(Liberal) Democracy

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orang-orang Mukmin. Siapa saja yang berbuat demikian, niscaya lepaslah ia dari pertolongan Allah kecuali karena memelihara diri dari sesuatu yang ditakuti ...

Under the Hegemony of (Liberal) Democracy : Analysis of Uprising Movement on Hizbuth Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) 1

Andi Triswoyo, [email protected], Universitas Gadjah Mada

Religious radicalism marked the entirety of the neoliberal era. The neoliberal era, as the political theorist argued, was signed by the declaration of liberal democracy as legitimate governmental system. Interestingly, this idea was followed by the uprising of the religious radicalism in some corner of the world. The uprising of the religious radicalism movement today, has been the interesting one to be researched. Hizbuth Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) was the one of them. As the radical movement organizations, HTI kept develop their guerilla actions, such as the leaflet spread, public opinion aggregations, and the campaign of caliphate (Islamic state) establishment. I argue that the uprising of the HTI’s actions was the actions, which is purposed to encounter of the (liberal) democracy, that was so existed in Indonesia polity. The paper was aimed to explain how these actions can be upraised, by using the hegemonic theory of Antonio Gramsci and his derivatives, a few centuries ago. Using the literary studies and online research as the data collecting instruments, it hopefully, can answer the appearance of the HTI’s actions by the scientific reasoning, not by the moral foundations, even for religious doctrine. Keywords: Liberal Democracy, HTI, Hegemony Introduction Reading for the interesting thesis of Daniel Bell about the End of Ideology, relies on the thought of the thesis rightness in the recently international politics nowadays. Daniel Bell looks the existence of the world ideologies has ended with the victory of liberal democracy. This statement, of course faces of many controversies in the both scholarship domain, either political theorist or International Relations (IR) scholars. It implicates to the other scholar’s responses that based on un-ended ideology. But, before Bell’s thesis appeared, Fukuyama’s End of History thesis hit the world surprisingly. Francis Fukuyama gives the outstanding thesis mostly, especially after the fall of Soviet Union as the prime enemy of United States. He argued that the fall of Soviet Union was the sign of the end of two largest worldly ideologies throughout that time, namely liberal-capitalistic and socialist-communist. Fukuyama stressed his thesis on inevitability of the spread liberalcapitalistic, as well as democracy thoughts and ideas into whole of the world. It would be enlarged widely by globalization process, which fluent the stuff, service and workers’ traffics over somewhere. Fukuyama wrote on his thesis on West triumph on Soviet ideas.1

1

Fukuyama, Francis. 1989. “ The End of History? “. The National Interest, Summer. hal 1-2

“ The triumph of the West, of the Western idea, is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world’s two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movement in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants’ markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. ”

The rise of transnational Islamic movement or radical Islam, has demanded on the enforcement of religion-based ideology. This case has been the sign of fragility of Bell’s thesis. This paper eventually will present inevitable realities on rise of radical Islamic movement as color of contemporary era, whose predominantly argue that democracy is the final ideology in the world. The Entrance of Post-secular Society The fall of Daniel Bell’s thesis on The End of Ideology, and Francis Fukuyama’s The End of History, was delivered by the glorification of such radicalism movement, as well as the fundamentalism religion throughout world, such as fundamentalist Islam in Middle East (Taliban, Al-Qaeda, and Hamas); Hindu Nationalism in India; Revival of some buddies sects in Japan; and uprising of Christian Fundamentalism in United States. Both of these movements, either fundamentalist or radical are not marked on historical ends. It deserved notification by the prevail of capitalism and ideology of liberal democracy in same cases. All of these, then could be signification of beginning the post-secular society era. Postsecular terminology is the term born from cinnysm and critics for secularism theorist, which looked that religion existence has vanished from public space. It also places religion as the private one. Some of prominent theorist defined post secularism as Jurgen Habermas argued post-secular refers to a change in consciousness, which chiefly consist of three phenomena; (1) firstly, the broad perception of those global conflicts that are often presented as hinging on religious strive changes public consciousness; (2) religion is gaining influence not only worldwide but also within national public sphere; and (3) the final is stimulus for a change of

consciousness among the population is the immigration of “guest-workers” and refugees, specifically from countries with traditional cultural backgrounds.2 Knowing Hegemony Concepts and Its Growth Antonio Gramsci is the beginning theorist, who introduced the hegemony concept. The concept appeared, as the Marxism-oriented movements though the Italian Communist Party. You should know that it has been oppressed by the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini. Fascism strength, which acted so rude, indirectly stops on what the parties’ vision, namely struggled for the oppressed-class’ destiny in Italy. On Selection Prison Notebooks, Gramsci based the hegemony, which is done by three political organs in different degrees : (1) legislature; (2) judiciary; and (3) executive. Hegemony in his perspective, referred to the condition of civil society in Italy, which was insisted by the Church and State as followed.3 “Unity of the State in the differentiation of powers : Parliament more closely linked to civil society; the judiciary power, between government and Parliament, represents the continuity of the written law (even against the government). Naturally all three powers are also organs of political hegemony, but in different degrees : 1. Legislature; 2. Judiciary; 3. Executive. It is to be noted how lapses in the administration of justice make an especially disastrous impression on the public : the hegemonic apparatus is more sensitive in this sector, to which arbitrary actions on the part of the police and political administration may also be referred.” [1930-32]

Walter L. Adamson stated the hegemony, that is assessed Gramsci had two related definitions. Firstly, it means as the consensual basis from existing political system in civil society. Moreover, hegemony rises on the settings done by strong states. It is different with weak states, which used domination. The using strategy here is attempts to build hegemony of alternative proletarian, in which the post-revolutionary proletarian dictatorship could be built. Secondly, hegemony was an overcoming of economic-corporative. In this case, hegemony become the representations from the extension of class consciousness, where class was not just understood economically, but also in the aspect of intellectual and moral consciousnesses.4 Materials & Methods

2

Habermas, Jurgen. Notes on Post-secular Society in Habermas, Jurgen. Blair, Tony. Debray, Regis. 2008. Secularism’s Crisis of Faith. page 20 3 Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selection from the Prison Notebooks. New York. International Publishers. Hal 245-246 4 Adamson, Walter L. 1980. Hegemony and Revolution : A Study of Antonio Gramsci’s Political and Cultural Theory. Berkeley. University of California Press. page 270-271

This paper would elaborate how the activities, which were done by Hizbuth Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) as the Islamic radical group in Indonesia through such propaganda campaigns toward democracy. In this occasion, despite of the underestimation or critics toward democracy become the propaganda forms on grease their aims to establish Islamic state (caliphate). It has been an interesting-study to be learnt why democracy totally was the main target. We, obviously can speculate of liberal democracy was so strong and huge, as so it must be destructed as well as the dogma of destructing the democratic system was the real stage for establishing caliphate system in Indonesia, as it occurred on the Islamic leading moment, after the death of prophet Muhammad. It would use literary desk and online research, which focuses on such propaganda were done by HTI, in enforcing their aim to build caliphate system in Indonesia. Some HTI’s propaganda could be achieved through few items as leaflet, convoy, or such writings in online media. Hegemonic concept of Antonio Gramsci as the beginning concept was used to investigate the published-writing of HTI. These were such media, that they relied on. Result In various media was belong to HTI shared-instrument, find that such statements push public opinion for hating, as well as destroying democracy as the governmental system, which too hegemonic as today. First of all, such published-leaflets on Friday Prayer, as Al-Islam. It is chosen the main instrument for HTI to spread their Islamic doctrine or ideas, especially for mosque followers. Secondly, it would use some content of media as well as the routinely publication of HTI, such as http://www.hizbuthtahrir.com. Specifically, it would find out some findings of their bulletins, as the Al-islam and Al-Wa’ie. At the end, we could achieve the conclusion, which argue all of the HTI’s publishing on democracy was their reflective strategies to encounter the hegemony of liberal democracy. The following Al-Wa’ie articles shows that rejection of HTI towards democracy, was based on their understanding of democracycontradictive with Islam. First of all, it will be shown few writer’s findings on how HTI’s declared their propagandas, as well as predominantly encounter the liberal democracy hegemony. HM Tambrin’s writings was the first item, that can be the beginning consideration for underlying on his Islamic interpretation on democracy. In his opinion, democracy is the imported-based thinking, in which contained of destructive faith and ummat syariat, so it’s obligation for each people whom given

religion sciences by Allah (God). Moreover, democracy as their scholars and theorists, was the government by the people, for the people, and from the people. This statement was adopted of Abraham Lincoln’s utterance in describing of American democracy. At more specific explanation, the people were admitted as absolute power holders. In his argument, it is so contradictory with the Islamic law (syariat), as the God said in Koran verses.5 “ Barang siapa yang tidak memutuskan menurut apa yang diturunkan Allah, maka mereka itu adalah orang-orang kafir. (Al-Maidah : 44) “ Dan dia tidak mengambil seorangpun menjadi sekutu-Nya dalam menetapkan keputusan. “ (AlKahfi : 26)

His understanding on the two above Koran verses convinces him to oppose the democracy as the thagut’ governmental model. Otherwise, they were instructed to deny, as the following holy verses mention. “ (Oleh karena itu) barang siapa yang mengingkari thagut dan beriman kepada Allah, maka sesungguhnya ia telah berpegang kepada buhul (tali) yang amat kuat yang tidak akan putus. Dan Allah Maha Mendengar dan Maha Mengetahui. “ (Al-Baqarah : 256)

Continue to above statements, HM. Thamrin introduces the syura, which was more legitimate to be implemented than democracy. He argues that syura system also included un-nash (yet) anything, Ahli wal Aqdi’s rights, who belong members on wara’ ulama (Islamic scholars). Eventually, democracy is so different with syura, which is marked by one people, one vote. Berserikat (making united) is part of democracy, which divided of two, such as (a) united in (political) party, and (b) united in thoughts. His criticism on democracy, is their worry on freedom to follow all of beliefs in their willingness. Conversely, they are free to exit from Islam, which means converse to be Jews, Christian, or atheist, socialist, and secularist. He refers to Allah statement in Koran. “ Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang kembali ke belakang (kepada kekafiran) sesudah petunjuk itu jelas bagi mereka, syaitan telah menjadikan mereka mudah (berbuat dosa) dan memanjangkan anganangan mereka. Yang demikian itu karena sesungguhnya mereka (orang-orang munafik) itu berkata kepada orang-orang yang benci kepada apa yang diturunkan Allah (orang-orang yahudi) ; Kami akan mematuhi kamu dalam beberapa urusan, sedang Allah mengetahui rahasia mereka.” (Muhammad: 25)

5

Thambrin, HM. Demokrasi dalam Pandangan Islam. Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (online website). diakses pada 26 Juli 2015 pukul 11:35

The idea of democracy to give some authorities to non-moslem people, as well as give them chances to be leader amongst them, is not suitable for Islam and cannot be judged for some logical reason. Of course, they would return to the Koran verses as follow. “ Hai orang-orang yang beriman, ta’atilah Allah dan ta’atilah Rasul-Nya, dan ulil amri di antara kamu.” (An-Nisa: 59) “ Maka apakah patut Kami menjadikan orang-orang Islam itu sama dengan orang-orang yang berdosa (orang kafir)? Atau adakah kamu (berbuat demikian), bagaimanakah kamu mengambil keputusan ? “ (Al-Qolam: 35-36)

From his thoughts on democracy, we can conclude that democracy is contradictive in Islamic thought, so it is the great sins to us whether be implemented. Islam have already certain-own system, which guaranteed a decision making process worked well. Syura is the chosen-one, which unifies the both item syarikat (unity), either thoughts or (political) party. Some addition of his argument, Islam (as their understanding literally) does not teach us to choose such leader, on Islam outside. They attempt to purify what they understood with God’s verses in holy book, Koran. So, despite democracy have enabled all people without exception to become leader, whether they are moslems or not, but God cursed hard for the appearance the non-moslem to rule some of moslem’s things as their understanding did. The case, which show on how the HTI’s denial to the non-Islam popularity in leading some authority, was reflected as the democratic impacts toward moslem’s defeats against the other. Muhammad Rahmat Kurnia, as officially be the Dewan Pimpinan Pusat (Central Leading Council) of HTI stated the Basuki Cahaya Purnama, as the Jakarta’s governor is mirroring the Islamic attempt to establish the right state. In his term, democracy enable everything is legal, appropriate and ordinary. He emotionally says, “ Demokrasilah yang menjadikan orang-orang kafir menjadi penguasa” (Democracy has made kafir6 peoples to become the ruler).7 This opinion rises as the self-respond to democracy impact, which indirectly throw up them as loser. Democracy, in some cases underestimated the moslem to be ruler, since choosing the other was. It therefore, become specific problem to continuity of Islamic ruler, as the holy book said. In their perspective, many of Koran verses prohibited as below.

The word “kafir” refer to covered-hearted mankind or human being Rahmat Kurnia, Muhammad. Demokrasi Sistem Kufur. Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (online website). diakses pada 26 Juli 2015 pukul 13:02 6 7

“Janganlah orang Mukmin mengambil orang-orang kafir menjadi wali dengan meninggalkan orang-orang Mukmin. Siapa saja yang berbuat demikian, niscaya lepaslah ia dari pertolongan Allah kecuali karena memelihara diri dari sesuatu yang ditakuti dari mereka.” (QS Ali Imran[3]: 28)

Rahmat Kurnia inserts some story, which describe on how the ulama’s way lived in London, namely Dr. Ahmad Ibrahim Khidhir sees that democratic stage could be the bridge to exercise of God instructions in the earth surfaces. He attempts to maximize what can be his capabilities, such as speak in font of public space or write in such newspaper. To fulfill that missions, he afterwards registers himself as the parliament members. Times goes on. In his argument, parliament could enter him to their intention, named enforcing kalimatullah. Democracy, with the popular government can be judged to execute the Islamic law and return them to Islamic era. “Give your voice to me for repairing word by religion “, as he said. After for long time to take apart with parliament world, he feels that Islam is not able to exist in parliamentary democratic system whose he joined. Finally, he decides to exit from the parliament, because felt that parliament was not able to make Islam real in the world. His speech is so amazing and magnificence, which they delivered in front of public. “Wahai para wakil rakyat yang aku hormati. Aku bukanlah penyembah jabatan dan aku bukan orang yang tamak dengan kursi semata. Dulu motto yang aku gunakan untuk orang-orang di daerah pemilihanku adalah, ‘Berikan suaramu kepadaku supaya kami memperbaiki dunia dengan din.’ Dulu aku mengira bahwa cukup untuk merealisasikan tujuan tersebut dengan cara mengajukan berbagai rancangan undang-undang Islam. Namun, ternyata majelis ini menunjukkan kepadaku bahwa majelis ini tidak memberikan hak hukum kepada Allah, kecuali harus melalui hawa nafsu partai kalian, dan partai-partai kalian tidak mungkin untuk membiarkan kalimatullâh hiyal ‘ulya (kalimat Allah itu tinggi)…”

From that experience, that convince Rahmat Kurnia, that democratic governmental model was not able to bring God missions, as the ex-parliamentary member ulama stated before. An article below, shows that HTI’s hatred towards democracy repeatedly use the syariat doctrine to deny democracy. Shiddiq al-Jawi explaines such weakness of democracy, in which became the reason for rejecting democracy as a whole. In this opinion, democracy with their its substances-values always containes badness, such as Islam choose the ruler to execute the syariat, otherwise democracy choose the ruler to execute the human-made law, not syariat. This makes democracy being an losers, whether it performed some good achievement, such as avoid

the authoritarian rule, ensure the best properties of their ruler, and so on. Al-Jawi states his disappointment below.8 “ … Namun, tetap ada bedanya, karena dalam Islam rakyat memilih penguasa untuk menjalankan syariah. Sebaliknya, dalam demokrasi, rakyat memilih penguasa untuk menjalankan hukum buatan rakyat, bukan hukum syariah. “

The arrogance of HTI keep to conserve their idealism in stage for enforcing the Islamic principles, could be delved in political and theological realms. Politically, it is explained that they wanted to reign of legitimate polity, by falling the democracy hegemony. Then, theologically, relates to their believes to their God statement, as is written on Amr G.E Sabet below.9 “… As a matter of faith, Muslims believe they are entitled to a leading position, not simply as a role but as a mission and obligation (Qur’an 2:143; 22:78; 48:28). Evading such responsibilities carries its own penalties, both worldly and beyond. As far as this world is concerned, strategically speaking, “(e)ligible states [and nations] that fail to attain [their worthy] status are predictably punished” (Layne 1995:134) … “

HTI’s faith on unity of Islamic also reflects on what Richard Falk said about religion below.10 “ … there is a “uniting feature of religious consciousness, the oneness of human family that give rise to an ethos of human solidarity, the unity of all creation, and, with it, the sense of both the wholeness of human experience and the dignity of the individual.”

Discussion A. Knowing Islamic Radicalism Islamic radicalism is a terminology used to mention the rising actions, which tend to oppose status quo, either within international, national, and local scopes. It is purposed to grab the legitimate power. Although it occurs so, the movement directions of groups are called radical islam. This directs to certain scopes, such as some problematic of states (poverty, social inequality, and discriminations). From these problematic, the groups of radical Islam therefore starts to arrange such propagandas to pull the mass attentions, so feel sympathy and empathy on the their “struggle”.

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Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia, KH Shiddiq Al-Jawi : Islam Menolak Demokrasi. Al-Wa’ie.< http://hizbuttahrir.or.id/2013/03/04/kh-shiddiq-al-jawi-islam-menolak-demokrasi/> 9 Sabet, Amr G.E. 2008. Islam and the Political : Theory, Governance and International Relations. London. Pluto Press. page 5 10 Falk, Richard. “ A Worldwide Religious Resurgence in an Era of Globalization and Apocalyptic Terrorism” in Ferrara, Pasquale. 2012. “ Globalization and Post-Secularism : Religions and a Universal Common Identity. Journal of Dialogue & Culture. Vol. 1 No. 1 (March 2012). page 68

Islamic radicalism usually divides of two categorical struggling, namely diplomatic and militant-extremist means. The diplomatic means is done by non-violence ways, such as (1) building the Islamic educational body; (2) arranging the provocative-ideas, which delivers through certain propagandas; and (3) being active on in-parliamentary activities, as well as the elegant way to change the positive-laws rule. Meanwhile, militant-extremist means usually is done by the violence-based activities, as like terror actions purposed to interest international attention or criminal militia for doing some coups. Eventually, where is the HTI’s positions in this case? HTI is a socio-religious organization born from political party in Palestine. As an transnational movement, which directs to construct the caliphate. HTI has the globally network. If looked more, HTI could be categorized as diplomatically Islamic radical group. It could be understood from few movement characteristics as they did. Furthermore, it uses to make some program that influence the public discourse on existing Islam for such means. In the writer’s observations, HTI’s ways to grab the public discourse on Islamic transnational by (1) the establishment of student movement organizations, institutionalized as Liberation Student Movement (Gema Pembebasan); (2) launching of fastest publication on media, for online and offline as well; and (3) regular attempts to do some campaigns, like public oration with chosen topic (Enforce the Caliphate). The few characteristics, underlines HTI as the diplomatically Islamic radical movement. B. Counter-discourses as Counter-hegemony Refers to Antonio Gramsci’s thought on Selections Prison Notebooks, seem clearly how the relations amongst state, church, and civil society. Gramsci-means hegemony in this cases, definitely is the blockage and insistence, from state and church. The Italian Communist Party’s movements whose they command, disable to did more, because there is so much infiltration within theological doctrines of Church or Italian fascism’s. Specifically, on Gramscian approach, HTI’s attempts could be interpreted as the counter on consent hegemony.11 HTI, as the civil society organizations in Indonesia, was based on their attempt to keep safeguarded state, could be considered as two kind of civil society, constructive groups and deconstructive itself. Problemmatisation of civil society concept itself appears when as the

Antoniades, Andreas. FROM ‘THEORIES OF HEGEMONY’ TO ‘HEGEMONY OF ANALYSIS’ IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 49th ISA Annual Convention. San Francisco. page three 11

outside groups of State faces democracy. Petr Kopecky and Cas Mudde identify two groups is being on civil society, namely law-obedient groups (civil groups) and law-disobedient groups (uncivil groups).12 The two definitions of previous theorists, HTI inevitably can be categorized as law-disobedient groups, because of certain reasons (1) they do not obey what the ideologicallegitimate bases, namely Pancasila; and (2) they gradually spread terror with organizational items. It eventually, gives risk to disharmony of public interest disturbance and relations. Although it was so, HTI does not mean break the rule of positive law, which enforced in Indonesia Republic. This is ineluctability of dakwah guerilla, is done by plan and diplomatically by prioritizing discourse-counter, as the public consumption every day. So, their dakwah actions is not realization of their God deterred in Koran an sich. By focusing on HTI’s status as the societal-based organization is undercover in civil society elements, by their behave vis-à-vis within state. It can be seen that each of propagandas they did could be known as stage to stabilize, even overtake the state’s hegemony with democratic governmental model. HTI’s role as uncivil groups was performed on their denial actions toward democracy, in which democracy became the choice of Indonesian people co-workedly. Due to that, HTI’s activity to “slaughter” democracy by all of extreme criticisms against it. The counter of hegemonic discourse of democracy could be the great enemy for HTI to establish caliphate. In understanding Gramscian hegemonic theory previously, HTI discourse-counter can be seen as the counter-hegemony actions on disciplinary attempts, borrowing Foucaultdian worlds on their citizens, through over-penetration towards democracy, either as setting rule and command model. Despite of that, the counter-hegemony of HTI also could be interpreted in radical approach, namely inspired by post-structuralists. The works of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe (1985) is the discourse-related hegemonic agenda, which adopted by the Michael Foucault’s thinking. Laclau (2000) comprehends hegemony as the moment that a specific particularity/project acquires a universal signification.13 It refers democracy as the specific particularity, which overthrown Islam as the universal ideology which they demanded. Closing Kopecky,Petr, Mudde,Cas. 2003. “ Rethinking Civil Society “. Democratization. Vol.10. No.3 dalam Hadiwinata, Bob Sugeng.” Civil Society : Pembangun dan Sekaligus Perusak Demokrasi “. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik. Vol 9. No 1. Juli 2005. page 9 13 Antoniades, Andreas. op.cit. page 4 12

Reading of international politics practice recently, implicates to interesting debates on their continuity of secular era nowadays, as well as opposing the End of Ideology and History, which revealed by Western political theorist. Various actors of international politics, that surrounded by radical movement over religion-admitted groups, creates such corrections from the political analyst and IR about entrance of new era, called post-secular. Beside it, democracy as almost governmental model inevitably obtains their critics, which is by religion-based movement. HTI as the Islamic-admitted social movement, rationally become the main actors who contribute to post-secular ages. After going into some analysis on what things puss the issuepublications which HTI revealed, can be concluded as their initiatives to reject democracy, despite consciously they lived from democracy. Meaningfully, they can not be looked as their realization of Islamic virtues on interpretations’ an sich. Moreover, their denial is in front of willingness to do shuttle discourse on hegemonic discourses toward hegemonic discourses in this governmental model. As closing, by agreeing what is the Antonio Gramsci’s thesis, the step to add an ideas of hegemonic thinking has invented the resisting attempt of, as the Gramscian analyst in revivals of Italian civil society between the fascist state regime and church hand in hand. REFERENCES Fukuyama, Francis. 1989. “ The End of History? “. The National Interest, Summer. page 1-2 Gramsci, Antonio. 1971.

Selection from the Prison Notebooks. New York. International

Publishers. page 245-246 Adamson, Walter L. 1980. Hegemony and Revolution : A Study of Antonio Gramsci’s Political and Cultural Theory. Berkeley. University of California Press. page 270-271 Thambrin, HM. Demokrasi dalam Pandangan Islam. Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (online website). accessed on July 26th 2015 - 11:35 Rahmat Kurnia, Muhammad. Demokrasi Sistem Kufur. Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (online website). accessed on July 26th 2015 - 13:02

Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia, KH Shiddiq Al-Jawi : Islam Menolak Demokrasi. Al-Wa’ie.< http://hizbut-tahrir.or.id/2013/03/04/kh-shiddiq-al-jawi-islam-menolak-demokrasi/> accessed on July 26th - 9.20 Sabet, Amr G.E. 2008. Islam and the Political : Theory, Governance and International Relations. London. Pluto Press. page 5 Kopecky,Petr, Mudde,Cas. 2003. “ Rethinking Civil Society “. Democratization, Vol.10. No.3 in Hadiwinata, Bob Sugeng.” Civil Society : Pembangun dan Sekaligus Perusak Demokrasi “. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik. Vol 9. No 1. Juli 2005. page 9 Falk, Richard. “ A Worldwide Religious Resurgence in an Era of Globalization and Apocalyptic Terrorism” in Ferrara, Pasquale. 2012. “ Globalization and Post-Secularism : Religions and a Universal Common Identity “. Journal of Dialogue & Culture. Vol. 1 No. 1 (March 2012). page 68 Habermas, Jurgen. Notes on Post-secular Society in Habermas, Jurgen. Blair, Tony. Debray, Regis. 2008. Secularism’s Crisis of Faith. page 20 Antoniades, Andreas. FROM ‘THEORIES OF HEGEMONY’ TO ‘HEGEMONY OF ANALYSIS’ IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. 49th ISA Annual Convention. San Francisco. page three and 4

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