Milton Keynes Case Study

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May 21, 2016 - Peterborough Policy Landscape ... The smart city and its publics case study of Peterborough .... charity), Graymatter (digital agency). 2015.

The Smart City and Its Publics DATA REPOSITORY The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

**** This data repository contains primary research data generated in connection with the journal article ‘The Smart City and Its Publics’ (Cowley et al. 2017). Open access publication is made on the condition that the original source be duly acknowledged by anyone using the data. To cite: R. Cowley, S. Joss, and Y. Dayot (2017). The Smart City and Its Publics – Data Repository https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss Original article: https://doi.org/10.1080/17535069.2017.1293150 ****

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Peterborough Policy Landscape Manchester Policy Landscape London Policy Landscape Glasgow Policy Landscape Bristol Policy Landscape

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smart smart smart smart smart

city city city city city

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case case case case case

study study study study study

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Peterborough Manchester London Glasgow Bristol

- A summary of the analysis for all six cities “City Public Engagement Index (spider diagram)”

The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

THE SMART CITY AND ITS PUBLICS CASE STUDY OF MILTON KEYNES

Author Youri DAYOT

Reviewer Simon JOSS

Discussant Rob Cowley

Introduction In 2012 Milton Keynes submitted a Feasibility Study to the Technology Strategy Board (Now Innovate UK) as part of the Future Cities Demonstrator Programme. Contrary to Glasgow (£24m) who win the competition and London, Peterborough and Bristol (£3m) who came second, they were not awarded any funding. It seems that MK: Smart, an ambitious smart city programme totalling £16m pounds funding, partly brought by the HEFCE (The Higher Education Funding Council for England) was run in parallel of the TSB bid. The initiative is lead by the Open University and the main partners are Milton Keynes City Council, Community Action MK, BT, Anglian Water and UCMK (University Campus Milton Keynes). The MK Council seems to have a rather limited role, and the Open University is leading many of the initiatives. What is particular striking in this smart city development is the important role given to citizens both in the rhetoric and in the implementation of initiatives under the heading citizens. The citizen engagement perspective is clearly articulated. The fact that a community organising charity (Community Action MK) is a major partner in the smart city body MK:Smart seems to be an important factor for that matter. What is more, the overall policy aim is about sustainability but with also an important focus on infrastructure (Water, Energy and Transport) and Business. But all the initiatives are articulated around what seems to be the core of the policy: the MK:Data Hub. This mix of sustainability and innovation can be linked to the history of Milton Keynes as a new town established in the sixties, but also to its longstanding tradition of being a sustainable city. As highlighted in the feasibility study, Milton Keynes is also a ‘nationally and globally recognised innovative city’ (p.3): ‘Milton Keynes is a Future City. Innovation is in its DNA. Having been built from plan, the city is a living urban laboratory.’ (p.3). 1



MILTON KEYNES

DATA [C.1] The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss CITIZEN [C.2]



OurMK (2015)

(Status: May 2016)



[C.2.1] -MK:Smart Citizen Lab -Gathering Citizen’s ideas



Apex suite (2015) [C.4.1]

MK Hackathon (2016) [C.4.2]

ENERGY [C.6] MK: Smart (2014)

Smart Lightning (2015-2020)

Open Energy Map (2015-2020)

[C.9] With the company ‘Smart Parking’



ENTREPRISE [C.4]





Smart Parking (2015)

MK Data Hub (2015) [C.1.1]

[C.6.1]

[C.3.4]

Smart Grid Dynamic Demand Response (2015-2020)

Electricity Demand Shifting (2014)

[C.6.3]

[C.6.2]

[B.1] multi-partner initiative led by Open University

Open University (leader)

WATER [C.3] Milton Keynes City Council

Feasibility Study Future-Ready MK (2012) [A.1]



Smart Meters (2015-2020)

MK: Smart Water: A Water strategy for Milton Keynes (2016)

[C.3.4]

School Kits (2014)

[A.2]



Garden Monitor (2016) [C.3.1]

Motion Map (2015)







TRANSPORT [C.5]



2

[C.3.3]

Water Monitor (2016) [C.3.2]

[C.5.1]

Smart Parking (2015-2020) [C.5.2] with BT

MK Hackathon (2016) [C.8]

Imagined Festival (2015)

[C.7] incl. the ‘Intelligent Mobility Hackathon’





Transport Systems Catapult’s

The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss



Policy Element

Actor(s)

A.1

Feasibility study TSB Feasibility Study (Future Cities competition)

A.2



Year (launch)



Milton Keynes City Council

2012

MK: Smart Water: A Water strategy for Milton Keynes

MK:Smart (Billed to the Open University), HR Wallingford

2016

https://connect.innovateuk.org/documents/3130726/3794 125/Feasibility+Study++Milton+Keynes+Council.pdf/3ec3cf6d-3445-43e4-a11d5db9b67f0616 http://www.mksmart.org/water/wpcontent/uploads/sites/4/2014/01/MAS1216-RT002-R0200.pdf

B.1

MK:Smart

Open University (Leader), Milton Keynes City Council, Community Action MK, BT, Anglian Water, UCMK, E-on. Funded by the HEFCE (the Higher Education Funding Council for England)

2014

C.1

DATA

C.1.1

MK Data Hub

MK:Smart: especially UCMK, BT, Open University

C.2

CITIZEN

2015 http://www.mksmart.org/data/ (constructi on started) launch in 2016

C.2.1

OurMK MK:Smart: especially Open University, (includes: Gathering citizen’s ideas Community Action MK (community organising [C.2.1.1] (2014) and MK:Smart charity), Graymatter (digital agency) Citizen Lab [C.2.1.2] (2014))

C.3

WATER

C.3.1

Garden Monitor (app for monitoring citizen’s water consumption in gardens)

MK:Smart (with HR Wallingford)

3





Reference

http://www.mksmart.org/

2015

https://ourmk.org/ http://www.mksmart.org/blog/2014/05/15/come-and-getyour-smart-idea-heard-at-mksmart-citizenlab-21-may/ http://www.mksmart.org/citizens/

Under developm ent (Intended

http://www.mksmart.org/water/wpcontent/uploads/sites/4/2014/01/MAS1216-RT002-R0200.pdf

The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

trial in 2016) C.3.2

Water Monitor (online tool for citizens to monitor their daily consumption of water, tips to save water)

MK:Smart (with HR Wallingford)

Launched may 2016

http://www.mksmart.org/water/wpcontent/uploads/sites/4/2014/01/MAS1216-RT002-R0200.pdf http://www.mksmart.org/blog/2016/05/27/mksmartwater-monitor-trial-is-about-to-start/ http://watermonitor.mksmart.org/ http://www.mksmart.org/water/

C.3.3

(Water measurement) School kits

MK:Smart, Anglian Water

Unknown, presumabl y 2014

C.3.4

Smart Meters (Implementation of 160,000 water smart meters in households)

MK:Smart (with HR Wallingford)

2015-2020

C.4

ENTREPRISE

C.4.1

‘Apex suite’ business engagement platform (linked to the MK:Data hub

MK:Smart, (based at University Campus Milton Keynes)

Launched in 2015

http://www.mksmart.org/enterprise/

C.4.2

MK: Hackathon

MK:Smart, Open University

2016

https://www.mkhackathon.org/

C.5

TRANSPORT

C.5.1

Motion Map (travel information application)

MK:Smart, Open University

Trial started in 2015

http://www.mksmart.org/transport/

C.5.2

‘Smart Parking’ by BT

MK:Smart, BT

Case study published in 2014

http://www.globalservices.bt.com/static/assets/pdf/case_s tudies/EN_NEW/milton_keynes_case_study.pdf

C.6

ENERGY

http://www.mksmart.org/water/wpcontent/uploads/sites/4/2014/01/MAS1216-RT002-R0200.pdf



4



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

C.6.1

Open Energy Map

MK:Smart, Satellite Applications Catapult, Ordnance Survey

Case study published in 2016

https://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/docs/casestudies/milton-keynes-smart-future-cities-energy.pdf

C.6.2

Electricity Demand Shifting

MK:Smart, Open University

Video presentati on published in 2014

C.6.3

Smart Grid Dynamic Demand Response

MK:Smart, Open University

2014

http://oro.open.ac.uk/45775/1/sustainIT_pgforum_bourge ois_camera-ready.pdf http://www.mksmart.org/blog/2014/09/18/changingelectricity-usage-behaviour/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XoixuLWHSeo http://www.mksmart.org/energy/

C.6.4

Smart Lightning by BT

BT, MK:Smart

http://letstalk.globalservices.bt.com/en/2014/11/smartcities-smart-lighting/ - .VHhuc9QrhpQ.twitter

C.7

Imagined Festival/ Intelligent Mobility Hackathon

Transport Systems Catapult’s annual Intelligent Mobility conference. (Hosted in Milton Keynes)/ Transport System Catapult

Press release published in 2014 14-15 June 2016

C.8

MK Hackathon

MK:Smart, Open University

2016

https://www.mkhackathon.org/

C.9

‘Smart parking’ by the company called ‘Smart Parking’

Smart Parking (company), Milton Keynes City Council

2015

http://www.smartparking.com/keep-up-to-date/pressreleases/smart-parking-secures-phase-ii-of-milton-keynescouncil-smartpark-trial



5



http://imaginefestival.co.uk/about/ http://imcreate.co.uk/

The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

Timescale Milton Keynes submitted its Feasibility Study entitled ‘Future Ready MK to the Future City Demonstrator Programme in 2012. They did not secure any funding from the Technology Strategy Board. Two years later MK:Smart is launched. It is lead by the Open University with a 16 million pounds funding from the HEFCE (the Higher Education Funding Council for England). The main actors of this partnership led by the Open University are: Milton Keynes Council, Community Action MK (community organising charity), BT, Anglian Water and UCMK. The council seems not to have a leading role in the partnership (e.g. there is no promotion of MK:Smart in the council website) All the initiatives have been launched between 2014 and 2015. All the the initiatives stem from the Smart city body MK:Smart, however, each initiative is led by different partners, with the Open University having a prominent role. However, in 2016 two other initiative have been launched : the MK:Hackathon organised by MK:Smart and the Open University and the Imagine Festival, featuring another Hackathon (Intelligent Mobility Hackathon) and organised by Transport Systems Catapult’s Issues mobilised – summary ‘Milton Keynes is one of the fastest growing cities in the UK and a great economic success story. However, the challenge of supporting sustainable growth without exceeding the capacity of the infrastructure, and whilst meeting key carbon reduction targets, is a major one. […]In addition to these technical solutions, MK:Smart also comprises ambitious education, business and community engagement activities’ There are six different strands within MK: Smart: Data, Energy, Water, Transport, Citizen and Enterprises. The issues mobilised are different for each strand. However, if one issue is to be isolated as the most prominent, it would be sustainability. The general narrative is that Milton Keynes is the fastest growing city in the UK and that it induces sustainability challenges and infrastructure pressure if we want growth to continue. The Energy and Water strand are particularly focused on sustainability. The citizen strand of the program is also particularly focused on sustainability but also develop a citizen engagement rhetoric raising governance issues. The infrastructure issue is also quite important: the increase in population in putting extra pressure on the infrastructure of the city (roads, energy, water), the transport strand particularly focus on optimizing the infrastructure. And last but not least, there is also an important framing in term of economic, particularly in the business strand. To conclude, in term of issue raised the MK:Smart policy is really well balanced but sustainability, in terms of resource efficiency is to the fore. Publics mobilised The public mobilised are different from initiatives to initiatives but it seems that most of the initiatives deal with individuals and not the community as a whole (Hackathon, Motion Map, Water Monitor etc.). Notwithstanding, the whole citizen strand is aiming at the general 6



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

public or the community. On the other hand, and quite logically the whole Enterprise strand aims at SMEs or more generally businesses. Socio-technical ordering / practices It is difficult to have an overarching view of the socio technical ordering as it varies a lot between different initiatives and here again the picture is quite nuances. It can be argued than there is slightly more service use engagement (particularly in the Water, Energy and Transport strand). But MK:Smart also organise a Hackathon targeting digital entrepreneurs, while the Enterprise strand is clearly aiming at SMEs. However, the citizen strand is quite developed, giving a strong civic coloration. To conclude, civic and service use engagement are to the fore. Spatiality Considering the role of spatiality, it worth mentioning that the three citizen initiatives are closely intertwined and share the same goal: enabling citizens to submit ideas and projects to the OurMK platform. It might be reflecting the need for physical space as well as virtual space for citizen involvement in the public sphere. On the other hand, the importance of the MK:Data Hub show the prominence of the ‘ubiquitous space of connectivity’. Analytical Discussion It must be noted that one of the feature of MK’s smart city policy is that it had been attributed several awards: ‘Environmental and Corporate Sustainability Business achievement award’, ‘Storage Award’, ‘Enabling the Smart City Digital Ecosystem - Best New Catalyst’, ‘Best virtualisation and disaster recovery project’, ‘Finalist in the smart city expo world congress’, ‘Business IT Innovation of the Year’ and was finalist at the ‘Institution of Engineering and Technology Awards’. (More details on the website) But what is particularly distinctive about this case both the rhetoric about citizen involvement is the involvement of the citizen. Contrary to other cases (e.g. Peterborough) citizen engagement in developing ideas is not a way to spur economic growth but an aim in itself. Milton Keynes is not the only city to develop a rhetoric claiming that ‘people’ or ‘citizens’ must be at the centre of smart city development. (‘Too often Smart City projects focus solely on technological solutions. We want to hear and act on what MK citizens think would make our city more sustainable.’) However, it seems to be one of the few where the rhetoric is really reflected in the actual initiatives developed. This particular strong mode of civic engagement can be predicted by the involvement in the partnership constituting MK:Smart, of the community organising charity Community Action MK. It is interesting to notice than in the three initiatives analysed concerning citizen engagement (‘Gathering Citizen’s Ideas’, ‘MK:Smart Citizen Lab’ and the ‘OurMK’ platform) Community Action MK have a prominent role, for example, insights from the Citizen Labs are integrated in the Water Strategy. However, there is no strong evidence of MK City Council necessarily embracing the ‘citizen engagement’ agenda. The fact that the NGO ‘Community Action MK’ specializing in community action would advocate citizen engagement is to be expected. And insofar as they are a partner in MK:Smart it may be significant, but that does not necessarily 7



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

mean that citizen engagement is mainstream in smart city policy. Also, the citizen engagement is one strand sitting alongside other - arguably weightier – strands such as Data or Enterprise The broader policy context of Milton Keynes as a new-town but also as having a tradition of being a sustainable city colours the existing smart city initiatives. There is a strong focus on sustainability in every initiative. Sustainability is less a mean to achieve growth (at least in the policy discourse) than in other cities. But even if slightly more focused on sustainability for itself, economic growth is not forgotten: the feasibility study includes projections on expected population growth (and related challenges), economic growth and innovation. So, may be also a more hard-nosed approach to sustainability, apart from the more idealistic one. It also worth mentioning that the diverse initiatives organising the citizen’s involvement were not one-off meeting or ephemeral workshops but a routinized process. Indeed, the OurMK platform funded eleven different projects and is still active now. In a similar manner, consultation workshops which began in 2014 are still running in 2016. Contrary to others city, citizens are not only involved in the definition of the smart city, but also in its routinized enactment. The various initiatives presented here show a real will to involve citizens in the smart city. However, in the other strands (Energy, Water, Transport) citizen engagement is limited to service use. Moreover, the Hackathon, which is not integrated in the citizen strand show a more entrepreneurial form of engagement. Image(s)





8



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss











9



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

APPENDICES (Key strategic documents and initiatives)

Policy Element

Actor(s)

A.1

Feasibility study TSB Feasibility Study (Future Cities competition) MK: Smart Water: A Water strategy for Milton Keynes

Milton Keynes City Council

2012

MK:Smart (Billed to the Open University), HR Wallingford

2016

B.1

MK:Smart

Open University (Leader), Milton Keynes City Council, Community Action MK, BT, Anglian Water, UCMK, E-on. Funded by the HEFCE (the Higher Education Funding Council for England)

2014

C.1

DATA

C.1.1

MK Data Hub

MK:Smart: especially UCMK, BT, Open University

C.2

CITIZEN

2015 (constructi on started) launch in 2016

C.2.1

OurMK (includes: Gathering citizen’s ideas [C.2.1.1] (2014) and MK:Smart Citizen Lab [C.2.1.2] (2014)) WATER

MK:Smart: especially Open University, Community Action MK (community organising charity), Graymatter (digital agency)

2015

C.3.1

Garden Monitor (app for monitoring citizen’s water consumption in gardens)

MK:Smart (with HR Wallingford)

C.3.2

Water Monitor (online MK:Smart (with HR Wallingford) tool for citizens to monitor their daily consumption of water, tips to save water)

Under developme nt (Intended trial in 2016) Launched may 2016

C.3.3

(Water measurement) School kits

MK:Smart, Anglian Water

Unknown, presumabl y 2014

C.3.4

Smart Meters (Implementation of 160,000 water smart meters in households) ENTREPRISE

MK:Smart (with HR Wallingford)

2015-2020

A.2

C.3

C.4



10



Year (launch)

The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

C.4.1

C.4.2

‘Apex suite’ business MK:Smart, (based at University Campus Milton Keynes) engagement platform (linked to the MK:Data hub MK: Hackathon MK:Smart, Open University

C.5

TRANSPORT

C.5.1

Motion Map (travel information application)

MK:Smart, Open University

Trial started in 2015

C.5.2

‘Smart Parking’ by BT

MK:Smart, BT

Case study published in 2014

C.6

ENERGY

C.6.1

Open Energy Map

MK:Smart, Satellite Applications Catapult, Ordnance Survey

Case study published in 2016

C.6.2

Electricity Demand Shifting

MK:Smart, Open University

C.6.3

Smart Grid Dynamic Demand Response

MK:Smart, Open University

Video presentati on published in 2014 2014

C.6.4

Smart Lightning by BT

BT, MK:Smart

C.7

Imagined Festival/ Intelligent Mobility Hackathon

Transport Systems Catapult’s annual Intelligent Mobility conference. (Holster in Milton Keynes)/ Transport System Catapult

C.8

MK Hackathon

MK:Smart, Open University

2016

C.9

‘Smart parking’ by the company called ‘Smart Parking’

Smart Parking (company), Milton Keynes City Council

2015

1. Key strategic documents Feasibility Study – Future Ready MK [A.1] The feasibility identifies 6 ‘work streams’: -Energy and waste -Health and well-being -Housing and the built environment 11



Launched in 2015

2016

Press release published in 2014 14-15 June 2016

The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

-Learning and research -Low carbon urban transport -Security and resilience Governance Weak, but existent: ‘community engagement’ p.17 and ‘egovernance’ p.17 are mentioned. They also mention the ‘Close engagement with the community through MK Community Action p.28. But apart from this three separate mentioning, there is no strong rhetoric on citizen engagement. Milton Keynes is presented as an innovative city, partly due to its new town history. (‘Milton Keynes is a Future City. Innovation is in its DNA. Having been built from plan, the city is a living urban laboratory’ p.3) Economy Strong economic framing: ‘As a new and growing city Milton Keynes will integrate its city-wide systems to maximise enterprise and jobs growth, business innovation, research and technology development.’ p.17 Emphasis on the knowledge economy (‘SMEs and mid-cap enterprises linked to local universities’ p.3) and sustainable growth (‘Milton Keynes is sustaining growth and economic development with low carbon city services and amenities that respond to and meet the needs of both a growing and ageing population’ p.3). Milton Keynes aims at being the UK’s leading digital city Infrastructure Strong emphasis on infrastructure: Data Hub, increased connectivity, better waste management, smart grid, smart meters, home retrofitting. Strong focus on housing developments: ‘The prospect of being a Future City Demonstrator will help realise this potential and ensure that ambitious Milton Keynes housing and jobs growth targets are delivered and, where possible, accelerated’ p.11) Environment Overall framing in terms of green growth: ‘It is only with a smart and holistic approach can MK meet its ambitions to grow the city and its economy rapidly while remaining sustainable and reducing environmental impact.’ p.17 Strong focus on sustainability (‘environmental security based on lower energy use and zero waste’ p.4) ‘MK’s vision is of a Future City where low-carbon sustainable living is a part of everyday life.’ p.10). The smart city vision is presented as in continuity with the existing programmes in terms of green growth. (e.g. ‘Low Carbon Living Program’). Social Sustainability Medium: Emphasis on promoting healthy lifestyles, managing the increase of long term medical conditions Investment in the urban regeneration of deprived areas. ‘Improve the health and wellbeing of individuals across the city.’ p.11: reducing health inequality, strengthening communities. There is also an emphasis on the challenged posed by an ageing population (long term medical conditions, assisted living) They also claim to have ‘developed a specific model of community engagement 12



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

(Further comments if needed)





through [their] ‘Community Mobiliser’ programme. This model has now received national and international recognition’ p.15 The feasibility study is oddly structured (maybe due to time constraints), they are advocating for the attractiveness of Milton Keynes as an innovative and growing city, more than detailing what they would do with the £24m award from the Technology Strategy Board. Only the last 10 pages (out of 28) detail the project.



13



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

MK: Smart Water: A Water strategy for Milton Keynes [A.2]

The Smart Water strategy was written by HR Wallingford and has been commissioned by the Open University. ‘It sets out the principles of sustainable water use and the principles and approaches that will be needed to ensure that Milton Keynes grows as a smart city.’ The strategy is ‘intended to be of benefit to Milton Keynes Council, the citizens and businesses of Milton Keynes, as well as Anglian Water’ (The water supplier of Milton Keynes). ‘The strategy outlines five main principles that will encourage and improve water efficiency and support the sustainable growth of Milton Keynes’ ‘-Understanding water use: help people understand how much water they use; -Water efficient behaviour: promote water efficient behaviours; -Water-efficient technology: implement and encourage the use of water-efficient technology where possible -Metering and leakage: increase metering and reduce leakage across Milton Keynes; -The wider environment: improve awareness of how water use affects the wider environment’ Governance It is interesting to note the the water strategy incorporate findings from the MK:Smart Fourth Citizen Lab on sustainable Water use in the water strategy. Economy Absent Infrastructure Yes, the water infrastructure. Efficiency needs for the infrastructure due to resource constraints. (Smart meters, reduce leakage etc.) Environment Very strong: ‘Milton Keynes is one of the driest regions of the UK […] and is classified ‘water stressed’ by the Environment Agency. With the significant growth expected Social Sustainability Absent (Further comments if needed)

MK:Smart Website page: About [B.1] Green growth is the dominant issue: ‘the challenge of supporting sustainable growth without exceeding the capacity of the infrastructure, and whilst meeting key carbon reduction targets, is a major one.’ Governance Medium: Considered as secondary, but ambitious: ‘in addition to these technical solution, MK:Smart also includes […] ambitious […] community engagement activities’. ‘Engagement activity involving citizens in the innovation process, not just through an outreach programme, but also by engaging the community in innovationcentric decision-making processes through the establishment of a Citizen Lab.’ Economy Very Strong: ‘developing innovative solutions to support economic growth in Milton Keynes.’ Infrastructure Very Strong: ‘Central to the project is the creation of a state-ofthe-art ‘MK Data Hub’ which supports the acquisition and management of vast amounts of data relevant to city systems from a variety of data sources’. It includes data about energy, water, 14



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

Environment Social Sustainability

(Further comments if needed)

2. Initiatives Brief description

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed)

Types

Mode of engagement

transport but also social and economic datasets. Very strong: The key aim is to support green growth and to meet ‘key carbon reduction targets’ Medium: Also considered a secondary. ‘A smart city education programme engaging a wide range of audiences, from local schools to higher education students and businesses. This programme provides advanced training covering digital technologies, business innovation and urban services to empower students and practitioners with the skills and competences needed to participate in the creation of a smart city.’ Surprisingly enough, considering that citizen engagement is very important in the initiatives, it is not reflected in the presentation page. However, in the ‘citizen’ page of the website you can find a strong framing in term of citizen engagement: ‘Too often Smart City projects focus solely on technological solutions. We want to hear and act on what MK citizens think would make our city more sustainable.’

MK Data Hub [C.1.1]

The MK Data Hub is a data infrastructure and platform ‘supporting the collection, integration and use of large amounts of data from many diverse resources relevant to city systems’. It includes local and national open data, data streams from sensors and infrastructure and data crowd-sourced from social media and mobile application. Application Programming Interfaces are also developed to make the data easy to use Issues Weak Medium Strong Strong Weak ‘Building on the capability provided by the MK Data Hub, the project is innovating in the areas of transport, energy and water management, tackling key demand issues.’ The focus of the project is to enable efficiency of the management of the infrastructure, but also to foster the development of ‘data intensive’ apps. It is also presented as a way to ‘empower citizens’ and ‘teach digital skills’ but only briefly. Publics mobilised ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals X (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial X Service use X Political 15



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

Civic (Comments if needed)

X -Entrepreneurial: Data enable the development of new applications. Service use: Data about transport lead to ‘improved mobility’ -Civic: The opening of data ‘empower citizens’ Socio-technical ordering

Practices

A dashboard summarizing all the information is under development.

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

Directed Automated Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

X ( e.g. Local statistics) X (e.g. water measurement) X (e.g. social media feeds) X (for citizens) X (for developers)

X It can be argued that proper infrastructure for data collection is the ‘dorsal spine’ of the smart city. Spatiality*

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)

X

The MK Data Hub is traditional in that sense. Data collection about infrastructure is used to enable a more efficient use of resources URL(s) http://www.mksmart.org/data/

Brief description

OurMK [C.2.1] OurMK is a set of initiative based around (including Citizens Lab and Gathering Citizens’ Ideas) an internet platform designed for ‘people to come together and brainstorm about new ideas’, to develop ‘citizen’s ideas’: ‘technologycentred ideas that will improve transport, water and energy use, health and the environment within Milton Keynes’. Citizens can be involved in three different ways: -Submit an Idea: without applying for funding and hoping for other to implement it. -Submit a project: actually implementing a project and applying for funding -Volunteer on a project: give some of one’s free time to help implementing a project. The criteria for funding is not enabling companies to access market 16



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

Governance

Economy

Infrastructure Environment

Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

opportunities but: ‘is it going to make Milton Keynes a better place to live in?’. Issues Very strong framing in term of citizen participation: New form of governance were citizens are engaged in the co-creation of the smart city. Our Mk helps citizens to tackle issues for themselves. The idea is to foster collaboration between citizens so that innovative ‘citizen’s ideas’ can be implemented and make Milton Keynes a better place to live in’. ‘Going and finding out with people what’s on their mind’, ‘enable citizens to communicate with us in an almost open way’. ‘We engage our citizens in bringing their ideas to reality.’ ‘We want that process of citizen innovation and empowerment to be a fundamental part of living and working in Milton Keynes’. Absent: Contrary to most of the innovation platform implemented in other smart city programs the economic issue is absent. The aim is not to spur innovation in order to achieve green growth or ‘the knowledge economy’. Citizens are viewed as a pool of potential innovative ideas, but their participation is a goal in itself, not an instrument for economic growth. Strong: Transport, water and energy are issues outlined by the OurMK challenge. Hence, they are important issues. Very Strong: The environment is one of the issues outlined, but more than that, the ultimate goal of the initiative is for Milton Keynes to become a greener city (‘We want to hear and act on what MK citizens think would make our city more sustainable.’) Medium/Strong: Health is on the issues outlined, but more generally the aim of the initiative is to ‘make Milton Keynes a better place to live in’.

Publics mobilised X X The community is the targeted audience, but it is individuals, as members of the community who participate. (‘Do you have an idea about how to improve your community?’) Entrepreneurial X Service use Political X Civic X (Comments if needed) -It is, in a sense, a form of entrepreneurial engagement as citizens are asked to implement projects. However, as highlighted earlier, as the aim is not profit it is closer to a form of ‘civic entrepreneurship’. -Volunteering for a project is a form of civic ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals (Comments if needed)

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engagement. -Proposing ideas would be a mix of engagement in the deliberative sphere (civic) and participation in a consultation process (political) Socio-technical ordering Practices

There are three different socio-technical practices that we need to consider: -Submitting and discussing ideas: Citizens can submit their ideas, discuss the existing ones and vote for the ideas they like the most. (Around 70 ideas submitted) -Submit a project: Citizens detail their projects, other discuss and vote for their ideas. Project owners can then apply for funding and receive guidance on how to realise their project. -Volunteering: Citizens can either directly contact the project owner to offer some of their free time of contact OurMK to be registered on a list of volunteers. Eleven projects have already been funded through this initiative, it is not a one-off initiative but rather a long term process of citizen involvement in the ‘co-creation’ of the smart city. However, the link to the formal decision making process is still consultative as it is ultimately OurMK who decide which projects to fund.

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

Directed Automated Voluntary (Comments if needed)

X The main function of the website is to crowd-source ideas and energies, even if directed or automated data can be used in the projects. Data provision for the purpose of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)



X X Contrary to the Hackathon or other one-off events, the initiative seems to be the routinized enactment of the smart city. Citizen engagement is not limited to the launch of the project but is constitutive of the smart city Spatiality*

X OurMK, by creating a sort of digital agora where citizens can discuss what need to be done, how to do it and organising them to implement the solutions can be seen as a way to ‘reclaim the digital sphere as public’. 18



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URL(s) https://ourmk.org/

Brief description

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed)

Types

Mode of engagement

Practices

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

Gathering citizen’s ideas [C.2.1.1] Community Action MK have been collecting ‘dialogues’ with citizens, that is to say records of their complaints, concerns or ideas on how to improve Milton Keynes as a city regarding the sustainability issue. Between April and September 2014 they collected 198 dialogues and since then, they have been running a series of roadshows and collected 591 dialogues. They then uploaded the ideas collected in the OurMK website. Issues X The dominant issue is sustainability (‘ we heard some fantastic ideas about how to ensure our city is sustainable.’) Publics mobilised ‘General Public’ / community X Group(s) Individuals X (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial Service use Political Civic X (Comments if needed) Socio-technical ordering Community organisers record dialogues with citizens concerning sustainability issues, and what to do. As certain ideas where present in many dialogues and certain dialogues had many ideas, Community MK classified these dialogues into 101 specific ideas and uploaded it to the OurMK platform. Directed X Automated Voluntary X (Comments if needed) Citizens were asked to provide information but had chosen to turn up at the workshops. Data provision for the purpose of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data X (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City X (Comments if needed) The collection of dialogue was used only at 19



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

the beginning. Then they helped citizens directly uploading their ideas onto the platform. Spatiality* Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)



URL(s) http://www.mksmart.org/citizens/

Brief description

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Practices

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

MK:Smart Citizen Lab [C.2.1.2] The MK:Smart Citizen Lab is a series of workshops hosted by Community Action MK. It is part of the OurMK platform along with the ‘Gathering Citizen’s ideas initiative’. Citizens are invited to listen to speakers and ‘get involved in the debate for change in MK’ Issues Strong: ‘Citizen participation in the debate for change in Milton Keynes’ Absent Strong: The only issues defined are ‘transport, energy and water use’ Strong: One of the workshop is entitled ‘“What role can communities play in developing solutions to our energy challenges” Medium: talks about community ownership of pubs, volunteering.

Publics mobilised X X X Socio-technical ordering

‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial Service use Political Civic (Comments if needed)

The workshops included talks from guest speakers and discussions. It is not a permanent initiative, however, there are still some workshops and talks organised in 2016. Directed Automated Voluntary X (Comments if needed) Citizens providing ideas. Data provision for the purpose of information 20



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Public agency

Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)



X X As highlighted earlier, there are still some workshops organised in 2016. (e.g. ‘How could technology improve your use of public transport in MK?). Public consultation and the crowdsourcing of ideas is the routinized enactment of the smart city. Spatiality*

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)



URL(s) http://www.mksmart.org/blog/2014/05/15/come-and-get-your-smart-idea-heard-at-mksmartcitizenlab-21-may/

Brief description

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Practices

Garden Monitor [C.3.1] The Garden Monitor App is developed my MK:Smart , it provides advice on when and how to water plants in one’s garden based on weather forecasts and water use. It also uses data from moisture sensors in the garden. Issues X

Publics mobilised X X Socio-technical ordering It is the citizen, as a customer of public services who is responsible for the ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial Service use Political Civic (Comments if needed)

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Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

optimisation of material system. Big data is not used by the city to optimize resource distribution but by the individual to reduce consumption of resources. Directed Automated X Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose X of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)



X Spatiality*

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)

X

URL(s) http://www.mksmart.org/water/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2014/01/MAS1216-RT002-R02-00.pdf

Brief description

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Water Monitor [C.3.2] Water Monitor is an online tools design to better understand water consumption behaviours and helps households reduce their energy bills. Voluntary households can register to the website to participate in the trial. They gain access to a detailed picture of their water consumption and are provided with tips on how to reduce it. The data is then stored in the MK:Data Hub Issues X X

Publics mobilised ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals X (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial Service use X Political Civic 22



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(Comments if needed) Practices

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

Socio-technical ordering The data is automatically taken from smart meters. The program only targets ‘Broughton Gate’ because it is a new development and already have built-in smart meters. What is interesting, similarly to the garden monitor, is that it is at the individual level that big data is able to optimize material systems. Directed Automated X Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose X of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)



X Spatiality*

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)

X

URL(s) http://watermonitor.mksmart.org/

Brief description

School Kits [C.3.3] ‘Several schools in Milton Keynes have signed up to become part of a trial to investigate ways to save water in their school. Anglian Water has provided the schools with new water meters linked to a wall mounted display. This makes it easier for students to monitor detailed water use within their school and to find how much water is used by different activities, such as washing hands or flushing a toilet. Students will take part in a whole range of activities aimed to help them understand how to save water and why this is important. They will discover how much water their school typically uses in a year and then begin a period of closely monitoring their water use, which will allow them to identify leaks and bad practices. They will then be tasked with initiating water-saving measures and monitoring their success over a period of time. 23



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Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Practices

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

We will find out later this year how they have got on.’ Issues X Publics mobilised X Schools X X Contrary to the Water Monitor it is less focus on saving on utility bills and more focus on creating environmentally aware citizens. Socio-technical ordering The practices range from traditional awareness-raising to the implementation of smart meters and workshops to identify water-saving measures. Directed Automated X Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose X ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial Service use Political Civic (Comments if needed)

of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)



X Spatiality*

X X The idea of a ‘wall mounted’ display showing the amount of water consumed is a interesting attempt to make the optimization of systems, thanks to data, visible. URL(s) 24



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

http://www.mksmart.org/water/



Smart (water) Meters [C.3.4]

Brief description

Following the MK:Smart Water Strategy Anglian Water will install 160,000 water smart meters in households between 2015 and 2020. The aim is to improve the customer’s awareness of their consumption and better manage potential leakage.

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability

X X

Issues

(Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Practices

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

Publics mobilised ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals X (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial Service use X Political Civic (Comments if needed) Socio-technical ordering It is a very weak for of techno-public assemblage as the citizen’s role is passive. However, these infrastructure investments are enablers for more active forms of service use engagement such as the ‘Water Monitor’ initiative. Directed Automated X Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems



X X Spatiality*

X 25



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Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)



URL(s) http://www.mksmart.org/water/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2014/01/MAS1216-RT002-R02-00.pdf

Brief description

Governance Economy Infrastructure

Apex suite [C.4.1]

‘The Apex suite is a business engagement platform that includes both physical facilities (based at University Campus Milton Keynes) as well as providing remote facilities allowing access to the MK Data Hub.’ MK: Smart has already engaged with sixty SMEs. The business engagement takes many different forms: -Holding workshops -Writing case studies about the uses of the MK:Data Hub for business -Enable networked collaboration with other firms in the UK -Partnering with local SME ‘to build a service management platform allowing commercial activities (e.g. buying and selling data sets) to be integrated onto the MK Data Hub platform -Organising a Hackathon (see MK:Hackathon [C.4.2] - ‘disseminating knowledge about technology to the wider business community’ -Short courses which include, for example, the Postgraduate Certificate in New Enterprise Creation Planned initiatives for 2016 includes: ‘-MK Smart graduate and employability fair focused on the technological aspect of smart cities’ -A cross-catapult event linking satellite, digital, future cities and transport -A workshop on funding opportunities, including Innovate UK and Horizon 2020 -Supporting the establishment of a new Internet of Things (IoT) group -Working with local technology groups (including Geek Girls meet up) to foster the role of women in technology -Developing collaborative relationships with other IoT technology clusters, e.g. EIT Digital and Innovation Birmingham -Running a series of IoT developer workshops on the Thingworx platform – a tool aimed at developing smart, connected applications that is suitable for all business types, including those who do not have a technical background’ Issues X 26



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Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Practices

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

X ( Employability fair, and local technology groups to foster the role of woman in technology) Publics mobilised X SME’s X Socio-technical ordering Even if there are several different practices forming the Apex suite, it is centred around the MK:Data Hub and its potential for spurring economic activity. Directed Automated Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial Service use Political Civic (Comments if needed)

of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)



Spatiality*

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)



URL(s) http://www.mksmart.org/enterprise/

Brief description

Motion Map [C.5.1] The Motion App aims at providing relevant transport information to the user in order to ‘to reduce travel frustrations and congestion, and also allow users to make spontaneous public transport decisions.’ The data will be processed in the MK:Data Hub. It also includes a data base that can be used to develop new transport services 27



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Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Practices

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

Issues X They claim to have a ‘Wikipedia approach where user have more say’ by feeding information X Publics mobilised ‘General Public’ / community X Group(s) X Individuals X (Comments if needed) ‘enable people, community groups and innovative businesses to develop new services’, ‘Users of public transport’ Entrepreneurial X (develop new transport services) Service use X Political Civic (Comments if needed) Socio-technical ordering By downloading the app, users can access real-time information on public transport. It will combine data for transport providers with information provided by the user. It can show you: how busy the shops are, where to park and the availability of bus seats. It also allows individual to design new services, for examples for ‘those with special needs’. Directed Automated X Voluntary X (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose X of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)

X

X X Spatiality* X (dataset base to design new services) X (real time information on transport)

URL(s) http://www.mksmart.org/transport/

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Brief description

Governance Economy

Infrastructure

Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Practices Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

Smart Parking by BT [C.5.2]

The Smart Parking solution is developed by BT as part of MK:Smart. It is a traditional smart parking solutions aiming at making parking more efficient. User can access information about real-time availability of parking spaces and hence reduce the time spent in their car and the resultant carbon emissions. Data can be used by policy makers to come with better decisions but can also be used by parking enforcement officers. The data is processed via the MK:Data Hub. Issues X (‘Rollout will save vast capital sums’) X (‘has to support that expansion within local infrastructure constraints, while meeting […] and carbon reduction targets.’) X (‘has to support that expansion within local infrastructure constraints, while meeting […] and carbon reduction targets.’) Publics mobilised X X Socio-technical ordering Access real-time information on parking availability. Directed Automated X Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose X ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial Service use Political Civic (Comments if needed)

of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems



X Spatiality*

X 29



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Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)



URL(s) http://www.globalservices.bt.com/static/assets/pdf/case_studies/EN_NEW/milton_keynes_case_study.pdf

Brief description

Governance

Economy

Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed)

Types

Mode of engagement

Practices Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Open Energy Map [C.6.1]

The Open Energy Map has been developed in collaboration with Ordnance Survey and Satellite Application Catapult. It is the integration of energy data onto satellite imagery combined with Ordnance Survey information. Issues X (‘Making information about sustainable energy options publically available so that residents and businesses become part of the decisionmaking process.’) X (‘Developing innovative energy services through creating a state-of-theart MK Data Hub and demonstrating its business value for the energy sector’) X X The aim is ‘Supporting sustainable growth in one of the fastest growing cities in the UK without exceeding the capacity of the infrastructure, and meeting key carbon reduction targets.’ Publics mobilised ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) X (‘Residents and businesses’) Individuals (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial X (‘Developing innovative energy services through creating a state-of-the-art MK Data Hub and demonstrating its business value for the energy sector’) Service use X Political X (‘residents and businesses become part of the decision-making process.’) Civic (Comments if needed) Socio-technical ordering Directed Automated X Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose X of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data

X 30



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Public agency

(Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

Spatiality*

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)

X (Opening data) URL(s)

https://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/docs/case-studies/milton-keynes-smart-future-cities-energy.pdf

Brief description

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Practices

Sources / type of data

Electricity Demand Shifting [C.6.2]

‘We are working with households with solar PV micro-generation to develop digital tools to help people maximise self-consumption of locally generated electricity by shifting demand to periods of peak generation.’ Issues X Publics mobilised ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals X (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial Service use X Political Civic (Comments if needed) Socio-technical ordering ‘The six months’ study combined electricity data from smart meters and smart plugs with in-depth interviews to explore opportunities to automate electricity demand-shifting and maximise self-consumption of microgenerated electricity. The study was conducted in close collaboration with energy provider E.On who provided equipment, logistical support and access to households.’ Households were provided with information on the best moment to use their appliances based on weather forecast (sunniest moment) and electricity demand in the city. An article was then published by the Open University. Directed X Automated 31



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Data engagement

Public agency

Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

X X X

X X Spatiality*

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)

X

URL(s) http://www.mksmart.org/blog/2014/09/18/changing-electricity-usage-behaviour/

Brief description

Brief description

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed)

Smart Grid Dynamic Demand Response [C.6.3]

‘We are developing novel data-driven approaches to enable people and communities to manage their energy consumption during peak demand periods in order to decrease the growth in energy demand that is threatening the stability of electric grids in the current infrastructure.’ There is no further information on this initiative (at least I couldn’t find any), it seems to be another strand of the ‘Electricity Demand Shifting’. URL(s) http://www.mksmart.org/energy/ Smart Lightning by BT [C.6.4]

Traditional smart lighting solution developed by British Telecom: ‘Street lighting account for about 15% of a city’s electricity. If we get it right, every single street lamp will be connected to a central control unit. Lamp failure can be addressed in real-time. Street lights can be adhoc remotely dimmed up if the safety of citizens in a certain neighbourhood requires it. Street lights can be dimmed down if there is no or less traffic on the roads.’ The focus in on energy saving, resource use and safety. Issues X X X X (safety) Publics mobilised 32



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Types

Mode of engagement

Practices Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals (Comments if needed)

Publics are not really mobilised in smart lightning solutions. Entrepreneurial Service use Political Civic (Comments if needed) Publics are not really mobilised in smart lightning solutions. Socio-technical ordering Publics are not really mobilised in smart lightning solutions. Directed Automated X Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)



X Spatiality* X (remotely controlling lights in the public space) X (energy and cost savings)

URL(s) http://letstalk.globalservices.bt.com/en/2014/11/smart-cities-smart-lighting/ - .VHhuc9QrhpQ.twitter

Brief description

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability

Imagine Festival/Intelligent Mobility Hackathon [C.7]

The event is not organised by MK:Smart. ‘The Imagine festival is the Transport Systems Catapult’s annual Intelligent Mobility conference. Bringing together SME’s, entrepreneurs, innovators, technologists, academics, transport professionals and policymakers innovators to collaborate and explore the future of transport.’ It is a classic conference but it will also host the Intelligent Mobility Hackathon focused on tackling ‘8 transport challenges’ Issues X Mobility 33



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(Further comments if needed)



Types

‘General Public’ / community

Publics mobilised X X

Group(s) Individuals (Comments if needed)

Mode of engagement

Practices

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

‘coders, data scientists, business thinkers, artists, designers and others’

X Socio-technical ordering After a night of ‘hacking’ team will pitch their project in front of a panel of experts. The three first team will then be given a couple of weeks to develop their prototype before pitching it again ay ‘The Showcase’ in front of ‘200 industry, gov and academic leaders in technology and transport’ Directed Automated X Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose Entrepreneurial Service use Political Civic (Comments if needed)

of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

X

X Spatiality*

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)



URL(s) http://imaginefestival.co.uk/about/ http://imcreate.co.uk/

Brief description

MK Hackathon [C.8]

The project is entitled ‘MK Hackathon: for the good of Milton Keynes’. The event will be hosted by a software development company called JUXT in partnership with the Open University and MK:Smart. ‘The final decided topic of the Hackathon is a red way routes app. Many people expressed a wish to use the redway more, both for environmental and personal reasons, but noted that they had difficulty 34



The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Practices Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

navigating the redways, planning a route, knowing fun places to visit and knowing where were the safest places to go. The app will have: Map of the redway routes - possibly driven by the API of the openstreetmap or Google Maps API Information on the location of great places to visit in Milton Keynes Information on bike lock-up points around CMK Average busyness, crime statistics and speed of travel on certain paths A route planner with lots of filtering to give you the coolest routes’ Issues X X ‘Many people expressed a wish to use the redway more, both for environmental and personal reasons’ Publics mobilised ‘General Public’ / community X Milton Keynes enthusiasts Group(s) X Individuals X (Comments if needed) ‘We are looking for hackers’, ‘All developers, designers and Milton Keynes and Cycling enthusiasts welcome.’ Entrepreneurial X Service use Political Civic (Comments if needed) Socio-technical ordering There is not much information about the practices: ‘Detailed information on the weekend itself to follow.’ Directed Automated X Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

Ubiquitous space of connectivity Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space

X

X Spatiality*



35



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Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)



URL(s) https://www.mkhackathon.org/

Brief description

Governance Economy Infrastructure Environment Social Sustainability (Further comments if needed) Types

Mode of engagement

Practices

Sources / type of data

Data engagement

Public agency

‘Smart parking’ by the company called ‘Smart Parking’ [C.9]

Really traditional Smart Parking solution developed by a company called Smart Parking. What is interesting is that it is developed outside the MK:Smart partnership in 2014, before the establishment of the partnership. Issues X Publics mobilised X X Socio-technical ordering ‘The deployment allows car park users to enter the barrier less car park, pay and walk away with no need to return to their vehicle to display a ticket. Users can also download the SmartApp smart phone guidance application to search for parking availability in real-time.’ Directed Automated X Voluntary (Comments if needed) Data provision for the purpose X ‘General Public’ / community Group(s) Individuals (Comments if needed) Entrepreneurial Service use Political Civic (Comments if needed)

of information Opening data to query, interpretation or mining Generating data (Comments if needed) Enacting the Smart City Defining the Smart City (Comments if needed)

Ubiquitous space of connectivity



Spatiality*

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The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

Optimising material systems Manifesting virtual space in material space Reclaiming the digital sphere as public (Comments if needed)

X

URL(s) http://www.smartparking.com/keep-up-to-date/press-releases/smart-parking-secures-phase-ii-of-miltonkeynes-council-smartpark-trial





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The Smart City and Its Publics – Primary Research Material. © R. Cowley, S. Joss, Y. Dayot (2017) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simon_Joss

References Milton Keynes Council (2012). Feasibility Study Online: https://connect.innovateuk.org/documents/3130726/3794125/Feasibility+Study++Milton+Keynes+Council.pdf/3ec3cf6d-3445-43e4-a11d-5db9b67f0616 (accessed 21 May 2016). MK:Smart, HR Wallingford (2016) MK: Smart Water: A Water strategy for Milton Keynes Online: http://www.mksmart.org/water/wpcontent/uploads/sites/4/2014/01/MAS1216-RT002-R02-00.pdf (accessed 21 May 2016) MK:Smart (2014). About Online: http://www.mksmart.org/about/ (accessed 21 May 2016). MK:Smart (2014). Transport Online: http://www.mksmart.org/transport/ (accessed 21 May 2016). MK:Smart (2014). Energy Online: http://www.mksmart.org/transport/http://www.mksmart.org/energy/ (accessed 21 May 2016). MK:Smart (2014). Water Online: http://www.mksmart.org/about/ (accessed 21 May 2016). MK:Smart (2014). Enterprise Online: http://www.mksmart.org/enterprise/ (accessed 21 May 2016). OurMK (2015). About Online: https://ourmk.org/ (accessed 21 May 2016). MK:Smart (2014). MK:Smart Citizen Lab Online: http://www.mksmart.org/blog/2014/05/15/come-and-get-your-smart-idea-heardat-mksmart-citizenlab-21-may/ (accessed 21 May 2016). MK:Smart (2014). Gathering citizen’s ideas Online: http://www.mksmart.org/citizens/ (accessed 21 May 2016). MK:Smart (2015). MK Data Hub Online: http://www.mksmart.org/data/ (accessed 21 May 2016).



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