labor market survey

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AFF. Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing. AFSA. Accommodation and Food Service Activities. AKSOB. Adnan Kassar School of Business. BA. Bachelor of Arts. BS.

LABOR MARKET SURVEY Report in fulfillment of the USP VII Award AID-268-A-15-00002 -Phase II

Diane Nauffal Rania Kassab September, 2016

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ACRONYMS .......................................................................................................................... iv CONTRIBUTORS ...................................................................................................................v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................... vi 1.

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................1 1.1 Education and Employability ..........................................................................................2 1.2 The Lebanese Economy ...................................................................................................2 1.3 The Lebanese Higher Education System .........................................................................3

2.

OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................................4

3.

METHODOLOGY ...........................................................................................................4 3.1 Focus group: unemployed graduates ...............................................................................5 3.2 Focus group: employed graduates ...................................................................................6 3.3 Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with key figures of syndicates, orders, associations and organizations/companies .............................................................................6 3.4 Print and online media content analysis ..........................................................................8

4.

LIMITATIONS OF METHODOLOGY ........................................................................9

5.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS ............................................................................................10 5.1 Labor Market Dynamics by Sector ...............................................................................10 5.1.1 HHSWA sector ........................................................................................................10 5.1.2 FIA and PSTA sectors .............................................................................................11 5.1.3 Construction sector ..................................................................................................11 5.1.4 Telecommunication and I&C sectors ......................................................................12 5.1.5 Education sector ......................................................................................................12 5.1.6 AAF and Environment sectors ................................................................................13 5.1.7 AFSA sector ............................................................................................................13 5.1.8 Manufacturing sector ...............................................................................................14 5.2 Employment Opportunities ...........................................................................................14 5.2.1 Labor Market Geographic Distribution ...................................................................14 5.2.2 Time to Initial Employment ....................................................................................15 5.2.3 Recruitment Modes .................................................................................................15 5.3 Recruitment Patterns .....................................................................................................16 5.3.1 Recruitment patterns reflected through print and online media ..............................16 5.3.2 Recruitment patterns through the eyes of key figures and employers .....................17 5.3.3 Recruitment patterns through the eyes of employed and unemployed graduates ...18

CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................................20 WORK PLAN.........................................................................................................................27 ii

Appendix A ................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. i. Focus Group: Unemployed Graduates .......................... Error! Bookmark not defined. ii. Focus Group: Employed Graduates .............................. Error! Bookmark not defined. iii. Face-to-face Semi-Structured Interviews with Key Figures of Syndicates, Orders and Associations ......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. iv. Face-to-face Semi-Structured Interviews with CEOs or Delegated Representatives..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendix B: Key figures in syndicates, orders, associations and organizations ....... Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendix C: CV ......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. i. CV of Diane Nauffal, Author ........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. ii. CV of Rania Kassab, External Consultant, Field Work CoordinatorError! Bookmark not defined. Bibliography ...........................................................................................................................28

LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Distribution of Unemployed Alumni Who Participated in the Focus Group Table 2 Distribution of Employed Alumni Who Participated in the Focus Group Table 3 Online Media Sources Table 4 Majors Offered To USP Students

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Distribution of Syndicates Orders and Associations and Organizations/Companies by Economic Sector ....................................................................................................................... 7 Figure 2 Recruitment modes of LAU’s graduates over the past five years based on the findings of the institutional Exit Survey ............................................................................................... 15 Figure 3 Distribution of job postings in print and online media ............................................. 16 Figure 4 Majors in high demand based on postings in print and online media ...................... 17

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ACRONYMS AFF AFSA AKSOB BA BS CAS DIRA FAI

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Accommodation and Food Service Activities Adnan Kassar School of Business Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of Sciences Center for Administrative Statistics Department of Institutional Research and Assessment Financial and Insurance Activities

HHSWA I&C

Human Health and Social Work Activities Information and Communication

LACPA LAM LAND LAU LMA LMS LOPB NGO

Lebanese Association of Certified Public Accountants Lebanese Association of Management Lebanon Academy for Nutrition and Dietetics Lebanese American University Labor Market Assessment. Labor Markey Survey Lebanese Order of Physicians in Beirut Non-profit Organization

OEAB ONL OPL PSTA SArD SAS SHL SOE TD

Order of Engineers and Architects of Beirut Order of Nurses in Lebanon Order of Pharmacists in Lebanon Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities School of Architecture and Design School of Arts and Sciences Syndicate of Hospitals in Lebanon School of Engineering Teaching Diploma

UNESCO USP USP-USAID

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization University Scholarship Program University Scholarship Program- United States Agency for International

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CONTRIBUTORS Diane Nauffal, Project Manager; Assistant Professor, Department of Education, SAS; Executive Director for DIRA, LAU Rania Kassab, External Consultant, Field Work Coordinator Nassib Nasr, Assistant Vice President for Development, Middle East and Europe Grace Aoun-Noujaim, Executive Assistant, Development Office Weam Abou Hamdan, Junior Consultant for the Ministry of Environment, Lebanon Aya El-Mir, Career Guidance Associate Manager, Dean of Students, LAU Rana Sakr, Lead Career Guidance Officer, Dean of Students, LAU Jamileh Youssef, Graduate Assistant, LAU Samer Khoury, Lead Institution Research Officer, LAU Nadine Wehbe, Lead Assessment Officer, LAU

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Little has changed in the supply and demand dynamics of the Lebanese labor market over the past year since the first LMS conducted by LAU in 2015. Economic sectors that generate employment as well as sectors with growth potential and those with barriers to growth remain relatively the same. Similarly distribution of employment opportunities between urban and rural areas remain unchanged. The LMS sought to explore the demands of the Lebanese job market that can be linked to existing degree programs at LAU to enhance the employability prospects of its graduates and in particular the graduates of the USP program as well as identify degree programs offered by LAU that are correlated with gainful employment. To achieve this end, focus group discussions with both employed and unemployed graduates and semi-structured face-to-face interviews with employers of organizations and CEOs or representatives of syndicates, orders and associations representing 12 economic sectors in the country were conducted. The study also sought to determine the specific soft skills students should acquire during their course of undergraduate studies and the involving settings and inclusive learning experiences students should engage in to enhance their learning and overall development. With the little research conducted recently describing the labor market dynamics in Lebanon and the prospects of employability of its youth and with the absence of statistical data on labor market needs, this study although limited in scope and time uses both qualitative and quantitative approaches to gain some insights into the current employability trends. The qualitative approaches were designed to provide an in-depth description of the career prospects of LAU’s graduates based on job availability and country needs as perceived by those directly concerned, namely, the employer and the graduate. The quantitative methodologies were used to quantify these opportunities and to confirm the findings of the qualitative approaches. The convergence of the qualitative and quantitative data allow the formulation of recommendations to improve employability prospects of LAU’s graduates in general and USP graduates in particular. The findings of print and online recruitment sources are in line with those of interviews with key figures of syndicates, orders and associations, CEOs or delegated representatives of organizations and focus groups participants in relation to the needs of the Lebanese labor market. Fields of study in demand include nursing, pharmacy with an emphasis on clinical pharmacy, accounting, management, marketing, computer science, management information science, computer engineering, telecommunication engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering, graphic design, education with an emphasis on STEM and humanity subjects (biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, Arabic, vi

English and philosophy) as well as translation, communication (multimedia journalism, Television and film), psychology, banking and finance, economics, agriculture engineering, nutrition, architecture, interior design, bioinformatics, political science and political science/international affairs. The findings suggest that the labor market supply and demand dynamics is industry dependent and that employability is more challenging when the employee’s educational background is not aligned with organizational expertise. For example, while accountants are needed in all organizations and industries, general science or health science knowledge can be a competitive market advantage for an accountant seeking employment in the health industry or in health insurance. As such graduates should diversify their choice of electives and minors to expand their knowledge base as the need is for graduates with diverse educational backgrounds, solid theoretical and technical field related knowledge and excellent soft skill sets. The liberal arts education offered to all students at LAU allows a student to broaden their knowledge base and chose courses of interest to them or aligned with their career aspirations. With over 82% of USP I, II and III graduates currently employed and the time from graduation for the majority (89%) of unemployed graduates not exceeding three months it is apparent that all majors currently offered to USP students’ link positively to employment. Based on the results derived from the interviews with the various stakeholder groups a major that can be added to the existing list which appeared to link favorably to employment is chemistry. Although dropped in phase 1 of the LMS, key figures in at least four sectors – manufacturing, education, environment and AFF stressed the need for employees with background knowledge in chemistry. Other degree programs found to correlate favorably with employment opportunities both in phase 1 and phase 2 of the LMS include the BA in Translation, BA in Philosophy and BS in Bioinformatics. However, these majors cannot be offered to USP students as LAU graduated its first cohort of students majoring in these fields of study in spring 2016 and enrollment in these new fields of study is still low. Additionally, a need was found for qualified school teachers with subject matter knowledge for 7-12 in mathematics, sciences (chemistry, biology, physics), languages (Arabic Language and Literature and English) and in philosophy who also have pedagogical knowledge. It is then strongly recommended that these subject matter areas be offered to USP students followed by a TD to allow students to gain the pedagogical knowledge. Another field of study that linked favorably to employment in both phases of the LMS is fine arts. As LAU has a long history in offering this degree program it is recommended to add it to the list of programs offered to USP students in fall 2017.

The majority of employment opportunities were concentrated in Beirut and Mount Lebanon as compared to other regions. Majors linked to employability were similar for all regions of vii

Lebanon. Graduates however expressed a reluctance to move to the rural areas because remuneration packages offered by the majority of employers were in general designed to match the lower cost of living in these areas with the exception of the banking sector, franchise operations or international organizations where remuneration packages were not affected by geographical location. Many graduates in search of remuneration packages they considered compatible with their investment in higher education and faced with a saturated local labor market opted to work in nearby countries in the region. Engaging in higher order learning practices such as internships and job apprenticeships was valued positively by LAU graduates and by the employers interviewed. A positive relationship was found between participation in internships and employment. A third of the participants in the focus groups of employed graduates were offered jobs in the organizations where they completed their internships. Engaging with students during internships was a worthwhile experience for employers as it allowed them to spot talent and chose a candidate suitable for the job thus minimizing time and effort needed to scan job applications and conduct interviews. While internships are an excellent mode for recruitment of fresh graduates, other modes include websites of organizations and companies, online recruiting platforms, and the career guidance office of universities. Many employers opt to recruit fresh graduates through their personal networks. According to employers, LAU graduates had the needed theoretical, technical and soft skills – written communication skills, oral communication skills, computer skills, problem solving abilities, leadership and ethical values among others – to succeed in the workplace. Employers’ views converged with those of LAU’s employed graduates who perceived themselves to be competitive in the workplace. Key figures emphasized some personal qualities they thought essential for productive and rewarding employment such as persistence, patience, reliability, modesty in addition to being creative and innovative. These characteristics would help to propel graduates taking on entry level positions along the career ladder.

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1. INTRODUCTION The social and economic development of a country and its competitiveness in continuously shifting markets depends on the skills and competencies of its people in the knowledge-based economy of the 21st century. Education, particularly higher education, is essential in the development of a nation’s human capital. Highly educated, charismatic youth are a mobile economic resource and can therefore benefit from a national and international market. For prosperity and sustainable development, universities in Lebanon must ensure quality higher education and training for their graduates to enable them to lead productive and engaged lives and contribute to the economic growth of the country. The main aim of this study is to determine the correlation of major fields of study with employability based on job availability and country needs for a specific cohort of LAU students, namely those enrolled in USP. The USP, funded by USAID, offers full support to outstanding university-bound students in public schools across Lebanon to pursue quality higher education in an environment that promotes critical thinking, social equality, leadership and citizenship. The liberal arts education these students receive and the soft skills they acquire are expected to give them a competitive advantage in the job market and to open up to them opportunities of gainful employment. In fulfillment of the USP VII Award AID-268-A-15-00002, LAU has proposed to conduct a LMS to try to establish relationships between degree programs offered by LAU and the Lebanese labor market as well as identify areas of possible mismatches. The LMS will be conducted in three phases. In the first phase, during the first year of the first cycle, the study will involve all job sectors. The subsequent two phases will expand on the work done in the initial phase. The first phase of the LMS was conducted in November 2015 to January 2016. The results show that all degree programs offered by LAU are aligned with market needs. The only exception is the bachelor’s degree in Chemistry, which has been omitted from the list of programs offered to USP students in cycle 2, as although a market demand was found through both the alumni and employer surveys, it was found to be weak. In an attempt to develop a more in depth understanding of the labor market dynamics and assess the correlation between fields of study and market needs and employability, the methodology adopted in phase 2 is more focused and builds on the findings of phase 1. The report will begin by outlining the relationship between higher education and employability. It will then go on to provide an overview of the Lebanese economy and the Lebanese higher education system. Thereon it outlines the methodology adopted, the instruments used and the results obtained in phase 2.

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1.1 Education and Employability The value of higher education can be measured, in part, by the degree to which a higher education institution prepares its graduates for the jobs of today and the careers of the future. While reliable statistics are rare, the general outlook for youth employment in Lebanon is thought to be poor (ILO 2015). The inability of youth, even educated youth to find opportunities of gainful employment is attributed to many factors such as low economic development, political and social instability, poor linkages between education and industry, shifts in labor market and skills needs and underpowered entrepreneurial youth among many others (ILO 2015). In addition to the bleak prospects of gainful employment, educated youth are faced with the challenges of diminished employability caused by prolonged periods of unemployment. A 2011 World Bank survey found that the average number of years spent searching for one’s first job in Lebanon was about 1.5 years for job seekers with tertiary education. Furthermore, the length of unemployment for individuals with a tertiary education averaged 1.2 years for those under 35 years of age while it was around 1.7 years for those over the age of 35 (World Bank 2011). The report however highlights the fact that graduates from top universities in Lebanon tend to find jobs relatively easy. More than half of LAU graduates, for example, find a job at the time of graduation. This proportion increases as time from graduation increases reaching approximately 80% 18 months after graduation. 1.2 The Lebanese Economy While Lebanon is officially classified as an “upper middle income country’, its economy lags behind other countries of similar status mainly due to serious deficiencies in the dynamics of the labor market. The service-dominated economy suffers from high unemployment rates with youth unemployment as high as 34% (World Bank, Press Release, 2013) and unemployment rates highest among the 20-24 years age group which is the age group of fresh university graduates (The American University of Beirut’s Alumni Relations Office & The Hariri Foundation for Sustainable Human Development, 2009). Work force participation rates for males and females differ significantly with female participation in the labor force around 24% (World Bank, Press Release, 2013). Under-employment rates are also high. According to the World Bank, the economy has created jobs concentrated in low productivity sectors and employed largely low skilled employees (World Bank Press Release, 2013). Given the high expenditure on education, the domestic job opportunities created by the economy do not appeal to skilled employees. Under-employment is one of many factors that contribute to the migration of high quality university graduates in pursuit of further higher education, prosperous career opportunities, and/or higher pay (World Bank, 2012). A study on higher education and labor market outcomes 2

conducted in 2009 found that half of the skilled labor force in Lebanon is migrating every year (The American University of Beirut’s Alumni Relations Office & the Hariri Foundation for Sustainable Human Development, 2009). According to Kawar and Tzannatos (2013) on average 32,000 Lebanese emigrated each year between 1996 and 2010 for a variety of reasons. The migrant Lebanese are a vital economic resource for the country. Expatriates remittance to Lebanon were equivalent to 14% of the GDP in 2015 making the country the second largest leading recipient of remittances per capita in the Arab region, the 13th among developing economies and the 18th globally (Byblos Bank, 2015). However Lebanese migration is depleting the country of its educated youth. Chaaban (2009) estimates that almost 76% of emigrants are between the ages of 15 and 34 and that approximately 82.6% of the age group 20-44 are emigrants. This is a disturbing phenomenon for Lebanon’s future social make up as its productive population is gradually decreasing while its resident population is slowly aging. The Lebanese economy has been subject to the spillover effect of the Syrian crisis since 2011. Lebanon, however, has somehow maintained a fragile stability in its economy despite a refugee influx which began in 2011 creating a situation in which 1 out of 4 to 5 inhabitants of Lebanon is now a refugee, and a regional economy battered by ongoing low oil prices. This economic stability can be attributed to some extent to a private sector that contributes to 75% of aggregate demand and a large banking sector that supports this demand (World Bank Country Report, 2014). 1.3 The Lebanese Higher Education System Even the higher education sector, particularly the private sector, has continued to develop and expand in this fragile economic environment. Currently, there are 50 institutions of higher learning in Lebanon of which nine are university colleges and institutes and three are religious institutions of theology (MEHE). Of these institutions, only one is a public university with branches dispersed across the country and in which is enrolled one third of the higher education student population. Each of the universities has adopted a different educational model including the American, British, French, Egyptian and German among others. These universities continue to review and update existing programs, develop innovative new programs and publish increasing amounts of important research (Bissar-Tadmouri & Tadmouri, 2009; Stephens Balakrishnan, 2013). According to the Director General of Higher Education, eight of the universities have sought accreditation by reputable international accrediting agencies to assure the quality of their programs and increase the prospects of further education and employability of their graduates . Thus, despite the weakness of the domestic and regional labor markets, Lebanon is retaining its reputation for quality higher education graduating young men and women ready for the careers of the 21st century.

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2. OBJECTIVES The USAID-USP offers full scholarships to outstanding yet underprivileged high school students from public schools across Lebanon to pursue their undergraduate education in an American modeled institution rooted in the liberal arts tradition. A liberal arts education balances general education with technical and professional training and aims at shaping citizens who possess the skills and talent needed to promote Lebanon’s democratic and economic development. LAU has been awarded five USAID-USP grants prior to USP VII. As a result, 325 students have been granted a unique opportunity to receive a quality education. With three cohorts of graduates, USAID-USP is seeking to assess the achievement of its goals. In fulfillment of the USP VII Award, LAU proposed to conduct a LMS in three phases. In each phase the study seeks to identify the fields of study aligned with gainful employment as well as any mismatches between the two and to recommend adding or removing degree program offerings to USP students accordingly. The first phase was conducted between November 2015 and January 2016. The results of this phase were used to recruit USP students for the academic year 2016-2017. The second phase was conducted between May 2016 and August 2016. The results of this phase will be published in the admissions view book 2017-2018 for recruiting USP students for the academics year 2017-2018. As a result of the LMS, LAU will be better prepared to:   



modify the list of degree programs offered to USP students by adding degree programs that correlate strongly with employment opportunities and deleting those that do not; promote enrollment in degree programs with high employment prospects in response to market demand; determine the specific soft skills students should acquire during their course of undergraduate studies based on employers’ needs in the various sectors of the Lebanese market; and identify private companies with social responsibility at the core of their mission that are interested in providing internships or apprenticeships for undergraduate students;

3. METHODOLOGY This study employed elements of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. While qualitative methodologies were designed to provide an in-depth description of the career prospects of LAU’s graduates based on job availability and country needs, quantitative methodologies were used to quantify these opportunities. The objective was that the use of such a combination of approaches would permit the advantages of certain research techniques to offset the weakness of others thus 4

increasing the validity and reliability of the findings through triangulation and providing a deeper understanding of reality. A range of instruments and techniques were used for data collection. These included two focus group interviews. The first was conducted with graduates who were unemployed one year after graduation, while the second was conducted with graduates who were employed within one year of graduation. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with CEOs, human resource managers or delegated representatives of organizations/companies as well as key figures of syndicates, orders and associations from 12 economic sectors. As in the first phase of the LMS, content analysis was used to analyze career opportunities advertised in print media (newspaper and magazine) and a more expanded range of online media (job boards). Career opportunities listed on websites of organizations/corporations and syndicates and associations were also analyzed. The instruments developed for the focus groups and face-to-face semi-structured interviews are found in Appendix A. 3.1 Focus group: unemployed graduates A focus group was conducted with 11 of 33 volunteer alumni who did not find a job within 12 months of graduation. The moderators of the focus group, the project consultant and Executive Director of Institutional Research and Assessment at LAU and the external consultant and field work coordinator, had prepared a set of questions in advance of the focus group to guide the discussion. The discussion was conducted in an interactive group setting to encourage the participants to express their views and concerns freely. The discussions progressed from overall impressions on the reasons for unemployment to specific details about the challenges faced in finding a job. To ensure effective responses, the alumni invited to participate in the focus group were representative of any cohort of graduates in any year. The participants, 5 females (45% of sample) and 6 males were from most undergraduate degree programs offered by 4 schools at LAU who completed their studies on either the Beirut (9 or 81% of the sample) or the Byblos (2) campus and who were of different academic standing ranging from good to honors and distinguished graduates. Table 1 gives the distribution of alumni who participated in the focus group by school and undergraduate degree program. Although only graduates who completed their undergraduate studies at LAU within the past 12 months were invited to participate in the focus groups, two students who had recently completed their graduate studies at LAU attended the focus group. They had heard about the focus group from colleagues. These students had pursued their undergraduate studies in an institution not following the American educational model. These students, both females, completed a master’s 5

degree in electrical engineering and education. They attended as observers but provided valuable insights towards the end of the focus group discussions which will be included in this report. Number of Participants School

Undergraduate Degree Program

SAS

Education, Computer Science Business-Marketing, Business-Accounting, Business-Management, Banking and Finance Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering Architecture

AKSOB SOE SArD

Female

Male

1

1

2

3

1 1

1 1

T ABLE 1 DISTRIBUTION OF U NEMPLOYED ALUMNI WHO P ARTICIPATED IN THE FOCUS G ROUP

3.2 Focus group: employed graduates Another focus group was conducted with 7 alumni of LAU who found a job within 12 months of graduation. It was very difficult to recruit graduates to participate in this focus group due to their work obligations and the time of the year being summer. The questions developed for this focus group addressed challenges faced both in finding employment and during the initial months of employment as well as their level of preparedness for their jobs. The participants, 4 females (57% of sample) and 3 males were largely from STEM and business undergraduate degree programs from 4 schools at LAU who completed their studies on either the Beirut (5 or 71% of the sample) or the Byblos (2) campus and who were of different academic standing ranging from good to honors and distinguished graduates. Table 2 gives the distribution of alumni who participated in the focus group by school. School SAS AKSOB SOE SArD

Undergraduate Degree Program Computer Science Business-Management, Economics Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering Architecture

Number of Participants Female Male 1 2 1 2 1

T ABLE 2 DISTRIBUTION OF E MPLOYED ALUMNI W HO P ARTICIPATED IN THE FOCUS GROUP

3.3 Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with key figures of syndicates, orders, associations and organizations/companies Key figures of syndicates, orders, associations and organizations/companies from 12 economic sectors received a letter of invitation to participate in on-site face-to-face interviews. The economic 6

sectors were chosen from the National Accounts 2013 report released by CAS based on their alignment with major fields of study offered at LAU. The geographical scope of the syndicates, orders and associations as well as the organizations is considerably wide with the cover extending to urban and rural regions across the country. Findings, as a result, provide a portrait of the national labor market dynamics. There is, however, concentrated representation of syndicates, orders, associations and organizations in the HHSWA sector which was missing from phase 1 of the LMS as many related programs such as biology, pharmacy and medicine are not offered to USP students. Their inclusion in phase 2 was deemed essential as many HHSWA sector related job opportunities align to major fields of study offered to USP students. While the semi-structured interviews conducted in the first phase of the LMS were telephone interviews, all interviews conducted in the second phase were on site face-to-face interviews. The nature of such interviews allowed the interviewee to probe in depth into the areas of concern gaining a deeper understanding. Interviewees often shared publications containing important facts about their economic sectors or organizations with the interviewers which were incorporated in the study. The interviews solicited responses that were statistical in nature such as employment rates of the economic sectors and organizations as well as their current and projected employment needs. Other questions were related to internship or job apprenticeship opportunities, graduates’ possession of the required theoretical, technical and soft skill sets for their domain of employment, and methods used to recruit potential employees. The participating syndicates, orders, associations and organizations, the interviewees and the date and place of the interviews is provided in Appendix B. Figure 1 gives the distribution of syndicates, orders and associations as well as organizations/companies interviewed by sector.

F IGURE 1 DISTRIBUTION OF S YNDICATES O RDERS AND A SSOCIATIONS AND O RGANIZATIONS /COMPANIES BY E CONOMIC SECTOR

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3.4 Print and online media content analysis The investigator sought to learn more about recent job opportunities by scanning print media (newspapers and magazines) and online media. The same print media scanned in the first phase were scanned in the second phase, namely Annahar and Lebanon Opportunities. Similar to phase 1, other print media were not considered as it was noticed that the advertisements were re-occurring in the different newspaper and magazine publications. As for online media, a more expanded search was conducted that covered in addition to those of phase 1 - LinkedIn, Bayt.com, Hunting Lebanese, Facebook Career Group Lebanon, Business Services Office, Headhunter and Management Plus – new sources such as websites of orders - ONL, OEAB - and organizations – Daleel Madani and LAU in phase 2. The print media was scanned for a period of six months extending from January till June 2016 while the online media was scanned over a period of three months extending from April till June 2016. Table 3 provides a list of these media sources. Source

Type

Medium

1

Annahar

Newspaper

Print

2

Lebanon Opportunities

Magazine

Print

3

LinkedIn

Business-oriented social networking service

Online

4

Bayt.com

Online recruiting agency

Online

5

Hunting Lebanese

Online recruiting agency

Online

6

Facebook Career Group Lebanon

Social network service

Online

7

Business Services Office

Recruiting agency

Online

8

Headhunter and Management Plus Recruiting agency

Online

9

Daleel Madani

Civil Society Portal

Online

10

ONL

Order - Career opportunity website

Online

11

OEAB

Order - Career opportunity website

Online

12

LAU

Organization - Career opportunity website

Online

T ABLE 3 O NLINE M EDIA S OURCES

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4. LIMITATIONS OF METHODOLOGY A review of literature shows very little statistics, if any, are available on the Lebanese labor force and the needs of the labor market. Interviews with key figures of syndicates, orders and associations as well as organizations / companies confirm this finding. Many of those interviewed expressed a need for such statistics to guide youth in their career choices and institutions in the development of new and innovative programs designed to meet market demand. The figures that appear in this report are at best rough estimates. Although some labor market studies were conducted before 2011, the findings of these studies are practically inconclusive as they do not take into account the new political, economic and social realities that have engulfed Lebanon and the region since. Two focus groups were conducted. One was with graduates who were employed within 12 months of graduation while the other was with graduates who were still unemployed 12 months after graduation. Although we were aiming to have ten participants in each group selected in a manner to represent any cohort of graduates in any year, we were successful in doing so for the focus group with unemployed graduates. This was not the case for the focus group with employed students. The time of year being summer, the distance of employment sites from the university’s campuses and the inability to set up a meeting time suitable for all participants due to conflicting work schedules did not allow for the representation of all major fields of study at LAU. The uneven representation of participants based on major field of study is yet an additional limitation which could not be controlled for. As such, the results provide valuable insights about the preparedness of LAU graduates for employment and the challenges they face in the workplace but they are not readily generalizable to all major fields of study offered at LAU. The time of the year, the busy schedules of CEOs or delegated representatives of organizations and key figures of syndicates, orders and associations and the limited time available to conduct the study was also a challenge when planning and organizing interviews. This is particularly true as the aim of the study, which was only partially realized, was to identify organizations and entities that are representative of the economic sectors selected for participation in the study allowing meaningful contribution to the study and the development of a comprehensive understanding of the labor market dynamics. The findings are primarily qualitative in nature based on the perceptions of the graduate students who participated in the focus groups and key figures who participated in the semi-structured interviews. As perceptions they do provide meaningful insights however larger samples are recommended to obtain statistically significant results.

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As in phase 1, the initial aim was to scan print and online media for a period of six months as a longer time frame for data collection would allow for a more comprehensive understanding of employment trends. Job postings on online media, however, were not retrievable for more than three months. The number of job postings in print media that were retrieved over a period of six months was negligible not only in comparison to those found on online media but also to those posted in phase 1. As the aim was not to benchmark findings between print and online media, but to identify labor market demands, it was decided to use all data accessible to the researcher from the different media outlets.

5. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS The study aims at gaining an understanding of employment and labor market trends in Lebanon to enhance the employability of LAU students in general and USAID-USP students in particular. The study is intended to shed light on professions which are in demand in Lebanon in order to modify the list of majors offered to USP students by adding majors that correlate strongly with employment opportunities and deleting those that do not. It also aims at providing insights into the effectiveness of the soft skills training the university provides, additional soft skill needs as well as students’ internship experiences and their role in facilitating employability. The findings are presented in three sections. The first section provides a description of the current labor market dynamics and economic activity by sector. The second section gives an account of employment opportunities available to graduates in terms of geographic distribution, time to employment, and mediums used for recruitment. The final section describes recruitment patterns through three different lens: 1) print and online media, 2) key figures of syndicates, orders, associations and organizations and 3) employed and unemployed graduates. 5.1 Labor Market Dynamics by Sector Little has changed in the supply and demand dynamics of the Lebanese labor market over the past year since the first LMS conducted by LAU in 2015. Economic sectors that generate employment as well as sectors with growth potential and those with barriers to growth remain relatively the same. Similarly the distribution of employment opportunities between urban and rural areas remain unchanged as do the remuneration and income packages. 5.1.1 HHSWA sector The labor market supply and demand relationship differs based on the profession in the HHSWA sector. Currently there are 500 pharmacists entering the labor market annually and a total of 13,500 registered physicians in the country. While supply and demand seem to be in balance for most of the aforementioned HHSWA professions including nutritionists according to the general secretary 10

of the Lebanese Academy for Nutrition and Dietetics which is working towards becoming an order for licensed professionals by 2017, there is a mismatch in the labor market in supply of and demand for nurses. With a market demand of 24,000 professional nurses and only 7,000 licensed practicing nurses and no more than 400-600 nurses entering the work place annually, the market demand is clearly not being met. 5.1.2 FIA and PSTA sectors The FIA sector encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money including banks, investment funds and insurance and accounting companies. There are approximately 1,450 registered accountants in LACPA with new membership averaging around 100 each year, but with almost every organization including hospitals, educational and banking institutions needing at least one accountant to manage its finances the demand for accountants is in excess of supply across the country. The banking sector, considered the backbone of the Lebanese economy, is a major employer of Lebanon’s university graduates both in Lebanon and abroad. New recruitment increased by 2.2% in 2013 to 3.1% in 2014 according to the 2013 and 2014 Annual Reports issued by the Association of Banks in Lebanon. Based on interview findings the trend is expected to continue in 2015 as recruitment of new employees ranged from 20 employees for a medium sized bank to around 50 for a larger bank. The increase in new recruitment in the sector despite the decline in economic activity and the slowdown in growth in the country can be attributed to a number of factors as the increase in number of operating bank branches and the diversity and expansion of their activities (Association of Banks in Lebanon, 2014). The PSTA sector comprises establishments that specialize in performing professional, scientific, and technical activities for others. According to the president of LMA which has 200 registered members currently that there are employment opportunities in the sector due to the high level of expertise needed. 5.1.3 Construction sector According to the 2016 Report of OEAB, there are currently 41,055 registered engineers (civil, electrical, mechanical, computer and industrial) and architects in the country and approximately 3,500 new members join the orders in Beirut and Tripoli each year. Construction permits, a main indicator of oncoming real estate supply, reflect the general attitude towards investing in new construction projects. OEAB’s figures show that while construction permits totaled 13.5 million square meters in 2014 up from 12.9 million square meters in 2013 this trend did not extend into 2015. Construction permits totaled 12.3 million square meters in 2015 down 8.9% from 2014. According to the Quarterly Bulletin (2016) issued by Lebanese Central Bank, lending to construction has increased consistently over the past years ranging from USD 6.3 million in 2010 to USD 10 million in 2015 reflecting sustained levels of activity in the construction sector during periods of both economic growth and slowdown There has been, however, a shift in focus in the sector where current emphasis is on satisfying local demand for affordable small and medium sized property as opposed to primarily foreign demand for large sized property with construction 11

concentrated in regions outside of Beirut. According to the human resource manager of Abniah, while the market demand for architects and civil engineers is currently low, an end to the political deadlock in the country or a resolution of the regional conflicts would see the construction sector booming once again and companies struggling to find qualified construction engineers. She did note, however, that the demand for electrical and mechanical engineers has not been affected by the economic slowdown. 5.1.4 Telecommunication and I&C sectors The telecommunications and I&C sectors include companies in telecommunication and mobile phones, internet, data processing and computer systems as well as print and audiovisual media. Careers in these sectors are seen to have great employment prospects. Alfa, one of two major mobile telecommunications companies in Lebanon has up to 1,300 employees and employs between 100 and 200 fresh graduates annually in entry level positions. The MIDIS Group, one of the region’s largest IT groups has 150 employees in its branch office in Beirut. Although they rarely hire fresh graduates they consider the growth potential in this sector to be amongst the highest in the country with local companies not limiting their activities to the needs of the local market but rather by looking for regional markets to expand their activities. Additionally, several companies are providing software development outsourcing services. The steady increase in print, online and audiovisual media has created numerous job opportunities for Lebanon’s university graduates distributed among journalism, camera, production and TV related jobs including marketing, management and accounting. 5.1.5 Education sector The education sector, one of the largest in the country, consists of both a public and a private sector graduating around 40,000 students annually. The demand for qualified teachers in both sectors is high, particularly for languages (English, French and Arabic) and STEM subject areas (chemistry, physics, mathematics, technology and computing). According to the Director General of the Ministry of Education, the public school system could absorb all graduates of both private and public universities in Lebanon in all subject matter areas but he believes that graduates of private universities are allured to the private sector as they provide attractive remuneration packages, provide opportunities for professional development and career paths for progression. He adds that although there is a surplus of teachers, many of whom are contractual in the public sector, there is a dire need for qualified teachers who are abreast with the latest pedagogical and technological developments in the field as those who graduate from private institutions. He believes that infusing the public system with qualified teachers could serve as a catalyst for change in the public schools. He also noted that due to the Syrian crisis numerous new research and administrative assistantship positions with NGOs have also become available for education graduates in addition to novel teaching and tutoring opportunities. According to Reverend Badr, the senior pastor of the National Evangelical Church of Beirut, the employment rate of fresh graduates in their school system ranges 12

from 10% to 20 % of total staff (teachers and administration) annually with employment in these schools ranging from 60 to 200 employees. The higher education sector is also expanding at a rapid pace. The system currently consists of 50 licensed institutions between universities, colleges and religious institutions with two universities accepting their first batch of students in the AY 2016-2017. As existing institutions expand and new institutions emerge, academic, administrative and support staff positions become available. LAU, a leading provider of higher education, advertised for 17 new jobs on its career webpage over the past 6 months. All of the positions were non-instructional related, ten of which were for fresh graduates. 5.1.6 AAF and Environment sectors Lebanon’s environment is degrading rapidly leaving an effect on every aspect of life. The recent solid waste management crisis in 2015, the polluted beaches, rivers and air clearly indicate the need for solutions that will open up a range of employment opportunities across the country. All awaits political resolve as the CEO of an environmental consulting company asserted. AFF is a very important economic sector in Lebanon. One of the largest agricultural engineering companies in the country has over a thousand employees distributed across Lebanon. The employment rate of fresh graduates reaches up to 30% of the total staff majoring in a range of fields from marketing to management and mainly agricultural engineering. The labor market is in need of qualified people who are able to embrace and integrate new technologies that will contribute to increased agricultural productivity while observing international standards with the aim of enhancing market competitiveness with neighboring countries. 5.1.7 AFSA sector This sector consists of travel, tourism and food services establishments. The travel and tourism sector which is directly affected by internal and regional stability witnessed a sharp decline in total employment in 2013 followed by a steady growth in 2014 through to 2015. Total employment which dropped in 2013 by 20.9% increased by 22.7% in to 2014 and 4.5% in 2015. The total contribution of the sector to employment is expected to increase by 3% for 2016 (Bankmed, 2016). Factors following a similar trajectory to that of the sector’s employment trend and impacting it include number of tourists, hotel occupancy rates and domestic tourism. The restaurant industry is also affected by political and security instability. According to the founder and general manager of Classic Burger Joint, which is a medium size restaurant now venturing into franchising, the establishment has 190 employees. In 2015, of the 30 job opportunities advertised usually limited to job seekers with experience a third were open for fresh graduates which was not possible before a well-structured training program was put in place. He 13

asserts that restauranteurs have gained much resilience and have learned to adapt to and thrive in a volatile market with few beginning to venture into regional markets. 5.1.8 Manufacturing sector The industrial sector plays an important role in Lebanon’s economic development. The sector however is impacted heavily by political instability and national and regional insecurity which most often results in the disruption of production and commercial relations with neighboring countries. This is the current situation with Lebanon landlocked by countries plagued with internal conflicts and strife. Nonetheless industries have developed mechanisms of survival. These mechanisms include the development of new products and the modification of existing ones to meet consumers’ expectations in diverse markets, in addition to upgrading their infrastructure and depending on renewable energies to reduce costs as well as nurturing innovation and creativity. As a result new employment opportunities are continuously arising. According to the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of INDEVCO, which has around 7,000 employees working in 15 countries across four continents, there are approximately 50 job openings for fresh graduates in Lebanon and the region each year in various fields of study such as accounting, marketing, engineering (mechanical, industrial, civil, chemical, civil, computer and environmental), information technology, communication and human resource management.

5.2 Employment Opportunities 5.2.1 Labor Market Geographic Distribution Employment prospects for most economic sectors are concentrated in the Beirut and Mount Lebanon regions, however, there are plentiful employment opportunities in the rural regions. Discussions with unemployed graduates revealed a reluctance of many to take up employment opportunities in rural areas as the allure of the city and the craving for independence was more appealing to them compared to the comfort of the homes. Some benefits can be associated with employment in rural areas. There are no differences in salaries between urban and rural areas in the banking sector, franchise operations or international corporations and firms. Although salaries in some sectors are approximately 20-30% less for employees positioned in rural areas, the cost of living is also less. Further, career advancement in junior positions can take place at a faster pace in rural settings as compared to urban ones. These advantages are offset by the fewer new job openings and low employee turnover rate, particularly in senior positions. Faced with a saturated Lebanese labor market many fresh graduates opt for a career overseas mainly in the nearby Gulf countries.

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5.2.2 Time to Initial Employment Findings suggest that students majoring in nursing are usually hired even before they graduate while the majority of those majoring in pharmacy, computer science and computer engineering as well as management information technology can expect to find jobs upon graduation or up to three months after graduation. Students in business majors such as accounting, management and banking and finance, education and in agriculture are generally employed within six months of graduation while those majoring in engineering and architecture, and communication and media, marketing, nutrition or hospitality and tourism are typically employed within 12 months of graduation. These findings are confirmed by the time to employment of LAU’s USP students. Three of 146 (2%) USP students remain unemployed 9 months after graduation, while 24 of 146 (16%) USP students are unemployed three months after graduation. 5.2.3 Recruitment Modes According to our results, employers and key figures from all the sectors interviewed tend to recruit employees through the websites of their organizations and companies, online recruiting platforms, and the career guidance office of universities. The substantial number of applications received for job openings advertised through these mediums makes the recruitment process a cumbersome and time consuming task. As a result many employers opt to depend on their personal networks to recruit the right person for a job as they find that a recommendation from a trustworthy source maybe a more effective and efficient recruitment approach. The views conveyed by employers are confirmed by graduates with recruitment trends showing a stronger dependence on networks developed through students’ course of study both in and out of the university as can be seen in Figure 2.

F IGURE 2 RECRUITMENT MODES OF LAU’ S GRADUATES OVER THE PAST FIVE YEARS BASED ON THE FINDINGS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL E XIT S URVEY

A preferred selection mode of recruitment for several organizations is the completion of an internship where students are given the opportunity to exhibit their basic knowledge, technical and personal skills. By observing and tracking performance during internships, organizations are then better able to determine the suitability of graduates for the job offered. According to employers, internships allow employers to spot talent and identify leaders who have a high degree of emotional 15

intelligence needed to mobilize and inspire people and teams. Employers interviewed confirmed that numerous employment opportunities were offered based on performance during internships. Moreover, organizations that have not encountered LAU students as interns expressed a willingness to do so. 5.3

Recruitment Patterns

5.3.1 Recruitment patterns reflected through print and online media Print and online media sources were used to study employer recruitment patterns. All in all, 295 job postings were recorded. More than half (166) of these job postings required applicants to be holders of bachelor degrees and have at least one year of job experience, while the remaining 129 opportunities would consider applicants that have no job experience. 95% of these job postings were available through online media. Figure 3 summarizes the distribution of job postings by years of experience required.

F IGURE 3 DISTRIBUTION OF JOB POSTINGS IN PRINT AND ONLINE MEDIA

The fields of study for the job postings were recorded. When a job posting allowed applicants from a range of majors to apply, each major received an individual count. Figure 4 gives the number of job postings for each major for postings that have a requirement of at least 1 year of experience and for postings that would consider candidates with no experience. For the 166 job postings which consider candidates with no experience, 233 applicants from different academic backgrounds were offered a chance of employment. the academic majors in highest demand were management (33), computer science (26), marketing (19), accounting (19), graphic design (21), computer engineering 16

(16), pharmacy (14), education (10), nursing and English (9), translation (8) and business-banking and finance and business-MIS (7). For the 129 job postings which require at least 1 year of experience, 174 applicants from different academic majors were offered a chance of employment. A detailed breakdown of the data can be found in Appendix A.

F IGURE 4 M AJORS IN HIGH DEMAND BASED ON POSTINGS IN PRINT AND ONLINE MEDIA

5.3.2 Recruitment patterns through the eyes of key figures and employers Difficulty to recruit qualified graduates was considered a means to identify areas of employment in which market demand is not sufficiently met. In the education industry, findings suggest that market demand is not readily met when the goal is to recruit instructors for mathematics, science (physics, chemistry and biology), technology, English, Arabic, philosophy and history for 7-12 classes. Employers reported being challenged when recruiting agricultural engineers, biomedical engineers and engineers with background knowledge in food production, quality assurance and quality control, management science, bio-geology and bio-anthology. The information and communication industry is in need of qualified producers in TV and film as well as journalists. According to the CEO of Future TV, LAUs graduates have the right technical and personal skills to excel in the job. Employers and key figures reported finding difficulty recruiting graduates with a degree in accounting, auditing, marketing and management. Similar difficulties were found when recruiting web/network architecture engineers and telecommunication and computer engineers. The recruitment of developers/ programmers / IT officers and accountants is challenging in the FIA and HHSWA sectors where graduates assume support service positions and are not well versed in the banking and finance industry or in the health industry. The findings thus suggest that employability is more challenging when the employee’s educational background is not aligned with organizational expertise. They also suggest that graduates should diversify their choice of electives and minors to expand their knowledge base particularly if they have outlined clear career paths for themselves. Market demand (met /not met) and recruitment effort (difficult / easy) thus 17

seem to be industry dependent and that the need is for graduates with diverse educational backgrounds, solid theoretical and technical field related knowledge and excellent soft skill sets. A common theme that emerged from all the interviews with key figures and employers was the need for more specialization in all fields of study which would enable graduates to distinguish themselves in the workforce. For example, while there are around 500 pharmacists graduating annually very few have specialized in clinical pharmacy. This field is very promising given the evolving trends in health care practices in Lebanon and the region. The same applies for physicians, nurses and nutritionists who are encouraged to choose novel specialties and subspecialties that can give them a niche position in the labor market. Renewable and alternative energy will also be new specialties of study in the field of engineering. The digital era promises to revolutionize the way we educate our youth and the way we conduct business (e-marketing and ecommerce) and as such university curricula need to change to remain abreast with current and future trends. 5.3.3 Recruitment patterns through the eyes of employed and unemployed graduates Both employed and unemployed graduates saw that a degree from LAU was an important asset as fresh graduates set out to find their first job. The theoretical, technical and soft skills – written and oral communication skills, computer skills, problem solving abilities, leadership and ethical values among others -they acquired during the course of their studies gave them a competitive advantage in the market place. The importance of an LAU education including both the curricula and complimentary co-curricula experiences, which help in the development of the intellectual, emotional, social, moral and aesthetic domains of an individual’s personality was a distinguishing factor for employment as emphasized by the unemployed graduate alumni who attended the focus group. Unable to find a job after completing their undergraduate studies at their institutions, they joined LAU as they were convinced their career prospects would be brighter. This was indeed true as they had already received job offers, but like their LAU colleagues, they were seeking more lucrative and rewarding career opportunities equivalent to the investment made in their education. All graduates applied to jobs related to their field of study with the majority actually working in fields related to their field of study. According to graduates, for every 10-15 job applications submitted they were granted on average one to two interviews. In general, this applied across all fields of study. Some graduates rejected job offers for a range of reasons including distance to and location of workplace as well as level of difficulty and effort required in the job. While all believed that the political and security instability in the region has impacted employability prospects and remuneration packages offered to a large extent not all were ready to accept a salary below their set expectation to gain the necessary practical experience to advance in their careers. Many were looking for a managerial position in a reputable organization from the onset to ensure return on investment. To many employers this was seen as an obstacle to employment as they believed that graduates need to accept entry level positions and work their way up the career ladder. Career advancement should be the result of outstanding performance, commitment, perseverance, building on successes, learning from failure and the pursuit of continuous improvement. According 18

to the CEO of INDEVCO career advancement is a function of two factors: productivity and potential. Employees who are very productive and have potential will surely become leaders and move forward in their careers.

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CONCLUSION The LMS allowed the identification of fields of study for which career opportunities are associated with gainful employment for inclusion in the university’s admission view book addressed to new applicants to the USP program for AY 2017-2018. To achieve this end and to gain an in depth understanding of the dynamics of the Lebanese labor market, phase 2 of the LMS for the main part involved the collection of qualitative data through face-to-face interviews with key figures of syndicates, orders, associations and organizations and focus group discussions with employed and unemployed LAU graduates. With the little research done on employability in Lebanon and the scarcity of employment statistics, the qualitative indications provide insights for formulating recommendations. The convergence of the findings of quantitative data obtained through job advertisements in various print and online media sources with qualitative findings add power to conclusions reached. Fields of study in demand include nursing, pharmacy with an emphasis on clinical pharmacy, accounting, management, marketing, computer science, management information science, computer engineering, telecommunication engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering, graphic design, education with an emphasis on STEM and humanity subjects (biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, Arabic, English and philosophy) as well as translation, communication (multimedia journalism, Television and film), psychology, banking and finance, economics, agriculture engineering, nutrition, architecture, interior design, political science and political science/internal affairs. From the above, one can deduce that all the majors currently offered to USP students’ link positively to employment. Actual employment data supports this claim, as 82% of USP I, II and III graduates are currently employed with a 100% employment rate for USP I students. Of the 18% of unemployed USP graduates 2% have been unemployed for nine months after graduation while 16% have been unemployed for less than three months after graduation. Table 3 below provides a list of all majors and concentrations offered at LAU and those offered to USP I, II, III, V, VI and VII scholars across fall 2011 through to fall 2016. Based on the results derived from the interviews with the various stakeholder groups, fields of study that can be added to the existing list which appeared to link favorably to employment are chemistry, philosophy, Arabic, and translation. Key figures from the manufacturing, education, environment and AFF sectors stressed the need for employees with a background knowledge in chemistry. Chemists were employed in pharmaceutical and manufacturing companies, as well as in agriculture and food processing companies. As such, it is recommended to reinstate the BS in Chemistry to the list of degree programs offered to USP students. Although there is a need for qualified school teachers with subject matter knowledge for 7-12 in mathematics, sciences 20

(chemistry, biology, physics), languages (Arabic and English) and in philosophy and history who also have pedagogical content knowledge, it is recommended to postpone adding the BA in Philosophy, BA in History and BA in Arabic language and Literature degree programs to those offered to USP students and monitor enrollment and graduation rates in these newly offered degree programs over the coming years to make an informed decision. For the remaining subject matter areas listed above it is recommended that USP students who wish to become teachers be allowed to take a TD to enhance their employment opportunities as they compete with regular LAU graduates who usually follow this path. June 2016 witnessed the graduation of LAU’s first batch of students holding a BS in Bioinformatics and a BA in Translation. As proposed above it is recommended to postpone the offering of these degree programs to USP students until LAU has witnessed the graduation of at least three cohorts of students while monitoring trends in enrollments. With this being said it is important to note that both in phase 1 and phase 2 of the LMS these degree programs correlated positively with gainful employment. Another field of study that linked favorably to employment in both phases of the LMS is fine arts. As LAU has a long history in offering this degree program it is advisable to add it to the list of programs offered to USP students in fall 2017. These findings should not lead one to conclude that the challenges faced by fresh graduates when seeking initial employment given the current economic and political state of the country are not substantial. However, the solid theoretical background in addition to the soft skills set acquired by LAU graduates during their course of study give LAU graduates a competitive edge in the local and international labor markets. Further most students at LAU engage in higher order learning practices such as internships, practicums and community service activities which enhance student learning and employment preparedness.

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All majors offered at LAU

Major

Concentration

Majors offered to USP scholars 2016-2017

Will not be offered to USP students as there are not 3 cohorts of graduates Will not be offered to USP students as duration of the program is 5 years (176 credits) Will not be offered to USP students

Arabic

Architecture

Biology Accounting

Business

Proposed majors for USP scholars 2017-2018

Banking & Finance Family & Entrepren. Bus. Mgt. Information Technology Mgt.

 

 

Offered Since

3 Classes of Graduates AY 2013-2014 to AY 20115-2016

Current Total Enrollment Fall 2016

Current USP Enrollment Fall 2016

2012-2013

No

1

0

6

1992-1993

Yes

463

0

Yes

6

1992-1993

Yes

567

5

Yes

19

Yes

156

7

Yes

507

20

Yes

22

0

Yes

92

4

IKF

JP

Yes

Yes

7

Yes 



Yes

21

1

BS in Business degree was offered since 1971-1972

International Business





Yes

Management





Yes

Marketing





Chemistry

Yes

197

2

33

Yes

560

17

Yes

19

Yes

386

6



Yes

1

1971-1972

Yes

57

16

Civil Engineering





Yes

3

1995-1996

Yes

513

17

Computer Engineering





Yes

16

1995-1996

Yes

166

8

Computer Science





Yes

26

1980-1981

Yes

243

33

Economics





Yes

1

2002-2003

Yes

208

4

Early Childhood Education





Yes

Yes

38

1

Elementary Education



Yes

40

1

26

1

1

0

Education

Teaching Diploma Diploma in Learning Disabilities and Giftedness





 

Will not be offered to USP students as there are not 3 cohorts of graduates

In its new format starting 2002-2003

Yes Yes

Yes

10

No  22

Electrical Engineering





Yes

4

1995-1996

English





Yes

9

1952-1953

95

9

Yes

32

2

2013-2014

No

75

0

1985-1986

Yes

20

0

1999-2000

Yes

69

1

Yes

1999-2000

Yes

67

0

Will not be offered to USP students as there are not 3 cohorts of graduates

Yes

New format starting 2010-2011

No

1

0





Yes

2002-2003

Yes

79

1





Yes

1995-1996

Yes

149

1

Will not be offered to USP students as the program is new with no graduates to date.

Fashion Design

Fine Arts

Graphic Design

Digital Design





Yes



Yes

1

21 Print Design



History

Hosp. & Tourism Management Industrial Engineering

Yes



23

Will not be offered to USP students as there is a 63% risk of inability to complete the degree in 4 years.

Interior Architecture

Interior Design



1



186

0

98

3

2015-2016

Yes Previously Comm. Arts

31

1

2010-2011

No

58

24

2002-2003

Yes

401

14

2015-2016

No

47

0

89

17

205

17

1985-1986

Multimedia Journalism





Yes

Mathematics





Yes

Mechanical Engineering





Yes

Will not be offered to USP students

Yes

Mechatronics Engineering

1999-2000

2

5

Nursing





Yes

9

2010-2011

Nutrition





Yes

2

2010-2011

Will not be offered to USP students

Yes

Nutrition Dietetics CP Performing Arts





 24

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes

2013-2014

No

8

0

2015-2016

Yes Previously Comm. Arts

10

0

Will not be offered to USP students as the program is new with no graduates to date. Will not be offered to USP students Will not be offered to USP students as there are not 3 cohorts of graduates

Petroleum Engineering

Pharmacy

Philosophy

2014-2015

No

94

0

1995-1996

Yes

428

0

Yes

2010-2011

No

2

0

Yes

1971-1972

18

0

147

7

168

2

17

5

2015-2016

Yes Previously Comm. Arts

84

4

2012-2013

No

25

0

Yes

Yes

Political Science Political Science/Int. Affairs

 



Yes

Psychology





Yes

Social Work





Yes

Television and Film Translation



14

1





Yes

Will not be offered to

Yes 25

Yes Yes

2005-2006 2

2002-2003 2002-2003

8

Yes Yes

USP students as there are not 3 cohorts of graduates IKF = Interviews with Key figures in syndicates, orders, associations and organizations JP = Job Postings with 0 to 1 year of experience Majors and concentrations currently offered to USP scholars Majors and concentrations recommended for continuous offering 

Majors and concentrations proposed to be added to currently offered ones

T ABLE 4 M AJORS OFFERED T O USP STUDENTS

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WORK PLAN Based on the above recommendations regarding adding, removing or keeping majors for the USP VII cohort 2, we propose the following plan to implement the results of the survey: 1. We will share a copy of the survey with USAID by October 30 2. After receiving USAID’s approval and clearance we will implement the necessary changes (adding/removing/keeping programs) in the admission application 3. We will update the LAU-USP website by accordingly STUDENTS REQUESTED TO CHANGE MAJORS All selection committee members will ensure that no student will be asked to change Major simply to fill a space in the proposed major. On the contrary, files of students who do not meet the admission requirements for the Major they asked for, will: 1. Be evaluated for other Majors according to what they wrote in their admission application, and / or 2. Be evaluated to Majors that are close to the Major they applied for, such as computer engineering and computer Science Such students will called by the Admissions’ office and asked if they agree to the proposed change during the selection process.

POTENTIAL AREAS OF COLLABORATION WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR

To leverage part of the tuition, if feasible and possible, we will try to coordinate with our Development Office to see how feasible this initiative is, and if anything can be done at all for Fall 2017. Such an initiative might require identifying potential large employers.

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Bibliography The American University of Beirut’s Alumni Relations Office & The Hariri Foundation for Sustainable Human Development. (2009). Higher Education & Labor Market Outcomes in Lebanon. Beirut: the authors. Association of Banks in Lebanon, (2013), Annual Report: Human Resources in Banks Operating in Lebanon, Part 3, Accessed on 20 June 2016 at http://www.abl.org.lb/subPage.aspx?pageid=7140 Association of Banks in Lebanon, (2014), Annual Report: Human Resources in Banks Operating in Lebanon, Part 3, Accessed on 20 June 2016 at http://www.abl.org.lb/subPage.aspx?pageid=9478 Bankmed, 2016. Special Report: Analysis of Lebanon’s Travel and Tourism Sector, Accessed on 29 July 2016 at http://www.bankmed.com.lb/BOMedia/subservices/categories/News/20160629095420404.pdf Central Bank of Lebanon, 2016. Quarterly Bulletin: First Quarter 2016, Accessed on October 7, 2016 at http://www.bdl.gov.lb/publications.html Bissar-Tadmouri, N. & Tadmouri, G. O., 2009, ‘Bibliometric analyses of biomedical research outputs in Lebanon and the United Arab Emirates (1988-2007)’, Saudi Medical Journal, 30(1), pp. 130-139. CAS. (2014), Professional Activities 2014. Beirut: CAS. Chaaban, J., 2009. Labour markets performance and migration flows in Lebanon. Labour markets performance and migration flows in Arab Mediterranean countries: determinants and effects, 4. Economic Research and Analysis Department, Byblos Bank. (2015). Lebanon This Week. Issue 406, 15-20 June 2015. Accessed on 15 April 2016 at http://www.byblosbank.com/Library/Files/Lebanon/Publications/Economic%20Research/Lebano n%20This%20Week/LTW%20406.pdf. International Labour Organization, 2015, Global Employment Trends for Youth 2015: Scaling up investments in decent jobs for youth. (International Labour Office – Geneva: ILO) Kawar, M., & Tzannatos, Z. (2013). Youth employment in Lebanon: Skilled and jobless. Policy Paper series. Beirut: Lebanese Center for Policy Studies. http://www.lcpslebanon.org/publications/1368538726-youth_enemployment.pdf 28

Stephens Balakrishnan, M., 2013, ‘Methods to increase research output: some tips looking at the MENA region’, International Journal of Emerging Markets, 8(3), pp. 215-239. World Bank (2014). Country Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/lebanon/overview World Bank, 2011, ‘Lebanon: Good jobs needed’, Presentation at the Ministry of Labour, Beirut, 25 August (2011). World Bank, 2012, ‘Lebanon - Good jobs needed: the role of macro, investment, education, labour and social protection policies (MILES) - a multi-year technical cooperation program. (Washington, DC: World Bank). http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2012/12/17464894/lebanon-good-jobs-neededrolemacro-investment-education-labor-social-protection-policies-miles-multi-year-technicalcooperation-program World Bank, 11 April 2013, ‘World Bank: Lebanon Needs to Create 23,000 Jobs per Year’, Press Release. Accessed on 10 April 2016 at http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/pressrelease/2013/04/11/world-bank-lebanon-needs-to-create-23-000-jobs-per-year. 2016‫ ا ّذار‬, ‫ االجتماع العادي‬:‫ مقررات هيئة المندوبين‬,‫نقابة مهندسين بيروت‬

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