. Red (black) vinegar contains many antioxidants, components that keep the heart, the nervous system and protect the whole organism from oxidative stress. Of course, it is understood that wine is used in moderate amounts to achieve such a beneficial effect on health.The grape seed from which the wine is produced is known for the high content of antioxidants, which protect the heart and blood vessels.The main types of antioxidants present in red wine are flavonoids and resveratrol. Flavonoids are herbal antioxidants. Red wine is the most widely used anthocyanid, which is found in common grapes and gives it a dark purple color. The darker the wine, the more concentration of these useful components. Resveratrol is the component created by plants to protect them from fungi. It belongs to a group of polyphenols, which are known as good antioxidants. The amount of antioxidant present in wine is influenced by the origin of the raw materials from which the wine is produced as the very mode of production.. Some of the positive effects of red wine on health are: reduction of heart disease (red wine flavonoids reduce "bad holesteriol" in the bloodstream and increase "good cholesterol"), protection from the appearance of malignant diseases (resveratrol reduces tumor incidence and prevents cancer cell growth) (research has shown that resveratrol can contribute to preventing the formation of amyloid plaque, which is thought to impair brain cells and contributes to the development of Alchajmer's disease) and others. MATHERIAL AND METHODS The following chemicals were used in the study:  Distilled water  25% solution KH2PO4  Chloride buffer solution pH = 1.0  K2S2O5 solution  Tests were conducted using the following methods:  FRAP method  UV / VIS spectrophotometry  ICP-AAS- Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The paper includes an analysis of the antioxidant activity of natural food products - honey, wine, cereals and plants. Considering the great medical significance of natural antioxidants, the influence of the chemical composition on its antioxidant capacity was also analyzed. The analysis includes samples from the Tuzla Canton area and the wider area of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as samples produced in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia and can be obtained for free sale in BiH.For all samples, the locations on which samples are collected are listed. Data concerning the type, manner of breeding and collection of analyzed samples were taken from the breeder.

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Table 1: The botanical and geographical origin of analyzed honey samples Sample no.

Type of honey

Origin

Locality

1.

Meadow

BiH

Tuzla

2.

Acacia

BiH

Tuzla

3.

Flower

BiH

Prijedor

4.

Royall jelly, propolis, pollen

BiH

Lipnica

5.

Linden

Srbija

Krnjevo

Table 2: The botanical and geographical origin of analyzed wine samples Sample no.

Type of wine

Origin

Locality

1.

Vranac

Crna Gora

Podgorica

2.

Ždrepčevakrv

Srbija

Subotica

3.

Blatina

BiH

Čitluk, Mostar

4.

Graševina

Hrvatska

Kutjevo

5.

Chardonnay

Crna Gora

Podgorica

Table 3: Botanical and geographical origin of analyzed grain samples

Sample no.

Cereal type

Origin

Locality

1.

Corn flour

BiH

Devetak, Lukavac

2.

Wheat flour

BiH

Teočak, Snježnica

3.

Out flour

BiH

Neutvrđeno

4.

Barley integral flour

BiH

Sarajevo

5.

Rye flour

BiH

Sarajevo

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Table 4: Botanical and geographical origin of analyzed plant samples

Sample no.

Plant type

Origin

Locality

1.

Wormwood

BiH

Devetak, Lukavac

2.

Artichoke

BiH

Devetak, Lukavac

3.

Parsley

BiH

Devetak, Lukavac

4.

Lime

BiH

Devetak, Lukavac

5.

Birch

BiH

Devetak, Lukavac

The content of total antioxidants in the samples was determined by the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) method.The content of iron, copper, zinc and manganese was determined by the method of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry.The sample color analysis was performed by spectrophotometric method. Table 5: Measured absorbance for FeSO4 x 7H2O solutions of different concentrations Solution FeSO4x 7H2O

Solution concentration in µmol FeII/L

Measured absorbance

1.

50

0,171

2.

100

0,027

3.

200

0,077

4.

400

0,212

5.

600

0,322

6.

800

0,671

7.

1000

1,075

8.

1200

1,181

9.

1400

1,376

10.

1600

1,477

Botanical origin is a significant factor that largely depends on the chemical composition of the samples. The analyzed samples of different botanical origin show different antioxidant activity. The FRAP analysis of the tested samples showed that the total antioxidant activity ranged from 2525.18 μMFeII/L in a sample of Vranac wines from the Montenegrin area to 156.09 μMFeII/L. in a sample of the Lukavac municipality 528

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Aldina Kesić et al. 2 y = 0.0011x - 0.1557 R² = 0.9723

Apsorbance (A)

1.5 1 0.5 0 0 -0.5

500

1000

1500

2000

μmol Fe(II)/ L solution

Figure 4: A calibrated direction for determining the total antioxidant content .

Concentration ( μMFeII/ L ) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500

Honey Wine Grain Plants

0

Figure 5: Antioxidant activity of samples of honey, wine, cereals and plants Research shows that healing plants are a significant source of antioxidant substances. Among plant samples, the largest antioxidant activity has a birch, 406.09 μMFeII/L. A birch is used in traditional medicine for ages. It contains a variety of biomolecules, mostly from the class of plant phenol. It is also known that the birch also contains a significant amount of hydrogen sulfide, phenolic carbons and tannins. The results of the antioxidant capacity test for cereal samples show that the values range from 469.72 to 1039.72 μMFeII/L extract. As expected, the highest value of the antioxidant capacity has the barley extract followed by rhizome corn while wheat has the lowest value antioxidant activity, 469.72 μMFeII/L.

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1200

1039.72 871.54

1000

848.81 708.81

800

469.72

600 400 200 0 Barley integral fluor

Rye fluor

Oatmeal

Corn fluor

Wheat fluor

1.

2

3

4

5

Concentration (μMFeII/L)

Figure 6: Antioxidant activity of cereal samples Our research is in correlation with Miller E.H's research and associates. According to their research, wheat cereal grain has a higher antioxidant capacity of 60% compared to white flour. Numerous wines, especially black, contain various compounds that have distinct antioxidant properties. Although correlated with the concentration of total phenols in wine23, it does not depend solely on her, but also on the concentration of certain phenolic compounds and on their interrelationships24.

Figure 7: Different types of grain, wine, honey and plants samples

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The highest antioxidant activity was shown by the wine "Vranac" 2525.18 μMFeII/L. This research has established a higher antioxidant activity of black wines compared to white. The share of total phenols in wines is associated with the antioxidant activity of wine. The antioxidant activity of black wines ranges from 2525.182427 μMFeII/L. while the antioxidant activity of white wines ranges from 531.54-665.18 μMFeII/L. The highest value of the antioxidant capacity has the wine "Vranac" followed by "Ždrepčeva krv" ˃ "Blatina" ˃ "Chardonnay" while "Graševina" has a minimum value of 531.54 μMFeII/L..

Concentration (μMFeII/L) Concentration (μMFeII/)

2525.18

2453.36

2427

665.18

531.54

Vranac

Ždrepčeva krv

Blatina

Graševina

Chardonnay

1.

2

3

4

5

Figure 8: Antioxidant activity of wine samples Because of the difference in the composition of honey, it is normal to expect that the values of these parameters of certain honey types will be specific and different. Some honeycombs influence a particular property or at a time in several of them. For example, water content depends on viscosity, refractive index and specific mass. Optical activity is associated with the composition and share of individual carbohydrates, and electrical conductivity depends primarily on the proportion of mineral substances. Antioxidants in honey, but also in other foods, prevent the damage caused by oxidative changes due to the action of light, heat and some metals. Changes in the antioxidant activity of food are the result of chemical changes in the antioxidant active compounds present in the dietary product. The result of these changes may affect the ultimate antioxidant status of the food product differently. Antioxidant activity measured in honey ranges from 342.45-1887.9 μMFeII / L. The antioxidant activity of honey samples divided by botanical origin increases in the following order: flower ˃ meadows > acacia, > talia (linden) > royal jelly. The mixed honey samples have slightly higher antioxidant activity than honeydew and nectar honey, so we can say that mixing nectar honey and honeydew has a positive effect on total antioxidant activity of honey. The highest antioxidant activity has a mixed honey, 1887.9 μMFeII / L. Nectar samples of honey are a weaker source of antioxidants than honey beans, so that samples of acacia honey in average have significantly lower antioxidant activity than forest and mountain honey samples. 531

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The color of young white wines is usually light yellow or greenish, and during the mating of the barrels it takes a darker yellow color. Brown is mostly undesirable because it is an indicator of oxidation of wine. Some research has shown that the brown color of oxidized wines can be reduced by adding a large concentration of yeast. The color of red wines is inspired by anthocyanin extracted from grape seed during micronization.

The color of analyzed samples 1.2 1 0.8

Plants

0.6 0.4

Honey

0.2

Wine

0 1

2

3

4

5

Figure 9: Color of analyzed samples of plants, honey, wine The color of honey is also significant in correlation with the content of polyphenols in honey. The color of honey, antioxidant activity and polyphenol content is also influenced by the age of honey. CONCLUSION

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Honey, as a natural food product, is a significant source of antioxidants for the human organism.



The total antioxidant activity of honey is the result of its complex chemical composition and complex interactions of various substances. Between the total antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of the analyzed honey samples, there is a high degree of correlation.



Small amounts of honey include polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which can act as natural antioxidants. Of the non-phenolic substances, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is particularly significant.



Antioxidants in honey, but also in other foods, prevent the damage caused by oxidative changes due to light, heat, and some metals.



Antioxidant mechanisms that are characteristic for polyphenols are: H2 release, "capture of the radical" and metal healing. The number and position of the OH group influences the antioxidant activity of polyphenols.

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. B; May 2018 – July 2018, Vol. 8, No. 3,521-535. [DOI:10.24214/jcbps.B.8.3.52135.]

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Cereals are rich in antioxidants, including vitamins, minerals, phenolic acids, lignans and estrogens. Vitamin E and selenium are particularly concentrated in all grains. Other minerals such as copper, zinc and magnesium are also found in the outer layers of cereals.



Integral cereals are a potential source of numerous antioxidant compounds that can help prevent oxidative stress.



Possible protective constituents are concentrated in the integral grain. Copper nutrients can affect the risk of coronary heart disease.



Antioxidant effect has: copper, zinc, manganese, selenium, but iron has prooxidation effect.



An antioxidant is a substance that, present at much lower concentrations than oxidants (free radicals), significantly reduces or prevents oxidation.



The total content of all antioxidant components, as an oxidation process inhibitor in a biological system, is called antioxidant capacity.



Plants represent the basic linkage of the microelement flow, which takes place almost always in the geobiochemical cycle: soil-plant-animal-man.



Medicinal herbs include plant species of which one or more parts contain a biologically active substance that can be used for therapeutic purposes or for chemical pharmaceutical synthesis.



With high iron content in the soil, plants less accept other metals such as manganese, copper, zinc etc. The average iron content in plants is 100 mg / kg.



Medicinal plants exhibit high antioxidant capacity. It is known that antioxidant blood capacity increases after consuming medicinal herbal products.



Red (black) wine contains many antioxidants, components that keep the heart, the nervous system and protect the whole organism from oxidative stress.



Numerous wines, especially black, contain various compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant properties.



The color of black wines springs from anthocyanins extracted from grape seed during micronization.



The color of honey is also significant in correlation with the content of polyphenols in honey. The color of honey, antioxidant activity and polyphenol content is also influenced by the age of honey.

REFERENCES 1. I.J.Alebić, Prehrambene smjernice I osobitosti osnovnih skupina namirnica. MEDICUS, 2008, 17 (1), 37-46. 2. Ambrosi-Randić, N. Učestalost I korelati provođena dijete tijekom adolescencije. Društvena istraživanja, 2000, 53, 415-430. 3. Ambrosi-Randić, N. Razvoj poremećaja hranjenja. Naklada Slap, Jastrebarsko 2004. 533

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Corresponding author: Aldina Kesić, University of Tuzla, Faculty of Science, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Online publication Date: 20.05.2018

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