Motivation and Emotion - Numerons

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Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; ..... The James Lange theory refers to a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions and is.
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EMOTIONALITY AND PERCEPTUAL DEFENSE BY ELLIOTT McGINNIES 201 EMOTION CIRCUITS IN THE BRAIN 209 THE MEASUREMENT OF EMOTION INTENSITY 239 MEASURING EMOTIONS: IMPLICATIONS OF A MULTIMETHOD PERSPECTIVE 245 Motivation Crowding Theory 260 Achievement Motivation and the Dynamics of Task Difficulty Choices 283 Expectancy Value Theory of Achievement Motivation 291 Perceived Personal Control and Academic Achievement 305 Children of Immigrants and Their Achievement 343

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Psychology for IAS: Motivation and Emotion

EMOTIONALITY AND PERCEPTUAL DEFENSE BY ELLIOTT McGINNIES University of Alabama

During the past decade, a number of experimental investigations have progressively revealed the so-called "dynamic," or motivational, aspects of perceptual behavior. No longer do we view perception as organized solely in terms of the structural characteristics of stimulus objects or the frequency with which the individual has been exposed to these objects. Perceptions are structured not only with respect to the limiting stimulus conditions, but also with regard to the possibilities of reward (11, 12), need fulfillment (1, 7), attitudinal orientation (10), potential anxiety (4), symbolic value (3), and release from tension (2), to mention just a few. In order to describe such facts as the perceptual selection and accentuation of valued objects and the elimination or distortion of inimical stimulus objects, it has been found convenient to invoke mechanisms of sensitization, defense, and value resonance (10), vigilance (2), and primitivation (4). Finally, playing host to these varied and intricate functions is the "ego," in whose service, presumably, the various perceptual adjustments operate. It seems well established, then, that the perceptual "filtering" of visual stimuli serves, in many instances, to protect the observer as long as possible from an awareness of objects which have unpleasant emotional significance for him. Does this process, however, entirely insulate him from the emotionprovoking qualities of the stimulus situation? It is to this problem that the present discussion is addressed. If we view emotion essentially as a rnptivating condition of the individual

(6), the critical nature of the relationship between emotion and perception becomes apparent. Emotion does appear to represent a highly organized and directed state of the organism. Consequently emotion-inducing stimuli may be expected to initiate those perceptual responses which will be consistent with the general picture of emotional adaptation. Several exploratory investigations have indicated that the individual both perceives and reacts in a manner consistent with his emotional response to stimulation. That tension (defined as reactivity to threat, deprivation, or thwarting) will induce perceptual "accentuation" of objects previously associated with the anxietyproducing situation has been demonstrated by Bruner and Postman (2). More recently the same authors have shown that frustration, induced by sarcasm and criticism, will raise the perceptual thresholds of observers to tachistoscopically-presented words. When, on the other hand, individuals are faced with stimulus objects which are not actually threatening, but which represent for them areas of little interest or some antipathy, they also generally display raised thresholds of recognition (10). This process of perceptual "screening" apparently is acquired by the individual as a technique for organizing perceptions around value expectancies so as to produce maximum reinforcement of those expectancies. One question intrudes repeatedly into interpretations of these experimental findings, namely: "How is a raised or lowered threshold of recognition for inimical stimulus objects accomplished before the observer discriminates them

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244

Compiled by Amit Shekhar

Email:numerons@gmail.com

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Psychology for IAS: Motivation and Emotion 245

EMOTIONALITY AND PERCEPTUAL DEFENSE and is thereby made aware of their threatening character?" While the answer to this question will follow eventually only from fuller knowledge of the neurophysiological processes underlying perceptual response, detection of any one aspect of physiological reaction accompanying perceptual behavior should throw some light upon the processes by which perceptual defense is effected. One might conjecture, for example, that stimuli of an appropriate sort will arouse autonomic reactions characteristic of anxiety or pleasure prior to conscious awareness of the nature of the stimulus. If this is the case, we might expect to find a change in galvanic skin response in reaction to visually presented stimuli with emotion-provoking connotations before the subject is able to report the exact nature of the stimulus. In short, autonomic reactivity may have a lower threshold to threat than do those neural systems which mediate consciousness. Study of such reactions, therefore, should hold significant possibilities for adding to our understanding of the process by which discriminatory evaluation of visually sensed objects is accomplished before accurate perception occurs.

TABLE 1 STIMULUS WORDS USED IN THE EXPERIMENT IN ORDER OF THEIR PRESENTATION TO EACH OBSERVER Critical, of emotional, words are in italics. kotex apple broom dance stove raped child

penis

belly

glass river

music trade filth

whore

clear

sleep

bitch

accomplished by means of a Gerbrand's Mirror Tachistoscope, which allowed controlled variation of the exposure interval from .01 second upward. This was done silently, since exposure duration in this apparatus is controlled by the activation of fluorescent tubes rather than by a shutter arrangement. Subjects in the experiment were eight male and eight female undergraduates drawn from an elementary psychology class at the University of Alabama. All were naive as to the purpose of the experiment. The procedure consisted, first, in seating the subject before the viewing mirror of the tachistoscope and strapping electrodes onto both his palms. These were connected in series with a potentiometric circuit described by Lacey and Siegel (5) for measuring galvanic skin response. A 32-centimeter scale microammeter accurate to .5 per cent made it possible to read current changes of one microampere with precision. The subject's threshold was first determined for four trial words in order to accustom him to the apparatus and to allow his level of resistance to stabilize. In all cases, thresholds were determined by exposing the stimulus word once at .01 second, once at .02 second, etc. until it was correctly reported by the subject. Prior to experimentation, the subjects were told that they would be shown words which they might not be

www.numerons.in THE EXPERIMENT

Because of the ease and precision with which it can be measured, the galvanic skin response was selected in the present study as an index of emotionality1 in response to affectivelycharged verbal symbols. A list of eleven neutral and seven critical, or emotionally toned, words was first devised. The words are listed in Table 1 in their order of presentation to the subjects. Exposure of the words was 1 The term "emotionality" is employed here in the sense of autonomic response without regard to presence or absence of phenomenological content.

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Psychology for IAS: Motivation and Emotion 246

ELLIOTT McGiNNiES O

NEUTRAL WORDS



CRITICAL WORDS

A A Dance Apple

.Child Raped

Glass Belly

Muaio

Whore

River

Sleep

Fenia

Filth

Trade

BHoh

Clear

FIG. 1. Group averages of galvanic skin response to neutral and critical words during prerecognition exposures.

able to recognize at first. They were instructed to report whatever they saw or thought they saw on each exposure, regardless of what it was. One additional injunction was that they fix their hypothesis upon exposure of the stimulus, but withhold stating it verbally until they received a signal from the experimenter. In this manner we were able to expose the stimulus word, note the maximum deflection of the microammeter pointer during the six-second period following exposure, and then record the subject's response. Two experimenters cooperated in the procedure, one operating the tachistoscope, the other recording galvanic skin response and readjusting the current through the subject to 40 microamperes after recognition of each word.2

the trial on which recognition finally occurred. Assuming that the GSR may properly be considered an index of "emotionality," we have succeeded in measuring emotional, or autonomic, reactivity to verbal symbols during the period preceding accurate recognition of the stimulus. That emotionality, so denned, is significantly greater during pre-recognition exposures of the critical than of the neutral words is confirmed by statistical analysis of the findings. Testing the null hypothesis that no differences other than those attributable to random fluctuations in the data would exist between mean galvanic skin responses of the observers to the neutral and critical words, we obtained a t value of 5.10 for IS degrees of freedom. This permits rejection of the null hypothesis at the .01 level of confidence, and indicates a highly significant relationship between GSR and word meaning during the pre-recognition period. The results are presented graphically in Fig. 1, while the experimental findings are summarized in Table 2. Thresholds. Of equal interest are the data relating to thresholds of the observers for the neutral and critical words. The relationship here is depicted in Fig. 2. Without exception, the mean thresholds of the observers were greater for the critical than for the neutral stimulus words. The sig-

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EXPERIMENTAL FINDINGS Emotionality. Since we were interested primarily in the galvanic skin response of our subjects during the period preceding correct recognition of the stimulus words, we have based our analysis upon just those microammeter readings which were recorded on exposure trials up to, but not including, 2 Miss Billie Sue Talantis, a graduate student in psychology at Alabama, assisted in the experimental procedure. The author is also grateful to Rosemary T. McGinnies for her generous assistance in organizing the data.

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Psychology for IAS: Motivation and Emotion 247

EMOTIONALITY AND PERCEPTUAL DEFENSE TABLE 2 SUMMARY OF THE RAW DATA AND STATISTICAL TESTS FOR ALL OBSERVERS WITH RESPECT TO BOTH GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE AND THRESHOLDS OF RECOGNITION FOR NEUTRAL AND CRITICAL STIMULUS WORDS Mean microam meter readings during prerecognition exposures

Mean thresholds of recognition

Observer Neutral words

Critical words

Neutral words

Critical words

37.80 40.96 39.31 38.34 41.48 41.41 40.75 39.98 39.44 40.02 39.88 41.27 40.56 40.19 40.85 40.83

40.46 41.53 42.06 40.80 43.76 47.08 39.94 42.85 42.68 42.71 41.55 44.02 41.37 41.42 40.63 41.84

.055 .044 .054 .103 .040 .070 .057 .063 .059 .049 .046 .057 .033 .034 .046 .036

.184 .094

Mean diff. = 1.98 *=S.10

P

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