Lake and Reservoir Management

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Hornak et al. (2008) ... the R-BT065 cluster (a subgroup of Betaproteobacteria), whereas the ...... Assessment Tool model applied to the Mark Twain. Lake/Salt ...

Lake and Reservoir Management Paul A. Gantzer1, Lee D. Bryant2, John C. Little3


sub-sections) are designed to provide general structure to

A review of the literature published in 2008 on

the review and are not intended to be article-specific (e.g.,

topics relating to lake and reservoir management is presented.

an article in a particular section may also include

This review, which covers over 500 articles

components related to other sections).

from over 70 journals, focuses on topics directly related to the management of lakes and reservoirs. Of the articles evaluated,








Historical data. The influence of climate change

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Hydrobiologia,

on aquatic systems has been evaluated using historical data,

Journal of Great Lakes Research, Limnology and

direct measurements of current conditions and predictive

Oceanography, Water Research, and Water Resources

models. McBean and Motiee (2008) focused on predicting


the impact of potential climate change on water resources

The review is divided into the following

sections: Climate, Ecology, Eutrophication, Limnology,




hydrological data, incorporating long-term regression

Monitoring, Nutrients, Organic Matter, Planning and

analyses and Mann-Kendall statistics. Resuslts were then

Management, Restoration and Treatment, Sediment, and

compared to predictions from Global Circulation Models

General Water Quality. These sections (and associated

(GCMs) to develop historical trends in precipitation,


temperature, and streamflows in the Great Lakes of North







Gantzer Water Resources Engineering, 14816 119th PL NE,





It was concluded that there is evidence that

Kirkland, WA, 98034; Tel. 206-999-1878; e-mail:

hydrologic changes, particularly for precipitation in the

[email protected]

Great Lakes Basin, may be at least partially due to global


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia

warming and climate change.

Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, e-mail: [email protected]

Historical data was also

utilized by McGowan et al. (2008), who examined two


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia

climate-related variables (lake-water conductivity and

Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, e-mail: [email protected]

temperature) and ontogeny (lake age) to determine influences on lake autotrophic communities in two 1854

Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

neighbouring closed-basin lakes from West Greenland.


Data spanning the past 8,000 years was evaluated using

monitoring and managing lake level changes.

sedimentary pigments as proxies for lake autotrophic

balances for the four westernmost Federal reservoirs in

communities. Results showed that lake primary production

Kansas (Cedar Bluff, Keith Sebelius, Webster and Kirwin)

increased with lake age and that the response of autotrophs

have also been evaluated (Brikowski 2008) to highlight the



progression toward unsustainability from streamflow

depending upon the age of the lake. Climate, however, was

declines on the Great Plains of the USA and to show that

not found to be a dominant process controlling autotrophic

future climate change will result in continued streamflow

communities. Therefore, their results showed that long-

declines at historical rates, with severe consequences for

term control of lake autotrophs by climate and lake age is

surface water supply.

modified on shorter timescales by non-linear responses

ultimately, surface storage of water resources may prove to

related to within-lake processes, and by the interaction of

be unsustainable in the Great Plains region, forcing

different climate variables with one other and with lake

conversion to subsurface storage. The impact of climate


change on the average annual water balance of Lake



temperature varied





predicting, Water

Brikowski (2008) indicated that

Parplies et al. (2008) analyzed total organic

Balaton under different climate scenarios was examined by

carbon content, total nitrogen content, stable nitrogen

Novaky (2008). It was predicted that an increase in annual

isotope (delta(15)) and stable organic carbon isotope (delta

temperature by 1.5 C° and a 5% decrease in annual

C-13(org)) ratios on a high resolution sediment profile from

precipitation would likely lead to a considerable decrease in

Lake Sihailongwan, covering a time span between 16,500

water recharge of the lake; however, an annual temperature

and 9,500 years before present. Strong variability in the

increase of 2.8 C° coupled with a 10% decrease in

investigated proxy parameters is attributed to significant

precipitation could cause Lake Balaton to become a closed

climatic fluctuations during the investigated time period,

lake without outflow.

which is discussed in relation to monsoon variability and


Northern Hemisphere climate development of late glaciers.





parameters defining water and sediment conditions have

Field measurements. Several works focused on

been used in a number of studies to estimate aquatic system

correlating direct measurements of variations in water

response to climate change. Pham et al. (2008) surveyed

levels to climate change.

Awange et al. (2008a)

variables defining water (major ions, conductivity, salinity,

investigated climatic contribution to the declining Lake

lake volume) and sediment (algal pigments, stable isotopes)

Victoria water level in Uganda and revealed a strong

conditions in 21 lakes that surround Humboldt Lake,

correlation between climatic indicators of drought and

Saskatchewan, Canada, which is the site of a 2,000-yr

rainfall and between lake levels. Results signified the need

climate reconstruction. The primary goal was to quantify


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

spatial synchrony (S, the mean among-lake correlation

change, as well as the adaptation and vulnerability of lake

coefficient) of prairie lake response to climate variability,

ecosystems. Weyhenmeyer et al. (2008) emphasized the

land use, and their interactions for the evaluation of the

importance of considering changes in climate, atmospheric

effects of climate change and human activity.

deposition and catchment measures to explain water quality


research revealed that the effects of climate and land use


interacted strongly and that unique impacts of each factor

(2008), who analyzed Secchi disk transparency in Lake



Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe, to detect climatic

Weyhenmeyer (2008) evaluated trends over time using a

(interannual) trends for lake regions with various depths,

nonparametric Mann-Kendall test for 18 aquatic chemical

using more than 7000 transparency measurements collected

variables from 79 reference lakes, distributed across

between 1905 and 2003.

Sweden. Aquatic chemical variables showed higher rates

downward climatic trend of water transparency in Lake

of change at lower latitutdes, as compared to higher

Ladoga is 0.02 m yr-1.





Supporting data was obtained by Naumenko

Results show that the mean

latitudes, which was coincidental with lake ice breakup.

The invertebrate community from eulittoral root

Results thus suggest that climatic changes can accelerate

habitats was compared with those of infralittoral habitats by

atmospheric-driven changes particularly at lower latitudes,

Brauns et al. (2008) to test which components of the

which would result in more heterogeneous lake ecosystems

invertebrate community would be potentially affected by

along a latitudinal gradient.

Temporal changes in 16

the loss of root habitats, and whether infralittoral habitat

physical and chemical variables were analyzed and

types could mitigate these effects, in East-German lowland

compared by Weyhenmeyer (2008b); this study focused on

lakes. Their results suggest that the loss of eulittoral root

Sweden's two largest lakes, Vattern and Vanern, and 48

habitats will cause a significant alteration of the littoral

smaller Swedish reference lakes.

Data were obtained

invertebrate community, which is particularly significant in

during spring from 1984-2003. Results show that rates of

light of potential climatic changes and subsequent water

changes varied substantially among lakes and among

level changes.

variables and that they were clearly influenced by changes in both climate and atmospheric deposition.

Model predictions.

Nutrient loading and

The study

corresponding trophic status have been evaluated via

showed that climate change effects that act via the lake

modeling to further assess climate change effects. Moore

surface can be of the same order of magnitude among large

et al. (2008) explored the impacts of climate change on

and small lakes, but climate change effects that act via the

hydrologic inputs and consequent implications for nutrient

catchment differ substantially in large lakes. Therefore, it

loading to Lake Malaren, Sweden using a loading function

was essential to differentiate between these two types of

model (GWLF) as a simple, rapid, and flexible modeling

climate effects in order to assess the impacts of climate

approach. It was observed that climate change projections


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

showed profound changes in the timing of discharge and

in the upper reach of the basin, increased temperatures

nutrient delivery due to increased winter precipitation and

could cause signficant increases in streamflow, therefore

earlier snow melt; however, impacts on total annual

highlighting challenges for the basin's water resource

discharge and load were minimal.

management and flood protection.

The relationship

between climate and trophic status of shallow lakes (lake

The influence of climate change on levels of

area > 5 ha, mean depth < 3.2 m) located on the subhumid

DOC was the focus of several studies. Futter et al. (2008)

western Boreal Plain of Canada was investigated by Sass et

explored the mechanisms by which variations in climate

al. (2008) using correlation and regression analyses to

control seasonal to inter-annual patterns of DOC in the lake

assess the association between indicators of climate and

and outflow stream of a small Finnish catchment using

satellite-based estimates of trophic status (chlorophyll-a).

INCA-C, a process-based model of climate effects on

Results showed that climate was related to interannual

surface water DOC. Their results suggested that some of

changes in trophic status and offered insight into to how

the observed increase in surface water DOC was caused by

shallow lake systems may behave on the subhumid Boreal

climate-related processes occurring in the lake and

Plain as a function of future climate change.

catchment; however, they recommend more complete







catchment-scale process-based models be employed to link

attenuation were investigated as modifiers to the effects of

the effects of changing climate and deposition on aquatic

climate change on lake thermal regimes in Clearwater

and terrestrial environments.

Lake, Canada by Tanentzap et al. (2008), who reported on

In a study of 163 Finnish lake catchments, two

a 28-yr decrease in whole-lake average temperature despite

exploratory empirical DOC models were utilized by Posch

regional signatures of warming. Their results were based

et al. (2008) to show that changes in sulfur deposition or

on a one-dimensional lake mixing model and attributed

temperature could have a confounding influence on the

thermal changes to forest regrowth, reduced sulfur dioxide

recovery of surface waters from acidification, and that the

emissions, and a 10-fold increase in dissolved organic

corresponding increases in DOC concentrations may offset

carbon (DOC) concentrations. Significant modeling work

the recovery in pH due to reductions in acidifying

was also performed by Chen et al. (2008e), who evaluated

depositions. Posch et al. (2008) also used the dynamic

impacts of climate change on water resources in the Bosten

hydro-chemical Model of Acidification of Groundwater in

Lake basin (on the south slope of the Tianshan Mountains

Catchments (MAGIC) to predict the response of these

in Xinjiang, China) using an artificial neural network

catchments to future acidic deposition and climatic change

(ANN) model to examine surface hydrology response to


changes in regional temperature and precipitation. Results

climate change (temperate and precipitation) on recovery

showed that because of the additional effect of glacier melt

was negligible, as change in runoff was negligible.

It was reported that the direct influence of


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

Remote sensing.

Ghanbari and Bravo (2008)

Systems with large storage capacities were shown not to be

investigated the frequency domain relationships between

affected, whereas smaller reservoirs currently operating at

four atmospheric teleconnections (Trans-Nino Index TNI,

maximum storage are likely to be affected by increased

Pacific Decadal Oscillation PDO, Northern Annular

inflows during periods of early snow-melts associated with



climate change. O'Hara and Georgakakos (2008) used a

Pacific/North American PNA pattern) and water levels in

reservoir system in San Diego, California to perform a case

the Great Lakes from 1948 to 2002 by quantifying the

study for the determination of the effectiveness of storage

coherence between these time series, the coherence, or

capacity expansions based on a general applicable

"climate link," between atmospheric teleconnections and

methodology assessing the ability of existing storage to

the Great Lakes regional climate (namely precipitation,

meet urban water demand under present and projected

evaporation, air temperature, and connecting channel

future climatic scenarios.

flows) and the coherence, or "hydrologic link," between

change scenarios will be more costly to the city than

regional climate and lake levels. It was concluded that the

scenarios using historical hydrologic parameters.




They found that the climate

effect of the teleconnections on lake levels is mostly transmitted through the "climate links" and the "hydrologic Ecology

links", particularly through channel inflows to Lakes

Organic assessment.

Michigan, Erie, and Ontario. Sea-viewing wide field-of-

Carbon fixation was

analyzed by Casamayor et al. (2008) in a series of stratified

view sensor (SeaWiFS) and moderate-resolution imaging

lakes with oxygen-sulfide interfaces following carbon-14-

spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery were used by Kerfoot

bicarbonate incorporation into oxygenic phototrophic,

et al. (2008) in southern Lake Michigan to reveal a spatially

anoxygenic phototrophic (photosynthetic sulfur bacteria;

complex chlorophyll-a pattern termed the "doughnut.”

PSB), and chemolithoautotrophic guilds (dark fixation

Their results suggest a previously unrecognized coupling between late-winter storm-induced gyre formation, coastal water, sediment capture, and deep-water productivity. This

processes), respectively.

It was reported that PSB







incubations at high rates during the day but much less at

correlation may be linked to climate change, as higher

night, which suggested that photosynthetic organisms were

temperatures and more frequent winter storms suppress

capable of substantial dark carbon fixation after being

coastal ice formation and encourage movement of nutrient-

subjected to light. Furthermore, it was emphased that "light

enriched waters and sediments into deeper waters.

dependent'' dark carbon-fixation activity is an issue that

Storage effects. The effect of climate change

should be carefully addressed in future experiments.

and subsequent storage capacity for hydropower reservoirs


in California (USA) was evaluated by Vicuna et al. (2008).





bioaccumulation/biomagnification of chlorinated paraffins


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

(CPS) in Lake Ontario and northern Lake Michigan,


evaluating both short-chain CPS (SCCP; C-10-C-13) and


medium-chain CPS (MCCP; C-14-C-17) on an isomer

environments (> 4,000 m) in the Venezuelan Andes.

basis. It was concluded that, given the prominence of CPS,

During this study, a synthetic, quantitative approach was

particularly in lake waters and in lower food web

employed instead of the classical analytical, and mostly

organisms, further investigation is needed to evaluate the

qualitative, approach typical used for NPP studies. Results



showed a strong agreement with previous studies, based on


pollen, diatom and oxygen isotope analyses, and provided



accumulation/magnification environment.

distribution in



The activities of extracellular peroxidases








additional paleoecological information, such




as the

were investigated by Buck et al. (2008) in two distinct

possibility of a previously unrecorded Younger Dryas

compartments of the experimentally-divided Lake Grosse

signal. Changes in weight-specific microcystin content of

Fuchskuhle, Germany (separated into an acidic, humic-rich

Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated by Izydorczyk et

compartment and an almost neutral eutrophic compartment)

al. (2008), who sampled the Sulejow Reservoir (Poland) to

and in the catchment area; their results suggest that these

examine which abiotic or biotic factors are key factors

enzymes were involved in the degradation of aromatic

governing microcystin content. They suggest that not only

compounds, e.g. humic substances. Ueno et al. (2008)

abiotic factors, but also the presence of herbivorous


zooplankton, may determine microcystin content of M.





diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) in samples of surface water


and precipitation (rain and snow) collected from sites in

physicochemical and biological water quality, including the

Ontario, Canada. OH-PBDEs were detected in all of the

total microcystin concentrations, in the Lebna Dam region

samples analyzed, with higher values found near sewage

(Tunisia) and reported high total inorganic nitrogen and

treatment plant (STP) outfalls in Lake Ontario.



El Herry




(2008) investigated



results suggested that OH-PBDEs are ubiquitous in the

concentrations, and a dominance of phytoplankton during

abiotic environment and most likely are produced through

autumn of three morphospecies of the genus Microcystis

reaction of PBDEs with atmospheric hydroxide radicals.

and the species Oscillatoria tenuis.

Additionally, they may be present in surface waters near

A considerable number of studies included

STPs due to oxidation of PBDEs and inflows from






metabolism by humans and animals.

plankton. Variability in abundance of functional groups,

Biota. Rull et al. (2008) evaluated the potential

functional diversity measures, and functional structure of

usefulness of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP; microfossils

littoral macroinvertebrate communities, in relation to the

other than pollen and spores present in palynological

environmental features of boreal lakes, were examined by


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

Heino (2008), who reported that the most important

al. (2008) in order to characterize the environment and












abundances of functional groups and functional structure

changes in phytoplankton. Ninety species belonging to six



classes (Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae,

phosphorous, and water hardness. Furthermore, functional

Dinophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Euglenophyceae) were

and taxonomic measures of macroinvertebrate communities

identified with 66 and 80 taxonomic units during the dry

provided relatively similar information about littoral

and rainy season. The group Cyanobacteria was represented

communities and ecosystem functioning.

by 18 species of diverse morphological characteristics and






Gladyshev et al. (2008) found concentrations of

the other major group, Bacillariophyceae, was represented

eicosapentaenoic acid to be a viable predictor of growth in

by 21 species. Hornak et al. (2008) investigated changes in

Daphnia at threshold concentrations during their study of

bacterioplankton abundance, composition, and fractions of

specific growth rates (based on biomass increment per unit

cells incorporating leucine associated with a Microcystis

time) of Daphnia-fed natural reservoir seston from a

aeruginosa bloom and enhanced protozoan grazing in a

eutrophic Siberian reservoir during four vegetation seasons.

eutrophic reservoir.

Chan et al. (2008) compared abundances of viable and

collected from the Microcystis-poor dam area and the

inviable calanoid copepod resting eggs among three

Microcystis-rich middle region of the reservoir; samples

freshwater lakes with different acidification histories: Swan

were then incubated in dialysis bags at the collection sites

Lake, which underwent major chemical and biological

and, in parallel, one of each of the treatments from one site

changes from acid and metal deposition, and Teardrop and

was transferred to and incubated at the other site. It was

Bat Lakes, which were relatively unaffected by historical

reported that the sample transfer from the dam to the

acidification and had comparatively constant, though

middle region induced a decrease in abundances and

different, pH over time). It was reported that within the

doubling times of total bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and of

study lakes, the abundance of viable resting eggs declined

the R-BT065 cluster (a subgroup of Betaproteobacteria),

with increased egg age and that higher numbers of viable

whereas the transfer to the dam station revealed opposite

resting eggs were found in recent sediments from acid-

trends. Autumn picoplankton and environmental factors in

recovering Swan Lake as compared to Teardrop and Bat

a series of reservoirs along the Wujiang River in Guizhou

Lakes, with relatively temporally-constant environments

Province, SW China were investigated by Wang et al.

when the total number of eggs was held as a covariate.

(2008a). It was observed that in autumn meso-eutrophic

The phytoplankton



During this study, samples were


reservoirs, thermal stratification was clear and abundances

factors of the Cruzeta reservoir, characteristically an oligo-

of different picoplankton groups in release water were low;

mesotrophic environment, were assessed by Chellappa et

whereas these phenomena were not obvious in autumn


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

hypereutrophic reservoirs and



were much higher in the littoral than in the profundal

decreased with increasing water depth, thus showing a

region and a stepwise multiple regression analysis

positive correlation with water temperature, which reflected

demonstrated that water depth was the most important

the importance of light and temperature on picoplankton

factor affecting the distribution of macrozoobenthos.







Zooplankton density in open water and amongst

changes in species composition and density of ciliates in

emergent and floating-leaved vegetation was monitored by

adjacent river and reservoir zones (Zemborzycki Reservoir,

Cazzanelli et al. (2008) in a small, eutrophic lake


(Frederiksborg Slotsso) in Denmark.


Emergent and











floating-leaved macrophytes harboured significantly higher

delivery and total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in

densities of pelagic, as well as plant-associated zooplankton

the water. Similarly, Sharov (2008) considered long-term

species, compared to the open water even during periods

changes in the structure of phytoplankton in two large lakes

where predation pressure was presumably high.

It is

of northwestern Russia (Onega and Imandra) and reported

suggested that emergent and floating-leaved macrophytes

that, despite the local nature of the lakes' pollution,

may play an important role in enhancing water clarity due

phytoplankton changes are traced within several tens of

to increased grazing pressure by zooplankton migrating

kilometers from the sources of wastewater discharge.

into the plant stands; thus, as a consequence, especially in







turbid lakes the ecological role of these functional types of

zooplankton of two tropical high mountain lakes - Lake El

vegetation, and not merely that of submerged macrophyte

Sol and Lake La Luna - located inside a volcano in central

species, should be taken into consideration. Hulyal and

Mexico, and recorded a total of 35 taxa (two copepods, four

Kaliwal (2008) investigated the limnobiotic status of

cladocerans and 29 rotifers). Their results show that most

Almatti reservoir (India); results show that the distribution

signficant biotic dissimilarities observed between these two

and population density of zooplankton species was

neighboring lakes were due to abiotic environmental



conditions (mainly pH); however, it was suggested that the

environment, revealing a significant relation between

relatively recent introduction of fish in one of these lakes

biological and non-biological factors.

has magnified differences between them.





Cui et al. (2008)

conducted a study of Fuxian Lake, located in the Yunnan-

Kelly et al. (2008) re-examined an existing

Guizhou Plateau in southwest China, in order to describe

dataset compiled largely from littoral samples from

the zoobenthic community more completely.


standing waters in the English Lake District and compared

identified 62 benthic taxa, including 22 oligochaetes, 21

transfer functions for total phosphorus, dissolved inorganic

molluscs and 18 insects. The standing stocks of benthos

carbon, conductivity and calcium concentration generated


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

from diatoms and non-diatoms separately and together to

examine the influence of resuspended sediments and

assess the ecological status of phytobenthos. Results show

riverine inputs on Lake Michigan plankton dynamics.

that diatoms could be used as proxies for phytobenthos

Quiroz-Vazquez et al. (2008), who monitored and

when ecological status is being assessed. Water quality parameters.

related seasonal aluminum, silica and transition metal Yin and Zhao

(manganese, iron, nickel and copper) concentrations in lake

(2008) studied the effects of temperature, salinity and algal

water and phytoplankton within an unpolluted lake. Based

food (Synechococcus sp., Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Isochrysis

on varying correlation patterns observed for aquatic,


















insoluble results




elemental external

geographical Brachionus plicatilis sensu stricto clones,

availability, soluble uptake and insoluble deposition were

which had been identified according to the prevalent

distinct aspects of the pelagic ecosystem.

taxonomy and biometric analysis of Brachionus plicatilis

Stager and Johnson (2008) reviewed and updated

sensu lato. Results showed that temperature, salinity and

the geophysical and paleoecological evidence for lake-wide

the product ‘temperature x salinity’ significantly influenced


life history parameters.

environmental conditions that aquatic species likely

Barker et al. (2008) studied







Hickling Broad (UK) and changes in water quality as the

experienced during the low stand.

aquatic system shifted from a clear-water macrophyte-

Lake Victoria was at its lowest between 18,000 and 14,000

dominated community to a turbid algal-dominated one due

calendar years ago, and it dried out at least once during that

to changes in salinity.


Declines in plant biomass,

It was reported that

Likewise, existence of Lake Victoria's diverse

macrophyte species richness and macrophyte Shannon-

endemic biota must be reconciled with the incontrovertible

Weaver diversity resulting from increased release of

geophysical and paleoecological evidence of a ca. 15,000

phosphorus from the sediments, increased algal turbidity

year age for the lake, and not vice versa.

and reduction of zooplankton grazer activity were observed

Two flood seasons at Sua Pan, an intermittent

in a mesocosm experiment using salinities that straddled

saline lake in central Botswana, were evaluated by

values in the Broad.

McCulloch et al. (2008)

Experimental and field observations suggested




to document the response of changes




that both seasonal riverine inputs and episodic resuspended

demonstrated the importance of spatial and temporal


salinity gradients for crustacean community composition,






metabolism and biogeochemistry in Lake Michigan,

associated with a decline in species richness.

according to Johengen et al. (2008), who presented results

predominant saline tolerant species on Sua Pan showed a

from a simulated enrichment experiment designed to

greater similarity to those in saline lakes in southern and


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation


East Africa with higher proportions of bicarbonate and,

thickness and water depth, to evaluate water quality and the

particularly, magnesium in their chemical composition.

corresponding oxygen concentrations affecting fish habitat.

Gobler et al. (2008) established the abundances

Volume-weighted mean DO concentrations ranged from 4

and mortality rates of microbes in Lake Erie during thermal

to 94% of saturation in March, with DO and specific

stratification and determined how they varied with changes

conductance data suggesting that the lakes began to refresh

in bottom-water dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations.

in May.

Their results suggested that, during hypoxia events in Lake

Primary production. The importance of current

Erie, herbivory by microzooplankton was disrupted while

autochthonous primary production and detritus derived

bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates continued to


persist. Additionally, rates of viral lysis of heterotrophic

autochthonous production was quantified for the dominant

bacteria were higher in the hypolimnion than in surface

benthic insects in Crampton Lake by Solomon et al. (2008).

waters, suggesting that increased viral lysis may enhance

Their results demonstrated significant but incomplete

regeneration of organic matter in bottom waters during

support of insect production by current autochthony, and

hypoxic events.

indicate that allochthonous inputs and old autochthonous

a combination of terrestrial inputs and old

Microcosm experiments were used by Corno et

detritus support a substantial fraction (25-83%) of insect

al. (2008) to study the response of bacterial communities to

production. Greisberger et al. (2008) measured production



rates, abundance, chlorophyll-a concentrations and pigment

conditions, by estimating the relative diversity of microbial

composition for three size classes (< 2 mu m, 2-11 mu m

communities with a fingerprinting based approach for both

and > 11 mu m) of phytoplankton in deep, mesotrophic,

prey and predators.

alpine lake Mondsee (Austria).




Their observations indicated that

moderate top-down control is fundamental to the shaping


and preservation of natural bacterial communities, even in

characterized by their surface area to volume ratio, pigment

oligotrophic systems. Nutrient restrictions were also


evaluated by Jewson et al. (2008), who studied populations

Observations indicated that among the three fractions,

of the planktonic diatom Aulacoseira skvortzowii and the

autotrophic picophytoplankton showed the highest surface

formation of spores in Lake Baikal. Their results define

area to volume ratios and a high persistence in the pattern

relationships of sporulation as a result of phosphorus and

of lipophilic pigments between temporarily and spatially

nitrate limitations, as well as the onset of stratification.

successive samples.

Chambers et al. (2008) analyzed five North Slope


This study focused on


zooplankton in







In a study of phytoplankton and

the hypertrophic Swarzedzkie Lake

lakes of Alaska for oxygen, conductivity, pH, and

(Poland) by Goldyn and Kowalczewska-Madura (2008),

temperature throughout the lake depth, as well as ice

results reveal a positive correlation between zooplankton


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

biomass and chlorophyll-a concentration and between

Holopainen et al. (2008) studied seasonal and

zooplankton abundance and phytoplankton biomass.

spatial variations in the phytoplankton communities of

Field experiments and mathematical models

Lake Pyhajarvi in order to identify possible long-term

showed that photosynthesis ranged from a 15% reduction

(from 1963-2002) changes and to present recent data (post

up to a 200% enhancement from the combined effects of

2002) on phytoplankton biomass and species composition.

internal waves and fluctuations in surface irradiance

Some changes in both phytoplankton biomass and species

according to Evans et al. (2008), who tested whether

composition, particularly in the littoral zone and northern

internal waves enhance photosynthesis as they move

basins of the lake, were obvious at the end of the 1980s; in

phytoplankton through a nonlinear light field in situations

particular, the density of blue-greens increased during that

where photosynthesis is light-limited.

period. Current data, however, showed that the effective

Effler et al. (2008a) documented patterns of

water protection measures applied, especially reducing the

planktonic primary production (net and gross) and

phosphorus load from municipal wastewaters and airborne

community respiration for culturally eutrophic Onondaga

pollution, improved the water quality.

Lake, NY, based on in-situ experiments that utilized the

Akcaalan (2008) determined and compared environmental

dissolved oxygen light/dark bottle methodology, and found

factors controlling vertical colonisation of periphyton on

that primary production and respiration have been

Sparganium erectum in a shallow eutrophic turbid lake

approximately in balance in this productive lake over the

(Manyas Lake) and an oligo-mesotrophic deep lake

intervals of the metabolic studies.

(Sapanca Lake) Turkey.

Spatial and temporal variation. Lansac-Toha

Albay and

Their results indicated that

physical disturbance and trophic level of the lakes

et al. (2008) show that, in a small geographic area (i.e., a

influenced the colonization of the periphyton.

single reservoir of approximately 65 km2), local processes

Phytoplankton seasonal succession was studied

may override the effects of regional processes or dispersal.

by Becker et al. (2008) in Faxinal Reservoir (Brazil), a

During this study, patterns of temporal coherence in total

subtropical deep, clear, warm monomictic and slightly

densities of zooplankton groups were evaluated from data

eutrophic reservoir, and demonstrated an alternation of

gathered at eleven sites in the Corumba Reservoir (Central

steady and non-steady state phases of phytoplankton

Brazil) between 1996 and 2000. Results demonstrate that

assemblages with different dominant species during the

the lack of regional trajectories (i.e., time series of

steady states, which developed under stratified conditions


asynchronous patterns of

of the water column according to predictions of the

fluctuation) should be considered in interpreting results

disturbance concepts. It was predicted that the major forces

obtained in long-term studies or monitoring programs

driving the development and persistence of these steady-

densities with

based on a single site per ecosystem.


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

state phases were closely related to thermal stratification

Petrova et al. (2008) investigated lakes with

and its consequences.

different trophic status in Bulgaria (the Varna and Beloslav

Fonseca and Bicudo (2008) described the

lakes) and Macedonia (the Ohrid and Prespa lakes) by

phytoplankton dynamics and structure in a shallow

analyzing seasonal and inter-annual variabilily of species

eutrophic reservoir, the Garcas Pond, located in the Parque


Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, in the Municipality of

biomass of microalgae.

Sauo Paulo, southeast Brazil.

phytoplankton community was the most sensitive indicator

They identified 236

phytoplankton taxa distributed among 10 classes and





Their results showed that

of changes to trophic conditions in the lakes.

seasonal and vertical variation of phytoplankton was







related to shifts in the water chemical features as a

production of epilimnetic bacterioplankton, protistan

consequence of a warm, wet season with stratification.

abundance and bacterivory, and extracellular phytoplankton

Znachor et al. (2008) studied phytoplankton succession and

production (EPP) along the longitudinal axis of the canyon-

vertical distribution in the eutrophic Rimov Reservoir

shaped, meso-eutrophic Rimov reservoir (Czech Republic)

(Czech Republic) and observed that disturbances in the

were investigated by Simek et al. (2008). They found that

form of dramatic summer storms had a crucial effect on

at the river inflow, as compared to lacustrine parts of the

phytoplankton succession and its vertical distribution. It

reservoir, different sources of organic carbon and bacterial













silica:phosphorus ratio illustrated the importance of

community composition. More than 52 % of the seasonal

resource competition in phytoplankton seasonal succession.

variability in the abundance of the genus-like R-BT065

Sthapit et al. (2008) investigated spatial and temporal


variation in phytoplankton community structure within a

changing EPP levels that indicated a tight taxon-specific

large flood-control reservoir (Sardis Reservoir, Mississippi,

algal-bacterial relationship.






USA) in relation to variation in physicochemical properties,

The assemblage of oligochaetes in the Liangzi

location within the reservoir, hydraulic residence time

Lake District, located in middle reaches of the Changjiang

(HRT), nutrient concentrations, temperature, and light

River, was evaluated by Xie et al. (2008) to establish

conditions. It was reported that reservoir management of

species composition, richness, and abundance and to detect

HRT, in combination with spatial variation in reservoir

the influence of environmental variables on oligochaete

morphology and seasonal variation in temperature and

distributional patterns. They found 20 species belonging to

riverine nutrient inputs, creates seasonally variable yet

the families Naididae (eight species), Tubificidae (11

distinct spatial patterns in phytoplankton community

species), and Lumbriculidae (one species). Results indicate

biomass, composition, and production.

that two plant variables (total plant cover and total


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

submersed macrophyte biomass) were strongly correlated

structure of patchiness and explains the diel spacing among

with the faunal gradient (p < 0.05), with water depth and

population fractions, whereas food availability prevails

total nitrogen identified as other predicator variables.

over water transport in driving the copepod distribution at a

Grossart et al. (2008) examined in-situ abundance

large scale. Rotifer preference for the upper (0-2 m) or

and activities of the major bacterial groups in the two most

deeper layer (5-35 m) of the water column at midday and

distinct compartments of experimentally divided Lake

midnight in an oligotrophic mountain lake during summer

Grosse Fuchskuhle (Germany), by incubating water from

was evaluated by Obertegger et al. (2008) and correlated to

the basins in dialysis bags, which allowed for a relatively

temperature, food availability, presence of predators and

free exchange of nutrients, limiting solutes and low

exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Their study

molecular organic matter but fully prevented exchange of

indicated that rotifers exhibit different species-specific

organisms. Their study revealed pronounced differences in

strategies for dealing with factors such as UVR exposure,

growth rates among the major bacterial groups in relation

temperature and food availability.

to the treatments, and specific growth rates surprisingly








increased in all treatments when being transplanted into the

carbohydrate content of seston were analyzed by Boechat

acidic south-west basin, indicating that pH and humic

and Giani (2008) during four seasonal sampling campaigns

substances greatly affected growth of Betaproteobacteria in

in a tropical hypereutrophic reservoir. It was concluded

the lake.

that diel fluctuations in environmental conditions, as well Rice et al. (2008) deployed passive hydrocarbon








sampling devices in Auke Lake in southeast Alaska (USA)

phytoplankton, affected seston biochemical composition

for five successive summers (1999-2003) to determine if

during the diel cycles investigated.

hydrocarbon levels in salmon-rearing lakes are affected by

Diel vertical migration of zooplankton during

seasonal increases in the number of two-stroke powered

June, July, and September in Lake Karnsjon, Sweden, was


In was concluded that seasonal inputs were

analyzed by Lagergren et al. (2008), who observed normal

primarily from recreational watercraft rather than runoff

diel vertical migration of zooplankton in June and reverse

and that increased use of two-stroke engines may transfer

diel vertical migration in September, which indicated that

enough hydrocarbons to the lake to affect fish populations.

invertebrate predation has a strong effect on the

Diel migration.

The relative importance of







hydrological and biological factors in driving the diel

Furthermore, ontogenetic changes in migration patterns of

distribution of the copepod Cyclops abyssorum from small

an invertebrate predator may influence seasonal variation in

to large scale was evaluated by Ludovisi et al. (2008).

the depth-selection behavior of other zooplankton. Chang

Their results show how visual predation affects the whole

et al. (2008) studied the vertical distribution of zooplankton


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

in shallow Lake Suwa, and observed that Polyarthra sp.

Constance. Observations include the existence of opposing

had high abundance near the surface during the day and

diel migration patterns in fish and zooplankton as well as

uniform distribution during the night, while Eodiaptomus

the abrupt decline of internal wave activity following a

japonicus displayed a typical migration, avoiding the

storm-induced deepening of the surface mixed layer, which

surface and maintaining a high abundance in deeper water

seemed to be a trigger for changes in the diurnal activity

during the day. Rossberg and Wickham (2008) monitored

and hence the intensity of predator-prey interactions. In a

diel vertical migration behavior of a heterotrophic ciliate

similar study, Couture and Watzin (2008) examined the

community in a eutrophic gravel pit lake located near the

extent of zooplanktivory exhibited by adult white perch in

lower Rhine (Germany) to assess whether diel vertical

Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain, as a result of

migration in ciliates occurred, to determine if this behavior

cyanobacteria blooms commonly observed during summer

was species-specific, and to examine factors (predator

since the mid 1990’s.

avoidance, location of prey, temperature and oxygen

perch feed on large numbers of Daphnia and select Daphnia

regimes) that could drive this behavior.

Their results

over other zooplankton taxa when they are abundant; thus,

showed that the ciliates performed vertical migration, but

white perch grazing contributed to a reduction in Daphnia

this could not be tied to differences in the diel distributions


of potential zooplankton predators of ciliates.

cyanobacteria dominance. Mehner et al. (2008) suggest

Food web dynamics.



Their results showed that white





Requirements for food

that planktivorous fish may modify the zooplankton

web stability constrains grazing rates of predators to values

structure, but not the zooplankton biomass, in lakes of low

substantially less than those that would maximize energy

productivity. Thus, the top-down effect by fish does not

flux through the system, according to Laws (2008), who

cascade further down to phytoplankton biomass or

analyzed food webs with respect to their stability

community structure, confirming earlier hypotheses that

characteristics in two eutrophic European lakes, Lake

trophic cascades are weak in oligotrophic lakes. During the

Nesjovatn (Norway), which appeared to be stable with a

study by Mehner et al. (2008), time series over nine

12-day response time, and Lake Kastoria (Greece), which

(phytoplankton and zooplankton) or six (fish) years from

was almost neutrally stable with a response time of 160

the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Stechlin (Germany) were used

days to small perturbations.

to explore correlative relationships between biomasses of

Lorke et al. (2008) analyzed backscatter data

trophic levels to evaluate trophic cascades in oligotrophic

from an acoustic Doppler current profiler to provide


simultaneous estimates of relative concentration of Daphnia

The recruitment of zooplankton from the littoral

and relative abundance of young-of-the-year perch in the

sediment of Lake 111, an acidic lake in north-east

vicinity of an artificial reef in the littoral zone of Lake

Germany, in April (spring) and June (early summer), and


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

its role in coupling the benthos and the pelagic was

Zingel and Noges (2008) described the role of

investigated by Bell and Weithoff (2008). Results show

ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates in macrophyte-



and phytoplankton-dominated shallow lakes. During this

occurred in early summer and rotifer Cephalodella sp. was

work, the grazing on pico- and nano-sized particles by

highest in spring. Temperature was the only abiotic factor

these protozoans was compared by sampling three shallow

influencing recruitment, which suggests that, even in

lakes seasonally, one dominated by macrophytes, one by

relatively young, chemically extreme lakes, the benthos can

phytoplankton, and one with both conditions. In plankton-

play an important role in whole lake microbial processes

dominated lakes the grazing rate of ciliates on bacteria was

and zooplankton community composition (Bell 2008).

higher than in macrophyte-dominated ones. Their results





Evidence of the inability of zooplankton to shape

suggested that the microbial loop is weaker in macrophyte-

and control the phytoplankton community in a tropical

dominated lakes and grows stronger when a lake becomes

system was observed by Ruckert and Giani (2008), who

more turbid.

evaluated the potential effect of grazing by three

were relatively less abundant and, due to their low specific

microcrustaceans, Daphnia laevis, Moina micrura and

filtering rates, grazed only a minor fraction of the

Thermocyclops decipiens, on the phytoplankton community


of Pampulha reservoir, a small tropical eutrophic reservoir. The





Additionally, heterotrophic nanoflagellates







Gumuliauskaite the



and the

important zooplankton group in shallow, eutrophic and

intentionally-introduced Pontogammarus robustoides (a

large lakes when the detrital food chain prevails, according

successful amphipod invader) on littoral invertebrate



communities by comparing similar habitats across lakes

protozooplankton can result in serious underestimates of

that harbour or are devoid of the invader in Lithuanian

total zooplankton biomass. Zingel and Haberman (2008)

inland waters. Detrimental effects were observed upon the

studied the abundance and biomass of ciliates, rotifers,

native isopod Asellus aquaticus and a negative correlation

cladocerans and copepods in Lake Peipsi and Lake

occurred with most of the higher taxa of native

Vortsjarv (both of which are shallow, turbid, and large


water bodies) to test if ciliates could be the most important

invaded lake habitats that favour P. robustoides, a change

zooplankton group.

They observed that ciliates formed

in community structure and a decrease in diversity up to

about 60% of the total zooplankton biomass in Vortsjarv

twofold or more are to be expected. The response of the

but only 6% in Peipsi. Hence, the food chains in the two

cladoceran community to the newly-discovered exotic

lakes differ: there appears to be a grazing food chain in

predatory cladoceran Bythotrephes longimanus in the

Peipsi and a detrital food-chain in Vortsjarv.

central basin of Lake Erie was evaluated by Barbiero and






Furthermore, results suggest that in the


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

Rockwell (2008), who suggest that B. longimanus can have

with rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus), a known predator



of the zebra mussel. However, the effect of shell damage

composition and on the size distributions of individual

on predation of the mussels was less pronounced when

species. Neely et al. (2008) reported the first records of

applied to open-water in Douglas Lake, Michigan, USA.

Amur goby (Rhinogobius lindbergi) and the Chinese false

Boegman et al. (2008b) applied a two-dimensional

gudgeon (Abbottina rivularis) from the Lake Buyr drainage

hydrodynamic and water-quality model to determine the

of eastern Mongolia. Because of the long-term impacts of

basin-wide effects of zebra mussels on the reduction of

this alien species on the native ichthyofauna, it was

algae stocks in the near-shore environment of western Lake

suggested that immediate measures be taken to monitor

Erie. It was found that the amount of grazed biomass was

their dispersal, and to prevent similar introductions in the

governed by a balance between the timescales of vertical


wind-induced mixing and benthic grazing. Grigorovich et

impacts both



A number of studies focused on the influence of zebra



ecosystem food webs.



al. (2008) employed genetic and morphological analyses to


identify dreissenids in a major river-embayment of Lake

Balogh et al. (2008) monitored

Superior, the lower St. Louis River/Duluth-Superior

seasonal and spatial variations of the relative abundance,


Results revealed the presence of a previously-

population density, population structure and biomass of the

recognized zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and of a

zebra mussel and the relative abundance of the amphipod

second dreissenid species, the quagga mussel D. bugensis

Chelicorophium curvispinum in Lake Balaton, following a


water level decrease (due to drought) and subsequent water

Additionally, the coupling of conventional morphological

level recovery. Despite the large quantity of zebra mussels

and molecular approaches are emphasized to be essential

that perished during the dry season, there was an observed

for monitoring dreissenid species.






increase in the zebra mussel population once the water level recovered. It was predicted that zebra mussels may Eutrophication

be stronger competitors for new space and that the

Historical data.

waterfowl that feed on the zebra mussels may have

Kinneret, Israel may be a model for eutrophication of

contributed to the intensive spread. Green et al. (2008)

freshwater lakes in other arid regions of the world in which

investigated the relationship between prey condition and predation vulnerability in the zebra mussel.

The destabilization of Lake

management emphasizes water quantity over quality,


according to Hambright et al. (2008). During this study,

indicated that both removal of the zebra mussels from their

historical changes in lake chemistry and biology were

substrata and damage to their shells significantly increased

reconstructed using analysis of sedimentary nutrient

their vulnerability to predation in aquarium experiments

content, stable and radioisotope composition, biochemical


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

and morphological fossils from algae, remains of aquatic

eutrophication in the lake and to track its course. Fossil

invertebrates, and chemical indices of past light regimes. It

pigment analysis indicated that eutrophication of the lake

was shown that the transformation of Lake Kinneret was

started in the 1960s and accelerated in the 1970s, with the



lake ecosystem continually shifting towards eutrophy in the

phosphorus, nitrogen, organic matter, phytoplankton and

1980s and 1990s. However, a discordance in the paleodata

bacterial pigments, and remains of phytoplankton and

obtained for the beginning of the 20th century complicated


clear conclusions regarding earlier conditions in the lake.





Agafitei et al. (2008) studied eutrophication

Hajnal and Padisak (2008) provide an initial attempt at

processes on water quality in the Izvoru Muntelui - Bicaz

historical reconstruction of the ecological status of an

storage lake (Romania), and presented graphic correlations

aquatic system; these data were compared with changes in

between water quality and eutrophication monitoring based

trophic state and current water quality in Balaton

on eight years of research. Changes in the concentrations

(Hungary), one of the largest lakes in Europe, which has

of selected trophic state parameters (chlorophyll-a, total

undergone eutrophication and restoration during the last

nitrogen and total phosphorus) were investigated by Frost

two decades.

et al. (2008) in Lake Griffin over a 22-year period, to

Mechanisms. The mechanisms of eutrophication

examine whether efforts to manage water quality and

in the Cirata Reservoir, a large tropical reservoir located on

habitat in the system by management agencies over the

the Citarum River, West Java, Indonesia, were evaluated by

study period yielded observable changes in these trophic

Hayami et al. (2008). Transect surveys of water quality

state parameters and the relationships between them.

and bottom sediments revealed high concentrations of



chlorophyll-a in surface waters. Results also showed that

concentration over the study period and also suggest that

most of the water body is occupied by anoxic water caused

nitrogen availability may play a role in phytoplankton

by the oligomictic status of circulation, a relatively weak

dynamics. Additionally, a stronger relationship between


total phosphorus concentrations and chlorophyll-a toward

temperature, and high loads of organic matter.

the latter part of the sampling period indicate increasing

assessment of the trophic status of Lake Mogan, which is

potential for phosphorus limitation.

an important recreation area for the city of Ankara, Turkey,






Stratigraphic changes in fossil pigments and the





hypolimnion An

was performed by Manav and Yerli (2008) via analyzing

molecular structure of the UV-absorbing fraction of pore-






water dissolved organic matter in a sedimentary record

zoobenthos taxa. They concluded the trophic status to be

from Lake Peipsi covering the 20th century were

mesotrophic/eutrophic, which is consistent with results

investigated by Leeben et al. (2008) to define the onset of

from earlier studies. Grochowska and Tandyrak (2008)


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation


studied the small shallow lake Maly Kopik near Olsztyn,

lakes with a long water residence time and low mixing

Poland, whose drainage area is dominated by forests and

regime and (2) shallow lakes with high C:P ratios caused

agricultural land, 64.2% and 28.7% respectively.

by a relatively high detritus content of seston and/or


reported that natural eutrophication of the lake is expected

grazing resistant algae, like colony-forming cyanobacteria.

to proceed at a rapid rate, based on results identifying lake

Changes in the spatial distribution of nitrogen (N)

Maly Kopik to be highly eutrophic, as characterized by a

and P in Lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia) were investigated by

high content of nutrients, high fertility of the lake, and low

Kangur and Mols (2008) using limnological data from 1970

water transparency.

to 2005.

Bravo-Inclan et al. (2008) evaluated the trophic

Their results showed differences in nutrient

content between the northern and southern parts of the lake

state of Zimapan Reservoir, Mexico, and the pressure that







population growth and dry climate have on the water

Furthermore, Lake Peipsi was observed to be quite resistant

source via a five-yr study. The reservoir was found to be

to year-to-year changes in N loads while the increasing

hypereutrophic based on nutrient concentration (average

difference in P concentrations between the northern and

total phosphorus and nitrogen of 1,381 and 5,977 mu g L-1,

southern parts of the lake clearly showed that the input of P

respectively), eu-hypereutrophic based on Secchi disk data

from the south is increasing; thus, it was confirmed that the

(1.94 m) and chlorophyll-a concentration (38 mu g L-1);

anthropogenic input of P is the primary reason for the

ultimately, the reservoir was found to be gradually

deterioration of the Lake Peipsi ecosystem.

increasing its trophic state condition. Van Donk et al. (2008) analyzed published data Limnology

of re-oligotrophication studies in different types of lakes

Watershed and inflows.

and discussed whether re-oligotrophication by phosphorus

The importance of

integrating land use/cover, hydrogeomorphic features, and

(P) reduction measures can affect seston quality in lakes

food web interactions to investigate critical interactions and

due to an increase in carbon:phosphorus (C:P) ratios of

feedbacks among physical, chemical, and biological

food for zooplankton. Additionally, this work evaluated


whether this increase could give rise to a stoichiometric






demonstrated by Bremigan et al. (2008), who sampled

constraint or bottleneck for regulation of phytoplankton by

eleven Ohio reservoirs to explore complex linkages among

zooplankton and thus cause a decrease in trophic transfer


efficiency. They concluded that the anticipated increase in





productivity, and food webs. Distinct watershed features

C:P ratios of the seston is not straightforward and that a

and water retention time were observed to be responsible

stoichiometric bottleneck is only likely to occur during

for marked differences between two similarly-sized water

summer in (1) the epilimnion of small deep and stratified

reservoirs located in the same geographical region, with


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

comparable climates, according to Soares et al. (2008).

York (USA).

During this study, physical and chemical variables were

dimensional transport submodel would be necessary to

measured in Funil and Lajes Reservoirs, in southern Brazil,

represent spatial patterns and a kinetics submodel would

to investigate factors that influence the limnology of

need to represent (either implicitly or explicitly) size-

tropical reservoirs.

dependent settling, particle coagulation, and sediment re-

A case study by Garbrecht and

Schneider (2008) also emphasizes climate effects by


showing watershed and reservoir hydrology to be sensitive to decadal precipitation variations. decadal


A theory describing the onset and growth of

They suggest that



They indicated that a two- or three-

tributary-dammed lakes was proposed and tested by Hsu


and Capart (2008). Using a diffusion equation constrained

consideration in hydrologic and water quality investigations

by backwater effects, they showed how tributary sediment

in central Oklahoma, based on observed impacts of decadal

influx can cause either a cuspate river aggradation or the

precipitation variations on reservoir inflow, flood releases,

formation of a lake upstream of the tributary junction.

and pool elevation for the Fort Cobb Reservoir (which

They reported exact similarity solutions for river and lake

controls runoff from a 787 km2 agricultural watershed in

bed profiles, which were validated quantitatively using

central Oklahoma).







Several works focused on natural inflows from

qualitative accord with those of natural tributary-dammed

watersheds, while others focused on inflows from direct

rivers. In order to verify the influence of an inflowing river

anthropogenic sources. Schmid and Dorji (2008) measured

and to determine if there was a vertical isotopic

vertical profiles of conductivity to determine the cause of

stratification of lake water, Longinelli et al. (2008)

salinity stratification during winter in Le da San Murezzan.

collected vertical profiles of water samples in the

Contrary to neighboring lakes Lej da Silvaplauna and Lej

northernmost section of Garda Lake at a locations not far

da Seg, Le da San Murezzan meromixis was reported to be

from the main inflow (Sarca river).

caused from inflow from a small unpolluted surface

detectable effect of the inflowing river water and no

tributary, which lead to almost permanent salinity

isotopic vertical stratification was observed.

stratification. The meromixis was reported to exacerbate

balance indicated a large imbalance, and measurements of

the build-up of an anoxic bottom layer.

Effler et al.

the tritium concentration carried out on lake water showed

and laboratory

values that are considerably higher than modern tritium

measurements and conducted in-situ settling velocity

values either in precipitation or in the Sarca river water,

experiments facilitating identification of model structure

thus supporting the hypothesis of a recharge of the take by

features necessary to simulate transient turbidity effects

deep aquifers (Longinelli et al. 2008).

(2008c) made an


of in-situ

Results show no

A water

resulting from runoff events in Schoharie Reservoir, New


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

enhanced eutrophication and bioaccumulation of Cr+6 in

Physicochemical, toxicological and ecological parameters of Gokcekaya Dam Lake's water, which is

Napoleon Gulf, Lake Victoria.

situated on Sakarya River between two other dams, and

compared the aquatic fate, concentration levels, and

lake inflow were examined by Akin et al. (2008). It was

dynamics of the transformation product metolachlor

concluded that the Gokcekaya Dam Lake was mesotrophic.

ethanesulfonic acid (metolachlor ESA) and its parent

Furthermore, while water quality remained relatively

compound metolachlor, an often-used corn herbicide, to

consistent and the level of nutrients in the water remained

understand their input dynamics and fate in surface waters.

low, the different characteristics of the incoming water

Data for this work was obtained by combining laboratory

enriched the varieties of algae. Shuhaimi-Othman et al.


(2008) sampled and analyzed Tasik Chini (Chini Lake),

concentration measurements and lake mass balance

Peninsular Malaysia for iron (Fe), aluminum (Al),

modeling applied to the study area of Lake Greifensee

manganese (Mn), barium (Ba), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), copper

(Switzerland). It was reported that half-lives on the order

(Cu), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and cobalt

of 100-200 days was observed and loss was attributed to

(Co). It was reported that in general, metal concentrations

photolysis and potentially biodegradation.



Huntscha et al. (2008)



in Tasik Chini water varied temporally and spatially, and

Bacaloni et al. (2008) investigated concentration

the main factors influencing these metal concentrations in

levels, distribution, and seasonal fluctuations of twelve

the water were the rainy season and mining activities.

organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers, of

Work on anthropogenic inflows includes a study

which some are reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms,

by Benson et al. (2008), who showed nitrogen stable

in three volcanic lakes located in the Lazio area (Italy) and

isotope analysis of aquatic plant tissue to be an effective

characterized by different anthropogenic impacts. Analysis

method for assessing and monitoring septic inputs to

of lake water samples showed that, in closed ecosystems

freshwater ecosystems. Benson et al. (2008) analyzed plant

(hydrogeological systems) such as small volcanic lakes,

material for elevated delta N-15 signatures in Vallisneria

organophosphorus contamination may occur even in the

americana, a freshwater angiosperm, in Upper Saranac

absence of industries and treated or untreated waste

Lake and Lake George, New York, USA. Results of a one-


year (1997 to 1998) environmental and ecological study of

pesticides (OCPs) in surface water and the OCPs

industrial wastewater point sources in the Jinja (Uganda) to


Lake Victoria was summarized by Oguttu et al. (2008);


results show that concentrations of N and P from fish-

particulate matter (SPM) from rivers and lakes in the

filleting industries and Cr+6 from the tannery were far


above the allowed effluent limits in Uganda, leading to

investigated by Tang et al. (2008).

The residues of thirteen organochlorine







and in




Results from their


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

investigation showed that previous excessive usage of


technical OCPs were the main reason for the residues of

diagenesis play an important role in the exchange of Fe,

HCHs and DDTs both in surface water and SPM, although

Mn, P, and Cr between the epilimnion and hypolimnion.

new sources were likely to have also occurred in the region.

Additionally, exchange of water between the epilimnion



and hypolimnion was found to be slow, which would limit

Schallenberg (2008) presented a new approach for

recycling of P and N to the epilimnion and removal of Cr to

determining the non-biological fluxes of N and P from the

the hypolimnion.

sediment to the water column of shallow lakes by


investigating three mutually exclusive flux processes: (1)

chemoautotrophic and anoxygenic phototrophic microbial


communities, which may contribute a significant fraction to






It was estimated that sediment transport and




diffusivity) and (3) wind-induced resuspension of N and P.


It was reported that concentration






the total primary production in the lake.

Wind-induced resuspension dominated the internal nutrient

Rogora et al. (2008) sampled 18 small shallow

flux; however, turbulent diffusion also contributed and it

lakes located in the Northern Patagonian Lake District, in

was suggested that turbulent diffusion was a neglected and

southern South America, and measured primary chemical

potentially important process contributing to internal

variables (pH, conductivity, alkalinity, major ions and

nutrient loading in shallow lakes.

Molecular diffusion

nutrients) to investigate relationships between water

appeared to be relatively unimportant in lakes that

chemistry and physical/geographical properties of these

experience turbulence at the sediment-water interface.

lakes, with a detailed focus on N content. Results, which

Sediment, nutrient and water discharges into

showed high N input (largely in nitrate form) from

Lake Takkobu (Japan) were monitored by Ahn et al. (2008)

downwind sources, were comparable to results obtained in

to evaluate relationships between suspended sediment and

previous studies carried out in other remote areas of the

nutrient loadings from agricultural watersheds with land-


use activities. It was reported that nutrient loadings from

Priscu et al. (2008) studied the east lobe of Lake

Kushiro and Takkobu rivers were significantly higher

Bonney, a permanently ice-covered lake in the McMurdo

during flooding than in dry conditions; however, there was

Dry Valleys, Antarctica, which, with a mid-depth

no clear correlation between river discharge and nutrient

maximum nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration >700,000%

concentrations. Crowe et al. (2008) examined the chemical

saturation with respect to air, exhibits one of the highest

composition of the water column of Lake Matano, Sulawesi

N2O concentrations reported for a natural aquatic system.

Island, Indonesia, to document how the high abundances of

The extreme excesses of N2O in Lake Bonney were

Fe hydroxides in tropical soils and minimal seasonal

reported to be from a legacy of past biogeochemical

temperature variability affect biogeochemical cycling in

conditions within the lake. In the absence of a significant


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

sink and in the presence of a highly stable water column,

(BBL) on the slope of a medium-sized lake using the eddy

gradients in N2O produced by past microbial activity are

correlation technique. Seiche-induced oscillatory flow of

predicted to persist in the cold saline waters of the lake for

the BBL (with a period of ~1 d) was identified as the

>104 years.

mechanism driving turbulent oxygen transport. Shimizu

Optics. Gallegos et al. (2008) measured inherent

and Imberger (2008) investigated energetics and damping

and apparent optical properties and computed 'optical

of basin-scale internal waves and subsequent near-bottom

closure' in four lakes on the South Island of New Zealand

transport processes in Lake Kinneret, Israel, using modal

that ranged very widely in reflectance. Two glacier-fed

analysis in a layer-stratified irregular basin. It was reported

lakes were strongly light-scattering and weakly light-

that energy contained in the dominant internal waves

absorbing, with optical properties dominated by glacial

resulted from a balance between energy input from diurnal

flour; in distinct contrast, the other two lakes were humic-

winds and dissipation within a day. Results also show that

stained wetland lakes that were strongly light-absorbing

damping was caused primarily by bottom friction and that

and weakly

light-scattering, with optical properties

currents induced by internal waves caused considerable

dominated by colored dissolved organic matter (DOM).

spatial variability of the bottom shear stress and near-

Good optical closure was observed over a very wide range

bottom transport processes.

(200-fold) of reflectance, which increased confidence in the

provided insight into the characterization of processes

ability to specify inputs for radiative transfer modeling

underlying flux paths of water and particles between the

while highlighting the on-going challenge of accurately

lake boundaries and the lake interior of Lake Kinneret.

measuring absorption in highly scattering waters and

Field data and three-dimensional numerical simulations

backscattering in highly absorbing waters.

The role of

were used to investigate the exchange processes between

chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on

lake boundaries (littoral) and lake interior (pelagic) due to

epilimnetic thermal structure was quantified by Caplanne


and Laurion (2008) to estimate the contribution of

Observed vertical and horizontal movements of the

ultraviolet (UV), visible and infrared radiation (IR) to the

turbidity were explained by vertical and horizontal

near-surface warming of lakes as a function of their DOM

advection associated with basin-scale wave motions and a


residual circulation set up by basin-scale motions and the

It was reported that as CDOM absorption

coefficient increases, UV and, especially, visible light play





wind field.

an increasing role in stratification. Internal flow dynamics.


Marti and Imberger (2008)

Circulation and exchange processes during Brand et al. (2008)

summer stratification in the mid-central basin of Lake Erie

investigated turbulent oxygen transport from the overlying

were examined by Rao et al. (2008) using time series data

stratified water column into the bottom boundary layer

of horizontal velocity, temperature, and DO profiles during


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

2004 and 2005. During strong wind episodes, significant

during periods of strong wind.

wave-induced currents were observed close to the bottom.

indicated that waves were generated by shear in the surface

When the hypolimnion depth was sufficiently thick (4 m),

mixing layer and that the characteristics of the high-

short-term changes in DO concentrations were reported to

frequency internal waves changed within a wind event as a

be partly due to vertical mixing and partly due to horizontal

result of the evolution of background flow conditions

transport and mixing (Rao et al. 2008). Merino-Ibarra et al.

following the deepening of the surface layer and the

(2008) studied Valle de Bravo in the highlands of Mexico

propagation of basin-scale internal waves. Additionally,

to investigate the impact of daily strong diurnal winds that

the vertical excursions of the waves indicated that they

blow along its two main arms. Hypolimnetic temperature

could potentially play a role in phytoplankton growth by


significantly altering the light regime at relatively high






attributed to entrainment of epilimnetic water into the

Shear stability analysis


hypolimnion; eutrophication also increased in correlation

Jager et al. (2008) independently manipulated

with high chlorophyll-a concentrations during stratification.

mixing intensity (strong artificial mixing vs. background

It was proposed that the wind regime caused vertical

turbulence) and water-column depth (2 m, 4 m, 8 m, and 12

displacements of the thermocline and boundary mixing,

m) in order to explore separate and combined effects in a

which enhanced productivity during the stratification

field enclosure experiment.


showed pronounced vertical structure in water columns >4

Low turbulence enclosures

The evolution of internal waves in a two-layer

m, where diversity was higher than in mixed enclosures,



which suggests vertical niche partitioning. Additionally,

nonhydrostatic effects was examined by de la Fuente et al.

phytoplankton originating from different water depths in


They observed that inclusion of nonlinear

low-turbulence treatments had the relatively highest

acceleration allowed the waves to steepen at the rear of the

primary productivity when incubated at their respective

crest in deep

a front over time.

depths of origin. Morillo et al. (2008) also showed that

Nonhydrostatic acceleration was shown to counteract this

detailed transport and mixing patterns in a lake have

wave steeping, leading to wave dispersion, and when the

important consequences for plankton ecology. Their study,

two effects are in balance, solitary-type waves can form. In

which evaluated the interaction of two rivers flowing into

a similar study performed in Lake Kinneret (Israel),

Coeur d'Alene Lake (Idaho, USA) using a field experiment

Gomez-Giraldo et al. (2008) used field data to estimate the

and three-dimensional numerical simulations, focused on

wavelength, phase

of propagation,

the influence of basin morphology, wind speed, and wind

frequency, and the vertical structure of high-frequency

direction on the fate and transport of the inflowing water.

internal waves observed on the crests of basin-scale waves

Data from the field campaign showed that intrusions from




lakes, forming


speed, direction



Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

the two rivers propagated into the lake at different depths,

the different pattern of occurrence of ship and wind waves

with the trace-element-polluted Coeur d'Alene River

results in a different pattern of disturbance in the littoral

flowing into the lake above the trace-element-poor and


nutrient-rich St. Joe River inflow.

Additionally, model

Lovstedt and Bengtsson

(2008b) measured

results revealed that, as the intrusions entered the main lake

surface currents just outside a reed belt, as well as radiation

basin, a forced horizontal, mode-two, basin-scale internal

and water temperature profiles within and outside the

wave interacted with the intrusions to frequently siphon

vegetated belt, in a shallow lake in southern Sweden to

them into the lake proper where rapid vertical mixing

determine the lateral flux between the two zones.


radiation at the water surface was 85% lower within the


Fernandez and Imberger (2008) presented results

vegetation than in the open lake, and the current between

from a laboratory investigation of a continuous discharge,

the open water and the reed vegetation was presumed to be

gravity current moving down an inclined plane into a

the main water exchange process between the two zones

linearly-stratified fluid.

during sunny summer days with low wind speeds.

The density of the inflow was

observed to decrease linearly with time, as it was initially

Water-level fluctuations. An overview of the

larger and finally smaller than the bottom ambient density.

literature published on water-level fluctuations was

During the time in which the inflow was denser than the

prepared by Leira and Cantonati (2008). The overview

water in the stratified reservoir, an underflow was observed

examines temporal and spatial trends in publications on

to descend down the sloping bottom with a speed that was

water-level fluctuations, the specific aspect of fluctuations

consistent with that given by the theory for a buoyancy-

concerned and their main effects. This work focused on

conserving gravity current on gentle slopes.


highlighting knowledge gaps that exist on this topic and, in

toward the end of the experiment, multiple intrusions were

particular, exploring some of the approaches that can

established successively at different depths in between the

potentially contribute to solve several of these gaps. The

initial underflow and the surface buoyant plume.

importance of evaluating water-level fluctuations is also

Surface waves. A long-term data set of surface-

emphasized by Ayenew and Becht (2008), who emphasized

wave parameters, obtained via analysis of pressure sensor

that serious attention be given to the role of the

measurements, was evaluated by Hofmann et al. (2008b)

groundwater component of lake water balances. This study

to characterize how surface waves and their interactions

on a cluster of lakes that is part of the East African Rift

with sediments and benthic organisms affect littoral

system focused on lake hydrology in an unusually broad

ecosystems. It was reported that, in contrast to wind waves

context by placing great emphasis on lake water-level

that occur only sporadically, ship waves propagate into the

fluctuations and on the water balance.

littoral zone very frequently at regular time intervals, and


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

Cott et al. (2008a) tested water withdrawal

and an unexpected correspondence with sunspot activity,

thresholds in two small lakes by removing 10% and 20% of

whereas DLM results indicated a relationship with

their respective under-ice volumes and comparing DO

precipitation over a three-year lagged period, which has



been essentially unchanging from 1900 to present. It was

northern pike (Esox lucius) abundance to reference

not certain that the current observed decrease in water level

conditions. The 10% withdrawal resulted in no effect on

was caused by factors related to global climate change or

total volume-weighted DO, but the 20% withdrawal caused

that it reflects a long-term problem. However, because the

a 26% decline in the volume-weighted DO concentration.

underlying decline has been ongoing for ~33 years, it is

It was recommended that policy development to mitigate

recommended that lower lake levels be included in future

impacts must therefore reflect the site-specific nature of

management planning.




water withdrawal, because of the expected variance from lake to lake.

Baumgartner et al. (2008) assessed abundance,

In a second study, Cott et al. (2008b)







indicated that more research is warranted to better

macroinvertebrates and their seasonal dynamics along the

understand the linkages between anthropogenic and natural

depth gradient in the stony, littoral zone of Lake Constance,

water level fluctuations and their combined effect on

Central Europe. Cumulated water-level fluctuations and

aquatic ecosystems.

their net tendency accounted for 75% of the variation in a

An overall picture of the impact of lake

principal component analysis (PCA).

In a study by

regulation in northern climate was presented by Keto et al.

Mastrantuono et al. (2008), volcanic Lake Bracciano, one

(2008), who developed a water-level fluctuation analysis

of the largest and deepest Italian lakes, was investigated.

tool, known as Regcel, which is based on relationships

During this work, the numerical composition and

between the water-level fluctuation and factors related to


environmental, social and economical effects, to study

assemblages sampled from three sites and three depth

water level data and to identify the most significant impacts

ranges (0-4 m, 4-8 m and 8-15 m) were compared between

Finnish lakes. Sellinger et al. (2008) examined water level

years with different water levels. It was observed that in

data (1860-2006) representing Lakes Michigan and Huron

years with low water levels, littoral macrophytes and

to evaluate changes in both long-term and seasonal patterns


over time. They also explored relationships with candidate

quantitative differences at all sampling sites and depths.


Furthermore, the invertebrate assemblage showed a


















decomposition using Loess (STL), and dynamic linear



models (DLM). STL results revealed a sustained decline

abundance of the more sessile forms (water mites,

around 1900, a long-term periodicity of similar to 30 years,

gastropods, nematodes, naidid oligochaetes), which feed


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

directly on living plants or epiphytic algae, and an

(2008b) from four remote research areas in the Laurentian

increased abundance of more mobile and/or detritivore

Great Lakes region to reveal patterns of natural water-level

taxa. Werner and Rothhaupt (2008) studied the mortality

fluctuations and associated effects on water quality and

of the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea in Lake Constance in

aquatic communities. Their results were reported to be

response to harsh winter conditions associated with a

congruent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and

strongly decreasing water level. The mortality of the clams

could have direct implications for reservoir management

was found to be dependent on size class and depth and

and climate change modeling.

demonstrated lethal effects from prolonged exposure to low

obtained by Punning et al. (2008), who conducted a

water temperatures.

comprehensive study (chronological, lithological and

Similar results were

Water quality drivers in a large water storage

geochemical) of an 8.5-m post-glacial sediment sequence

reservoir (Lake Hume, California, USA) during a period of

from Lake Peipsi to elucidate effects of water-level changes

extreme drawdown (to less than 3% of capacity) were

on the sedimentary environment and biogeochemical

examined by Baldwin et al. (2008).

dynamics in a large lake.

Results show that

Sediment data showed that

wind-driven events led to a substantial deepening

fluctuations in water depth had a profound impact on the

(turnover) of the thermocline, which allowed periodic

lake environment, recorded as changes in the lithological

pulses of nutrients to enter the warm surface layer and

composition, P content of sediments and composition of

apparently stimulate cyanobacterial growth. Hofmann et

diatom assemblages.

al. (2008c) also found that shore morphology and sediment grain

size distribution

are affected


water-level Methods and Analytical Techniques

fluctuations in a study on abiotic and biotic conditions

Classifications. A sustainable water use index

using data from Lake Issyk-Kul, the Caspian Sea and Lake Constance.

(SWUI) was derived by Shah and Kumar (2008) to

This work reveals that variations in shore

incorporate multiple factors into the traditional dam

morphology and grain size distribution occurred as result

classification. Their analysis showed that the height of the

of a continuous interplay between short- and long-term

dam does not have any bearing on the volume of water

water-level fluctuations, the former providing the energy

stored, a strong indicator of the safety hazard posed by

for erosion and the latter determining the section of the shore exposed to heightened erosion

dams or on the area of land submerged. This may also be

according to

considered an indicator of the negative social and

Hofmann et al. (2008c), who studied the impact of water-

environmental effects.

level fluctuations.

Further evaluation of the SWUI

concluded that a combination of criteria such as height,

Long-term (~20 yr) data on water level, water

storage volume and the area under submergence needs to

quality and aquatic biota were compiled by White et al.


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

be considered for assessing the negative social and

had good correlation (R2 = 0.71) with the original gradient

environmental consequences of dams.

of environmental degradation.







Method evaluation.

Jothiprakash and Garg

consistent 'traditional taxonomic size spectrum' (TTSS)

(2008) used and compared the empirical relationships given

patterns prevail across ecosystemsand applied the TTSS to

by Brune and Brown for estimating reservoir sedimentation

the phytoplankton of the temperate and oligotrophic Lake

as a function of trap efficiency in Gobindsagar Reservoir

Tahoe (Nevada, USA). It was observed that the Tahoe

(Bhakra Dam) on Satluj River in Bilaspur district of

TTSS similarity level during four years is comparable to

Himachal Pradesh, in the Himalayan region of India. It

that of Lake Kinneret (Israel) during its stable period,

was found that Brune's equations developed in the present

which implied that the long-term consistency of the aquatic

study estimated better than other Brune's equations reported

assemblage taxonomic size structure pattern is a general

in literature and that Brown's approach was over-estimating

phenomenon and deserves special attention at times of

trap efficiency. Michalec (2008) used multiple methods

accelerated global climate change. Mieleitner et al. (2008)

(Reniger-Debski's, Branski's, DR-USLE, and MUSLE) to

identified functional groups of phytoplankton using a

calculate sediment quantity supplied to a small water

combination of prior knowledge (based on taxonomic

reservoir and compared method results to silting quantity

divisions and measurable properties) and statistical cluster


analysis of long-term, species-level data from three Swiss


lakes of different trophic state. This study facilitated a

whereas DR-USLE method predicted closest to recorded

model-based prediction of the abundance of phytoplankton


Results showed over-estimations for Branski's,




as a function of time, space, and environmental conditions.

Kasprzak et al. (2008) evaluated chlorophyll-a

Results show that this general methodology could

concentration as a predictor of phytoplankton biomass

contribute to the identification of universal functional

across a broad trophic gradient of lakes (oligotrophic -

groups of phytoplankton applicable to a broad class of

highly eutrophic).


proportions were a better predictor of phytoplankton An index based on macroinvertebrates sensitive

Their results indicated that variable

biomass using chlorophyll-a measurements as compared to

to the gradient of nutrient enrichment was developed by

a constant conversion factor.

Solimini et al. (2008) to assess ecological quality for

The dissolved organic carbon load supplied to

effective management of natural resources such as

Lake Vortsjarv, the second largest lake in Estonia, was

mountain ponds.

The resulting Pond Macroinvertebrate

evaluated by Tamm et al. (2008), who demonstrated the

Integrity Index ranged from 7 to 35 for the study sites and

utility of linking the rating-curve method and baseflow separation to assess allochthonous dissolved organic carbon


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

load to Vortsjarv, both currently and under changing

Gonzalez et al. (2008) developed a hydrostatic

climatic conditions.

sampler to obtain samples from the sediment-water

Inomata and Fukami (2008) studied historical

interface; the sampler was designed to have a simple

hydrologic data and developed a method for estimating

design, low construction cost, no depth limitations, high

main water budget items for Tonle Sap Lake, the largest

levels of personal safety and to be reliable in the collection

freshwater lake on the Indochina Peninsula, to gain an

of samples.

understanding of hydrological characteristics of the lake

collected remotely with a corer and directly with syringes

and surrounding areas. The results from this method were

by autonomous divers and proved to be a viable method for

compared with previously-observed data and showed good

collecting samples from the water-sediment interface.


Sansone et al. (2008) developed a sampler that uses

The sampler was tested against samples

Sampling devices. A novel sampling technique

vacuum (or atmospheric pressure) reservoirs to draw

for directly measuring the effects of porewater composition

porewater into a sediment probe and then into in-line

on arsenic (As) adsorption to Fe oxide phases in-situ was

sample loops for the purpose of collecting porewater from

developed by Campbell et al. (2008) and was deployed

permeable (sandy) sediments during manned-submersible

using undoped (clear) polyacrylamide gels and hydrous-


ferric-oxide-doped gels in a gel probe equilibrium sampler

were comparable with those in nearshore permeable

in Fe-rich sediments of Haiwee Reservoir. Their results

sediments; however, distinct differences were observed

indicated that sediment As adsorption capacity appeared to

between a vegetated and an unvegetated site.

Porewater inorganic nutrient concentrations

be controlled by changes in porewater composition and

Strojsova et al. (2008) studied phytoplankton

competitive effects at shallower depths and by reductive

species competition in-situ in a freshwater reservoir by

dissolution and availability of sorption sites at greater

enclosing a natural plankton community (with the

burial depths. Polyethylene passive samplers were shown

exclusion of large zooplankton) in permeable dialysis bags

to be a powerful tool for determining flux directions of

inside two large containers of different bioavailable P

organic contaminants in the environment, based on work


done by Morgan and Lohmann (2008), who deployed the

hydrolyze organic polymers and particles with cell-surface-

polyethylene samplers in a vertical array (bottom water,

bound phosphatases is advantageous for longer persistence

surface water, near-surface air) to study the cycling of

of a given population in a phosphate-scarce environment;



although phosphatase-positive species cannot dominate the

reservoirs in an urban estuary (Narragansett Bay, Rhode

reservoir phytoplankton solely because of a specific P-

Island, USA).

scavenging strategy.




Results suggest that the ability to


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

A silicone membrane tube equilibrator was

(Australia) during summer.

This method of sampling

developed by Ooki and Yokouchi (2008) for collecting gas-



phase samples containing volatile organic compounds

disturbance and high spatial resolution; fluxes were

(VOCs) at equilibrium with natural water to determine

substantially different (by a factor of 6-180) from other

VOC partial pressures in Lake Kasumigaura, a shallow

reported values using more conventional quantitative

eutrophic lake with a high concentration of suspended

assessments such as diffusive fluxes from core slicing and

particulate matter.

benthic chambers.

The system analyzed air samples





collected from the equilibrator (which reached equilibrium

Optics. Optical profiling was successfully used

in one hour) with an automated pre-concentration gas

for understanding complex biogeochemical processes in a

chromatography-mass spectrometry system for hourly

reservoir according to Downing et al. (2008), who assessed

measurements of VOC partial pressures.

if release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from reservoir

Hari et al. (2008) constructed a system utilizing

sediments containing ferric chloride coagulant was a

commercially-available, inexpensive NDIR carbon dioxide

significant source of DOC to the reservoir. They examined

(CO2) sensors to continuously monitor CO2 concentrations

source-specific contributions of DOC using a profiling

in water bodies. The system was tested in a boreal humic

system to measure the in-situ distribution of optical

lake by collecting high frequency data with a 10-min time

properties of absorption and fluorescence and indicated that

resolution for determination of CO2 consumption and

the sedimentary source of DOC to the reservoir is


traditional bottle

significant and that this DOC is labile within the reservoir.

incubations, the high-frequency data yielded productivity

Binding et al. (2008) determined spectral absorption

and mineralization rates that were clearly higher than

properties of particulate and dissolved matter for Lake Erie

obtained with incubations.

waters in order to investigate the natural variability of the




Hassler et al. (2008) presented a simple and low-

absorption coefficients required as inputs to optical models

cost porous underwater chamber (PUC; volume 37 mL) in

used for converting satellite observations of water color

which test microorganisms are exposed to field conditions.

into water quality data. They reported that reservoirs of

Results show that field experiments performed in Lake Erie

colored organic matter, which to date have not been

demonstrated that PUCs could be used to evaluate the

seriously considered in optical properties of coastal and

contribution of particulate Fe to Fe bioavailability. Monbet

inland waters, may produce significant uncertainties in the

et al. (2008) applied diffusive equilibrium in thin films

parameterization of optical models and the interpretation of

(DET) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) in-situ to

in-situ and remotely-sensed aquatic color signals.

obtain dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) sediment

Polerecky et al. (2008) presented a measuring

porewater profiles in two lagoons of the Gippsland Lakes








Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation


photosynthesis at ambient light intensity from light

isotopes (H-2 or D, O-18, H-3), along with geology,

transition measurements similar to those employed in the

hydrochemistry and in-situ physiochemical parameters

light-dark shift method but without the necessity of

(conductivity, temperature, DO and pH).

achieving complete darkness. The method was identified


as being more readily applicable in-situ, where, during

applications in surface water-groundwater relationships

daylight, complete sample darkening is very difficult or

related to sustainability of hydro-projects.

even impossible to achieve. Isotopes.





Paleolimnology. water



Their results



The late Pleistocene and


Holocene hydrologic balance of Chaka Salt Lake in the

heterogeneously-structured catchment area in the Lusatian

eastern Qaidam Basin (China) was studied by Liu et al.

Lignite Mining District (Germany) was assessed by

(2008c) using an age-depth model for lake sediments that is

Hofmann et al. (2008a) to estimate annual groundwater

based on eight accelerator mass spectrometry C-14

inflow and outflow of Mining Lake Plessa 117 by using the

measurements of organic matter and a 1700-yr radiocarbon

stable isotopes delta O-18 and delta H-2 and to compare

reservoir correction.

results with a commonly-used surface water balance. Their

weighted on water salinity, was used to establish water

results showed that both calculation methods led to

quality and fluctuations as a result of differing weather

comparable results despite the differences in groundwater

conditions (e.g., weakening of Asian monsoons).

inflow and outflow.


This process, which is heavily





Tian et al. (2008) used stable isotopes to study

community from Upper Holocene sediments of Lake Boroe

the lake water budget of inland lakes on the Tibetan

(Valdai Hills, Russia) to test a new methodological strategy

Plateau, on the basis that isotope records of the sediment

for obtaining additional data on the development history of

reflect the climatic and environmental changes.


lakes. The species composition of diatom complexes was

reported that monitoring revealed the lake water delta O-18

examined with an allowance made for the indication

was over ten parts per thousand higher than the local

significance of each taxon.

precipitation, indicating strong isotope enrichment due to

Razumovskii (2008b) analyzed diatom complexes from

lake water evaporation. Kumar et al. (2008b) studied the

more recent bottom sediments (formed during the past

relationship between surface water (reservior, lake) and

decades) from Lake Galichskoe (Kostroma Province). A

groundwater (spring) at (1) Nagewadi, a minor irrigation

correlation was observed in the dynamics of variations in

project in the State of Maharashtra, Western India, (2)

all parameters involved in the analysis.

Kanhirapuzha reservoir in the State of Kerala, Southern

methodology was applied in a third study by Razumovskii

India and (3) Ghatghar Pumped Storage Hydroelectric

and Gololobova (2008), who analyzed diatom complexes

Project in the State of Maharashtra using environmental

from Upper Holocene sediments in Lake Glubokoe

In a subsequent study,

The new


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

(Moscow Province) A cyclic recurrence was revealed in

into consideration other possible limnological factors such

the lake temperature regime over the last centuries of the

as water transparency, nutrients and wind.

lake existence and it was found that, in the epoch of

Data from chemical and biological monitoring of

neosedimentogenesis, variations in all parameters observed

twelve limed lakes were compared with results of

were correlated.

paleolimnological investigations by Norberg et al. (2008) to

Diatom-based paleolimnological techniques were






used in conjunction with a dynamic biogeochemical model

acidification, and restoration by liming. The study showed

(MAGIC) by Gerber et al. (2008) to assess the timing and

that monitoring series are usually too short to define

extent of the acidification trend and to determine a probable

reference conditions for lakes and that paleolimnological

explanation as to why Glasgow Lake, and none of the other

studies are useful for establishing appropriate goals for



restoration and evaluation of counter measures. Wetterich

paleolimnology thus far, acidified under a peak non-marine

et al. (2008) undertook taxonomical and geochemical

sulphate deposition load of 43.6 mmolc m-2 yr-1 in the mid-

investigations on freshwater ostracods from 15 water

1970s. It was found that Glasgow Lake has the lowest

bodies in Central and Northeast Yakutia (Russia) to

buffering capacity among the Cape Breton Highland study

estimate their potential usefulness in palaeoenvironmental

lakes and serves as a warning of potential acidification


trends and recovery in this region. Kirilova et al. (2008)

Correlations between host waters and ostracod calcite of

used sediment trap samples to collect diatom assemblages

single species were found for delta O-18, delta C-13 and

in Sacrower See (Germany), a dimictic, hypertrophic


lowland lake, and reported that interannual variability in

(Mg:Ca) ratios.














diatom assemblages mainly seems to reflect changes in the

Sikorski and Bluszcz (2008) described the

total P concentration and temperature and also in the onset

application of the lead (Pb)-210 method for creating a

of the growing season and of stratification. Heinsalu et al.

comprehensive model of sedimentation in the retention

(2008) carried out biostratigraphic diatom analyses on a

reservoir Kozlowa Gora. Results show that the analysis of

short sediment core from the large shallow-water Lake

the Pb-210 gamma spectrum line yields information about

Vortsjarv, Estonia, in order to relate diatom composition to

total activity of Pb-210, while the assessed activity of Pb-

the instrumental water level record. Their study showed

214 and bismuth (Bi)-214 equalled the activity of

that the planktonic:periphytic diatom ratio in the sediment

authigenic Pb-210.

can be used to track overall trends of lake-level changes in Lake Vortsjarv prior to the onset of cultural eutrophication; however, the results have to be interpreted carefully, taking


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation


because the model can be extended for free water surface

Hydrologic cycle.

The development of an

evaporation estimates.

integrated global water resources model to assess global

Pavel (2008) modeled the link between wetland

water availability and use at a sub-annual timescale,

biomass conditions in the Ili River delta and changes in the

consisting of six modules (land surface hydrology, river

Balkhash Lake water level, following the construction of a

routing, crop growth, reservoir operation, environmental

water storage reservoir on the Ili River upstream of the

flow requirement estimation, and anthropogenic water

Balkhash Lake. Their work showed the development of a

withdrawal) was presented by Hanasaki et al. (2008a). It

simple model based on Normalized Difference Vegetation

was reported that the input meteorological forcing

Index (NDVI) and hydrological variables used

component and the integrated model provide a solid

monitoring the hydrological regime of Balkhash Lake and

framework for assessing global water resources with

its catchment basin.

potential for investigating subannual variability in water

Nayak and Sudheer (2008) evaluated a Takagi-

resources. In a continuation of this study, Hanasaki et al.

Sugeno fuzzy model for reservoir inflow forecasting in the

(2008b) presented results of the model application and global water resource assessments.

Narmada basin, India. The model was developed using

The global water

popular clustering techniques, namely Gustafson-Kessel

resources were evaluated on a sub-annual basis using a

(GK) and subtractive clustering (SC). The results showed

newly devised index, which located water-stressed regions

that model performance is comparable at a one-hour lead

that were undetected in earlier studies. Simulation results

forecast; however, it is observed that the GK approach

showed that reservoir operations of major reservoirs (>1

results in a better performance than the SC approach in

km3) and allocation of environmental flow requirements

computing forecasts at higher lead times.

can alter the population under high water stress by

Biota. An ecosystem model was forumulated by

approximately -11% to + 5% globally. Additionally, the

Sanderson et al. (2008) to determine mechanisms affecting

integrated model was found to be applicable for assessment

biomass and distribution of charophytes and Najas marina

of various global environmental projections such as climate

in Myall Lake, New South Wales, Australia, using physical


characteristics, An evaporation estimate model was derived by







limits on the distributions of charophytes and Najas marina


were related to a gradient in the coefficient of light

evaporation estimate methods: Bowen ratio energy balance

attenuation that is, in turn, related to proximity to the bulk

(BREB), mass transfer (NIT), Priestley-Taylor (PT) and pan evaporation (PE).


hypsometry, and substrate. They reported that down-lake

Ali et al. (2008) for the semi-arid region of India by evaluating


of the catchment load.

The PT model appeared to be

favored because of the limited data requirement and 1885

Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

Hellweger et al. (2008) presented a new agent-

temporal changes in nutrients and cyanobacteria were

based (also known as individual-based) model of Anabaena

regulated by the following five factors: (1) annual variation

life cycles that includes the formation and behavior of

of light intensity, (2) diurnal variation of light intensity, (3)

akinetes, a resting stage within its complex lifestyle. The

annual variation of water temperature, (4) thermal

model was part of a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian model

stratification within a water column and (5) the buoyancy

and can reproduce the main features of the observed

regulation mechanism.

seasonal and interannual population dynamics in Bugach

Several modeling studies addressed the effects of

Reservoir (Siberia). It was reported that most of the long-

invasive species.

term nutrient uptake for Anabaena occurs in the sediment

susceptible to Eurasian watermilfoil establishment can aid

bed, which suggests that the sediment bed is not just a

management by allowing managers to focus their education

convenient overwintering location but may also be the

and monitoring efforts on susceptible lakes, according to

primary source of nutrients.

A nutrient-reduction

Roley and Newman (2008), who developed models to

management scenario indicated that Anabaena densities

predict susceptible lakes in Minnesota (USA) using linear

increase because they are less sensitive to water column

discriminant function analysis and logistic regression to

nutrient levels (because of the sediment bed source) than

analyze known occurrences of Eurasian watermilfoil. Their

other species.

results indicated that the most reliable predictors of


Rinke and Rothhaupt (2008) applied the DYRESM-

Eurasian watermilfoil invasion were (1) distance to the

hydrodynamic-ecological lake

nearest invaded lake and (2) duration of that invasion,

model, to Lake Constance (Europe), and showed that model

indicating that transport (exposure) is an important

outputs were in good agreement with observations,

variable. It was also reported that large deep lakes with

particularly in terms of the onset of algal growth in spring

moderate to high alkalinity and moderate Secchi depth

(which was strongly associated with the onset of

were more likely to be invaded.

stratification), and the spatiotemporal distribution of the

calibrated and validated a Cladophora growth model

algae. Additionally, long-term simulation (over 21 years)

(CGM) to simulate attached and sloughed Cladophora

predicted shifts in the algal community composition

biomass in daily time-steps in an urbanized location of

attributable to the ongoing reoligotrophication of Lake

Lake Ontario, in which the CGM is used to hindcast

Constance. Serizawa et al. (2008) used a two-component

Cladophora growth. The CGM uses multiplicative factors

mathematical model to simulate seasonal outbreak and

of seasonal minimal tissue P concentrations and seasonal

collapse of an algal bloom caused by cyanobacteria as well

mean nearshore light attenuation of the early 1970s and

as the diurnal vertical migration. The model used a set of

1980s relative to modern data.

one-dimensional, reaction-advection-diffusion equations;

despite current decreases in Cladophora from prior


water coupled



Identifying characteristics of lakes

Malkin et al. (2008)

It was predicted that,


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

measurements, Cladophora will proliferate as a result of

reservoir that is subject to broad fluctuations in inflow

increased P concentrations following the Dreissenid mussel

water quality and quantity.

introduction and subsequent changes in nearshore water

chemical oxygen demand depressed daily DO minima by


approximately 1.5 mg L-1. This study also found that Boegman et al. (2008a) numerically modeled the

Their study found that the

macrophyte respiration was an important factor in the low

complex biophysical interactions occurring in Lake Erie,





resulting from P load abatement and the introduction of

approximately 2 mg L-1 overnight.




zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (D.

Padial and Thomaz (2008) generated models to

bugensis) using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and

predict the light attenuation coefficient (k) based on Secchi

water quality model that was extended to include dreissenid

disk depth (SD) in two large Neotropical ecosystems (a

mussel and zooplankton algorithms.

The results of the

reservoir and a floodplain) and to test whether 1.7, the

model indicated that filter feeding by dreissenid mussels

index used worldwide, is adequate for predicting k in these

decreased algal biomass (~25-30%) and simultaneously


stimultated increased net algal growth via enhanced algal

which was significantly different from 1.7 (t test, p < 0.01),

consumption and subsequent P recycling, thus creating a

which suggested that 1.7 is inadequate for Neotropical



ecosystems. Additionally, a nonlinear model (k = 2.00 x

concentrations being similar to pre-abatement 1960’s P

SD-0.76, N = 2,136) was suggested because it was


observed to be more reliable for predictions.






Their results generated an index of 2.26,

Water quality. A physically-based model was

Reinart and Pedusaar (2008) used a relatively

developed by White et al. (2008a) to predict end-of-winter

simple model to quantify long-term time-series data and the

DO concentration, water-column DO profiles, and winter


DO depletion rates in arctic lakes during periods of ice

coefficient, euphotic depth and average light of the mixed

cover on the North Slope of Alaska (USA). Comparisons

layer in Lake Ulemiste, which is a shallow, eutrophic lake

between the measured and model-predicted DO profiles in

serving the city of Tallinn as a water reservoir. The model

the three study lakes suggested that the depth-based DO

was based on 26 years (1978 – 2004) of data that was

modeling tool presented could be used to adequately

collected on optically-active substances and water quality

predict the amount of DO available in arctic lakes


throughout winter. Stansbury et al. (2008) used the two-

phytoplankton biomass.











dimensional, continuous-simulation, hydrodynamic and

A bio-optical model was developed by Zhang et

water quality model CE-QUAL-W2 to quantify DO sources

al. (2008a) to estimate total suspended matter by using

and sinks in Lake Ogallala, a 260-hectare tailwater

remote sensing reflectance of two near-infrared bands in


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

order to overcome shortcomings of the matrix inversion

atmospherically-acidified Plesne Lake, Czech Republic, by

method and to increase the estimating accuracy of total

developing a model that quantifies the impact of individual

suspended mater.

The method was validated by in-situ

processes (e.g., changes in metal concentration and charge,

experiment data measured in Lake Taihu, a large, turbid

precipitation, and liberation from organic complexes). The

lake in eastern China, and results showed that this method

net H+ production was two orders of magnitude higher for

had better performance than the matrix inversion method;

Al than Fe and their results reflected fluxes of ionic,

however, the applicable scope of this method could only be

organic, and particulate forms into and out of the lake and

applied to optically deep waters with high concentrations of

also evaluated the pH gradient between the inlet and outlet.

total suspended matter.

The development of a health advisory system

Momii and Ito (2008) developed a one-

based on the probability that real-time estimates of sewage

dimensional heat transfer model, which includes vertical

indicator bacteria levels exceed water quality standards was

turbulent mixing in lake water and heat exchange between

described and modeled by Heberger et al. (2008). The

the lake and the atmosphere, that was applied to estimate

advisory system was designed to allow accurate and timely

the heat budget of Lake Ikeda, in southern Japan. Analysis

predictions of water quality so that recreational users can

of the heat budget for a 25-year period from 1981 to 2005

make informed decisions about the safety of water and

showed that the lake accumulates heat from March to

beach managers can post updated advisories. The resulting

August and releases it through latent and sensible heat

model was applied to Mystic River watershed, an urban

under a small net radiation condition from September to



correctly The biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, was











nonexceedances with >85% accuracy for the beach and the

applied to 44 statistically-representative Environmental


Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) lake

simultaneously examined twelve beaches along 35 km of

watersheds in the Adirondacks by Zhai et al. (2008) to help

Indiana's Lake Michigan coastline to understand the fate

provide an understanding of historical effects of acidic

and movement of Escherichia coli in beach water using a

deposition on soils and lake waters. Observations showed

best-fit empirical model that included two variables: wave

that the estimated historical surface water acidification was

height and an interactive term comprised of wind direction

greatest in lakes having low acid-neutralizing capacity

and creek turbidity. The amount of variation explained by

below values of 100 mu eq/L, which was in agreement with

the model was similar to previous reports for individual

a previous paleolimnological investigation. Kopacek et al.

beaches. The broader-scale spatial and temporal changes in

(2008) studied the effect of in-lake transformations of Al

bacteria concentrations, as well as influencing factors,















Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

could be characterized by extending the modeling approach

Washington (Washington state, United States). Their study

to include more coastline distance.

stresses the lack of perfect simulators of natural system

Blenckner (2008) emphasized the importance of

dynamics and introduces two statistical formulations that

evaluating key issues such as (1) thresholds and points-of-

can explicitly account for the discrepancy between

no-return, (2) simulated biogeochemical processes for a

mathematical models and environmental systems.

large number of lakes versus individual systems, (3) spatio-

Ecosystems of shallow lakes were analyzed by

temporal variability to quantify biogeochemical fluxes, and

Janse et al. (2008) with PCLake, a dynamic model of

(4) biogeochemical linkages between terrestrial and aquatic

nutrient cycling and biota (ncluding phytoplankton,

ecosystems in modeling studies. This work suggests that

rnacrophytes and a simplified food web) to calculate the

doing so would substantially improve models as tools for

switchpoints in terms of critical P loading levels for a



number of lake types. They reported that the predicted

management of large lakes that are subject to multiple

critical P loadings differ per lake type, e.g., they decrease

environmental pressures in a changing future. Advantages

with lake area, mean depth and retention time, increase

and limitations of various models and sources of

with relative marsh area and fishing intensity, and differ per

uncertainty are discussed.

sediment type.





management by comparing critical loadings for a given

Eutrophication model (LM3-Eutro) was utilized by Pauer et

lake with the actual loading. Trolle et al. (2008) used the

al. (2008) to generate primary-production estimates in Lake

one-dimensional DYRESM-CAEDYM model, developed

Michigan. The model provided more accurate estimates of

at the Centre for Water Research, University of Western

algal light limitation based on three-hour intervals, as

Australia, to elucidate the role of N and N dynamics in the

compared to daily averages that are used in most

ecosystem of moderately deep Lake Ravn situated in an

eutrophication models, and it was reported that the

agricultural landscape in Denmark.

calibrated model output fit field data reasonably well for

suggested that reduction of external total P loading would

nutrients and phytoplankton.

Arhonditsis et al. (2008)

be more feasible to reduce phytoplankton biomass.

examined a generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation

However, the study demonstrated that while N plays a

(GLUE) approach combined with a simple Monte Carlo

minor role as a limiting nutrient in Lake Ravn, the role of N

sampling scheme, a Bayesian methodological framework,

can be more important in shallow polymictic, eutrophic

and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations to

lakes where summer nitrate concentrations are often low.

elucidate the propagation of uncertainty in the high-

Shinohara et al. (2008) used field data and three-


dimensional numerical simulations to evaluate the impact

parameter models

spaces for



Their results may be useful for lake









Model simulations

of water dilution on eutrophication in Lake Barato, Japan,


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

A numerical simulation of total nitrogen (TN) and total

showed that NICE-LAKE was a powerful tool for

phosphorus (TP) distribution considering five inlet cases

forecasting how the water quality of the lake would be

was performed using the Princeton Ocean Model (POM).

affected by the illegal disposal of animal excreta in the

Model results suggested that the most effective and feasible

surrounding open fields.

way to achieve dilution (TN and TP concentrations would

Contaminant transport. In Chikin et al. (2008),

be reduced by 28% following 30 days of discharge) was via

a mathematical model is presented that describes the

a 5 m3 sec-1 inlet (78% related to the total lake volume) and

transport of a pollutant (in particular, the suspended phase

opening the Shinko Gate, which connects the lake with

of radionuclides) in the southern part of the Tsimlyanskoe

Ishikari Bay.

Reservoir (Russia).

Using an extensive database of field radiometric

During this work, finite-difference

methods with the use of upwind schemes were utilized to

and pigment data obtained in the Netherlands and Spain,

resolve transport processes.

the accuracy of three published algorithms (a baseline,

Lerch et al. (2008) reported on a Soil and Water

single band ratio, and a nested band ratio approach) was

Assessment Tool model applied to the Mark Twain

evaluated by Ruiz-Verdu et al. (2008) for remote sensing of

Lake/Salt Basin region (Missouri, USA) and showed that

phycocyanin in inland waters.

The presence of other

the model was capable of simulating observed long-term

pigments explained a tendency to overestimate the

trends in atrazine concentrations and loads and also the

phycocyanin concentration in eutrophic waters, whereas

impact of grass waterways on atrazine concentrations.

negative phycocyanin predictions were observed in

Chloride contamination was investigated by

oligotrophic waters. Ultimately, all algorithms performed

McGinley (2008) and Reddy et al. (2008).

best in moderate to high phycocyanin concentrations (50-

(2008) developed a groundwater lake loading model to

200 mg m-3) and showed the most linear response to

show how chloride sources in groundwater-contributing

increasing phycocyanin in cyanobacteria-dominated waters.

areas change chloride concentrations in lakes. This model

Nakayama and Watanabe (2008) developed a

was developed to address increased chloride concentrations




((NIES; National

in central Wisconsin lakes. Results suggest that chloride

Institute for Environmental Studies) Integrated Catchment-

concentrations will increase in these lakes until they are at

based Ecohydrology) and used it to model the shallow

steady-state with respect to chloride loading; they are

eutrophic Lake Kasumigaura in Japan. The model showed

currently at an average of 50% of their predicted steady-

that groundwater seepage and groundwater concentrations

state. Reddy et al. (2008) observed complex, seasonally

that have high N loads were important contributors to the

variable peat porewater chloride concentration profiles at

eutrophication of Lake Kasumigaura, a significant factor

several locations in a study of Everglades porewater and

not recognized in previous studies of the lake. Their results

examined, with


advection-diffusion model, how


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

alternating wet and dry climatic conditions in the Florida

concentrations for fecal coliform bacteria.


Everglades mediated movement of chloride between peat

sediment concentrations were about a factor of ten greater

porewater and marsh surface water.

Results from a

with dewatering of the floodwaters than with dewatering of

sensitivity analysis suggest that inclusion of advective

storm water without flooding and metals concentration

transport in the model improves agreement between

increases were relatively small compared to pre-Katrina

calculated and observed chloride concentration profiles.


Model results demonstrated that porewater chloride

quality guideline values for BaP and DDE were exceeded

concentrations are driven by changing surface water

for flood water but not for storm water; water column

chloride concentrations.

concentrations were predicted to be similar. The likely

Ecological screening-level sediment

The Watershed Analysis Risk Management

response of Lake Pontchartrain to contaminant loading was

Framework model was applied by Chen et al. (2008a) to

also investigated by Gokgoz-Kilic and Aral (2008), who

two contrasting drainage lakes (Wild Rice Lake and

proposed a model (based on the application of several

Whiteface Reservoir) located in the Western Lake Superior

hypothetical scenarios) to identify cost-effective and

Basin of Minnesota (USA) to simulate the transport and


fate of Hg and to calculate fish Hg concentrations attained


by fish through the food web. Their results showed that

polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were possibly in the

while Wild Rice Lake currently meets Minnesota criterion

New Orleans floodwaters. It was reported that the model

(< 0.2

g/g), a 65% reduction in atmospheric Hg

could be implemented to assess the possible extent of

deposition will not, by itself, allow Whiteface Reservoir to

damage inflicted by any storm event on the natural water

meet the criterion in 15 years. Additional best management

resources of Southern Louisiana or similar environments

practices are suggested to reduce 50% of the watershed

elsewhere and could also be used as a decision-making tool


for planning and remediation in similar emergency The impact of levee failure, as a result of









situations by examining various potential contamination

Hurricane Katrina, on water and benthic sediment

scenarios and their consequences.

concentrations in Lake Pontchartrain (Louisiana, USA) was

Wind effects and internal mixing.


investigated by Dortch et al. (2008) by applying a

sheltering effects in near-surface waters were assessed by

numerical water quality model coupled to a three-

Huber et al. (2008a), who used turbulent microstructure

dimensional, numerical hydrodynamic model to compute

profiler measurements to provide an estimate of the

water and benthic sediment concentrations throughout the

sheltering distance consistent with the literature on

lake for lead (Pb), arsenic (As), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 1,1-

"backward-facing" steps.

dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), and water

DYRESM indicated that inclusion of a sheltering algorithm

Simulations using the model


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

based on results of a field campaign significantly improved






the model's performance in capturing the surface mixed

(MIAGE) to describe the link between the volume of water

layer deepening associated with strong wind events. Laval

stored within a basin and the river runoff on a seasonal

et al. (2008) presented observations and modeling results

scale and to gain an understanding of the long-term

that explored the response of a multi-basin, fjord-type lake

seasonal dynamics of alpine glacierized basins in order to

to episodic wind forcing.

The model computed fluxes

evaluate their relation to climate forcing. It was shown, by

suggested that upwelling forced by wind events irreversibly

studying the model nonlinear properties, that climatic

exchanged 25-30% of the hypolimnion volume.

change has both direct and feedback effects on such basins.

The development and application of a three-

The performance of the differential model MIAGE was

dimensional numerical model for predicting the effect of

also tested by Perona et al. (2008) for the assessment of the

internal waves on sediment transport was presented by

potential impact of climatic change on hydrologic

Chao et al. (2008b).

The model was applied to Deep

dynamics and to investigate the potential impact of climatic

Hollow Lake, a small oxbow lake in Mississippi (USA), for

change scenarios on basins of the Italian and Swiss Alps. It

simulating cohesive sediment transport in water bodies

was reported that, despite its simplicity and limitations of

where wind-induced currents and waves are important.

model capabilities, results for changing climatic scenarios

Simulated sediment concentrations were found to be

are also in good qualitative agreement with other well

comparable to available field observations.

tested modelling approaches. It is concluded that MIAGE

Unes (2008) investigated density flow using a








three-dimensional model for a dam reservoir with diverging

elucidating the dynamics of glacierized Alpine catchments.

and sloping bottom channels.

Simulation and analysis

Lepparanta and Wang (2008) presented and analyzed a

obtained via the model were reported to improve the

mesoscale sea ice model to Lake Peipsi that contrasts the

understanding of density flow, underflow, divergence flow,

traditional coupled mechanical-thermodynamic model that

mass transport, and dam-reservoir flow interaction. Vidal

is needed for large lakes. Their results show that minor

and Casamitjana (2008) used the three-dimensional model

tuning of the key parameters made the mesoscale sea ice

ELCOM to study the response of a reservoir to a wind field

models applicable.

characterized by having marked periodicities of 12 h and

Interactions between temperature, photoperiod

24 h. Their results showed that the reservoir responded

and light exposure (integral daily light supply) on specific

with equivalent water periodicities, thus the reservoir

growth rates for Limnothrix redekei, Planktothrix agardhii

behaved as a forced oscillator in resonance with the wind.

(cyanobacteria), Nitzschia acicularis and Stephanodiscus

Climate. Perona and Burlando (2008) proposed a

minutulus (diatoms) were analyzed by Nicklisch et al.

spatially-lumped nonlinear differential model Mechanistic

(2008) to examine how global climate change alters the


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

relationship between temperature and light in aquatic


ecosystems. They developed a model and applied it to

contaminated sediments, loss of natural habitat, and

Lake Muggelsee (Germany) and found that while all three

invasive species. Correspondingly, Salmon et al. (2008)

factors influenced phytoplankton growth, temperature and

highlighted that well-constrained external mass balances, as

photoperiod were more important than light exposure.

well as assessment of integrated effects of internal

Eiswerth et al. (2008) used contingent behavior





geochemical, physical, and biological processes, are critical

analysis to examine the potential impacts of a hypothetical

for forward prediction of water quality in pit lakes.

change in the clarity of a lake and reported that an

Wagner et al. (2008) quantified potential biases

estimated reduced clarity from 10 to 3 feet could reduce

associated with lakes monitored using non-probability

annual surplus by 38%. They illustrated that this method

based sampling by comparing state-monitored (Michigan,

was well suited to analyze changes in water quality

Wisconsin, Iowa, Ohio, Maine, and New Hampshire) lakes

attributes that are easily observable and well understood by

to a census population of lakes derived from the National


Hydrography Dataset. Their analysis supports the assertion

A box model algorithm for heat and mass

that data derived from non-probability-based surveys must

exchange model was adapted for a valley reservoir by









Grechushnikova (2008) for the diurnal calculation of

generalizations to the entire population of interest and also

hydrological characteristics.

It was reported that the

that probability-based surveys are needed to ensure

verification of the new model successfully demonstrated

unbiased, accurate estimates of lake status and trends at

short-term predictions of water temperature.

regional to national scales. Several studies utilized novel and intensive statistical analyses to support monitoring data from specific


aquatic systems.

Field measurements. A long-term monitoring

grammatical evolution (GE) into the parallel genetic

program was initiated by Steinman et al. (2008) to

algorithm (GA) to construct a parallel GEGA for the

determine the ecological status of Muskegon Lake, a Great

improvement of reservoir water quality monitoring based

Lakes Area of Concern, and presented data generated from

on remote sensing images. For this study, ground-truth

the first three years of the monitoring program. During this

chlorophyll-a concentrations were obtained longitudinally

study, they discussed how the data are being used to

along the Feitsui Reservoir, the primary water supply for

establish and justify lake restoration targets and assessed

Taipei City in Taiwan, during a measurement cruise.

how water quality conditions have changed over time. It

Compared with a traditional linear multiple regression

was reported that overall, the water quality of Muskegon Lake has improved


the past 30

Chen et al. (2008c) incorporated

(LMR), the performance of parallel GEGA was found to be

years but


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

better than that of the traditional LMR model, with lower

was identified to be transferable to other isolated pristine

estimating errors.

aquatic ecosystems.


Iscen et al. (2008) applied different analysis,

Effler et al. (2008b) presented a retrospective

principle component analysis and factor analysis on

analysis of long-term data sets of Secchi disc depth (40 yr

principle components) to interpret a complex data matrix

data set), the diffuse light attenuation coefficient for

obtained from Uluabat Lake surface water and reported that

downwelling irradiance for photosynthetically available

cluster analysis revealed two different groups of similarities

radiation (23 yr data set), and chlorophyll-a (28 yr data set)



for culturally-eutrophic and industrially-polluted Onondaga

physicochemical properties and pollution levels in the

Lake, New York. A key observation from this work was

studied water system.

that the benefits of P management resulted in a three-fold








An integrative sample analysis approach was

decrease in average chlorophyll-a and a two-fold increase

utilized by Acs et al. (2008) in order to find an appropriate

in Secchi disc depth.



Secchi depth measurements were reported to be both spatial

biomonitoring of a shallow soda lake, Lake Velencei. They

and temporal and to have a strong statistical relationship

concluded that old reed substrata and stones artificially

with chlorophyll-a and total P in the Boulder Basin of Lake

placed for water-quality monitoring purposes may be

Mead, Nevada-Arizona (USA) according to LaBounty

appropriate for biomonitoring of shallow soda lakes in

(2008). This work was based on analyses of over 5,500

spring and autumn since they showed similar results

individual Secchi readings between July 1990 and

regarding all measured features during both seasons.

December 2007. One of the most significant outcomes of



In a similar work, variations in

A sampling network was developed by Kao et al.

this study was the establishment of baseline water clarity in

(2008) to monitor water quality and track pollution events

Lake Mead through 2008, which may be beneficial in light

in the Derchi reservoir catchment in Taiwan. Results show

of imminent and future alterations of the aquatic ecosystem

that the sampling network properly detects potential

due to both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors,

pollution events, monitors pollution distribution, and

specifically the recent introduction of the quagga mussel

follows temporal trends in pollution. Doran et al. (2008)


described an entry and sampling approach that was

transparency was also analyzed by Baker et al. (2008),

executed at Lake Vida, East Antarctica, a permanently ice-

during a study in which eleven case-study lakes in

sealed lake that has never been sampled. Through this

Minnesota that had undergone substantial shoreline

study, best-practice sampling procedures were developed

development over the past 30 years were evaluated to

with emphasis on mitigating introduction of trace organics

determine drivers of change in clarity. Results suggest that

or microbiota to the ecosystem. The conceptual approach

variables such as large watershed area-to-lake area ratios





Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation


and anthropogenic activity outside the shoreline area,

residential development in the Laurentian lakes (Quebec,

particularly agricultural activity, were probably more

Canada), was examined by Lambert and Cattaneo (2008) to

influential than shoreline development on Secchi disk

evaluate the best method for monitoring the incipient


degradation of these lakes.





Their findings reveal that


epilithic algae on rock show a stronger response to


shoreline residential development than algae on other

results of comparative studies of fluorescent characteristics

substrata and that measurement of epilithon thickness (via a

of humic substances and electroconductivity in the surface

ruler) was a fast and reliable tool for estimating epilithon

water layer in the Rybinsk Reservoir are presented by


Litvinov et al. (2008). The similarity in results of this study

manipulations required to monitor biomass as a function of

supports future use of humic substance fluorescence, which


measuring techniques into monitoring strategies.







allows for remote measurement, as an indicator of

Field spectroscopy was evaluated by Randolph et

hydrological structure. Sung et al. (2008) designed and

al. (2008) as a method for rapid cyanobacteria bloom

manufactured an ultrasonic system for real-time sediment

assessment which would improve upon current field-based



methods for detecting blooms that are costly, time

(Taiwan) based on results using kaolin ultrasonic

consuming, and delay management decisions. In-situ field

attenuation, in which variations in ultrasonic attenuation

reflectance spectra were collected at 54 sampling sites on

were driven by concentration and temperature. In a study

two turbid reservoirs in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA using

on methane release, Ostrovsky et al. (2008) used a 120-kHz

ASD Fieldspec (UV/VNIR) spectroradiometers. A strong

dual beam downward-looking echosounder in Lake

correlation was observed between measured phycocyanin

Kinneret (Israel) to measure size distributions of bubbles


that do not resonate at sonar frequency. This work focused

cyanobacteria while a weaker relationship was observed

on evaluating methane gas ebullition and the subsequent

between chlorophyll-a concentration and cyanobacterial

role of methane transport in the water column and to the

biovolume; thus, the algorithm is supported as a robust

atmosphere in response to variable water levels.


model for estimating phycocyanin. The spatial distribution

relatively high ebullition rate was observed and was

of both cyanobacterial biovolume and total phytoplankton

attributed to the gradual decreasing of the mean water level

community structure during a period of high algal

in preceding years.

abundance in Lake Mulwala, a water-storage reservoir in









Biota. The response of periphyton growing on

Australia, were described by Baldwin and Boulding (2008).

different natural substrata (rocks, wood, sediments, and

For this work, a rational design of monitoring strategies

macrophytes), as well as on introduced plastic strips near a

was developed with sufficient statistical power to both


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

evaluate changes in overall phytoplankton community

input, bed re-suspension and overland flow into drains and

structure over time and to fulfill statutory cyanobacterial

tributaries) were also determined to be important.

biovolume monitoring obligations.

Several sampling strategies to improve the

Bini et al. (2008) evaluated the assemblage

assessment of larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) fish

concordance among three zooplankton groups (Rotifera,

populations in Lake Superior were evaluated by Myers et

Cladocera and Copepoda) in 30 Brazilian reservoirs using

al. (2008). Their results did not indicate any significant

the Mantel tests and Procrustean analyses.


trends in larval density estimates during the day and

supported the use of surrogate taxa for monitoring and

concluded that estimates of larval cisco density spatially are

indicated that community concordance analysis may be a

not affecte by time on a daily timescale.

powerful tool for enhancing the efficiency of monitoring

Autonomous systems. A system for the semi-

programs, ensuring their long-term sustainability.

autonomous, in-situ

measurement of lake chemical

Fossil cladoceran remains in surface sediment

properties, with high temporal resolution and the potential

samples from 44 oligotrophic lakes in south-central Ontario

to map chemical properties in three dimensions, is

were examined by DeSellas et al. (2008) to evaluate the

described by Hemond et al. (2008). This system utilizes

relationships between species assemblages and five

fixed sensor locations on moored buoys and an autonomous

environmental variables (sulphate, Ca, pH, maximum lake

underwater vehicle (AUV).

depth and dissolved organic carbon) using Redundancy

constructed that demonstrated the ability to measure and

Analysis. This work reveals that, based on the distribution

remotely display lake chemical data in real time (Hemond

of cladocerans in the surface sediment and their relation to

et al. 2008). Forrest et al. (2008) investigated penetrative

the environmental variables, there is considerable potential

convection in the surface layer of a midsize temperate lake

for the use of sedimentary cladoceran remains as

in both summer and winter using a conductivity-

environmental indicators in south-central Ontario lakes.

temperature-depth (CTD) logger mounted on an AUV

A prototype system was

Brown et al. (2008) established a hierarchical

directed repeatedly along horizontal transects at selected

monitoring network to study fluvial pollen and spore

depths in the lake. The high-resolution, horizontal CTD

(palynomorph) transport at a catchment scale in England.

measurements provided insight into previously unresolved

Their results indicate that the vast majority of fluvial pollen

physical dynamics of the well-mixed layer of the lake in

and spores are transported during floods (91%) and that the

quasi-shear-free conditions that would have been difficult

main control on waterborne palynomorph assemblages is

to quantify during summer months and impossible under

the catchment vegetation and its spatial distribution, though

winter ice cover without the use of an AUV platform.






An automatic water-quality monitoring station

Seasonal effects and distinctive sources (e.g., riparian

(AWQMS) and a new high-resolution spectrofluorimetric


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

probe were used by Moreno-Ostos et al. (2008) to record

of the dramatic decline in Lake Victoria water level during

seasonal variations in the spatial distribution of three

the last five years. Observations indicated that rainfall and

functional groups of phytoplankton in a Mediterranean

temperature have remained stable and that the major factor

water-supply reservoir.

was expanded discharge from the Owen Falls dam.

Their results showed that the


observed variations can be explained by the interaction

another satellite-based study, C-band synthetic aperture

between the buoyancy properties of the phytoplankton and

radar (SAR) remote sensing technology was investigated

the mixing characteristics of the reservoir. Caron et al.

by Hirose et al. (2008) as a potential alternative to the

(2008) used wireless network of buoys, two autonomous

traditional method of using bathymetric surveys to

robotic boats, and an autonomous tethered vertical profiling

determine lake depth. SAR was successful in identifying

system to characterize phytoplankton dynamics and

remote lakes in northern Canada that froze completely;

spatiotemporal changes in chemical and physical forcing

however, it but proved unreliable for accurately calculating

factors in a small montane lake (Lake Fulmor, Idyllwild,

the depth of the ice at the ground-floating ice boundary.

California, USA). Their results presented seasonal changes

Pan-sharpened Landsat imagery was utilized by

in the structure of the lake and phytoplankton assemblage,

Sivanpillai and Miller (2008) to map waterbodies of

as well as fine-scale temporal and spatial variations.

variable size in the Powder River Basin (Wyoming, USA)

A field study in a boreal lake using an AUV

using fusion techniques by merging multispectral (30-m

equipped with a camera established that fish carcasses did

resolution) and panchromatic (15-m) bands from Landsat 7

not tend to be buried in sediments after deposition




sharpened imagery were most pronounced (25% higher

experimentally assessed decomposition rates of fish

accuracy) for mapping waterbodies ranging in size from

carcasses in three boreal lakes at different depths. Results

1801 to 2700 m2. Reis and Yilmaz (2008) used Landsat

showed that in shallow waters (between 0 and 4 m),

imagery, as well as monitoring satellite data, to investigate

decomposition was fast and controlled by vertebrates,

temporal changes in the water surface area of Seyfe Lake,


Turkey and its environs.












Analyses revealed that the benefits of pan-

Over the 26-year observation

decomposition was slow and was controlled by bacterial

period, lake surface area was observed to decrease ~33%.


Climate conditions (rainfall, temperature and evaporation)

Remote sensing. Data from multiple satellites

changed by approximately 21% during this period;

(Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE),

however, the impact of climate on lake surface area could

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and

not be distinguished from anthropogenic influences.

CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP)) were

Coskun et al. (2008) focused on the acquisition and

evaluated by Awange et al. (2008b) to establish the cause

analysis of satellite images from the Satellite Probatoire de


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT; 1993), Indian Remote

index and in-situ chlorophyll-a concentrations have very

Sensing satellite (IRS; 1996 and 2000) and Landsat

high correlation.

Thematic Mapper (TM; (2004, 2005, and 2006) to investigate the temporal assessment of land-use/cover of Nutrients

the Omerli Watershed and water quality changes in the

Nutrient balance.

Reservoir utilizing the ground truth measurements. It was

monthly and annual scales was quantified by Ferris and

reported that the observed reflectance showed a strong

Lehman (2008) at the inlets and outlets of three sequential

relationship with water quality parameters and thus, the

impoundments for total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus,

satellite data proved a useful index of total nitrogen, total

total nitrogen, dissolved nitrogen, particulate nitrogen,

phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and total dissolved solids.

colored dissolved organic matter, specific conductance, and

Landsat 7 ETM+ (Path/Row 119/39) imagery was used by

pH. The data were analyzed to characterize “ordinary”

Torbick et al. (2008) to map chlorophyll-a concentrations in West Lake, Hangzhou.

temporal variability and statistical models were constructed

Based on this mapping, they

to evaluate the sampling effort that would be required to

developed an optimal linear regression model with the band

detect predicted changes in response to (1) a municipal

ratio ETM+3/ETM+1 (independent) and concurrent field-

ordinance banning phosphorus in lawn fertilizers and (2)

collected water quality measurements (dependant). Results

the possible removal of the dam forming the middle


showed a strong (R = 0.815) ability to accurately map the

impoundment. Wilson (2008) intensively studied the

distribution of chlorophyll-a.

temporal and spatial extent of chemical and biological

Alikas and Reinart (2008) evaluated Medium

changes to the water column of Myall Lakes after a rain

Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS/Envisat) data on

event in 2002.

three large European lakes, Vanern and Vattern in Sweden


and Peipsi in Estonia/Russia. They found reasonably good

For this study, data was obtained via





conductivity, pH and dissolved oxygen), turbidity, nutrients

correlation between the MERIS algal_2 product and the

(total N, nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic N, total P,

measured C-chl for all three lakes, but no correlation was

reactive P, dissolved organic P and silica (Si)), and

found for other optically active substances. Wang et al.

phytoplankton (chlorophyll-a and cell counts).

(2008e) explored monitoring and assessing water quality

It was

reported that identification of the sources of nutrient

via satellite techniques in the Miyun reservoir of Beijing,

species delivered from different parts of the catchment,

China using two-scene Thematic Mapper images and simultaneous in-situ measurements.

Temporal variability at

combined with studies of nutrient loads, can assist

Statistical analyses

managers to develop effective nutrient reduction strategies

indicated that a satellite-based normalized ratio vegetation

for reducing the incidence of blue-green algal blooms in Myall Lakes.


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

The effects of nutrient input, hydraulic flushing

clay content, and an abundance of macrophytes, according

rate and depth on reservoir nutrients were examined by

to Pulatsü et al. (2008), who examined the vertical

Jones et al. (2008a) in the mid-continent landscape of the

distributions of total P and P fractions, Fe and organic

Ozark Highlands and plains of Missouri and southern Iowa.

matter in the littoral sediment in a macrophyte-dominated,



clearwater region of Lake Mogan. It was suggested that

considered when setting nutrient criteria, emphasizing that

monitoring long-term changes in the sediment was essential

it would be unreasonable to establish criteria based on

for optimizing management of the lake.

water bodies with long retention time and apply them to

Pulatsue (2008) also reported that high sediment clay

rapidly flushed lakes. Zhu et al. (2008) investigated Lake

content and macrophyte presence were influential in

Taihu, China to understand variations in total P and

decreasing sediment P release.

elucidate factors influencing total P in large, shallow,

conducted a study between July 2004 and June 2005 to

eutrophic lakes. It was identified that intensive sediment

determine seasonal and spatial patterns of P in the littoral



sediment of Lake Mogan and its potential release into the

significant effect on total P, which was observed as

lake water; they determined that, in order to protect the

accumulate in algae during blooms, and thus implied that

trophic level of the lake, P adsorption kinetics should be

care should be taken when using total P or ratios of total N

examined and a priority monitoring program should be

: total P for trophic state evaluation in large, shallow and

carried out.










eutrophic lakes.

Topcu and

These researchers

Phosphorous dynamics were also investigated in

Biogeochemical cycling. The effects of light and

water and sediment in Lake Sirio (Italy) by Perrone et al.

temperature on nutrient cycling (Si, N and P) between

(2008), who suggested that the total P vertical variability

sediments and water in a shallow eutrophic lake (Loch

and speciation in the cores resulted from a change in

Leven, Scotland) were assessed by Spears et al. (2008).

sediment retention capacity, connected to the lake’s shift to

This study also investigated consequent effects on water

more eutrophic conditions. Zhou et al. (2008) investigated

column nutrient stoichiometry, using a series of intact

spatial, vertical, and seasonal variations in P fractions and

sediment core incubation experiments. Results show that

in alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in sediment in a

the main processes acting to regulate diffusive nutrient

large-shallow eutrophic Chinese lake (Lake Taihu). It was

release appeared to be photosynthetic elevation of bottom

reported that sediment APA showed a significant positive

water pH and DO concentration (both significantly higher

relationship with both organically-bound and Fe-oxide-

under light conditions) and direct microalgal sequestration.

bound P; furthermore, organically-bound P induces APA

The most important P-immobilizing factors from

and may lead to the release of bioavailable phosphates from

sediments were reported to be high Fe content, sediment







Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation


eutrophication. Martynova (2008) studied how the content

correlated significantly to the P fractions in sediments.

of organic matter and Al and Fe compounds in freshwater

Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of sediments

sediments influence P release from the bottom; results

presented significant correlation to the contents of P

characterize relationships between P release from bottom

fractions, highlighting the influence physicochemical

sediments and organic matter concentration based on a

properties of sediments can have on P fraction distributions

comparison of sediments from 22 lakes of the world.

in lake sediments.

Jiang et al. (2008) investigated effects of

Zhang et al. (2008b) studied temporal and spatial

biological activity, light, temperature and DO on P release

dynamics of N in lake and interstitial water in a large

at the sediment-water interface of a shallow lake, Taihu

shallow, eutrophic lake in subtropical China. Nitrate was

Lake, China.

The results show that organisms at the

the predominant form of N in the overlying water, while

sediment-water interface can stimulate P release from

ammonium was predominant in the interstitial water,

sediments and that their metabolism can alter the

indicating that strong oxidative nutrient regeneration

surrounding microenvironmental conditions. Furthermore,

occurred near the sediment-water interface. Additionally,

the extent of P release and its subsequent flux into the

positive correlation between ammonium fluxes and algae

overlying water were shown to be affected by light,

biomass and chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that

temperature and DO. Liu et al. (2008b) studied a region of

phytoplankton was an important factor driving ammonium

lakeshore with little allochthonous nutrient input in Taihu

fluxes in their study lake, and vice versa, that higher fluxes

Lake, China to determine the affect that accumulation of


algae in littoral zones has on the biogeochemical cycle of P








in eutrophic lakes. It was reported that while accumulated

Koszelnik and Tomaszek (2008) studied the

algae could lead to a significant deposit of P in the littoral

ecosystem of the Solina-Myczkowce mountain complex of

zones, active sedimentary P transformation in the littoral

mesotrophic reservoirs on the San River, Poland for Si. It

zones could also result in a partial release of the

was observed that most Si retention occurred in the lower

accumulated P to the overlying water.

Myczkowce Reservoir and that the hypolimnion was seen

Chao et al. (2008a) sampled sediment cores from

to go through an enrichment process connected with

Darning Lake, Mochou Lake, and Xuanwu Lake, three

sedimentation and releases from sediments. The observed

typical shallow urban lakes in China, and employed the

epilimnetic depletion causes a decrease in the dissolved Si

Standards, Measurements and Testing (SMT) program as

to dissolved inorganic P ratio in the euphotic zone of the

proposed by the European Commission, to characterize

reservoirs, with simultaneous growth of non-siliceous algae

vertical distributions of P fractions in sediment profiles.

expressed by the chlorophyll-a concentration. Noges et al.

Results showed that the P concentration in pore-water

(2008) studied the formation of dissolved Si loads from


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

rivers to lakes, the development of diatoms in lakes and the

phosphate excretion by the Chironomus larvae were

role of climatic forcing on the Si cycle in three river-lake

conducted by Henry and Santos (2008) to evaluate the

systems in Sweden, Estonia and Northern Germany. They

importance of these chironomids for the internal loads of a

found significant season-specific correlations of the North

small eutrophic urban reservoir. Observations showed that

Atlantic Oscillation winter index with either the biomass or

internal loads via excretion from Chironomus larvae

the share of diatoms in each lake, but no coherent pattern

correspond to approximately 33% of the external loads of P

among the lakes, thus indicating that processes driven by

in the lake but to only 5% of the external loads of N.

water discharge are more coherent across regions than in-

Pulido-Villena et al. (2008) quantified dry and

lake processes. Biota.

wet atmospheric deposition of soluble reactive phosphorus Stets and Cotner (2008) manipulated

(SRP) and assessed the subsequent effect on bacterial

dissolved organic carbon in two lakes of different trophic

abundance and phytoplankton specific biomass in a high

states to understand controls on the flow of inorganic

mountain lake strongly influenced by Saharan dust

nutrients between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in

outbreaks in the Southwest Mediterranean region. Results

lakes. It was hypothesized that labile dissolved organic

show that dry deposition of SRP represented 79% of total

carbon (DOC) additions would increase bacterial P uptake

SRP inputs. Additionally, a seasonal pattern was observed

and decrease the response of phytoplankton to nutrient

similar to Saharan dust export to this region, and since

additions. It was reported that DOC accumulated over the

changes in climate will presumably lead to an alteration in

time period, that there was little evidence for a DOC-

dust export, these results point to the need of further studies

induced decrease in phytoplankton biomass, and that excess


bacterial DOC consumption in oligotrophic lakes may

bacterioplankton and phytoplankton dynamics in remote

result in greater bacterial P affinity and enhanced nutrient

oligotrophic systems.

uptake by the heterotrophic compartment of the food web.








Henry-Silva et al. (2008) evaluated the effect of

Fe and P limitation and their combined effects on

different concentrations of N and P on the growth of the

the growth and development of Prorocentrum micans

free-floating aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes,



Pistia stratiotes, and Salvinia molesta. E. crassipes and P.

(Cryptophyceae) were evaluated Weng et al. (2008) via

stratiotes were shown to potentially cause problems in

lab-culture experiments. Results showed that Fe starvation

nutrient-rich waterbodies; however, under experimental

can misalign chloroplast lamellas, and metamorphose and

conditions for this study, growth was limited by N and/or P

twist the thylakoid, leading to a retarded growth rate;

concentrations. The growth of S. molesta was not observed

additionally, the combined effects of Fe and P can

to be influenced by the different nutrient concentrations.




accelerate their growth. Measurements of ammonium and


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

Rojo et al. (2008) studied nitrate incorporation

ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) community exhibited

rates by primary producers and the transfer of N to upper

sequences most closely related to halo and/or alkaline

planktonic food web levels in different seasons using a

tolerant Nitrosomonas-like sequences.

microcosm experimental approach in Colgada Lake

phylogeny represented a significant shift from previously

(Spain), which is heavily polluted by nitrate.


documented AOB community composition and was

suggested that the N uptake by planktonic communities

coincident with Mono Lake's transition from monomixis to








The observed

zooplankters and phytoplankton size structure, with a

Intwala et al. (2008) assayed phytoplankton

higher level of N uptake by phytoplankton occurring when

species indigenous to the Great Lakes (UTCC 522

small algae were dominant without competitors (larger

(Chlorophyta) and UTCC 520 (Heterokontophyta)) for their

algae) or main predators (herbivorous zooplankters).

Zn requirements and abilities to metabolically substitute Co

Gondwe et al. (2008) studied planktonic N fixation in Lake

and Cd for Zn under conditions in which Zn bioavailability

Malawi by measuring heterocyst biovolume concentrations,

limited cell growth.

and reported that the contribution of planktonic N fixation

phytoplankton to use and Co as Zn substitutes suggested

to the overall N budget in the littoral zone may be more

that microalgae play an important role in the geochemical

critical to maintaining high rates of benthic algal

cycling of Zn, Cd and Co in large lakes, and that the

productivity. Presing et al. (2008) studied sources of N and

mobilization of Cd in lake ecosystems impacted by

its uptake by growing phytoplankton to monitor N-fixing


The observed ability of the

cyanobacteria that endanger water quality in Lake Balaton

Nutrient retention and its effect on surface water

during summer, despite a reversal in the increasing trophic

quality were investigated by Sollie and Verhoeven (2008)

status. They found that the amount of N fixed was less

via a field experiment conducted in a littoral zone

than one third of the internal load during summer when

dominated by Phragmites australis.

external N loading was insignificant.

nutrient concentrations in sediment, soil pore water and

They observed

Carini and Joye (2008) investigated rates of

surface water were significantly lower in the vegetated than

nitrification, geochemical variables, and the associated

in the unvegetated zone, which suggested a direct effect of

ammonia oxidizer microbial community in the water

the vegetation.

column of Mono Lake, California. During this study, an N-

vegetation periods (May-November) of 1985-2003 to

15 isotope tracer technique to measure ammonia oxidation,

collate nutrient content and biomass of the most important

and S-16 ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid, functional gene,

phytoplankton groups in Lake Peipsi (Estonia), and

and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were

compared two periods differing in external nutrient load

used to characterize the ammonia oxidizer population. The

and water level. It was reported that temperature and water

Haldna et al. (2008) used data for the


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

level acted synergistically and evidently influenced

experiments. Less than 1% of soluble reactive P removal

phytoplankton via nutrients, promoting internal loading

was attributed to the suspended clay load or artificial

when the water level was low and the temperature high.

stream construction materials. Their results suggested that

Kigour et al. (2008) surveyed the shoreline and

high turbidity conditions caused by suspended clays have

sublittoral areas of Lake Simcoe in October 2005 as part of

little immediate effect upon soluble reactive P removal

a baseline inventory of current conditions, and as part of an

from the water column by periphyton.

exploratory analysis to determine if there were threshold

The combined effect of reduced P supply and

nutrient levels above which nutrients were a major

warmer winter and spring conditions on the diatom spring

controlling factor in the distributions (abundances) of

bloom of a shallow lake was investigated by Huber et al.

benthic organisms. It was reported that other factors were

(2008b). Their applied model indicated that reduced ice

limitations under low total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total

cover and increasing water temperatures resulted in a more

phosphorus concentrations. An additional significant result

intense and earlier bloom that was independent of P

from this study was the discovery of an exotic species


amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus, which was observed

changes in nutrient loading was emphasized as crucial for

to numerically dominate the benthic community in which it

anticipating how phytoplankton might evolve under future

was found.

climate warming.

Light effects.

The relationship between P

Furthermore, an assessment of possible






concentrations and water transparency was defined in a

phytoplankton to micronutrient enrichment was studied in

study by Fulton and Smith (2008), which focused on lakes

two contrasting New Zealand lakes, a mesotrophic

in the Upper Ocklawaha River basin. Results suggest that

reservoir and an eutrophic coastal lake, by Downs et al.

meeting target P concentrations in lakes currently with the

(2008), who undertook nutrient enrichment bioassays of

poorest water quality would require reducing mean

phytoplankton communities to determine the relative

chlorophyll-a concentrations by up to 80%, substantially

occurrence of micronutrient (Fe, boron (B), Co, Cu,

reducing algal bloom frequencies, and more than doubling

molybdenum (Mo)) and macronutrient (N, P) limitation.

mean Secchi transparency.

Results show that N or P enrichment had no effect on

Wolfe and Lind (2008) investigated the effect of

phytoplankton productivity at the time of their study;

suspended clay particles on the P uptake rate exhibited by

furthermore, their analysis of published data suggests that

lotic periphyton communities. Observations indicate that

the prevalence of micronutrient limitation is unrelated to

clay type and variable concentration (20, 80, and 200 mg l-

lake size or trophic state. However, it was emphasized that


the potential contribution of micronutrient enrichment to

) had no significant effect upon the soluble reactive P

uptake rate exhibited by periphyton during three 90-min

eutrophication should not be overlooked.


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

A whole lake enrichment experiment was carried

into a simple index. Their results showed a relationship

out for five years in two ultraoligotrophic, subalpine

between UV absorption and P concentration, which

hydroelectric power reservoirs in Sweden (Mjolkvattnet

suggested P contributed significantly to the degradation of

and Burvattnet) by Persson et al. (2008). A major result of

stream and lake water quality through algal blooming and

this study was that the whole-lake ecosystem experiment of

associated eutrophication. Nutrient influx from point and

gentle fertilization significantly boosted phytoplankton

nonpoint sources in Lake Egirdir, Turkey, was evaluated by

production while food quality remained high and plankton

Gunes (2008) to assess the impact of pollution from various

community composition was not substantially altered.

sources. Collective data suggested that several precautions

Similar results were obtained by Rydin et al. (2008), who

could be taken to reduce nutrient input into the lake's

found that rotifers and cladocerans responded rapidly, as


did fish health, to compensatory nutrient enrichment

implementation of projects prepared for point sources may

performed as a remedy against declining fish populations in

reduce total N pollution by 79% and total P by 30-50%.

these hydropower reservoirs. Rydin et al. (2008) reported

Nutrients that come from nonpoint sources, excluding

that after two years of nutrient addition, five-yr-old Arctic

atmospheric deposition, are predicted to possibly decrease

char had doubled in weight and increased significantly in

by a minimum of 50% through effective control techniques.

length, reaching pre-impoundment conditions. Laboratory

experiments based







Amador et al. (2008) identified sources of human on


faecal contamination in two water reservoirs in Puerto Rico

samples from one ultraoligotrophic pristine Andean lake

and La Plata using a combination of chemical and

(Lake Gutierrez, Argentina) and one subalpine lake


currently approaching oligo- to mesotrophic conditions

approaches. The results of their study should be useful in

(Lake Maggiore, Italy) were performed by Bertoni et al.


(2008). Lake water was amended with P, organic carbon

identification of potential sources and extent of human

(C), alone or in combination, to test for short-term changes

faecal contamination in similar tropical reservoirs, which is

(48 hr) in bacteria activity and community structure.

emphasized as a necessary step in the development of

Results showed that bacterial production increased in the

management plans to reduce or eliminate these sources.

combination (P and C) treatment in both lakes and in the P


treatment in the ultraoligotrophic lake. Anthropogenic influences.














contributing to changes in diatom assemblages and bulk The impacts of

organic N isotope records identified in lake sediments

agriculture and concentrated livestock operations on water

across Colorado, Wyoming, and southern Montana, using

quality in Grand Lake (Ohio, USA) were evaluated by

compound-specific N, C, and hydrogen (H) isotope records

Hoorman et al. (2008) by normalizing and integrating data

from sediments of Sky Pond, an alpine lake in Rocky


Water Environment Research, Volume 81, Number 10—Copyright © 2009 Water Environment Federation

Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). It was reported

surface water of Esthwaite Water (England) using a series

that an expansion of anthropogenic influences and temporal

of twelve standardized assays that provided quantitative

changes in catchment hydrology and nutrient delivery


associated with meltwater dynamics caused a shift in N


cycling from

benzo(a)pyrene binding, hydrophilicity, and adsorption to

an increase in biologically available

nitrogenous compounds. Baralkiewicz

alumina. et







absorption, pH


fluorescence, Cu


It was reported that the fraction of DOM

produced within the lake (autochthonous) predicted by the

contamination of the Swarzeodzkie Lake by determining




elemental distribution patterns of 18 elements in samples of

chlorophyll-a concentration and was consistent with

water taken just above the bottom sediments. Three groups


were characterized as geogenic elements (Ag, As, Mg and

autochthonous DOM was found to be less light-absorbing,

Sb), elements supplied by the agricultural catchment (Ca,

less fluorescent, more hydrophilic, and possess fewer

Mn, Sr, Na, K and Al) and elements originated from urban

proton-dissociating groups, than from the catchment

contamination (Ni, Cr, Cu, Fe, V, Ba, Zn and Pb). Mastoi

(allochthonous) material.





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