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May 19, 2018 - Abstract: The physicochemical and bacteriological assessment of water sources in Ekiti State. University, Ado-Ekiti campus and its environ was ...

JCBPS; Section D; May 2018 – July - 2018, Vol. 8, No. 3; 172-184.

E- ISSN: 2249 –1929

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.17284]

Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences An International Peer Review E-3 Journal of Sciences Available online atwww.jcbsc.org

Section D: Environmental Sciences CODEN (USA): JCBPAT

Research Article

Physicochemical and Bacteriological Assessment of Some Drinking Water Sources around Student Hostel in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti Onifade Olajumoke Evelyn1* ; Faeji Charles Oluwafemi 2 ; Owoeye Josiah Abolade 3 and Onipede Theresa1 1Department

of Science Laboratory Technology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, PMB 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

2Department

of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

3Department

of Biology, Federal University of Technology, Akure PMB 704, 340001, Ondo State, Nigeria. *corresponding author's email: [email protected] Received: 11 April 2018; Revised: 06 May 2018; Accepted: 19 May 2018

Abstract: The physicochemical and bacteriological assessment of water sources in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti campus and its environ was done. In this study, a total of ten (10) water sources (borehole and well) were sampled. The Total bacteria and coliform enumeration were determined using pour plating and multiple tube techniques, the antibiotic susceptibility was carried out using disc diffusion method, while physico-chemical and mineral studies were also carried out using standard methods. It revealed that all the mineral content of the water samples falls within the recommended limits set by Standard Organization of Nigeria for Drinking Water. The Total Bacteria Count mean value ranges between 2.0 X 102 CFU/ml to 60.0 X 102CFU/ml. The percentage distribution of bacteria isolated from water samples analysed revealed that Escherichia coli (32.00%) had the highest occurrence, followed by Klebsiella spp. (20.00%), Enterobacter spp. (16.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.0%), Serratia spp. (8.00%) and Shigella spp. (8.00%). The antibiotics sensitivity test showed resistance of the isolates to the respective antibiotics in the corresponding percentage; Nitrofurantoin (33%), Gentamycin 172

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D ; May 2018 – July - 2018, Vol. 8, No. 3; 172-184 DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.17284.]

Physicochemical …

Olajumoke E. Onifade et al.

(60%), Clotrimazole (80.95%) Ofloxacin (33%), Amoxicillin (95%), Ciprofloxacin (76.17%), Tetracycline (71.43%), Perfloxacin (80.95%), Augmentin (80.95%) and Ceftriaxone (66.67%). This study revealed the presence of coliform and other pathogens in the water samples which indicates risk involved in the consumption of water from such sources, and therefore could be hazardous to human health, hence the need for proper and adequate treatment of water from these sources. Keywords: Bacteriological, Physicochemical, Antibiotics sensitivity, Water INTRODUCTION Water consumption is essential for sustaining all life forms1. In developing countries, provision of safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century2. Ground water constitutes 85% of the source of drinking water in Nigeria as the cities have a shortage of potable water supply3. Contamination of water resources occurs due to poor sanitation and improper disposal of solid waste and domestic sewage. Although, Human activities contaminate ground water in areas where material above the aquifer is permeable, contaminants can readily sink into ground water supplies, when groundwater becomes polluted, it will no longer be safe to consume1. The compromise in microbiological quality of groundwater is likely to arise from a variety of sources like leakage, infiltration and seepage of domestic sewage from household septic tanks, sewage treatment plants, earthen sewer lines, septic tanks, pits, lagoons, ponds, sanitary land filled areas and soak pits, into the shallow aquifers. Therefore, it is necessary to have a continuous monitoring on the water quality through microbial and chemical examinations. Generally, safe drinking water should not have any infectious agents that is dangerous to human health and should be aesthetically acceptable to the consumer. Infectious agents that are found in drinking water in the first place are those caused by faecal contamination 4. Even after enactment of Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act as early as in 1974, water quality in developing countries is still not at top notch. Therefore, understanding the factors that can affect quality of ground water is of importance in managing this significant resource. Microbial water quality often varies rapidly and over a wide range. Shortterm peaks in pathogen concentration may increase disease risks considerably and may trigger outbreaks of waterborne disease. Provision and ascertainment of microbiologically safe drinking water is of utmost importance, hence, this research work is designed to determine the bacteriological status and physicochemical properties of some drinking water sources around student hostel in EKSU.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Area: The study was carried out within Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti main campus and it's environment. Sample Collection: Water samples were collected from Five (5) wells and Five (5) boreholes which were randomly selected around the student hostel in and around Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti main campus. Samples were collected from the various sample points using random sampling technique. Samples were transported to the laboratory on ice and analyzed within 3 hours after collection. The permission of hostel owners and occupants was sought before sample collection. They were informed that collected water samples would only be strictly used for research, and could help them in maintaining the quality of their water.

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Bacteriological Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility Test: Nutrient and MacConkey media were used for the bacteriological analysis. Using streak plate method, one millimeter of water sample was analyzed at ambient temperature to determine the total bacterial and coliform counts respectively according to Olutiola et al5. Streak plate method was used. The bacterial isolates were identified according to the method described by Barrow and Feltham6. Pure cultures of isolates were kept on nutrient agar slants at 12°C until used. Identification of the isolates based on cellular morphology following Gram stain, and biochemical testing results, such as catalase production was done. Disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hilton agar was used to determine the antibiotics susceptibility of the isolates according to CLSI (2005). The bacterial isolates were tested against ABTEK disc antibiotics. Nitrofurantoin (300µg), Gentamycin (30µg), Clotrimazole (Cot), Ofloxacin (5µg), Amoxicillin (25 µg), Tetracycline (30µg), Ciprofloxacin (5 µg), Tetracycline (30 µg), Pefloxacin (5 µg), Augmentin (25 µg), Ceftriaxone (30 µg), Erythromycin (15 µg), Levofloxacin (25 µg), Chloramphenicol (30 µg), Ampiclox (25 µg), Rifampicin (5 µg), Streptomycin (30 µg) Norfloxacin (5 µg). After incubating overnight, the test plate was examined to ensure the growth is confluent. The diameter of Zone of clearance including the diameter of the disk was measured to the nearest millimeter and interpreted on the basis of CLSI guideline (2005). Determination of physicochemical properties: The colour of the sample was determined by visual observation at the time of sampling. The temperature was measured at the points of collection using a digitron thermometer (model 275-k) as described by Edema et al.7, Conductivity was done using Hach’s conductivity meter. The pH meter was used to determine the pH. Total hardness was determined according to AOAC8 .While Total Alkalinity was also determined. The minerals or ions were detected by Atomic Spectrophotometer (AAS) (Perkin-Elmer Model 403)8. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The bacteriological assessment of water samples obtained from Ten (10) different sources (borehole and well) in Ekiti State University Campus and its environ were analyzed for the Total Bacteria Counts (TBC), Total Coliform Counts (TCC) and Total Faecal Count. Also, the physicochemical and mineral analysis of the water samples was carried out. The bacteria isolates were further evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility. The sources from which the samples were collected are boreholes (B) and wells (W). The points at which the samples were collected are: Victory-A; Asorock-B; Hakunna-C; Josevic-D; Anglican-E; UBA-F; Health centre-G; MCB-H; Wema-I and Science-J. Table 1: Shows the physicochemical analysis of the water samples from all the sources, the result of this study revealed that all the water samples were tasteless, odourless and free from carbon dioxide. However, other parameters range thus; Temperature (28oC – 29oC), pH (6.06 – 6.41), Conductivity (0.08-0.40) mhos, Alkalinity (67.20-147.00) µhos, Chloride (5.11–62.5) mg/L, Total hardness (96.00–206)mg/L and Nitrate (1.90 -3.03)mg/L

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Table 1: Physicochemical Analysis of the Water Samples

Water Sample

Temp o C

pH

Cond

Alkalinity Mg/l

Cl

Taste

Total Hardness

Odour

Free from CO2

Nitrite

A

28

6.37

0.21

147.00

25.00

Tasteless

178

Odourless

N/R

2.05

B

28

6.34

0.18

138.06

19.14

Tasteless

124

Odourless

N/R

2.05

C

29

6.37

0.40

119.70

62.5

Tasteless

206

Odourless

N/R

3.03

D

29

6.06

0.18

121.80

22.97

Tasteless

96

Odourless

N/R

2.03

E

28

6.41

0.26

67.20

33.18

Tasteless

118

Odourless

N/R

3.0

F

28

6.36

0.14

75.60

19.10

Tasteless

178

Odourless

N/R

2.0

G

29

6.20

0.07

67.34

14.04

Tasteless

124

Odourless

N/R

2.30

H

28

6.25

0.09

104.5

28.08

Tasteless

98

Odourless

N/R

1.90

I

28

6.39

0.09

77.56

5.11

Tasteless

186

Odourless

N/R

2.30

J

28

6.07

0.08

123.56

18.80

Tasteless

103

Odourless

N/R

1.98

WHO

40

6.5

250

120

250

Tasteless

500

Odourless

-

5.0

6.5

1000

-

250

Tasteless

500

Odourless

-

5.0

SON

Keys: Victory-A; Asorock-B; Hakunna-C; Josevic-D; Anglican-E; UBA-F; Health centre-G; MCB-H; Wema-I and Science-J.

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Table 2 Indicates the microbial load of the water sample which are the mean of Total Bacteria Counts (TBC), Total Coliform Counts (TCC) and Total Faecal Count of water samples collected at different time respectively.The TBC mean value ranges between 2.0 X 102 CFU/ml to 60.0 X 102CFU/ml in which the highest bacteria count was recorded from Anglican hostel well water. While the lowest bacteria count was recorded in borehole from Wema. However, no bacteria count was found in Health Centre borehole. The TCC mean value ranges from 20 to 700 CFU/ml in all the water sources, no TBC was recorded in Health Centre. The value of TFC is between 20 to 90 CFU/ml.

Table 2: Microbial Load of the Water Samples (CFU/ml)

SOURCES OF WATER

TBC 10-2

TCC

TFC

WELL

A

20

110

20

B

16

40

20

C

39

170

90

D

38

330

90

E

60

700

20

F

15

210

20

G

-

-

-

H

4

40

-

I

2

20

-

J

3

70

20

BOREHOLE

Keys: Victory-A; Asorock-B; Hakunna-C; Josevic-D; Anglican-E; UBA-F; Health centre-G; MCB-H; Wema-I and Science-J.

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Table 3 illustrates the biochemical characteristics of bacteria isolates from water samples. The result of this study showed that all the isolates were positive with catalase and glucose while a negative reaction when tested with oxidase. Table 3: Biochemical Characteristics of Bacteria Isolates

Sample/ site

G/rxn

A1 A2 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 D1 E1 E2 E4 E3 F1 F2 F3 F4 H1

-ve Red +ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red +ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red +ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red -ve Red

177

Cataas e + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Coag Ulase + + + -+ + + + + + + + + + +

Methyl Red + + + + + -

+ + + + + -

+ +

Fructose

+

Oxid Ase -

Indole test + + + + + + + +

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D; May 2018 – July - 2018, Vol. 8, No. 3; 172-184. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.17284.]

Glucose

Citrate

+ + +

+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+

+ + + + + + -

Maltose

+ + + + + + +

Sorbitor

+ + + +

+ + +

+ +

+

+ +

+

Likely organisms E.coli Staphylococcus spp. E.coli Shigella spp. Shigella spp. Enterobacter spp Klebsiella sp Klebsiella sp E.coli E.coli Staphylococcus spp. E.coli Serratia spp. Enterobacter spp Staphylococcus spp. E.coli Enterobacter sp Klebsiella sp Klebsiella sp E.coli E.coli

Physicochemical …

I1 I2 J1 J2

-ve Red +ve Red -ve Red -ve Red

Olajumoke E. Onifade et al.

+ + + +

+ + + -

+ -

+

-

-

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + +

Serratiasp. Staphylococcus spp. Enterobacter spp Klebsiella spp.

+ +

Keys: Victory-A; Asorock-B; Hakunna-C; Josevic-D; Anglican-E; UBA-F; Health centre-G; MCB-H; Wema-I and Science-J.

Table 4: Illustrates the percentage distribution of bacteria isolated from the analysed water samples and their frequency. Enterobacter spp. (16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (20.00%) Escherichia coli (32.00%), Serratia spp. (8.00%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.00%) and Shigella spp. (8.00%). This shows that Escherichia coli has the highest percentage (32.00%) followed by Klebsiella spp.(20.00%) and Serratia spp. (8.00%) has the lowest percentage Table 4: Percentage Distribution of Bacteria Isolated from Water Samples

Distribution(s) Isolates

Enterobacter spp. Klebsiella spp Escherichia coli Serratia spp. Staphylococcus aureus Shigella spp. TOTAL

Number of Isolates

Frequency (%)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

1 1

1 -

1 2 2 1

1 -

1 1 1 1

1 2 1 -

-

1 -

1 1

1 1 -

4 5 8 2 4

16.00 20.00 32.00 8.00 16.00

2

2 3

6

1

4

4

-

1

2

2

2 25

8.00 100.00

Keys: Victory-A; Asorock-B; Hakunna-C; Josevic-D; Anglican-E; UBA-F; Health centre-G; MCB-H; Wema-I and Science-J.

178

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D; May 2018 – July - 2018, Vol. 8, No. 3; 172-184. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.17284.]

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Table 5: Shows the antibiotics resistance pattern of five (5) gram negative bacteria which were isolated from water samples and tested against gram negative antibiotics discs. This result shows the phenotypic expression of their existence pattern and their percentage of resistance. The bacteria range of the pattern of antibiotics resistance of the isolated organism were Nitrofurantoin (33%), Gentamycin (60%), Clotrimazole (80.95%) Ofloxacin (33%), Amoxicillin (95%), Ciprofloxacin (76.17%), Tetracycline (71.43%), Pefloxacin (80.95%), Augmentin (80.95%), Ceftriaxone (66.67). Table 5: Antibiotics Resistance Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from Water Samples

Isolates

NIT

GEN

COT

OFL

AMX

CIP

TET

PEF

AUG

CEF

Enterobacter spp.1

S

I

I

S

R

R

R

I

I

R

Enterobacter spp.2

S

S

S

S

R

I

I

R

R

I

Enterobacter spp.3

S

S

R

S

R

R

R

I

I

R

Enterobacter spp.4

S

R

I

S

R

R

I

I

R

R

Serratia spp.1

R

S

R

S

R

S

I

S

R

S

Serratia spp.2

R

S

R

S

R

S

S

S

R

R

Klebsiella spp.1

I

S

I

I

R

S

R

R

R

S

Klebsiella spp.2

S

S

R

R

R

R

R

R

I

S

Klebsiella spp.3

S

I

I

I

R

R

I

R

R

S

Klebsiella spp.4

S

S

S

R

I

R

S

I

I

S

Klebsiella spp.5

S

S

I

R

R

R

I

R

R

S

E. coli 1

S

R

I

S

R

I

I

I

R

R

E. coli 2

S

I

R

I

R

I

I

R

R

R

E. coli 3

S

I

I

S

R

I

R

I

S

I

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J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D; May 2018 – July - 2018, Vol. 8, No. 3; 172-184. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.17284.]

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E. coli 4

I

I

R

S

R

R

I

R

S

S

E. coli 5

S

I

I

S

I

R

S

I

R

R

E. coli 6

S

R

S

S

R

R

R

R

R

R

E. coli 7

I

I

R

S

R

I

I

I

R

I

E. coli 8

S

R

R

S

S

S

S

S

R

R

Shigella spp. 1

R

R

R

R

R

S

S

R

S

R

Shigella spp. 2

R

R

S

S

R

R

S

S

S

R

% resistance to antibiotics

7

13

17

7

20

16

15

17

17

14

(33.33)

(60)

(80.95)

(33.33)

(95)

(76.17)

(71.43)

(80.95)

(80.95)

(66.67)

Keys:

NIT- Nitrofurantoin; GEN-Gentamycin; COT- Clotrimazole; OFL-Ofloxacin, AMX-Amoxicillin, CIP-Ciprofloxacin: TET-Tetracycline: PEF-

Pefloxacin: AUG- Augmentin; CEF -Ceftriaxone., R- Resistant,I- intermediate,

180

S- Susceptible

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D; May 2018 – July - 2018, Vol. 8, No. 3; 172-184. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.17284.]

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Table 6: Indicates the antibiotic resistance pattern of one (1) gram positive bacteria which was isolated from water samples and tested against specified antibiotics discs. The result also shows the phenotypic expression of their existence pattern and their percentage of resistance. The range of the pattern of antibiotics resistance of the isolated organism was seen indicated in respective percentages Norfloxacin (100%), Gentamycin (100%), Ciprofloxacin (100%), Erythromycin (100%), Levofloxacin (100%), Chloramphenicol (100%), Ampiclox (100%), Rifampicin (100%), Amoxicillin (100%), Streptomycin (100%) Table 6: Antibiotics Resistance Pattern of Gram Positive Bacteria Isolated from Water Samples

Staphylococcus

NOR

GEN

CPX

E

LEV

CH

APX

RIF

AMX

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

R

S

S

S

S

S

S

R

S

R

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

I

S

S

S

S

S

R

S

S

S

R

S

S

R

4(100)

4(100)

4(100)

4(100)

4(100)

4(100)

4(100)

4(100)

4(100)

4(100)

aureus 1 Staphylococcus aureus 2

Staphylococcus aureus 3

Staphylococcus aureus 4 Total (N) (%) Keys:

Norfloxacin (NOR); Gentamycin (GEN), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Erythromycin (E), Levofloxacin (LEV), Chloramphenicol (CH), Ampiclox (APX),

Rifampicin (RID), Amoxicillin (AMX), Streptomycin (S). R- Resistant

181

I- intermediate

S- Susceptible

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D; May 2018 – July - 2018, Vol. 8, No. 3; 172-184. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.8.3.17284.]

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Water is important and relevant for existence and survival of humans, animals and plants. It is one of the most important natural substances on earth which covers more than 71% of the earth surface. One of the greatest concerns of water consumers with respect to the quality of drinking water is microbial contamination9. However, all the physicochemical parameters thereby fall within the range set by Standards Organization of Nigeria (2007) for drinking water at collection. The pH value of the water samples analysed is suggestive that water from the sources are not highly acidic, which is in accordance with reports by Sunday et al.,10 . The temperature obtained is within the permissible limit by SON for drinking water. Although, temperature does not have direct health impact, but indirectly create a possibility of microbial growth. The value of conductivity in this study at collection is also within the SON standard11 which may be attributed to the water treatment. The concentration of chloride mostly in borehole water observed in this research is within the permissible limit set by SON11, this could be as a result of lesser treatment of the water with chlorine, Chloride ions are of noncumulative toxins, an excess amount of which, if taken over a period of time can constitute a health hazard and high concentration of chloride may result in taste problem12. Nitrite value obtained in all the samples are within the recommended limit by SON11for drinking water. This finding is in accordance with the result of Onweluzo and Akugbazie13. The total hardness is within the permissible limit by SON11. Bacteriological analysis of the water revealed contamination by microbes including Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Shigella spp., Serratia spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This could be as a result of contamination with faeces from either human or animal origin or as a result of improper faecal and sewage disposal 9. The mean total b acteria count, total coliform count, and total faecal count (TBC, TCC, TFC) of some of the water samples were high in well water beyond the specified limit advocated by WHO, 14. This is an indication of high microbial load which may be as a result of poor hygiene practices of the hostel residents and those in the neighbourhood, depth and nearness of such wells to underground septic tanks could also be the cause7. The occurrence of the microbes showed Escherichia coli has the highest percentage of 32% followed by Klebsiella sp. 20%, Enterobacter spp. and Staphylococcus aureus with 16%, respectively while Serratia sp. and Shigella spp. have the lowest percentage at 8%. This distribution of these microbes could render the water unsafe for consumption. The detection of Enterobacter spp. in some of the water samples could be as a result of top soil seeping into the water table15. The high coliform count is of major concern for faecal contamination, because they are associated with outbreak of gastrointestinal tract infection. WHO16, stated that its presence in drinking water should not be more than 1per 100ml. Human faeces is one of the most dangerous water pollutants in the world, spreading microbes that can cause water borne disease17. The health centre borehole water analysed in this study was free of microorganism, this could be attributed to adequate consultation on the right location before construction of the borehole and also proper management of the borehole. The bacteria range of antibiotics resistance pattern showed the isolates being most resistant to Amoxicillin (95%) and least resistivity to Nitrofurantoin (33%) and ofloxacin (33%) which concurs with the report of Odeyemi et al.18 regarding widespread antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The intrinsic resistance of many organisms to antibiotics is of concern and well documented which has a significant health implication, these may be attributed to contamination by human wastes19.

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CONCLUSION The presence of these bacteria species would have affected the quality of the water significantly and may be hazardous to human health, especially the students and other people in the neighbourhood who use the water from these sources for domestic purposes. The proximity of wells and boreholes to refuse dumpsites and toilet should be discouraged, since it’s a threat to consumers when it contaminates the water. It is recommended that hostel owners or anyone constructing wells or boreholes should follow the guidelines and all other existing laws by constructing toilet few meters away from wells. In addition, there is need for constant assessment of water sources and their environment, while the general public are being encouraged to treat their wells regularly and maintain hygienic practices as the consumption of contaminated water can be hazardous to human health. REFERENCES 1. A.F. Nkuma, Physiochemical Analysis of Well Water from Wells Sited Close to Outside Sanitation System. M.Sc.Thesis, 2010.

2. World Health Organization, Guidelines For Drinking-Water Quality, 3rd Edition Incorporating The First And Second Addenda Volume 1Recommendations.WHO and UNICEF, Geneva. Switzerland, 2008, 20-99. 3. National Institute of Urban Affairs (2005).Status of water supply, sanitation and solid waste management in urban areas.Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization and Ministry of Urban Development Report.National Institute of Urban Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi. 4. I. George and P. Servais, Sources et dynamique des coliformesdans le basin de la Sein; Rapport de Synthèse; Programme PIREN-Seine 1998 2001,2002, Sources et dynamiquedes coliformesdand le bassin de la Seine, C. N. R. S., Paris, France. 5. P.O. Olutiola, O. Famurewa and H.S. Sonntag, An introduction to General Microbiology (A practical Approach).Measurement of microbial growth, 2000, 101-111. 6. G.I. Barrow and R.K.A. Feltham, . Cowan and Steel's Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. 7. M.O Edema, A.O. Atayese and M.O. Bankole (2011). Pure Water Syndrome: Bacteriological Quality of Sachet-Packed Drinking Water Sold in Nigeria. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development, 2011,11:4596-4609 8. AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 20th Edition (2016) (2006).

9. World Health Organization, Regional office for South-East Asia (WHOSEARO).Drinking water quality inthe South-East Asia Region. Mahatma Gandhi Marga, New Delhi, India. 2010, 10. B. A. Sunday, I. N. Michael and S. O. Adindu, Storage Effects on the Quality of Sachet Water Produced within Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2011, 4(3):157-164. 11. Standards Organization of Nigeria, Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality, SON Nigeria,2007, 5-29

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* Corresponding author: Onifade Olajumoke Evelyn Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, PMB 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria Online publication Date: 19.05.2018

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