Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences Polyaniline

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Apr 1, 2016 - Abstract: Polyaniline was prepared by the oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate in present nitric acid at ambient temperature.

JCBPS; Section A; February 2016 – April 2016, Vol. 6, No.2; 510-515.

E- ISSN: 2249 –1929

Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences An International Peer Review E-3 Journal of Sciences Available online at www.jcbsc.org Section A: Chemical Sciences

CODEN (USA): JCBPAT

Research Article

Polyaniline: Synthesis, Characterizations and Study their Antibacterial Activity against Escherichia Coli Rebaz A. Omar1, Karzan A. Omar1*, Bakhtiyar A. Abdullah2 1

Department of Chemistry, Koya University. Daniel Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya KOY45 AB64, Kurdistan Region – Iraq

2

Department of Biology, Koya University. Daniel Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya KOY45 AB64, Kurdistan Region - Iraq Received: 25 March 2016; Revised: 01 April 2016; Accepted: 04 April 2016

Abstract: Polyaniline was prepared by the oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate in present nitric acid at ambient temperature. The as-prepared polyaniline was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. The average crystalline size of polyaniline was calculated from the XRD study. The average crystalline size of the prepared polyaniline was 7.95 nm. The antibacterial activity of 0.03 and 0.05 gm of the polyaniline was studied against Escherichia coli by the disc diffusion method, which was carried out in the absence of irradiation, and the effective antibacterial activity observed for polyaniline against Escherichia coli bacteria. Keywords: Polyaniline, synthesis, oxidation method, Escherichia coli INTRODUCTION The polymeric materials have been used in many different fields in the worldwide for providing peoples' needs in daily life. It has gained considerable importance due to it is capability with other components to produce a higher quality product. Polymers are very interesting material and having many applications in the industrial field such as plastics, rubber, electrical, as well as electrolytes and electronic industry1, because of their properties and having versatility and durability of an insulator with an added lighter 510

JCBPS; Section A; February 2016 – April 2016, Vol. 6, No.2; 510-515.

Polyaniline…….

Rebaz A. Omar et al.

weight, strength, and low production cost. Also, they can be used as insulating in the circuit board, wire encapsulants, corrosion protection of electronic devices and cable sheathing 2. The polymers which having good physical properties can be used in the semi-conductors and conductor for the photonic and optoelectronic application 3, such as polyaniline, polythiophenes, and polypyrrole is a unique class of organic materials. They already have been found in a wide range applications including electromechanics, materials science, thermoelectricity, electrochemistry, optoelectronics, photovoltaic,….etc 4, 5 . Due to their novel properties, ease preparation and potential applications 6. Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most attracting polymers due to high conductivity and it has many advantages over the other conducting polymers 7, simple synthesis procedure, good environmental stability and reversible acid-base chemistry in aqueous solution 8, 9, and it has a various applications such as in light emitting diodes 10, electro-chromic devices, electrostatic discharge protection, corrosion-protecting 11, at the same time can be used as supporting material to increase the efficiency of catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles 12, 13 . There are different methods can be used to synthesis polyaniline such as interfacial polymerization and rapid polymerization 14, 15. The recent low concentration of polyaniline has been studied on an animal which indicated lower cytotoxicity 16. Therefore, Polyaniline and polyaniline Nanocomposite used in biological applications 17 and photo-thermal therapy for cancer owing to their strong light absorption in the near-infrared region18. The purpose of this research is a synthesis of polyaniline and studies their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli using disc diffusion method. MATERIAL AND METHODS Aniline, Nitric acid , ammonium peroxydisulfate, acetone . All Chemicals were used without further purification and distilled water was used for all the synthesis and measurements. FT-IR spectra were recorded on a PerkinElmer spectrum 100, a scan range of 450 to 4000 cm-1 was used for analysis polymers. The samples were prepared for FT-IR by mixing the polymers with KBr in the ratio of 1/30 (w/w) and compressed to form an opaque disk. The obtained polyaniline was characterized by using Xray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku Mini with Cu Kα radiation, λ = 0.1541 nm, Koya university, KurdistanIraq), the diffractograms were recorded in the range of 10-70°. The Escherichia coli Bacteria was obtained from the Genetic center at Koya University. The bacterial stock culture was maintained on Nutrient agar slants at 4°C. Preparation of polyaniline: Polyaniline PANI was prepared via different conditions. A three-necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a thermometer (measured temperature). Electromagnetic stirrer and condenser were used to polymerize Polyaniline. The preparation of PANI is based on oxidation, (0.2M) aniline are dissolved in (1M) nitric acid added (0.25M) ammonium peroxydisulfate in an aqueous medium. Three of the solutions with an equal molar ratio are mixed in a round-bottomed flask and gentle stirring to polymerize the mixture at (0 0C) temperatures. The mixture was then left to rest for one day. The green precipitate PANI was collected on filter papers and washed three times with nitric acid and acetone. PANI was then dried in a vacuum oven (40°C) for 24 hours. The reaction is shown in scheme 1.

n C6H5NH2 + [O]

511

(NH4)2S2O8 HNO3

[C6H4NH]n + H2O

JCBPS; Section A; February 2016 – April 2016, Vol. 6, No.2; 510-515.

Polyaniline…….

Rebaz A. Omar et al.

N

H N

N

NH

NH2HA + 5n (NH4)2S2O8

4n

N H

N H

A

A

H N

NH

+ 2nHA+5 nH2SO4+ 5n(NH4)SO4 Scheme 1: Oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate

Antibacterial performance: The antibacterial activity of 0.03 and 0.05gm of polyaniline was performed by disc diffusion method as described by Kirby-Bauer. Loop full growths from bacterial isolate were inoculated into nutrient broth incubated at 37°C for 18 hours. The bacterial suspensions were diluted with normal saline. Adjust the turbidity and compare with standard tube (McFarland number 0.5) to yield a uniform suspension. A cotton swab was dipped and streak into adjustment suspension the entire MuellerHinton agar. Sample pleats or discs were gently pressed on the surface of the agar. The plates were incubated overnight at 37°C while the antibiotic diffuses from the disc into the agar. After incubation, the plates were examined for the presence of zones of inhibition. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FTIR Analysis of synthesized Polyaniline: The FTIR spectrum of synthesizing polyaniline PANI at room temperature shows in Figure 1. The spectrum was recorded in the range of 4000-800 cm-1. The characteristic peak spectrum observed at 3433.29 cm-1 is attributed to N-H stretching bond. The absorption bands at 2900.94 and 2866.22cm-1 are revealed asymmetric C-H and symmetric C-H stretching vibrations. The strong absorption peak has been observed at 1384.89 cm-1 is assigned to C-N stretching of primary aromatic amines. While the absorption peak at 1100 cm-1 is attributed to N=Q=N bonding (where Q represents the quinoid ring) and the bands at 696.30cm-1 and 590.22cm-1 are revealed the aromatic ring in the prepared sample and the peak at 499.56 cm-1 corresponds to C=N amino quinine modes. The above characteristic peaks are confirming the formation of polyaniline sample.

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Rebaz A. Omar et al.

Figure 1: IR Pattern of synthesized Polyaniline XRD Analysis of synthesized Polyaniline: Figure 2 shows the X-ray diffraction pattern of PANI synthesized has a broad peak at 2θ=24.68⁰.The interplanar distance value obtained is 0.36031 nm. The average crystallite size is calculated by the Debye-Scherer equation, D=

𝐾𝜆 𝛽 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜃

Figure 2: XRD Pattern of synthesized polyaniline

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JCBPS; Section A; February 2016 – April 2016, Vol. 6, No.2; 510-515.

Polyaniline…….

Rebaz A. Omar et al.

Where, K is the shape factor (0.6), D is the average crystallite size, λ is the wavelength of X- ray radiation used (0.154 nm), β is the full width at half maximum and θ is the diffraction angle. The calculated average crystallite size value was 7.95 nm. Usually, polymers are considered to be amorphous with low crystallinity, but the synthesized polyaniline showing the crystalline structure due to its fiber nature and the planar nature of benzenoid and quinoid functional groups. Antibacterial activity: The antibacterial activity of polyaniline was tested against E. coli, for qualitative measurement of antimicrobial activity, the precipitated polyaniline was cut into 6- 8mm diameter with (0.03g and 0.05gm). The modified agar diffusion assay used for disc tests. The plates were examined for possible clear zones after incubation at the 30⁰C for 3 h. The presence of a clear zone around the circular disc on the plate medium was recorded as an inhibition against the microbial species, which indicated the polyaniline has antibacterial activity against E. coli bacteria as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Antibacterial activity of different amount of polyaniline (a= 0.03 and b= 0.05 gm) against E.Coli CONCLUSION The polyaniline has been successfully synthesized by the oxidation method. The synthesized polyaniline and their characterizations were investigated by XRD and reveal that the average crystalline size was 7.95 nm. The FT-IR spectral analysis and shows that the characteristic peaks of synthesized polyaniline. The different amount of polyaniline was applied as an antibacterial against E.coli by disc diffusion method. It shows activity against the E.coli bacteria, which was carried out in the absence of irradiation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are grateful to the staff of the Chemistry and Biology departments, and Genetic center staff for their support and cooperation. 514

JCBPS; Section A; February 2016 – April 2016, Vol. 6, No.2; 510-515.

Polyaniline…….

Rebaz A. Omar et al.

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Corresponding author: Karzan A. Omar Department of Chemistry, Koya University. Daniel Mitterrand Boulevard, Koya KOY45 AB64, Kurdistan Region – Iraq

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