Meat Yield Potentiality of the Plumage Color Mutations of Japanese ...

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Mar 8, 2016 - In this study, the Wild-type and recently-isolated five color-mutations of Japanese quail were compared for their meat yield potentialities.

International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(03) Mar’16

Meat Yield Potentiality of the Plumage Color Mutations of Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Md. Shahidur Rahman1*, Kazi Md. Golam Rasul1 and Md. Nazrul Islam2 1

Department of Poultry Science, BAU, Mymensingh 2202, BANGLADESH Poultry Production Research Division, BLRI, Dhaka 1341, BANGLADESH

2

*Corresponding author: [email protected], [email protected] Rec. Date:

Mar 08, 2016 01:44

Accept Date:

Mar 23, 2016 02:52

Published Online:

March 26, 2016

DOI

10.5455/ijlr.20160323025225

Abstract In this study, the Wild-type and recently-isolated five color-mutations of Japanese quail were compared for their meat yield potentialities. Results showed that the color-mutations; BB-White, BB-Tuxedo, BBBlack, BB-Dhakaya and the Wild-type quail were more fertile (p < 0.01) than the BB-Rosetta mutation. Chick mortality was higher (p < 0.01) in the BB-Tuxedo than in the Wild-type and other mutations. The 6th week body weight was lowest in the Wild-type followed by intermediate in BB-Black and BB-White and the highest in BB-Tuxedo, BB-Rosetta and BB-Dhakaya, respectively. The ranking of the mutations in terms of feed efficiencies were: BB-Rosetta > BB-Dhakaya > BB-White > BB-Tuxedo > BB-Black > Wild. The Wild, BB-Tuxedo, BB-White and BB-Black were superior (p < 0.01) to other mutations for their dressing yields. For combined performance index values, the ranking of the mutations were: BBWhite > BB-Tuxedo > BB-Dhakaya > BB-Black > Wild > BB-Rosetta. This study suggested that the isolated color-mutations were not equal for majority of their characteristics measured and none of them was completely superior or inferior to the Wild-type. The BB-White, BB-Tuxedo, BB-Dhakaya and BBBlack were superior to the Wild-type quail for their combined performance index on the meat production potentialities. However, among the four superior mutations, the BB-White might get priority in meat-type quail development due to its resemblance to the modern chicken broilers. Key words: Quail, Color-Mutation, Meat Yield, Performance Index

How to cite: Rahman, M. S., Rasul, K. M. G. & Islam, M. N. (0) Meat Yield Potentiality of the Plumage Color Mutations of Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica). 6 (3), 51-61. doi:10.5455/ijlr.20160323025225

Introduction Quail (Coturnix coturnix) is the youngest among 11 domesticated poultry species. Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) has been using worldwide as the major utility type of quail since the World

The reasons behind its incomparable popularity over chicken and other poultry species are short generation interval, minimum susceptibility to diseases and less housing space- and initial investment-

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extent in many countries including the USA, China, Japan, Brazil and Italy (Rogerio and Cunha, 2009).

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War II. Currently, its popularity either for meat or egg production has been reached to a considerable

International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(03) Mar’16

requirements for commercial faming (Thomas and Ahuja, 1989). With a view to exploit these competitive advantages of this unique species over chicken and other poultry species, scientists have genetically improved this bird either for meat or egg production (Wakasugi, 1984). The Texas A & M of the USA and the CARI-Uttam of India are the examples of the improved meat-type strains of Japanese quail in the world apart from its wild relatives (Thornberry, 2016). Selective breeding was done within the wild population for the rapid growth, higher body weight or better feed efficiency to develop these especial types of quail (Cheng, 2002). In case of egg-type strains, like the CARI-Pearl of India, more emphasis was given on total egg production capability and egg quality of the birds than on the weight gain or feed efficiency (Baumgartner et al., 2003). In addition to considering the body weight gain, egg production or feed efficiency of the birds, breeders have been found to give a remarkable emphasis on the plumage color of the newly-developed quail strains (Minvielle, 2004). Studies have shown that more than 50 plumage-color-mutations can be isolated from the wild-type of Japanese quail (Mizutani, 2003). However, studies on modern meat- and egg-type strains of Japanese quail revealed that most of them were evolved from plumage color mutants than the Wild-type (http://www.icar.org.in/cari/quail.html). The reasons for choosing a specific plumage color in meat-type strains of quail might be; i) due to satisfy the consumers demand as a complement of white plumage color of broiler chicken or, ii) to get the plumage pattern-specific genetic benefits for higher growth and meat yield. In support of the latter hypothesis, some scientists have confirmed the association between plumage color and the productive and reproductive traits like egg production, fertility, hatchability, growth rate etc in Japanese quail (Thornberry, 2016). The plumage pattern-specific lethality or abnormality of the bird or susceptibility to a particular disease is also widely reported in the quail and in other poultry species (Petek et al., 2004; Tsudzuki et al., 1998). Therefore, exploring of the association between plumage color and birds performance obviously has importance in the program of developing meat or egg type strain with a specific plumage-pattern in the Japanese quail (Minvielle et al., 2007). The present study was undertaken to compare the meat production potentialities of some recently-isolated plumage-color-mutations of Japanese quail with a view to develop the meat-type quail strains through selective breeding. Materials and Methods Experimental Birds and Management

the BB-White, BB-Black, BB-Dhakaya, BB-Rosetta and BB-Tuxedo. The photographs of the mutations along with their short morphological descriptions are given below:

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Agricultural University Poultry Farm, Bangladesh have been used in this experiment. The mutations were

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The five different plumage-color-mutations of Japanese quail isolated and established at Bangladesh

International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(03) Mar’16

Photo 1: color mutations of Japanese quail used in the experiment. BB-White; white coat color except a black or brown spot on top/back of the head or sometimes at back of the body/tail. BB-Black; the body is coated with dark black plumage having uneven shade of dark brown with grey shank. BB-Dhakaya; black and tan stripes over a cream base in the whole body. BB-Rosetta; whole body with cinnamon coat color decorated by brownish lacing. BB-Tuxedo; dark brown plumage on the dorsal part of the body and pure white on the ventral surface. The area of white ranges from the total ventral surface to just a white band across the breast and a patch of white under the throat. The mutations were isolated from a population of approximately 2,000 individuals of Japanese quail that had been gathered by collecting eggs and live quails from BLRI (Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute) poultry stocks and from some local bird’s markets across Bangladesh. In this large stock, many individuals were found to be dissimilar from one another and also from the Wild-type for their plumagecolor-pattern. Using the random crossing among these dissimilar plumage-color-members, a foundation stock of approximately 1,000 individuals with various plumage-color-patterns were established. Later on, from this foundation stock, five separate flocks of specific plumage-color-pattern were established by selective inbreeding up to 6th generations. At this point, every specific plumage-color-flock of approximately 200 birds was considered as the plumage-color-mutations of Japanese quail, because they were found to produce 90 % or more progenies with the plumage-color-pattern similar to their own. Comparison of the Color-Mutations The newly-isolated mutations and the Wild-type of Japanese quail were compared for their egg production, hatching and growing performances, and carcass yield characteristics. The hen-day egg production was recorded in a flock of randomly chosen 48 females and 16 males under each colormutation housed in cages at 56 days of age with a ratio of 3 female: 1 male. The rate of hen-day egg production was calculated as described by Sing and Kumar (1994). A total of 40 days hen-day egg production (%) was compared among the color-mutations. The egg weight was recorded immediately after the collection of the eggs every day using an electronic balance.

end of incubation, all un-hatched eggs were opened to examine the exact period of embryonic death within the incubator through comparing the morphology of the dead embryos with that of the standard

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weights were measured on ≥100 eggs of each color-mutation collected in 3 different time-slots. At the

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Under the hatching performance, the rate of fertility, hatchability, embryonic death and day-old chick

International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(03) Mar’16

development pattern of Japanese quail embryo (Padgett and Ivey, 1960). The embryonic death was recorded by dividing the whole incubation period into 3 phases; d 0 – 6 and d 7 – 12 of incubation and d 13- to hatch-out of the chick.

The rate of fertility and hatchability were also calculated as described by

Kumar and Singh (Sing and Kumar, 1994). The growing performances, like growth rate, body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survivability of the birds were monitored up to 42 days of age in 3 separate batches having at least 50 males and 50 females in each batch under a color-mutation. The birds were fed on similar diet in terms of quality and quantity (Shanaway, 1994). At 42 days of age, the randomly chosen 3 males and 3 females under each mutation were slaughtered and dissected following the standard procedure (Jones, 1984). The live weight, bloodless and featherless weight, and the weight of shank, feet, gizzard, heart, liver, proventriculous, subcutaneous fat, breast, thigh, drumstick, wing, back-meat and neck were measured and recorded. Dressing percentage (DP) of the birds was determined dividing the edible carcass weight of the bird by their live weight and multiplied by 100. Finally, the combined performance indices of the color-mutations were calculated taking the important meat production-related traits like egg production, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, mortality, 6 th week body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and DP into consideration and assessing them on 10, 5, 15, 10, 15, 15, 15, and 15 marks, respectively out of total 100 marks. One mark was given for each 1% increase in egg production above 64%, 0.15g increase in egg weight above 9.7g, 1.33% increase in fertility above 79%, 2% increase in hatchability above 45%, 1.67g increase in body weight above 108g and 0.33% increase in DP over 69%. On the other hand, 1 mark was added for every 2% lower mortality from the highest 28% mortality found in the color-mutations and 1 mark was added for every 0.133 lower FCR value from the highest 7.0 FCR-value found in the color-mutations. The combined performance index was computed using the formula, “Performance Index” = A1X1 + A2X2 + A3X3 +……+ AnXn; where, X1……Xn are the traits and A1……An were the weights of the corresponding traits (Sing and Kumar, 1994) Statistical Analyses All the data on egg production, hatching and growing performances and carcass yield characteristics were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) by the Genstat Statistical Package (Fifth edition, Lawes Agricultural Trust, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Germany) under a completely randomized design of experiment (Steel and Torrie, 1980). The significant differences were considered at p < 0.05. The least significant differences (LSD) were used to find out the significant difference between two color-

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mutations.

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Results and Discussion

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International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Vol 6(03) Mar’16

Egg Production Performance Results on hen-day egg production and egg weight have been cataloged in Table 1. Data revealed that the hen-day egg production varied among the color-mutations, where the BB-White was found to be the highest producer followed by BB-Dhakaya, BB-Tuxedo, BB-Rosetta, BB-Black and the Wild-type. A report on dissimilar oviduct functions in mutant and Wild-type Japanese quail could be a good explanation on the mechanism of the present findings (Watanable and Homma, 1982). They reported that the egg production and eggshell formation can be affected at homozygote in autosomal recessive silver (rs) color mutation of quail. It had been found that the homozygote females for rs are able to ovulate but unable to secrete the albumen (Homma et al., 1985). There are also reports on the difference between Japanese quail and Range quail for their hen-housed egg production (Soliman et al., 2000). The variability in egg weight of different color-mutations reported by some scientists strongly supported our observations on the egg weight (Oroian et al., 2002). Another previous findings (Oguz, 2005) also justified our results by the fact that the heritability for egg quality traits in Japanese quail are moderate to high and egg quality is affected by the selection on the body weight, but these effects may differ somewhat between experiments in relation to the origins of the breeding lines. In fact, plumage color is a qualitative trait and its effect on egg production is complex. Therefore, among a range of plumage-colormutations only the few have been reported to show the indirect effect on egg production of Japanese quail (Crawford, 1990). However, the relative superiority of the BB-White, BB-Black and BB-Dhakaya for hen-day egg production and egg weight over the Wild and other mutations might be a result of favorable genetic assortment of these parameters. Table 1: Egg production and egg weight of different color-mutations of Japanese quail Parameter

Hen-day egg production (%) Egg weight (g/egg)

Color-mutations

Significance and LSD

Wild

BBWhite

BBBlack

BBDhakaya

BBRosetta

BBTuxedo

64.2 ± 9.5

73.3 ± 7.4

66.4 ± 6.8

72.5 ± 7.2

67.1 ± 6.2

67.6 ± 6.8

3.31**

9.7 ± 0.8

10.2 ± 0.9

10.1 ± 0.6

9.7 ± 0.8

10.4 ± 0.8

10.0 ± 0.7

0.22**

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**, p < 0.01; LSD, Least significant difference; Values are mean ± SD. A total of 40 days hen-day egg production (%) was compared for the mutations. A total of 104, 131, 83, 101, 88, and 84 eggs randomly collected from the Wild, BB-White, BB-Black, BB-Dhakaya, BB-Rosetta and BB-Tuxedo, respectively were used to analyze the egg weight.

Hatching Performance

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International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

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The results furnished in Table 2 implied that the rate of fertility was almost similar in BB-White, BBTuxedo, BB-Black, Wild and BB-Dhakaya, which were statistically higher (p < 0.01) to that of the BBRosetta. The hatchability rate in the Wild and other color-mutations were not significantly varied (p >0.05), but the BB-Rosetta had the lowest, BB-Tuxedo had intermediate and the Wild, BB-White, BBBlack and BB-Dhakaya had the highest hatchability rate, respectively. The day-old chick’s weight (% to egg weight) was found to differ significantly (p < 0.05) among the mutations. The highest chick weight (60.0 to 61.41%) was observed at BB-Rosetta and BB-Dhakaya followed by intermediate (58.25 to 58.41%) in BB-Tuxedo and Wild, and the lowest (56.96 to 57.05%) in BB-Black and BB-White, respectively. The patterns of the embryonic mortality over the whole incubation period in different colormutations have been shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Distribution of the embryonic mortality in different color-mutations of Japanese quail at different periods of incubation. Values in the BB-Rosetta at d 0 - 6 is significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that of the BB-Tuxedo, Wild and BB-Black. Values are the mean ± SD of 3 replicates of at least 100 eggs under a mutation

The variations in the embryonic mortality rate and other hatching performance parameters of the colormutations might be due to the associated effects of plumage color trait loci. The relatively higher embryonic and neonatal mortality in BB-Rosetta and BB-Tuxedo might be the consequence of the semilethal or lethal actions of genes that have been found to be true in several plumage-color-mutations of quail (Cheng and Kimura, 1990). Some scientists have reported lower hatchability, post hatch viability and fertility in Buffs compared to that of the Wild quails (Sittmann and Abplanalp, 1965). On the contrary, the higher hatching rate accompanying with higher body weight in Wild-type quail compared to

embryonic development of some higher and lower growth lines of Japanese quail.

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However, there are some reports available (Hyankova et al., 2004) on inter-line differences in the

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that of the recessive roux plumage-color-mutation contradicted this finding (Minvielle et al., 1999).

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Table 2: Hatching performance of the color-mutations of Japanese quail Parameter Wild

BBWhite

Color-mutations BBBBBlack Dhakaya

BBRosetta

BBTuxedo

Significance and LSD/(SED)

96.1 ± 1.9 98.5 ± 1.5 97.3 ± 2.4 96.0 ± 2.0 79.2 ± 7.2 98.1 ± 1.7 6.08** Fertility (%) 63.1 ± 18.6 64.0 ± 10.5 63.1 ± 18.6 59.9 ± 25.2 45.7 ± 15.7 53.2 ± 13.4 (14.38)NS Hatchability (%) Chick wt. (% to 58.3 ± 7.6 57.1 ± 6.9 57.0 ± 4.5 60.0 ± 5.9 61.4 ± 5.0 58.4 ± 4.7 2.25** Egg wt.) NS, p > 0.05; **, p < 0.01; LSD; Least significant difference; SED, Standard error difference. Data were computed on three batches of hatching eggs.

Growth Performance Results on growth performances in different mutations revealed that the rate of mortality in the birds during growing period, up to 6th week of age, was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in BB-Tuxedo (27.23%) than that in the Wild (13.99%) and other mutations. The body weight of the Wild was similar (p > 0.05) to that of other color-mutations up to 2nd week of age, but it was noticed to be different (p < 0.05) on 3rd week and onward. At 6th week of age, the Wild quail was found to attain the lowest average body weight (108.70 g / bird), while the BB-Black and BB-White was intermediate (118.20 to 120.80 g / bird) and the BB-Tuxedo, BB-Rosetta and BB-Dhakaya were the highest (124.10 to 131.40 g / bird) body weight gainer, respectively. The FCR values were found to be best (minimum) in BB-Rosetta (5.29) followed by 5.98 at BB-Dhakaya, 6.25 at BB-White, 6.58 at BB-Tuxedo, 6.61 at BB-Black, and 6.73 in the Wild, respectively. However, the varied body weight and post-hatch mortality in the different color-mutations of Japanese quail is well-documented (Farooq et al., 2001; Ito and Tsudzuki, 1994). Carcass Yield Characteristics The dressing yields (Table 3) were higher (p < 0.01) in the Wild, BB-Tuxedo, BB-White and BB-Black in comparison to that found in the BB-Rosetta and BB-Dhakaya. Among edible body parts, the breast, back and wing meat weights were found to be varied (p < 0.05) in the color-mutations, whereas the thigh and drumstick meat weights were almost similar in the mutations. The breast meat was highest in BB-Black, intermediate in BB-White and BB-Tuxedo and the lowest in the Wild, BB-Rosetta and BB-Dhakaya, respectively. The back meat yield was highest in the BB-black and BB-Tuxedo, intermediate in the BBWhite, BB-Dhakaya and BB-Rosetta, and the lowest in the Wild, respectively. The wing weight was highest in Wild, intermediate in BB-White, BB-Dhakaya and BB-Tuxedo, and the lowest in BB-Rosetta,

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Table 3: Carcass yield characteristics of different color-mutations of Japanese quail Parameter Color-mutations (% to live wt.) Wild BBBBBBBBBB-

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respectively.

International Journal of Livestock Research ISSN 2277-1964 ONLINE

Breast wt. Back meat wt. Wing meat wt.

Vol 6(03) Mar’16

White

Black

Dhakaya

Rosetta

Tuxedo

LSD

21.0 ± 1.3

21.9 ± 1.9

22.8 ± 0.8

20.9 ± 1.4

20.7 ± 1.8

21.5 ± 1.0

1.27*

12.4 ± 1.2

13.6 ± 0.1

15.2 ± 1.0

14.0 ± 0.7

13.1 ± 3.1

14.6 ± 1.1

1.83*

5.7 ± 0.5

4.6 ± 0.4

5.1 ± 0.3

4.6 ± 0.3

4.5 ± 0.3

4.7 ± 0.5

0.43**

2.7 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 0.6 2.9 ± 0.4 2.6 ± 0.3 2.5 ± 0.5 3.1 ± 0.1 0.42* Neck wt. 0.9 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.1 0.19** Heart wt. Proventriculous 0.5 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.13** wt. 6.7 ± 0.1 5.7 ± 0.9 5.4 ± 0.8 7.3 ± 3.3 4.5 ± 0.7 4.2 ± 0.5 1.92* Feather wt. Sub-cutaneous 0.8 ± 0.5 1.7 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 1.1 1.0 ± 0.6 2.3 ± 1.0 2.3 ± 0.3 0.73** fat wt. 73.3 ± 1.7 72.0 ± 3.1 69.7 ± 0.7 70.0 ± 3.1 73.7 ± 1.6 74.2 ± 1.6 2.51* Dressing yield **, p < 0.01;*, p 0.05) in all mutations, but the birds were remarkably (p < 0.05) varied for their heart, gizzard and proventriculous weights. The hearts were relatively smaller in the Wild, BB-White, BB-Dhakaya and BB-Rosetta than that of the BB-Black and BB-Tuxedo. The gizzards were relatively larger in the Wild and BB-Black compared to that of their other counterparts. The size of proventriculous was found to be relatively larger in BB-Dhakaya and BB-Black but found smaller in other mutations. Among major inedible parts, blood weights were similar in all mutations, but their feather weights were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) differed among mutations. The highest feather weight was noticed in the Wild and BB-Dhakaya followed by intermediate in BB-white and BB-Black, and lowest in BB-Rosetta and BBTuxedo, respectively. The dissimilarities in edible and inedible carcass characteristics of color-mutations was justified by one recent finding (Hyankova et al., 2008), where it has been stated that two lines were changed in carcass weight, abdominal fat, breast and leg muscles, and plasma thyroid hormone concentrations during first 6 weeks of postnatal growth in the males and females, those divergently had been selected for high and low body weights. Some scientists (Dhaliwal et al., 2004) also compared the growth rate of growth-selected

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and control line of Japanese quail and found remarkable differences.

Overall Performance Index

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The calculated performance index scores of Wild, BB-White, BB-Black, BB-Dhakaya, BB-Rosetta and BB-Tuxedo were 54.73, 73.72, 56.67, 60.23, 52.85 and 61.37, respectively. According to combined performance score, the relative position of the mutations from superior to inferior were BB-White > BBTuxedo > BB-Dhakaya > BB-Black > Wild > BB-Rosetta. Actually, the combined performance index was calculated when none of the mutations were found to be superior or inferior consistently for all the parameters measured. The use of combined performance index is well-documented in poultry selection program valuing the multiple traits (Singh and Kumar, 1994). However, the present study was based on the comparisons of some phenotypic parameters only, and did not explore any reason behind the dissimilarities of the mutations. In fact, the individual superiority or inferiority of the birds might be resulted from their differences in metabolic, nervous or endocrine potentials that need to be elucidated further through in-depth studies. Conclusion The calculated combined performance indices as well as individual traits of the color-mutations lead us to comprehend that the Wild-type and the newly-isolated five color-mutations; the BB-White, BB-Black, BB-Dhakaya, BB-Tuxedo and BB-Rosetta were somehow different for their egg production, hatching and growing performances and meat yield characteristics in spite of being originated from similar genetic stock (Coturnix japonica). However, none of the mutations were found to be superior or inferior independently when compared with their counterpart Wild-type.

But, BB-White, BB-Tuxedo, BB-

Dhakaya and BB-Black were better than the Wild and BB-Rosetta in terms of combined performance index calculated for meat yield related-traits only. Therefore, among the newly isolated color-mutations of Japanese quail, BB-White, BB-Tuxedo, BB-Dhakaya and BB-Black mutations might be selectively inbred further for meat-type quail production in Bangladesh. The BB-White might get priority due its white plumage color that is similar with that of modern chicken broilers throughout the world. Acknowledgements The authors highly acknowledge the financial and technical supports from BAURES and BLRI to conduct this research.

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1. Baumgartner J, Konceková Z, Benková J, Rybanská M and Zidek R. 2003. Experimental lines of Japanese quail in Slovakia. In: Proceedings of the 3rd European Poultry Genetics Symposium, Wageningen, The Netherlands, p. 58. 2. Cheng KM and Kimura M. 1990. Mutations and major variants in Japanese quail. In: Crawford RD (Eds). Developments in Animal and Veterinary Sciences: Poultry Breeding and Genetics, Elsevier, USA, 22, pp. 333-357.

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DOI 10.5455/ijlr.20160323025225

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