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Oct 14, 2017 - JCBPS; Section D; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. ... Kosovo, which are accredited according to requirements of standard ISO/IEC 17025, ...

JCBPS; Section D; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4 ; 964-971.

E- ISSN: 2249 –1929

[DOI: 10.24214/jcbps.D.7.4.96471.]

Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences An International Peer Review E-3 Journal of Sciences Available online atwww.jcbsc.org

Section D: Environmental Sciences CODEN (USA): JCBPAT

Research Article

Influence of Wastewater in Physic-Chemicals Characteristics in the River Nerodime, Branch of Aegean Sea Ibush Luzhaa and Hyrije Koraqib a

College Biznesi,Ulpiana, Str. Motrat Qiriazi, No 29, Pristine, Kosovo, b

UBT-Higher Education Institution, Pristine, Kosovo

Received: 29 September 2017; Revised: 14 October 2017; Accepted: 22 October 2017

Abstract: In this study are treated physic-chemicals characteristics of the water in river Nerodime and the impact of sewage and other waste water that are thrown on it. This river is in the region of Ferizaj, Republic of Kosovo, springs in the Mountain of Nerodime, about 20 kilometres north east of Ferizaj. River Nerodime represents Europe's only instance of a river bifurcation flowing into two seas, naturally dividing into two irreversible branches. The left branch flows into the Black Sea, and the right branch flows into the Aegean Sea. Nerodime River flows from the mountains of Nerodime and goes up to village Jezerc, Upper Nerodime, Down Nerodime, town Ferizaj, turns south and flows next to the villages of Varosh, Gerlicë, Kaçaniku i Vjeter, Stagovë and Runjevë, before it reaches Kaçanik and empties into Lepenci river near the Lime Factory. Rivers, seas and oceans have become the storage for waste, sewage and industrial wastewater10. All waste waters are discharged directly into the river and most of the water is polluted. Parts of rivers and streams are covered and through underground pipes8. Although the analysed parameters, we can see that some of them are up then maximum values allowed for the certain classification of waters and permissible limits based on Administrative Instruction No. 30/2014 on manners, parameters, and limit values of wastewater discharge into public sewage network and in the water body, issued by Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Republic of Kosovo1. Keywords: Pollution, wastewater, Nerodime, river.

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J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 964-971. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.4.96471.]

Influence …

Ibush Luzha and Hyrije Koraqi .

INTRODUCTION Ferizaj has a suitable economic and geographical position8. It is situated on the southern part of the Kosovo Plain, with an area of 344.71 km2. It is surrounded by seven other municipalities. Ferizaj is 36 km from Prishtina, and 48 km from Skopje. The Municipality’s special feature is the Nerodime River Bifurcation, a rare hydrographical phenomenon, where the water of this river divides and runs in two different directions, one towards the Aegean Sea and the other to the Black Sea 7. This phenomenon is unique in Europe. The Ferizaj Municipality relief is characterized by three natural features: the Sharri Mountains in the west and north-west, the Kosova Plain and some hillocks and mountain zones in the east. In this river, without treating, are thrown sewage and other waste waters. This makes that a part of waters of river Nerodime from source of river, Jezerc to Upper Nerodime in its natural state can be used for swimming, recreation and water sports, to raise low quality of fish and water which then by the common methods of processing (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, etc.) are appropriate for public use, while the rest of the water can be used for watering and industry, except for the food industry5. But from the village Upper Nerodime, respectively Down Nerodime, is impossible to us this water for any kind of activities, without deep treatment, because of pollution which come from waste waters thrown from the citizens of villages and town Ferizaj who lives near the river Nerodime. Goal of this work is awareness of citizens in the district of Ferizaj, especially the establishment in Municipality of Ferizaj to upbuild plant for the purification of wastewater in Ferizaj. EXPERIMENTAL SECTION Analyses were performed in the laboratory “KUR Prishtina” and “Institute for Public Health”, in Pristina, Kosovo, which are accredited according to requirements of standard ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, by the General Directorate for Accreditation of Kosovo (DAK). Laboratories were very good equipped and have had competent staff. All parameters were analysed by Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Sampling of water is made by standard procedures based on standard ISO 5667- 6:2014 water quality sampling. Bottles filled with river water are closed and are entered in the refrigerator, then sent to the lab for analysis. Parameter Turbidity is analysed with standard method based on ISO 7027:2001, 2100N IS Turbidimeter; Colour is analysed with standard method based on ISO 7887:2001, Spectrophotometer DR/4000U HACH (Color 455nm). Parameter Free Chlorines is analysed with standard method based on ISO 7393-1:2000, Spectrophotometer DR/4000U HACH ( Chlorine, F&T 530nm VIS); pH based on standard method ISO 10523:2008, pH-meter Mettler Toledo Seven Easy; Ammonia based on standard method ISO 71505:1984, Spectrophotometer DR/4000 U Hach (N,Ammonia Salicilate 655 nm); Nitrite (NO3) based on EPA Approved Brucine Method, Spectrophotometer DR/4000 U Hach (N,Nitrite LR -507nm; Nitrate (NO2) ISO 7890-2:1988, Spectrophotometer DR/4000 U HACH (N, Nitrate HR-500nm). Total phosphor, EN ISO 11885 Water quality, Spectrophotometer DR/4000 U Hach (React.As.LR 3890nm); (PO4) , Spectrophotometer DR/4000 U Hach (React.As.LR 890nm); Conductivity based on ISO 27888:2001, HQ14d Conductivity meter Hach; P2O5, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater/Prepared and Published Jointly by American Public Health Association, Spectrophotometer DR/4000U Hach (React.As.LR890nm); Alkalinity, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Titrimetric method with automatic burettes; Chlorides based on ISO 9297:2000; SO4, Spectrophotometer DR/4000U Hach ( Sulfate 450nm). 965

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 964-971. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.4.96471.]

Influence …

Ibush Luzha and Hyrije Koraqi .

Total coliform bacteria on 100ml, MPN-Colorimetry, etc. By the rules and requests of ISO/IEC 17025 standard, all those analyses are registered on daily diary and were made all necessity calculation. Ongoing work is made quality control for all analyses, uncertainty and traceability. In the end was made corrections on results and the final report is issued. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The goal of this study is to determine the pollution of the river Nerodime, impact of west water in physic-chemicals characteristics of the water of the river. Determining the impact of this pollution is the research orientation of this paper along with an explanation of opportunities for purification of west water into the river Nerodime. The samplings were performed in the month of November 2016 and February 2017. The tested parameters were: Turbidity; Colour; Chlorine; Ph; Ammonia; Nitrite (NO3); Nitrate (NO2-); Total phosphor; (PO4)3-; Conductivity; P2O5; Alkalinity; Chlorides; SO4; Total coliform bacteria on 100ml. Obtained results are shown on Table 1 and Table 2. Work scheme

Figure 1: The samples scheme Nomenclature of the samples taken in to river Nerodime 

M 1. Source of river Nerodime (N 42⁰ 22'02 41" ; E 21⁰ 01'56 89")



M 2. Upper Nerodime,

(N 42⁰ 22'08 84" ; E 21⁰ 05'26 00")



M 3. Down Nerodime,

(N 42⁰ 22'21 02" ; E 21⁰ 07'08 84")



M 4. Ferizaj,

(N 42⁰ 21'38 83" ; E 21⁰ 08'29 94")



M 5. Varosh,

(N 42⁰ 20'42 82" ; E 21⁰ 10'21 40")



M 6. Gerlicë,

(N 42⁰ 18'50 56" ; E 21⁰ 12'03 37")

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J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 964-971. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.4.96471.]

Influence …

Ibush Luzha and Hyrije Koraqi .

Table1: Result of tests, sampled on 27.11.2016

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Parameter Turbidity Colour Free Chlorine pH Ammonia Nitrites Nitrates P (PO4)3Conductivity P2O5 Alakliniteti Chloride SO4 Total coliform bacteria on 100ml

Unit NTU Co-Pt mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l µS/cm mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l Cfu/ml

Result

Result

Result

Result

Result

Result

Max. range allowed 1 < 0.5 10 0.2 6.5-9 10 0.005 20 2 1 600 2 > 200 250 400

M1 10.08 48 0 7.12 0.03 0.007 2.1 0.326 0.98 230 0.749 2.2 11 16.7

M2 13.7 60 0 7.15 0.03 0.0081 0.4 0.277 0.829 237 0.64 1.8 11 17.8

M3 21.1 90 0 7.06 0.05 0.0123 2.7 0.211 0.656 234 0.483 2 10 19.9

M4 18 100 0 7.14 0.69 0.0293 2 0.253 0.777 294 0.577 2.3 10 26.2

M5 14.2 96 0 7.09 1.2 0.0425 0.6 0.27 0.822 459 0.616 5.8 10 31.3

M6 8.2 102 0 7.1 1.04 0.0418 0.6 0.587 1.8 430 1.344 3.3 13 40.9

> 500

23

1400

1400

1400

1300

1400

Table 2: Result of tests, sampled on 15.02.2017.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Parameter Turbidity Colour Free Chlorine pH Ammonia Nitrites Nitrates P (PO4)3Conductivity P2O5 Alakliniteti Chloride SO4 Total coliform bacteria on 100ml

967

Unit NTU Co-Pt mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l µS/cm mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l Cfu/ml

Result

Result

Result

Result

Result

Result

Max. range allowed 1 < 0.5 10 0.2 6.5-9 10 0.005 20 2 1 600 2 > 200 250 400

M1 9.1 47 0 6.87 0.28 0.0069 2.08 0.311 0.97 253 0.712 2.17 8.02 15.6

M2 12.8 58 0 6.71 0.29 0.0071 0.38 0.222 0.801 265 0.67 1.98 10.11 16.9

M3 22.1 89 0 6.82 0.48 0.0099 2.01 0.198 0.756 256 0.483 2.01 9.15 20.77

M4 23.3 97 0 6.77 0.62 0.0211 1.85 0.201 0.712 315 0.532 2.11 9.81 27.85

M5 17.8 97 0 6.89 1.01 0.0378 0.58 0.202 0.784 559 0.611 4.99 9.78 30.5

M6 16.4 100 0 6.62 1.02 0.0391 0.52 0.4987 1.68 485 1.421 3.19 12.56 41.12

> 500

53

1200

1300

1300

1200

1500

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 964-971. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.4.96471.]

Influence …

Ibush Luzha and Hyrije Koraqi .

Graphic test results: Turbidity 25

20 15

27.11.2016

10

15.02.2017 Max. range

5 0 M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

Figure 2: Turbidity Colour 120 100 80

27.11.2016

60

15.02.2017

40

Max. range

20 0 M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

Figure 3: Colour Nitrites 0.05 0.04 0.03

27.11.2016

0.02

15.02.2017 Max. range

0.01 0 M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

Figure 4: Nitrites

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J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 964-971. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.4.96471.]

Influence …

Ibush Luzha and Hyrije Koraqi . Total Phosphor 2.5

2 1.5

27.11.2016

1

15.02.2017 Max. range

0.5 0 M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

Figure 5: Total Phosphor Phosphates 2 1.5 27.11.2016 1

15.02.2017

0.5

Max. range

0 M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

Figure 6: Phosphates Total coliform bacteria on 100ml 2000 1500 27.11.2016 1000

15.02.2017 Max. range

500 0 M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

Figure 7: Total coliform bacteria on 100ml First sample (M1) was taken 10 km after source of river Nerodime, by the results of analyses we can see that many of parameters are up then maximum values allowed for the certain classification of waters. For example, turbidity is 20.16 time upper than allowed value, colour 4.8 time upper than allowed value, table 1 and table 2. Other parameters in this measuring point are in allowed limits. This water is listed within the waters in the first and second rate of quality of water3-4. This is because most of the Jezerc citizens, in most cases throw sewage into the river. It should be noted that flora and fauna of the River in this area is highly developed Figure 2, Figure 3 And Figure 4. 969

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 964-971. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.4.96471.]

Influence …

Ibush Luzha and Hyrije Koraqi .

The second sample (M2) was taken in upper Nerodime. By the results of analyses we can see that many of parameters are up then maximum values allowed by legislation in force in Kosovo. For example, turbidity, 27.4 time upper, colour, 6 times upper and total coliform bacteria on 100ml 2.8 times, Figure 5 to, 7. Other parameters are on limits. Third sample (M3) was taken in the village down Nerodime. From the chemical analyses we have seen that turbidity is 42.2 time upper, colour, 9 times upper, total coliform bacteria on 100ml 2.8 times upper, Table 1 And Table 2. By the physic-chemical analysis of 15th parameters we can see influence of waste water thrown from the citizens of villages Jezerc, Upper Nerodime and Down Nerodime in water of River and impact is quite large. During continuous casting of these waters in water of River Nerodime due to the large turbidity, colour, because of the chemical composition of water, is impossible to be developing flora and fauna9. The fourth sample (M4) was taken in the Town Ferizaj. Due to the short road to the river and due to continuous dumping of sewage from villagers that we have mention and from citizens of town Ferizaj, water quality does not improve, but make it worse. By the results of analyses we can see that many of parameters are up then maximum values allowed by legislation in force in Kosovo. For example, turbidity, 36 time upper, colour, 10 times upper and total coliform bacteria on 100ml 2.8 times. The fifth sample (M5) was taken in the village Varosh, which is after the town Ferizaj. From analysed parameters we have conclude that the quality of water is worse than before, because all waste waters of citizens of town Ferizaj (about 130.000 citizens) are thrown in river Nerodime without any treatment. By the results of analyses we can see that many of parameters are up then maximum values allowed by legislation in force in Kosovo1. The six samples (M6) were taken in village Gerlice. We can see that these values of the results of physic-chemical analyses shown in the table are approximately the same, no improvements. If we compare results of analysis of the sampling for the first and second time, as well as graphical presentations we can’t see major changes, Table 1 And Table 2. This makes that a part of waters of river Nerodime in its natural state can be used for swimming, recreation and water sports, to raise low quality of fish and water which then by the common methods of processing (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, etc.) are appropriate for public use, while the rest of the water can be used for watering and industry, except for the food industry. CONCLUSIONS Determination of the pollution of water for part of the river Nerodime, respectively from the source of the river to the village Gerlice (about 25 km) is done through the analysis of 15 parameters: Turbidity; Colour; Chlorine; Ph; Ammonia; Nitrite (NO3); Nitrate (NO2); Total phosphor; (PO4)3-; Conductivity; P2O5; Alkalinity; Chlorides; SO4; Total coliform bacteria on 100ml. Sampling was carried out in two different time periods and at 6 measuring points, starting from the source of river Nerodime, Upper Nerodime, Down Nerodime, Ferizaj, Varosh and Gerlice, in which occasion were analysed 15 parameters with a total of 180 physic-chemical analyses. It was concluded that the chemical properties of the water of the river Nerodime is polluted and some analysed parameters are up then maximum values allowed for the certain classification of waters. Analyses was performed based on new Kosovo Legislations, Law on Kosovo waters No. 04/L-147, Administrative Instruction No. 30/2014 on manners, parameters, and limit values of wastewater discharge into public sewage network and in the water body, based on Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy ,1,6,4 ,2 . 970

J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 964-971. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.4.96471.]

Influence …

Ibush Luzha and Hyrije Koraqi .

From all of this work, we can conclude that it is imperative of time that any type of waste water without being processed should not be thrown into river Nerodime. REFERENCES 1. Administrative Instruction No. 30/2014 on manners, parameters, and limit values of wastewater discharge into public sewage network and in the water body. 2. Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy, Katundi, K, Furnizimi me ujë dhe kanalizimi, Tiranë 2000. 3. Gashi, Gani. Hydrological heritage in the system of natural values and its protection in Kosova, 2008. 4. Instituti i Kosoves per mrbojiten e natyres, Values of Nature Legacy of Kosovo, Pristina. 5. Luzha, I, Gjani, E, Kuqaj, S, Bublaku, S, Influence of industrial waters of plant Silcapor and river Nerodime in physic-chemicals characteristics of river Lepenci in Kosovo, 2nd International Conference "Water resources and wetlands", 2014 Tulcea (Romania). 6. Law on Kosovo waters No.04/L-147, 2013. 7. Report on the State of Nature, Kosovo Environmental Protection Agency (2008–2009). 8. Strategy for Local Economic Development 2005-2007, Ferizaj Municipality, Institute for Development Reseache, Prishtnë, 2005. 9. Çullaj, A., Kimia e mjedisit, Tiranë, 2005. 10. Urban Development Plan of Ferizaj, Municipality of Ferizaj, 2008.

Corresponding author: Ibush Luzha, College Biznesi,Ulpiana, Str. Motrat Qiriazi, No 29, Kosovo, Online publication Date: 22.10.2017

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J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, ; August 2017 – October, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 4; 964-971. DOI:10.24214/jcbps.D.7.4.96471.]

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