Apr 4, 2012 - Bhopal-462026, India. Received: .... Implementation of a conservation and management strategy will help to increase production of fish. Local.
Feb-Apr.2012, Vol.2.No.2, 1107-1114
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Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences An International Peer Review E-3 Journal of Sciences
Available online at www.jcbsc.org Section D: Environment Sciences CODEN (USA): JCBPAT Review Article
Preliminary study on Ichthyofaunal diversity of a Eutrophic pond, Sasaram, Bihar Pramod Kumar and Ashwani Wanganeo Department of Environmental Sciences and Limnology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India Received: 15 March; 2012; Revised: 4 April 2012; Accepted: 8 April 2012
ABSTRACT The investigation conducted on a tropical eutrophic pond situated in Sasaram, Bihar revealed 31 fish species belonging to 5 different orders and 12 families. Out of total 31 species recorded from Salim Shah pond, 13 species belonged to family Cyprinidae; 3 species to Bagridae, 2 species each to Channidae, Paleomonidae, Clariidae, Siluridae, Notopteridae; and 1 specie each to Belonidae, Cobitidae, Heteropneustidae, Anabantidae and Mastacembelidae. The maximum species contribution was made by family Cyprinidae. All the limnological parameters indicate the higher trophic status of the pond which can be attributed to high anthropogenic pressure that is the major cause of continuous deteriorating the ecological conditions of the pond. Keywords: Ichthyofauna, Trophic status, Water quality, Salim Shah Pond
INTRODUCTION Fishes are very important from the biodiversity point of view enjoying different ecosystems, habitats and niches of aquatic environment. Biodiversity indicates the potential of any aquatic system and also depicts its trophic status1. A limited number of studies have also been carried out on Ichthyofauna in this region. Biodiversity has become prominent in recent years as a result of a worldwide high rate of extinction of some species of animals including fish. This is due to human alteration of the natural aquatic habitats2. Biological assessment is a useful alternative tool for assessing the ecological quality of aquatic ecosystems since biological communities integrate the environmental effects of water chemistry3. Fishes form the most important aquatic natural product on a global scale providing the primary source of protein for nearly 1 billion people worldwide and food security for many more. India is one of the mega biodiversity hot spots contributing 11.72% of globe fish biodiversity4. In view of global deterioration
of environment, documentation of fauna from all the ecosystems has become important to know the present status of biodiversity.
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Present investigation has been carried out on the Salim Shah pond (constructed more than 450 years ago by the Salim Shah Suri the son of great Indian ruler Shershah Suri). The pond is a man made pond and is used mainly for fish culture, bathing and washing clothes besides washing of domestic animals. The pond water is also used for irrigation purpose in the surrounding agricultural fields. Due to regular dumping of domestic sewage, the pond has become highly eutrophic. Present work has significant importance because there is no record available regarding the fish fauna of this historical water body. The pond receives continuous domestic wastes water from its surrounding catchments area and surface run off during monsoon. Physico-chemical analysis of water samples was carried out following the standard methods5. Fishes were collected from the pond with the help of local fishermen using different types of nets namely Gill nets, Cast nets, Drag nets and Bhor jal. After the collection, fishes having major size were identified in the field and small specimens were immediately preserved in 10% formalin and brought to laboratory. Fish identification was done by using various morphometric and meristic characters. The identification was made up to the species level, with the help of standard taxonomic references 6-12.
STUDY AREA Present work has been conducted on a tropical pond situated at the centre of the Sasaram city of Rohtas district of Bihar which lies within geographical coordinates of 24°57′31.96″ N and 84°00′10.10″ E at an elevation of 116 m a.s.l., near National Highway No. 2. Some important features of the Salim Shah pond are given in Table 1. The pond has a maximum depth of 5 meters and minimum depth 1 meter. Table 1: Some important features of Salim Shah pond Location Latitude Longitude Length (m) Width (m) Area (Hectare) Maximum depth (m) Minimum depth (m) Source of water Utility Trophic Status
Sasaram, Bihar 24°57′31.96″ N 84°00′10.10″ E 350 320 11.2 5 1 Rain water, Sewage Aquaculture, Irrigation, Bathing and Washing, Cattle washing Eutrophic
RESULT AND DISCUSSION The results of physico-chemical parameters of Salim Shah pond have been given in table 2. Temperature is an important factor that influences slight variations in all the chemical parameters particularly in freshwater lentic ecosystems. A variation of 6 oC between Air (32 oC) and Surface water temperature (26 o C) of the pond was recorded. The minimum temperatures (25 oC) and maximum (35.5oC) respectively are normal for tropical waters and are required for the normal growth of aquatic organisms especially for fishes13-14. Very low Secchi transparency value (36 cm) has been recorded due to the high algal blooms caused by Cyanobacterial population. A transparency value less than 170 cm is indicating eutrophic nature of the pond waters has been reported by various authors1, 15- 16. The Hydrogen ion plays an important role in many of the life processes and living organisms in the aquatic environment. A pH value 8 units was recorded for the pond during the present study which supports the alkaline and productivity nature of the pond 16 and is suitable for aquaculture practices and best for the growth of fishes as it also affects all metabolic and physiological process of fish17. 1108 J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, 2012, Vol.2, No.2, 1107-1114.
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Figure 1: Location of Salim Shah pond, Sasaram Table 2: Physico-chemical characteristics of Salim Shah pond Parameters
Air temp. (ºC) Water temp. (ºC) Depth (m) Transparency (cm) pH (units) TDS (ppm) Conductivity (µS/cm) Free CO2 D.O. (mg/l)
32 26 5 36 8 1170 1840 7 7.2
Abs 306 183 450 176 66 0.48 0.233 0.624
Phen. alkalinity (mg/l) T. alkalinity (mg/l) Chloride (mg/l) T. hardness (mg/l) Ca. Hardness (mg/l) Mg. content (mg/l) Orthophosphate (mg/l) Nitrite (mg/l) Nitrate (mg/l)
High amounts of TDS (1170 mg/l) and Conductivity (1840 µS/cm) were recorded from the pond which indicate regular interference from catchment and high amount of anthropogenic pressure respectively. The total dissolved solids in the water of Salim Shah pond is obviously affected by various factors, the most important of which are the continuous discharge of domestic wastes water 18 while high conductivity value has been reported to be indicative of an increase in the amount of polluting particles 19. Phenolphthalein alkalinity was not recorded form the pond while a value of 7 mg/l of free CO2 was estimated. Higher total alkalinity (306 mg/l) was recorded which also indicate the productive nature of pond waters20 and support the good growth of fishes. But the concentration of dissolved oxygen (7.2 mg/l) of the pond waters indicates a suitable and healthy environment for fishes. The ideal range of dissolved oxygen for freshwater fish pond is 5-12 mg/l . Higher value of chloride (183 mg/l), total hardness (450 mg/l) and calcium hardness (176 mg/l) of the pond shows the direct interference of domestic sewage and the maximum anthropogenic pressure from the surroundings of the pond.
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During the present investigation higher amount of orthophosphate (0.48 mg/l), nitrate (0.624 mg/l) and nitrite (0.233 mg/l) were recorded. The higher level of nitrate and phosphate is mainly due to regular use of different detergents for washing and bathing activities in the pond. Nitrate and phosphate are of great toxicological interest, and they are important macronutrients which main cause of eutrophication of the pond. These biologically important nutrients support Cyanobacterial blooms causing oxygen depletion and death of some fishes and fingerlings16. A total of 31 fish species belonging to 5 orders were collected from the Salim Shah pond (Table 3 and Figure 2). On the basis of percentage composition and species richness, order Cypriniformes was dominant (14 species) followed by Siluriformes (7 species), Preciformes (4 species), Beloniformes (5 species) and Synbranchiformes (1 species) respectively (Figure 2). During the present investigation the order of dominance was as follows: Cypriniformes > Siluriformes > Preciformes > Beloniformes > Synbranchiformes
Fig. 2 Percentage composition of different orders of fishes present in Salim Shah Pond Ichthyofaunal diversity of the pond comprises of 12 families which were composed of Cyprinidae (42%), Bagridae (10%), Channidae (7%), Clariidae (7%), Siluridae (7%), Paleomonidae (6%), Notopteridae (6%), Heteropneustidae (3%), Cobitidae (3%), Belonidae (3%), Anabantidae (3%) and Mastacembelidae (3%) (Table 3 & Fig. 3). The sequence of dominance of encountered families is as: Cyprinidae > Bagridae > Channidae = Clariidae = Siluridae > Paleomonidae = Notopteridae > Heteropneustidae = Cobitidae = Belonidae = Anabantidae = Mastacembelidae Family Cyprinidae was represented by four species of genus Puntius, three species each of genus Labeo and genus Cirrhinus, and one species each of genus Catla, Hypophthalmicthis and Ctenopharyngodon respectively while family Bagridae showed its presence with three species of genus Mystus. Family Channidae, Clariidae and Paleomonidae were represented by two species each of genus Channa; Clarias and Macrobrachium respectively. Ompak bimaculatus and Wallago attu were reported as members of family Siluridae. Anabas testudineus belonged to family Anabantidae; Xenentodon cancila to Belonidae; Botia dario to Cobitidae; Heteropneustus fossilis to Heteropneustidae; and Mastacembelus armatus to Mastacembelidae. 1110 J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, 2012, Vol.2, No.2, 1107-1114.
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Fig. 3 Percentage contribution of different families of fishes present in Salim Shah Pond During the present investigation in summer months bunches of dead fish at every corner of the pond were found. Fish die as a result of stress, suffocation, water pollution and toxic algal blooms caused by Cyanobacteria. The eutrophic nature of pond is a major factor for the death of various fry and fingerlings. Oxygen depletion due to the high algal blooms at surface of the any small water bodies is also a major factor for the death of fish population. Due to the eutrophication of the pond the fish yield has drastically declined. Thus, the conservation of fish diversity is essential to maintain ecological, nutritional and socio-economic equilibrium. Implementation of a conservation and management strategy will help to increase production of fish. Local government should also take keen interest to protect this historical pond. CONCLUSION During the present study it has been observed that there is constant threat to fish population of the pond due to the eutrophication. Present investigation emphasizes the need to protect this water body from further degradation. RECOMMENDATIONS During the present study it was observed that the pond has historical importance and is useful for fish culture. Some significant recommendations for the pond are as follows: 1. Physico-chemical test of pond waters should be carried out at specific interval 2. Entering animal waste runoff into the pond should be prevent 3. A proper outlet is required to flush out the pond water 4. Aeration unit should be install for the prevention of oxygen depletion 5. Washing clothes, bathing activity should be prohibited. 6. Sewage canal entering the pond should be immediately diverted. 7. Desilting and cleaning work should be immediately conducted as a major part of the pond has become shallow 8. To create public awareness for cleaning and management of pond some sign boards with slogans should be put all around the pond. 1111 J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. D, 2012, Vol.2, No.2, 1107-1114.
Pramod Kumar et al. Table 3: Ichthyofaunal diversity of Salim Shah pond, Sasaram
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18
Taxonomic position and Scientific name
Taxonomic position and Scientific name
Order : Cypriniformes Family: Cyprinidae Labeo rohita Labeo calbasu
Cirrhinus mrigala Cirrhinus carpio Cirrhinus reba Catla catla Puntius ticto Puntius stigma Puntius sophore Puntius sarana Ctenopharyngodon idella Hypophthalmicthys molitrix Family : Cobitidae Botia dario Order: Siluriformes Family: Siluridae Ompak bimaculatus Wallago attu Family: Bagridae Mystus bleekri Mystus pangasius
Nain Silver Raeya Bhakur Pothiya Pothiya Pothiya Pothiya Grass carp Silver carp
Family: Chanidae Channa stiatus Channa punctatus Family: Heteropneustustidae Heteropneustus fossilis Family: Anabantidae Anabas testudineus Order: Beloniformes Family: Belonidae Xenentodon cancila Family: Paleomonidae Macrobrachium malcomsoni Macrobrachium lamarrei Family: Notopteridae Notopterus notopterus Notopterus chitala Order: Synbranchiformes Family: Mastacembelidae Mastacembelus armatus
19 20 21
22 23 24 25
Mystus tengara Family: Clariidae Clarias batrachus Clarias lagra
Local name Tengara Magur Thai magur
Garae Garae Shinghi Kaoi
Kauwa Jhinga Jhinga Patra Patra
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are highly grateful to Mr. Dinesh Prasad and Mr. Kumar Ramjee Prasad, Bandh Road, Sasaram and all fishermen for their help during sample collection and field survey. First author is also thankful to his family members for their help and support.
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* Correspondence Author: Pramod Kumar; Department of Environmental Sciences and Limnology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India.
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