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Jurnal Biologi Indonesia diterbitkan oleh Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia. Jurnal ini memuat ... Dr. Ambariyanto, F. Perikanan dan Kelautan UNDIP. Dr. Aswin ...

J. Biol. Indon. Vol 7, No.2 (2011) ISSN 0854-4425 ISSN 0854-4425

JURNAL JURNAL BIOLOGI BIOLOGI INDONESIA INDONESIA Akreditasi: No 816/D/08/2009 Vol. 7, No. 2 Desember 2011 Deforestation in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia Suyadi

195

Study of Pteridophyte Diversity and Vegetation Analysis in Jatikerep Legonlele and Nyamplung, Karimunjawa Island Central Jawa Fahreza Saputra & Labibah Qotrunnada

207

Javan Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Movement in a Fragmented Habitat, at Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java, Indonesia M.Hari Subarkah, Novianto Bambang Wawandono, Satyawan Pudyatmoko, Subeno , Sandy Nurvianto, & Arif Budiman

213

Impact of Invasive Ant Species in Shaping Ant Community Structure on Small Islands in Indonesia Akhmad Rizali, Abdul Rahim, Bandung Sahari, Lilik Budi Prasetyo, & Damayanti Buchori

221

Relationship Different Riparian Vegetation Cover with Stream Conditions in Cikapinis Stream, West Jawa Della Kemalasari & Devi N. Choesin

231

Affect of Canopy Stratum and Methods of Breaking Seed Dormancy on Seedling Growth of Calliandra tetragona Beth. and Acacia tamarindifolia (L.) Willd. Indriani Ekasari

243

Shoot Tip Culture of Nepenthes albomarginata Lobb ex Lindl. In Vitro Lazarus Agus Sukamto, Mujiono, Djukri, & Victoria Henuhili

251

Variasi Gen Mitokondria Cytochrome b pada Dua Jenis Burung Kakatua Putih (Cacatua alba dan C. moluccensis) Dwi Astuti

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BOGOR, INDONESIA

J. Biol. Indon. Vol 7, No. 2 (2011) Jurnal Biologi Indonesia diterbitkan oleh Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia. Jurnal ini memuat hasil penelitian ataupun kajian yang berkaitan dengan masalah biologi yang diterbitkan secara berkala dua kali setahun (Juni dan Desember). Editor Pengelola Dr. Ibnu Maryanto Dr. I Made Sudiana Deby Arifiani, S.P., M.Sc

Dr. Izu Andry Fijridiyanto Dewan Editor Ilmiah Dr. Abinawanto, F MIPA UI Dr. Achmad Farajalah, FMIPA IPB Dr. Ambariyanto, F. Perikanan dan Kelautan UNDIP Dr. Aswin Usup F. Pertanian Universitas Palangkaraya Dr. Didik Widiyatmoko, PK Tumbuhan, Kebun Raya Cibodas-LIPI Dr. Dwi Nugroho Wibowo, F. Biologi UNSOED Dr. Parikesit, F. MIPA UNPAD Prof. Dr. Mohd.Tajuddin Abdullah, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak Malaysia Assoc. Prof. Monica Suleiman, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia Dr. Srihadi Agungpriyono, PAVet(K), F. Kedokteran Hewan IPB Y. Surjadi MSc, Pusat Penelitian ICABIOGRAD Drs. Suharjono, Pusat Penelitian Biologi-LIPI Dr. Tri Widianto, Pusat Penelitian Limnologi-LIPI Dr. Witjaksono Pusat Penelitian Biologi-LIPI Alamat Redaksi

Sekretariat d/a Pusat Penelitian Biologi - LIPI Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 18, Bogor 16002 , Telp. (021) 8765056 Fax. (021) 8765068 Email : [email protected]; [email protected] Website : http://biologi.or.id Jurnal ini telah diakreditasi ulang dengan nilai A berdasarkan SK Kepala LIPI 816/ D/2009 tanggal 28 Agustus 2009.

J. Biol. Indon. Vol 7, No.2 (2011)

JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA

Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia.

J. Biol. Indon. Vol 7, No. 2 (2011)

J. Biol. Indon. Vol 7, No.2 (2011) KATA PENGANTAR

Jurnal Biologi Indonesia yang diterbitkan oleh PERHIMPUNAN BIOLOGI INDONESIA edisi volume 7 nomer 2 tahun 2011 memuat 17 artikel lengkap, tujuh artikel diantaranya telah dipresentasi pada seminar ATCBC di Bali 2010. Penulis pada edisi ini sangat beragam yaitu dari Balai Penelitian Besar Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Sumber daya Genetik Pertanian Bogor, Balai Tanaman Sayuran Lembang, Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner Bogor Kementerian Pertanian, BATAN. Fak. MIPA-Biologi Universitas Indonesia, Fakultas Kehutanan UGM Yogyakarta, Fakultas Kehutanan dan Fakultas Pertanian IPB Bogor, Sekolah Tinggi Hayati dan Departemen Tehnik Kimia ITB Bandung, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Borneo, Tarakan, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Fakultas Sain dan Tehnologi Universitas Islam Hidayatullah Jakarta, Kebun Raya Cibodas LIPI, Puslit Biologi LIPI, Puslit Oseanografi LIPI, PEKA dan Asosiasi Pelestari Curik Bali, Taman Safari Cisarua Bogor. Topik yang dibahas pada edisi ini meliputi bidang Botani, mikrobiologi, zoologi, remote sensing. Editor

J. Biol. Indon. Vol 7, No. 2 (2011) UCAPAN TERIMA KASIH Jurnal Biologi Indonesia mengucapkan terima kasih dan penghargaan kepada para pakar yang telah turut sebagai penelaah dalam Volume 7, No 2, Juni 2011: Drs. Roemantyo, Puslit Biologi-LIPI Dr. Dwi Astuti, Puslit Biologi-LIPI M.Fathi Royani, MA., Puslit Biologi-LIPI Dr. Iwan Saskiawan, Puslit Biologi-LIPI Drs. Ary Wahyono, Puslit Kemasyarakatan-LIPI Muhamad Irham MSc., Puslit Biologi-LIPI Dr. Enung Fuad, Puslit Bioteknologi-LIPI Drs. Boeadi, Puslit Biologi LIPI (Purna Bakti) Dr. Edi Mirmanto, Puslit Biologi-LIPI

Sebagian dari edisi ini dibiayai oleh DIPA Puslit Biologi-LIPI 2011

J. Biol. Indon. Vol 7, No.2 (2011) DAFTAR ISI Deforestation in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia Suyadi

195

Study of Pteridophyte Diversity and Vegetation Analysis in Jatikerep Legonlele and Nyamplung, Karimunjawa Island Central Jawa Fahreza Saputra & Labibah Qotrunnada

207

Javan Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Movement in a Fragmented Habitat, at Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java, Indonesia M.Hari Subarkah, Novianto Bambang Wawandono, Satyawan Pudyatmoko, Subeno , Sandy Nurvianto, & Arif Budiman

213

Impact of Invasive Ant Species in Shaping Ant Community Structure on Small Islands in Indonesia Akhmad Rizali, Abdul Rahim, Bandung Sahari, Lilik Budi Prasetyo, & Damayanti Buchori

221

Relationship Different Riparian Vegetation Cover with Stream Conditions in Cikapinis Stream, West Jawa Della Kemalasari & Devi N. Choesin

231

Affect of Canopy Stratum and Methods of Breaking Seed Dormancy on Seedling Growth of Calliandra tetragona Beth. and Acacia tamarindifolia (L.) Willd. Indriani Ekasari

243

Shoot Tip Culture of Nepenthes albomarginata Lobb ex Lindl. In Vitro Lazarus Agus Sukamto, Mujiono, Djukri, & Victoria Henuhili

251

Variasi Gen Mitokondria Cytochrome b pada Dua Jenis Burung Kakatua Putih (Cacatua alba dan C. moluccensis) Dwi Astuti

263

Kajian Pendahuluan: Perpindahan Gen dari Tanaman Kentang Transgenik Katahdin RB ke Tanaman Kentang Non Transgenik A. Dinar Ambarwati, M. Herman, Agus Purwito , Eri Sofiari,& Hajrial Aswidinoor

277

Virus Influenza Novel H1N1 Babi di Indonesia NLP Indi Dharmayanti, Atik Ratnawati, & Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

289

Karakterisasi Produk Biosolubilisasi Lignit oleh Kapang Indigenus dari Tanah Pertambangan Batubara di Sumatera Selatan Irawan Sugoro, Sandra Hermanto,D. Sasongko,D. Indriani & P. Aditiawati

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J. Biol. Indon. Vol 7, No. 2 (2011) Potensi Virus Avian Influenza H5NI Isolat A/Ck/West Java/Pwt-Wij/2006 Sebagai Vaksin R. Indriani, NLP I Dharmayanti, R.M.A Adjid, & Darminto Variasi dan kekerabatan genetik pada dua jenis baru belimbing (Averrhoa leucopetala Rugayah et Sunarti sp nov dan A. dolichorpa Rugayah et Sunarti sp nov., Oxalidaceae) berdasarkan profil Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Kusumadewi Sri Yulita Pengaruh Dinamika Faktor Lingkungan Terhadap Sebaran Horisontal dan Vertikal Katak Hellen Kurniati Merekonstruksi Habitat Curik Bali Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912 di Bali Bagian Barat Mas Noerdjito, Roemantyo &Tony Sumampau Struktur dan Komposisi Vegetasi Hutan Semusim Habitat Curik Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) di Kawasan Labuan Lalang, Taman Nasional Bali Barat Roemantyo Sumbangan Ilmu Etnobotani dalam Memfasilitasi Hubungan Manusia dengan Tumbuhan dan Lingkungannya Eko Baroto Walujo

Jurnal Biologi Indonesia 7(2):213-220 (2011)

Javan Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Movement in a Fragmented Habitat, at Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java, Indonesia M.Hari Subarkah ¹, Novianto Bambang Wawandono ², Satyawan Pudyatmoko ³, Subeno ³, Sandy Nurvianto ³, & Arif Budiman ¹ ¹ Wildlife researcher at Wildlife Laboratory Faculty of Forestry Gadjah Mada University, ² Biodiversity Conservation, Departement of Forestry ³Faculty of Forestry Gadjah Mada University. E-mail: [email protected] ABSTRAK Pergerakan Lutung budeng (Trachypithecus auratus) didaerah habitat terfragmentasi Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semeru, Jawa Timur, Indonesia. Pergerakan lutung budeng di daerah habitat terfragmentasi diamati dengan metode transek. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa ada empat kelompok masing masing beranggotakan 12 (grup A), 16 (grup B), 15 (grup C) dan 12 lutung (grup D). Penelitian yang dilakukan disekitar hunian penduduk, jalan, hutan terdegradasi dan jalan-jalan setapak mengindikasikan bahwa lutung dalam aktivitas hariannya memerlukan waktu 32,82% diantaranya digunakan untuk makan, 30,97% untuk istirahat dan sisanya 31,79 untuk pergerakan perpindahan. Lutung dalam aktivitasnya 50,53% menggunakan wilayah puncak kanopi tumbuhan, 41,99%menggunakan kanopi tumbuhan bagian tengah dan hanya 2,49 % yang menggunakan kanopi bawah. Kata kunci: Lutung budeng (Trachypithecus auratus), habitat terfragmentasi

INTRODUCTION Most primate species live in tropical forests, (Mittermeier & Cheney 1987; Chapman et al. 2006) where 2 major threats are habitat destruction and hunting by human (Mittermeier & Cheney 1987). Alteration of forests into agricultural land, degraded function of the conservation area, are several causes decreasing the primate population. Primate populations, like those other organisms, face the challenges of coping with the dynamic of their habitat, because habitat are continually changing and primate must

adapt to changes in order to survive; failure to adapt dooms species to extinction (Isabirye-Basuta & Jeremiah 2008; Sharkley1996, Newsome et al. 2005). Habitat loss and fragmentation are associated with fewer resources, greater isolation, and more intense and far-reaching edge effects (Laurance & Bierregaard 1997), and both are considered was major threats to wildlife. Unless the current rate of forest conversion is halted, it is inevitable that more and more primate populations will live in an isolated fragment (Isabirye-Basuta & Jeremiah 2008). Understanding the biology behind the dis 213

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tinction between species at risk and more persistent species should help inform conservation efforts (Gibbons & Harcourt 2009). Coban Trisula are an intensive used areas in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, consist of 3 natural waterfalls, and also the habitat for the vurnerable of javan leaf monkey (IUCN 2010). In addition to tourism, this region is also intensively used by local people to take the wood, fodder, mushrooms, honey, medicine and kinds of forest fruits for consumption. The location immediatelies adjacent to the cultivation, split by a highway connecting Bromo and district of Malang and located between Gubugklakah and Ngadas villages. This condition has turned the area fragmented. This study aims to determine the daily movements in the area of Coban Trisula as forms of javan leaf monkey adaptation in fragmented habitat. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study sites was at Coban Trisula resort conservation area, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, at coordinate 08o 00'11.5"- 07 o 59'52.3"LS and 112 o 51'51.6"-112o 52'21.4"BT, at 1335-1591 m asl, covering 89 hectares. Administratively it is located in the Gubugklakah village Malang, East Java. This research was conducted in August-December 2009 and January 2010. The methods used during the study were: 1) Population survey of Javan langurs using Line Transect Method (Strukhsaker 1981) conducted onece each month, and then calculated the average number of individuals found; 2) 214

vegetation data collected using Point Centered Quarter-Method (MuellerDumbois & Ellenberg 1974) only to the level of the tree with a minimum diameter of 35cm, measured at breast height, and 3) observations of daily activity of Javan langurs using Focal Animal Sampling method (Lehner 1976) by observing the feeding, social, resting and moving. RESULTS Coban Trisula and surounding are intensif used areas, as ecotourism object. The object were consisting three natural waterfalls, namely upper coban, middle coban and down coban, flows in Lajing river. The management has created semi permanent trail to reach the object, about 600 meters long. The object was opened only in weekend, and visited by tourist about 50 - 100 peoples a day. Coban Trisula located as the border of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, directly connected with localvillagers cultivation. The area is also cut by permanent road connecting Bromo mountain and district Malang and 3 villages that are Ranu Pani village, Ngadas village and Gubugklakah village. Inside the area there are many trail used by local villagers taking any resources needed. These facilities make villagers and visitors can access freely. Inside the location, there are three natural rivers that is Sadam river, Lajing river and Amprong river. Illegal cutting for cabin, firewood and cattle food for cows and goat are the biggest contribution to the habitat loss

Javan Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Movement

Figure 1. Habitat type of javan leaf monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) at Coban Trisula.

Figure 2. Ilegal cutting for cabin and cattle food.

and habitat fragmentation inside and outside the area. It was done by local villagers from Gubugklakah village, Tosari village and Duwet village. Illegal cutting is intensive in the dry season, and decreasing in rainy season. It was created a "hole" in the area and formed a liaison at each habitat corridor that is used for moving by Javan leaf monkey to explore the home range. The population survey was conducted a month over study period. It showed a population density of 55 indi-

viduals that are divided into four groups. Group 1 was up to 12 individuals, group 2 was 12 individuals, group 3 was 15 individuals and group 4 was16 individuals. Sex ratio is 1:1.5 (19 males and 29 females). The age structure and sex ratio of each group are presented in the Table 1. The table shows, density of javan leaf monkey at Coban Trisula is 0,6 individu per hectare. The density was higher than in Blok Ireng-Ireng which consisted of 64 individuals at area 428 215

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hectars, means 0,1 individu per hectare. The observation samples consist of group 1 and group 2, while group 3 and group 4 are considered equal. Observations were done on daily behavior, exploiting strata canopies, canopy height and density of trees used in its daily activities. To determine the density of trees used for moving, feeding and other activities, vegetation analysis was conducted using the Centre Point-Quadrat Method. The density of trees is 228.7 individuals per hectare, the average distance between trees is 7.34 meters, the average tree height is 8.40 meters, average canopy width is 7.13 meters and canopy density is 41.51% (scale 3 of Braun-Blanquet Scale). Species found include Danglo (Engelhardtia spicata), Tritih (Nitrocous sp), Preh (Ficus spp), Anggrung (Trema orientalis), Bodak (Nauclea orientalis), Blarang (Maca-

ranga sp), Dadap (Erythrina orientalis), Nyampuh Sentul (Actinodaphne sp) and Salam (Syzygium polyanthum). DISCUSSION Canopy level used by javan leaf monkey were different from any activities. During the observations, canopy level used by javan leaf monkey is presented in the Figure3 The charts shows (Table 2), canopy used at top level are 50,53%, at middle level are 41,99% and lower canopy used 4,98%. It seems associated with the habit of javan leaf monkey as arboreal primate. Utilization of canopy level was associated with the height and canopy density, and diversity of tree species such as feeding trees, shelter and so forth. For example, Preh (Ficus spp), was used as a feeding trees, resting and social activi-

Table 1. Population, age structure and sex ratio of javan leaf monkey at Coban Trisula and surrounding No 1 2 3 4

Groups Group 1 Group 3 Group 2 Group 4 Total

Population, age structure and sex ratio Adult Sub-adult Juvenile Total Male Female Male Female 3 6 2 1 12 2 4 1 1 4 12 3 6 3 2 1 15 3 6 2 4 1 16 11 22 8 7 7 55

Table 2. Height and canopy density (in average) of trees at core area in home range. Item/ Activities Group 1 Group 2 Overlapping

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Resting Canopy Heigh Density t (m) (%) 23.86 47.95% 24.08 47.88% 25.11 53.42%

Feeding Canopy Height Density (m) (%) 24.77 53.33% 20.87 45.00% 23.55 54.50%

Social Canopy Heigh Density t (m) (%) 26.47 57.35% 25.00 52.78% 28.92 55.00%

Sleeping Canopy Heigh Density t (m) (%) 27.67 58.33% 25.57 52.86% 29.20 59.50%

Javan Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Movement

ties, also as moving trees to other areas. Equitable form of branching, 45% canopy density, 20 meters height and shape of the rounded canopy javan leaf monkey used top, middle and lower canopy level. But, Anggrung (Trema orientalis), average height 20 meters and a canopy density 25%, more often utilized as a resting trees and social activities at the middle canopy. While types of Bodak (Nauclea orientalis), with the same height and canopy density 40%, more often utilized as resting trees social activities on top, middle and lower canopy level. During observations, sometimes javan leaf monkey found above the ground to find insects, consuming sev-

eral species of plants and shrubs around the river, some areas where there are no human activities. Daily activities of javan leaf monkey, showed on Figure 4 Average percentage of daily activity of javan leaf monkey for rest and social activities amounted to 30.97%. Both activities were performed in the same span of time before afternoon (07.30 10.00 am) and in the afternoon (12.00 14.30 pm). Social activities that were found during the observation is grooming and playing, but no breeding activity had been found. Foraging and eating approximately 31.82% & were performed by all individuals' javan leaf

50.53% 41.99%

4.98%

Top Canopy

Middle Canopy

Lower Canopy

2.49% Above the Ground

Canopy Level

Figure 3. Percentage of time budget in javan leaf monkey daily activity

Resting and Social Activity, 30.97%

Moving & Ranging, 31.79%

Foraging & Eating, 31.82%

Figure 4. Canopy level used by javan leaf monkey

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monkey in the morning (06.00 - 07.30 am) and afternoon periods (14.30 - 17.00 pm). While moving activity and ranging is approximately 31.79%, which is performed in the morning, afternoon and evening at the home range in each group. Based on the observation and calculation above, it is known that the javan leaf monkey have good adaptability to the state of the fragmented habitat. Utilization of trees were various in daily activities formed important areas and frequently visited, known as core area. Core areas used by javan leaf monkey are closely linked with the height and density of tree canopies. Height of trees was used by Javan langurs to avoid harassment and threats from both human and predator. While the canopy density selected by javan leaf monkey was mainly to protect themselves from sunlight, rain, wind and low temperatures. Utilization of core areas in resting, feeding, social activities and sleeping was different one to another, and are presented in the Table 2 below. In the observation of home range, there is overlapping between home range group 1 and group 2. At each home range of two groups, there are a core area used jointly by the Group 1 and Group 2. Resting activities were spread on several trees on the top and middle canopy level, on average height of 23.86 meters in home range of Group 1, 24.08 meters in home range of Group 2 and 25.11 meters in overlapping home range. Higher trees were used by javan leaf monkey in circumstances of potential nuisance and threat. When interference or threat appears, javan leaf monkey can 218

move easily to another tree and hide. The average number of canopy density are 47.95% used by group 1, 47.88% used by the Group 2 and 53.42% in overlapping home range, because Javan langurs are adequately shielded from sunlight, rain, wind, low temperature and relatively hidden from predators. At feeding activity, the average height of trees that was used by group 1 is 24.77 m, 20.87 m in group 2 and 23.55 m in overlapping home range. The average number of canopy density was 53.33% in Group 1, 45.00% in group 2 and 54.50% in overlapping home range. Canopy height and density associated with the volume of feed that is available, although sometimes javan leaf monkey also moved above the ground to eat insects, several types of shrubs and plants such as kecubung (Brugmansia sp), kaliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus), mencokan (Debregeasia sp). Social activities carried out during resting time such as grooming, playing and mating. At the core areas, social activities are carried out on trees with an average height of 26.47 m in group 1, 25.00 m in group 2 and in overlapping home range 28.92 m. Canopy density in Group 1 amounted to 57.35%, in Group 2 was 52.78% and in overlapping home range of 55.00%. While playing, javan leaf monkey used top and middle canopy level to practice running, jumping, wrestling and climbing. This activity was carried out by sub-adult and juvenile, occasionally watched by their mother. Sometimes another adult female or males occasionally join into. Grooming and other social activities are often carried

Javan Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Movement

out by two or more individuals, alternately, conducted on middle canopy level or a branching tree or large tree trunks and flat. Another social activity is breeding. However, during observations the social activity was not found. Javan leaf monkey stopped their activities by entering the aleeping trees at 17:30 to 18:00. Selection of trees to sleep are very important because javan leaf monkey must ensure that the tree has well-height and high density canopies. The average numbers of tree height are 27.67 m in group 1, 25.57 m in group 2 and 29.10 m in overlapping home. Canopy density in sleeping tree of group 1 was 58.33%, group 2 was 52.86% and in overlapping home range were 59.50%. Sleeping trees used were higher and more densely than the height and canopy density trees for other activities. Tree height based on a better sense of security from the threat of predators, whereas high canopy density for shelter from the wind and cold air, and from the rain.

sunlight, wind, rain, low temperature as well as a place to hide from threats and predators and human disturbance. In Coban Trisula Resort, conflict of interest between human and javan leaf monkey could become a serious threat to the existence or the preservation of these animals, which are death and/or displacement to another areas or habitats that are more supportive. Therefore, conservation action to conserve javan leaf monkey has to be taken in the future. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many thanks to Mr. Novianto Bambang Wawandono, Director of Biodiversity Conservation, Departement of Forenstry, The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Directorate General of Higher Education (DIKTI), Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), The Indonesian Biological Society (PBI), Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation (ATBC), Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park and all staff, and many many people are not name here.

CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES These observations concluded that javan leaf monkey was able to adapt to the fragmented habitat areas. Height and canopy density of trees have important functions in supporting the daily activities of Javan langurs such as feeding behavior, resting, social activities and moving. Tree height associated with a sense of preferential because they feel safe from harassment and threat of predators. While the density of the canopy allows protecting the body from

Chapman, CA., MJ. Chapman & HAC. Eeley. 2006. What hope for African Primate Diversity?. African J. Ecol. 44: 116-133 Dumbois, DM. & H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and Method of Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley & Sons. New York, London, Sydney, Toronto Gibbons, MA. & AH. Harcourt. 2009. Biological correlates of extinction and persistence of primates in small 219

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forest fragments: a global analysis. Trop. Cons.Sci. 2 (4):388-403. IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucn redlist.org. Downloaded on 20 June 2010. Isabirye, B., M. Gilbert & SL. Jeremiah. 2008. Primate Population and Their Interaction with Changing habitat. Int. J. Primatology. 18th, 2008. Laurance, WF. & RO. Bierregaard. 1997. Tropical Forest Remnants. Ecology, management, and conservation of fragmented communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lehner, PN. 1976. Handbook of Ethological Methods. Garlang STPM Press, New York & London. 395. Mittermeier, RA. & DL. Cheney. 1987. Conservation of Primates and Their Habitat. In B. B. Smuts, DL Cheney, RM. Seyfarth, RW. Wrangham, & TT. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate Societies. Chicago University Press. 475-490. Newsome D., D. Ross & M. Susan. 2005. Wildlife Tourism. Aspects of

Tourism. Channel View Publications. Clevedon. Buffalo. Toronto. 152. Shackley, M. 1996. Wildlife Tourism. ITP. International Thomson Business Press. An International Publishing Company. London. Bonn. Boston. Singapore. Tokyo. 299. Struhsaker, TT. 1981. Census Methods for Estimating Densities. In: Subcommittee on Conservation of Natural Population, Committee on Nonhuman Primates, Division of Biological Sciences, Assembly of Life Sciences & National Research Council (eds) Techniques for the study of primate population ecology. Nation Academy Press, Washington, pp 36-80 Wawandono, BW. 2010. Pemodelan Daya Dukung Habitat Lutung Jawa (Modelling of Javan Langur Habitat Carrying Capacity). [Disertation]. Gadjah Mada University. Yogyakarta.

Received: July 2010 Accepted: Aprl 2011

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J. Biol. Indon. Vol 7, No.2 (2011) PANDUAN PENULIS

Naskah dapat ditulis dalam bahasa Indonesia atau bahasa Inggris. Naskah disusun dengan urutan: JUDUL (bahasa Indonesia dan Inggris), NAMA PENULIS (yang disertai dengan alamat Lembaga/ Instansi), ABSTRAK (bahasa Inggris, maksimal 250 kata), KATA KUNCI (maksimal 6 kata), PENDAHULUAN, BAHAN DAN CARA KERJA, HASIL, PEMBAHASAN, UCAPAN TERIMA KASIH (jika diperlukan) dan DAFTAR PUSTAKA. Naskah diketik dengan spasi ganda pada kertas HVS A4 maksimum 15 halaman termasuk gambar, foto, dan tabel disertai CD. Batas dari tepi kiri 3 cm, kanan, atas, dan bawah masingmasing 2,5 cm dengan program pengolah kata Microsoft Word dan tipe huruf Times New Roman berukuran 12 point. Setiap halaman diberi nomor halaman secara berurutan. Gambar dalam bentuk grafik/diagram harus asli (bukan fotokopi) dan foto (dicetak di kertas licin atau di scan). Gambar dan Tabel di tulis dan ditempatkan di halam terpisah di akhir naskah. Penulisan simbol α, β, χ, dan lain-lain dimasukkan melalui fasilitas insert, tanpa mengubah jenis huruf. Kata dalam bahasa asing dicetak miring. Naskah dikirimkan ke alamat Redaksi sebanyak 3 eksemplar (2 eksemplar tanpa nama dan lembaga penulis). Penggunaan nama suatu tumbuhan atau hewan dalam bahasa Indonesia/Daerah harus diikuti nama ilmiahnya (cetak miring) beserta Authornya pada pengungkapan pertama kali. Daftar pustaka ditulis secara abjad menggunakan sistem nama-tahun. Contoh penulisan pustaka acuan sebagai berikut : Jurnal : Hara, T., JR. Zhang, & S. Ueda. 1983. Identification of plasmids linked with polyglutamate production in B. subtilis. J. Gen. Apll. Microbiol. 29: 345-354. Buku : Chaplin, MF. & C. Bucke. 1990. Enzyme Technology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Bab dalam Buku : Gerhart, P. & SW. Drew. 1994. Liquid culture. Dalam : Gerhart, P., R.G.E. Murray, W.A. Wood, & N.R. Krieg (eds.). Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology. ASM., Washington. 248-277. Abstrak : Suryajaya, D. 1982. Perkembangan tanaman polong-polongan utama di Indonesia. Abstrak Pertemuan Ilmiah Mikrobiologi. Jakarta . 15 –18 Oktober 1982. 42. Prosiding : Mubarik, NR., A. Suwanto, & MT. Suhartono. 2000. Isolasi dan karakterisasi protease ekstrasellular dari bakteri isolat termofilik ekstrim. Prosiding Seminar nasional Industri Enzim dan Bioteknologi II. Jakarta, 15-16 Februari 2000. 151-158. Skripsi, Tesis, Disertasi : Kemala, S. 1987. Pola Pertanian, Industri Perdagangan Kelapa dan Kelapa Sawit di Indonesia.[Disertasi]. Bogor : Institut Pertanian Bogor. Informasi dari Internet : Schulze, H. 1999. Detection and Identification of Lories and Pottos in The Wild; Information for surveys/Estimated of population density. http//www.species.net/primates/loris/ lorCp.1.html.

J. Biol. Indon. Vol 7, No. 2 (2011)

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Struktur dan Komposisi Vegetasi Hutan Semusim Habitat Curik Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) di Kawasan Labuan Lalang, Taman Nasional Bali Barat Roemantyo

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