N91-3i788 - NTRS - NASA

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Ii- _ ,oo,_o°.r--_,. /_Plant (Food) Production_Unit/ ..... MDC. E3224,. McDonnell. Douglas. Astronautics. Company,. St. Louis,. MO,. (1987). C.C.. Johnson and. T.

N91-3i788 PRELIMINARY

Ricardo

B.

ment,

New

EVALUATION

Jacquez,

OF

Associate

Mexico

State

WASTE

PROCESSING

Professor,

University,

Civil

Las

IN

A

CELSS

Engineering

Cruces,

NM

Depart-

88003

ABSTRACT Physical/chemical, in

a

space

The be

waste

by

in

and

volatile

bacteria;

washing

and

these

materials

rates

at

separating uents

during

mass

and

energy

indicate

the

needed

in

a

the

magnitude

for

a

space

tradeoof rates

required

products

support the

the

their from

The to

requiring

a

high

of be

of

their

will

quantitative be

responses as

treatment life

of

pres-

to

the

well

as

that

presented a

in

constit-

scenarios,

etc., and

degree

gained

recycling to

data

of recycling the

to

opposed

developing

from

variety

composition,

waste

system,.

wide

fates

studies,

and

fungi,

water

composition,

Two

on

higher

capable

their

as

emphases

challenge

a are

regimes.

differing

habitat

and

will of

algae,

waste

advantages

considerations

formation

of

know the

processing,

balances,

life

that

from

used

CELSS.

system

plants,

includes

to

oxidation

reflect

stream

that

be a

examples

feces;

systems

produced,

before

humans,

urine;

can by

support

materials

by

necessary

are

qualitative

they

waste

is

various

from

ented;

it

life

inedible

trash

develop

methods generated

Representative

vapor;

and

they

them

derived

the produce

To

which

sources.

water

hybrid

wastes

bioregenerative

include:

hygiene;

materials.

and

processing

organics CO2;

solid

a

numerous

components

plants;

for

materials

generated

waste

biological,

environment

are

demonstrate support

system

closure.

INTRODUCTION Renewed ticularly has

the

prompted

systems available in

interest

space

limitations

are

critical This

for

long

establishment a

(i).

in

of

a

Lunar

evaluation

evaluation

nearly

prevent

of

has

complete

technologically will

duration

humans

245

or

a

advanced

of

spending

missions, mission

life

that

economically from

space

base

revealed

recycling and

human

oxygen,

impractical. long

to

Mars,

support

current

water,

par-

periods

methods and

food Such

of

time

in

space.

oping

Therefore,

improved Nearly

by

life

or

chemical

Life

recycling complete

support

living

or

sis

which

are

to an

of

a

respiration

through

of

energy.

If

is

required,

and

a

biological Recycling

streams ucts.

Some

CELSS

based

derived

from

streams

are

system

life

several waste

streams

support human

common

present

only

in

space

an

integral

part

of

the

trate:

if

higher

biomass

(in

tems

as

substantial

transpiration are

wastes

plants

of not

are

in

and

life

used

a

the

solely

both

to

to

source

support

system

food

is of

P/C

both

the

and

of

food,

the

To then

wastes waste

living

from

subsysillus-

inedible the

nutrient

support

P/C

Certain use

derived

waste prod-

all

that

of

useable

produce

life

its

for

into

systems.

plant

plants

oxygen

for

system.

spent,

246

Higher

support

water

P/C

electrical

conversion

example,

habitats

quantity),

plants,

found

to

using

needed.

the

common

For

by

combination

sources

are

electroly-

life

a

a

water

and

be

implies

systems.

are

of

undoubtedly

different

the

on

a

produces

oxygen,

consisting

habitat

space

water,

based

sunlight of

a

Ecological

oxygen.

that

closure

the

in

the

a

of

will

a

and

using

of

is

physical

include

is

respiration

hydrogen

on

Controlled which

sybsystem

degree

hybrid

from

of

into

most

a

devel-

accomplished

which

example,

for

subsystems

derived

as

on

limitations.

either

subsystems

for

placed

these

dependent

photosynthesis, high

overcome

subsystem

biological

wherein then

A

be

theoretically

such

oxygen

water

a

by

principle,

decompose

recycled,

or

(CELLS).

provides

be

are

component,

chemical

example

which

should

to

can

principles

System

physical

energy

recycling

biological

Support

emphasis

techniques

subsystems

(P/C)

or

unit

research

system.

solution

Not

only

biological A

requires

unique

support

is

to

or

a

waste

the

streams

required

nutrients

different

outputs

as

an

in

are

output

photosynthetic-based

the

to

rates

specifically could

be

development

recycling

desirable

production

as

food

have

and

in

also

P/C

and

different.

stream,

a

production

or

two

a

a

computer the

defined

on

in

a

a

require-

and

human

life

feed

given

type

life

life

waste

that

streams

system

for

as

streams

Those

support

including

presented,

support

scenarios

bioregenerative

are

the

waste itself,

streams,

habitat.

of

representative

of

a

design

data

nature space

of

functional

Recent

the

model

input

composition.

of

and

nitrogen

well

possible,

characteristic

of

subsystem

encountered

identified, and

but plant

either

treatment

are

input

system. For

it

the

systems,

CELSS

ment

are

are

recycling system

that

wastes

are

described. WASTE

SOURCES In

stream

determining of

a

life

considered: and

3)

WASTES

FROM

sive

study

data

was

weight

end

GENERAL and of

human

human

average

be

applied

least 2)

to

three

rate

of

any

waste

factors stream

must

be

production,

product(s). HUMAN

ACTIVITIES (2)

wastes

in

They feces,

number

at

composition,

the

which

pads

or

results over

mean

volume

solids of

reported

reported

milliliters/person-day), the

to

system,

GAllagher

analyzed. of

treatment

support

l)stream

required

Parker

the

of per

tampons

247

from

25,000 values

human

used

for

the

dry

of and

wet

(2,066

period per

comprehen-

person-days

urine

menstrual

a

period

(i0

grams),

(15.2),

the

average weight of pads (10.65 grams) and tampons (2.60grams) from different

manufacturers,

usage

women

for

for

grams/woman-day). from

reported size

that

must

be

on

the

to

of

urine

and can

elemental

composition

specified

diet

used

amount

for

designing

support of

private

from the

Space The

its

amount

model

program

for

and data

food (3).

food

are

and and

obtained

the

values

and

they

treatment should

empha-

subsystem not

the

inorganic

previous

be

designed

work

derived

constituents (3

and

from

4).

in The

subjects

fed

a

(3). water

the US hand

and

these

Station

shown

in

Table

environmental

and

Space

water

amounts

ECLSS.

contaminant

and

are

also

1

were

The

the

volumes in

being

used

of

concentration of

life

obtained

also

amount

being

and

(5).

are

The

part

is

control

Station

wash

its

preparation

available

Institute processing In

that

was

designing

of and

waste

(3). Technology, preparation this

model 248

The

and

were design

work was

of

derived

load

for

M.

concerning Karel

employed

waste waste,

details

for it

was

for the

a

cabin

ECLSS. of

composition

Massachusetts a

sizing

Space

Station

urine

values

and

feces

flush

(6)

Shuttle

in

urinal

condensate

Space

noted mean

organic

human

shower,

the

(41.1

human

handling

available

communication

humidity

of

of

(ECLSS)

designing

be

extremes

identified

or

laundry,

of

are

waste

urination

paper

values.

also

of

system

dish,

for

is

The

Gallagher

amounts be

and

should

accomodate

mean

amount of toilet

content

It

habitat

designed

type

solids

and

space

basis

movements

(3).

Parker

a

The human

work

by

bowel The

previous

and the total

of

the

designing

US

assumed

CELSS that

Table I.

Waste Feed Stream Production Rates and Solids Content in a Manned Space Habitat containing a Higher Plant Growth

Stream

Chamber

ID

Wet Weight Formation Rate,

Dry Weight Formation Rate,

1b/person-day Toilet

Weight Percent Solids,

ib/person-day

%

Waste

Urine

(2,

Feces

(2)

3)

Wipes Urinal

(2) Water

0.14

4.59 (a) 0.21 0.091

3.1 21.4

0.0452 Unknown

1.09

Unknown

NA

NA

(5) Hygiene Water Dish (6) Shower & Hand

2.6xi0-3

28

1.5

x

10-3

8.26

1.3

x

10-3

3.4xi0-3

(6)

Humidity

Con-

densate

0.0054

(b)

0.016

(6) PreparaWaste (3)

Trash Respired Air (5)

CO2

0.13

0.044

2.2

Unknown

in

NA

Cabin

See

Air

Inedible

34

Unknown

2.2

Contaminated

mass Chaff)

(b) (c)

(6)

Laundry

Food tion

0.022 0.028

12 12

Table

NA

3

(ii) Bio-

14

1.4

10

(Wheat

Transpiration Water (7)

136 •

-

678

See

,

.

Note

(d)

..

Footnotes (a)

The density urine volume

(b)

Detergent detergent). Cleansing

(c) (d)

of urine was to weight.

taken

only;

sodium

dodecyl

agent

only;

Economics

Formulation 6503.54.4 The contaminant load unknown.

(an anionic in transpired

249

as

1.008

benzene Laboratory

g/ml

(4)

sulfonate

to (an

Cleansing

detergent). water from

plants

convert anionic Agent is

the

CELSS

population

hydroponically,

would

and

In

1985,

the

back

to

Earth

aboard

this

analysis

and

volume

trash

This

type

of

term

human

a

long

subsystems.

Table

The

2.

space

results

insight

amount 51D (49

be

of trash person-day

Weight,

(a)

a

needed

are

the

trash

The

objective

brought

50.8

human

space

for

the

and

treatment

shown

in

design

Table

Space

Volume,

3.3

14

1.3

Boiomedical

14

1.0

10.5

0.3

Food

&

Garbage

7

2.2

3.5

0.3

2.8

0.5

Miscellaneous

5.8

O.8

Total

108

9.9

Plastic

Grey

Bags

or

Cans,

Duct

Tape

Aluminum

$

Bimetallic

Footnotes (a)

Includes

(b)

After

27 cleaning

ibs

of and

uneaten

food

stacking. 250

and

beverages.

ft3

(b)

Paper

Leftover

of

amount,

derived from flight)

ibs

grown

CELSS.

composition,

handling

analysis

be

of

representative

waste

this

would

part

51D. the

will

mission

be

analyzed

a

Constituent

Containers

not

into

during

from

plants

Flight

information

Composition and Suhuttle Flight

Trash

Food

gain

of

would

Shuttle

produced

mission.

that

laboratory

Space to

small,

animals

NASA-Ames

was of

that

be

2.

AIR

CONTAMINANTS

Contaminated that

must

be

Wastes

in

ration

and

inant

by

an

adult

model

(including

design

designing

the

Space

sentative

volatile

compounds

one

space

contaminants

can

expect

information

to

also

(SMAC)

An

in

a

includes

for

type

and

carbon

1

(5).

the

contam-

load

model removal

list

of

broad

repre-

spectrum

habitat

is

space

maximum

allowable

exposure

to

a

A

concentra-

contaminant

the

and

closed

the

continuous

of

The

illustrating find

Table

extensive

perspi-

of

in

habitat.

(ii).

habitat.

people

sizing

Station

space

amount

shown

and

stream

from

from

contaminant

the

developed

is

a

waste

dioxide

average

day

a

been

of

carbon

The

for

has

another

contaminants

subsystem

subsystem

concentrations

and

each

for

is

environment

water

particles.

airborne

for

Specific

include

prerequisite

used

closed

and

control

being

the

quarters

volatile

load a

crew

respiration,

contaminant is

in

air

produced

tion)

from

treated

cabin

equipment, dioxide

air

of

described.

given

contam-

inant. The which in

estimated

are

Table sizing

the

rate

Space

expected

to

(ii).

These

of

contaminant

3

and

concentration

of

the

would

obtain

the

it be

total

was

found

size

aboard

the

estimates

generatioon

Station,

ticles

be

and

of assumed

derived

generation

from

are

control airborne

of

Space

being

particles about

90

humans

and

their

251

of

particles

particles

Station

used

subsystem.

that

rate

airborne

for In

are the

aboard of

activities.

or

dust

design

estimating

expected percent

given

the

parTo

expected

the

aboard

the

plied

by

Space the

generation of

the

Table

Station,

crew

by

the

size

and

sourcess

numbers

the

other

factor than

in

Table

3

i.i

to

account

people

must

(assumed

be

multi-

for to

particle

be

10

percent

total).

3.

Estimation tion

Particle

of

Rate

Size,

by

Space

Station

Humans

Particle

or

Dust

Genera-

(ii)

(microns)

Particle

Generation,

(parti-

cles/hr/person

0.3

-

0.5

81,341,426

-

1

34,570,164

1

-

2

4,270,366

2

-

5

1,565,870

0.5

5

-

Above

WASTES

FROM In

tion

10

40,626

PRODUCTION

estimating

subsystem

the

(Table in

amount

kilograms

(5),

a

dry

food

b)

wheat

the

dry

mass

of harvest

the

of

must

of

necessarily

of

that the

not

optimistic

i)

ACTIVITIES

amount

CELSS,

but

weight

211,548

PLANT

water

average

10

inedible

be

mature index

can

inedible

portion

by meet

each

50

plant

a

is

percent), of

252

the

a

wheat

and

transpira-

waste

treatment

were adult

c)

only

90

plant

50

is

is

the

0.617

caloric percent

(i.e., percent

a)

day

daily

inedible d)

made:

per

person's

requirement,

wheat of

by

assumptions

required

nutritional a

handled

following

alone

biomass

of

an of

comprised

the

wet of

water,

and

amount

of

plant

e)

depending

transpired

(edible

must

plus

may

be

come

Currently, ration

water

considered WASTES

as FROM

a

be

weight

(7).

water

contain

may

before or and

being

considered

which

waste

the

water.

will

gram

These

compounds chamber.

contaminants

in

this

require

of

compounds

growth

therefore

the

per

organic

plant

of

that

transpi-

stream

some

must

be

processing.

SYSTEMS conducted

varying The

here.

in

types

a

and

broad

experiments

derived

in

and

stream

treatment. from

the

concentration

being of

recycling

defined

grams

volatile

materials

EXPERIMENTAL

and

derived

dry

waste

waste

handling

inedible)

poorly

Experiments contribute

50-250

type

are

concentration,

from

plants

the

dioxide

ranges

removed

from

carbon

water

Transpiration that

upon

from

habitat

amounts

a

potential

of

this study

will

that

spectrum

precludes However,

space

will

flight

require

wastes

source has

also

of

been

that waste

from

conducted

experiments

is

might

in defined

(8). WASTE

PROCESSING Given

in

Table

methods wastes. cal

the

qualitative balance

and

i,

there

are

that

one

might

These

processes.

remains

quality

to

methods The

be

a

number consider include

optimum

determined.

considerations calculations,

quantity of

of

for

However,

a

opposed studies,

i.

253

and

biological of

treating

etc.)

technologies

based

is

these

phyical/chemi-

processing

detailed

presented

processing

and

scenario to

streams

waste

handling

combination

tradeoff

waste

different

both

(as

the

on mass

shown

and in

energy Figure

Water Flow Gas Flow Potable

.....

w..r,.... ----, i ,

lodlnatlon

',

pw.o*l_***m*

I

'

'

I

Charcoal

,' Adsorption

_; ,.r

Crew Person ; "-'_

""T" .....1""

02

I

I

:

Hygiene & Tollat Water

lcT

t

Condensation

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Processor

,

i

,

Iw..I

P

! I

_.':---T---:-, '

Water Compartment

Toilet

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t

Waste & Hygiene

I inediblei

Imomm[

_._. ........ J,., Water

! : .

Transpiration Aerial Zone

:_------i I

1_'|_

J Nutrient Solution I_

_

.....

CO2.-.- _

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0 2---I_, ,

Solid &

'.::::::;::::::.:

I I ....

I

,

Salt Removal

I i- _ ,oo,_o°. r--_, /_Plant (Food)

[_, F

I

Production_Unit/

Particulate I Microbial Filtering Organics Removal

r .............................

;0

_ Sludge

Cabin Condensate

Fig.

1. Representative

Water

254

Pathways

',

Liquid Waata Processing

in a CELSS.

:

GENERAL

WATER

AND

Figure CELSS. in

The

order

in

pally

from

throughput

basis

(actual

be

noted in

the

Table

I

chamber.

gas

transpiration dry

is

and

rate

or of

each

of

the

dependent

a

of

the

solid princi-

on

upon

in treated

(derived

compartments

range is

for

a

the

per

rate

determined

by of

day

of

the

dioxide

(up

to

produced);

environmental dioxide

production

pressure.

openings

in

the

open,

and

grams

water

transpired

reverse

is

in

is

occur, 250

the

the

partial

stomates,

exchange

water

carbon

water

carbon

low,

high

transpiration

concentration

the

water

is

biomass

sizes

volumes

Transpiration to

CO 2 pressure which

of

the

the

proportional

through

that

predominantly

inversely

processed

standards

water are

scenario

considerations).

forth

growth

be

different

major

sizes

pathway

may

proportional the

storage

set

plant

gram

of

water

quality The

reflect i)

a

water

required

Table

conditions,

When

1

should

production

the

how

compartments.

and

It

SCENARIO

depicts

shows

attain

Figure

person

the

graphicallly

water

boxes

PROCESSING

scenario

to

depicted

per

1

GAS

true

leaves

the

for

per

high

CO 2

varying

the

concentrations. The

ability

CO 2

concentration

For

example,

enough

under

water

of

is

water

merely

change

can

is

transpiration water

to

provided decreasing

by

an

optional

provided

rate needed

be

the

is

to the

to

CO 2

meet

crew

the

crew

factor

be

in

conditions,

emergency

transpiration

concentration

by

requirements

an

could

255

rate

control

growth

Should

crew,

the

important plant

low.

the

transpiration

quickly in

the

more even

occur rate

a

than though

whereby and

the

increased, plant

CELSS.

growth

the more

amount by

chamber. It

is

from

a

this

waste

control

expected

phase

change stream

to

be

high

solution.

to

only

quality

This

cycle

make-up

water

of

from

illustrated

also

in

being

derived Therefore,

and

drinking

bacterial

and

condensed

lost

been

clean.

filtering

for

the

having

relatively

minimal

water

as

be

water

most

replenish

water,

will

need

However,

used

solution

transpiration

process, may

yield

applications. will

that

other

transpiration the

plant

Figure

introduced

1

water

nutrient

shows

from

nutrient

other

proces-

sors. The system, be

condensate having

quite

contain growth the

passed

clean a

treated

The

microbes

as

and

detritus

and

useable

filtrate

with

nutrient well

Toilet

breakdown.

sludge water

streams

have

contain

potentially

will

require

organic

more

be

water

be

containing high harmful rigorous

meet

and

contain

compounds

can

an

contaminants

treated feces

in and

solids microbes. treatment.

256

the

be

nutrient

the

solid

the

inedible

Therefore, High

combined

and

solu-

number root

of

metabolism

filtered

out

solution. waste

The

processor.

biomass and these

temperature

of

and

nutrient

by

concentrations

amount

hygiene

unknown

can

may

the

be

spent

to

microbial

the

produced

to

expected

Although to

control

condensate from

recovered

returned

would

relatively

a

enough

will

also

humidity derived

water

These

can

is

exchanger.

not

the

environmental

change,

microbes

solution as

cabin

However,

heat

is

the

phase

transpiration

salts or

or

requirement,

along

tion.

i).

collected

water

a

of

condenser

condensate

toilet

Table

population

the

from

through

(see

high

on

collected

also

waste may

streams and

pressure processes, such as wet oxidation oxidation

may be used to treat

to assist

in closing

unit.

waste processor

inedible

these more concentrated

(see Figure i)

amount inherent

includes

the yield

water treatment,

not necessarily

potable,

metals (derived

from corrosion)

and

from

and also

in some of the items listed

Table 2, as well as from the root zone filtrate.

plants

streams and

The water produced by the solid

biomass, hygiene and toilet

from a certain

water

the water cycle between the crew person and

the plant production liquid

or supercritical

but after

salts

This water is

and potentially

are removed, it

growing from the nutrient

solution

in

toxic

is benign to the

to which it

is returned.

Gas exchange between the plant growth chamber and other parts of a CELSSis also

an

oxygen

photosynthesis

produced

be

used

by

the

for

oxidation

crew.

oxidation

potable

RECYCLE

THROUGH

2

organic

nitrogen

(NO3-)

which As

this A

are

mentioned

a for

for is

recycling.

the

plant

processor

produced for

more

specific

recycling

species

desired

previously,

waste

257

biomass, the

crew

scenario.

PROCESSING

SYSTEM

waste

nitrogen

plants

waste

drinks

described

ammonia by

and

growth.

recycling and

metabolism. into

may

respiration

crew

Consequently,

WASTE

example, chamber

for

both

their

HYBRID

converted

and

by

generally

plant

For growth

edible

waste.

in

methods

desirable

waste

plants

illustrates

includes

of

in

CO 2

produces loop

forms

the

part

water-containing

support

Figure

into

by

and

the the

consumes

water,

NITROGEN

which

needed

crew

life

in

Likewise,

is

The

the

by

important

In (NH3) for

processing,

closes

scenario

converting

this

it

scenario,

and their applied

nitrate

ions

nutrition. to

closing

,""Plant Growth

Transpiration Water

I

,'

,---..................,

-:

,v,

Unit

-'

Human

Habitation

"'0'."'ooas.I

I

'! ,!

'I :

w,,.r

Urine and Wash

Processing Waste

a Ultraviolet Disinfection

,

Water

Inedible Blomass (Org-N)| : Grinder/Pulverizer ................. • ................

,_

Unit

;

[ Spant Nutrlem ] Solution

r..o.J.o......

,

: J

..... : Compression : Distillation

(Org-N) _Concentrate ....... _ .............. ,

(NO 3 and Org-N) SolldWaste(Or_l-N)

--_

: : NH3

Pre )rocessina

Liquid Waste (NH3):, Minimize Soluble Carbon • Maximize Soluble Nitrogen | ,1. Slurry ! ,2. Leach NH3-N w.e.o..e.

Wet Oxidation

'

Liquid (NH3)

, Solids v, ! Separation

, :

Recycle Sludge

Regeneratedl I

ca_....... fQ: I

,| Activated L, ,_...e....| Carbon ,"

2.

I

_'_ Oxidation

C=on //

Fig.

', 3. Separate Solids

I

........I-f-, •

.: eioioglcal

Waste

Stream Flow

Waste Sludge (Org-N)

Compartment

Nutrient Solution (NO3) r

Processor

[--] .m.e

Processing

in a CELSS:

258

Nitrogen

' I

Recovery.

'

|

a

life

support

system,

Physical/chemical liquids a

as

methods

well

significant

nitrogen

as

is

of

require

produce

either

either

handle

solid

activated

schematic The

applicable

to

both

and

N20

or

is

of

scheme

adsorption, the

proposed

is

simplified

(NH4

product

With

the

above

an

+)

as

can not and

waste system

includes oxida-

disinfection.

presented the

source

do

biological

is

show

a

a

requirements

ultraviolet

system

for

but

hybrid

oxidation,

to

of The

integrated

The

and

suffer

systems

end

wet

form

plants

processing

below.

distillation,

a

growing ions

of

but

plants.

final

scenario

handling

characteristically

ammonium

a

discussed

higher

) while

waste

as

a

by

methods.

materials, produce

methods

efficiently. mind,

to

directly

{N 2

solid

inability

ions

diagram

of

processing

carbon

treatment

directly

or

system

tion,

are

biological

in

compression

basic

nitrate

wastes

vapor

three

Aerobic

characteristics processing

by

the

gases

nutrition.

achieved

quantities

waste

nitrogen

be

reuseable

physical/chemical

CELSS

large

limitation;

which

produce

can

in

flow

of

A

Figure

2.

nitrogen

only. The by

the

plant

waste

to

the

and

scenario

growth unit

and

overall large first

particle

represents amount

be

ground

size.

of

low a

in

and Final

is

organic

nitrogen

processing

could

from

the

reduce be

of

solid

handled

content

nitrogen

inedible the

the

spent

(Org-N)

mass The

to

generated

principally

high

pulverized

259

and

biomass

generated.

wastes Wastes

biomass

potentialy

material

of

units.

inedible

inedible

etc.)

processing

habitation

the

The

chaff,

assumes

human

include

solution. (wheat

but

would

plant growth

nutrient

(3)

treatment

biomass

total by

volume wet

due

oxidation of

operated

1500

psig

to

at

of

ammonia

solution

is

primarily

exuded

by

to

preprocessing

the

maximize

at

the

and

an

The

solid

and

food

the

solid

liquid be

and

and

The

Liquid

hygiene

to

water. technology

of

that

efficiency

and

disinfection of

the

other will final

salts

pH

product.

and

can

be

disintegra-

include

feces

preprocessing

of

separated

convert

the

would

distillation

and

and

insure

water

maximize

post-treatment improve

by the potable

be

distillation be

will

be

hygiene

post-treatment potable

urine

(VCD).

could

compression

to

include

streams

drinking

could

Org-N

unit

distillation as

into

Org-N

and

260

sent

slurry

leaching

containing

waste

vapor

Additional

be

wastes

unit

habitation

unit

significantly

residues

to

solids

compression

adjustment

while

nutrient

solid

After

to

compression

pre-

maximize

would

physically

two

habitation

pressure

organic

Nitrogen

portion

human

vapor

vapor

by

be

These

and

agent

the

waste.

state-of-the-art

treatment

wetting

habitation

solid

the

and

physical

oxidation

by

human

Pretreatment

NH3-N

wet

from

processing

human

would

The

a

process.

processing

water.

requires

optimize

the

and

spent

solution

from

of

slurry

by

wash

Current

NH3-N

combination

streams.

the

a

unit.

or the

product

returned

(i0).

or

as

C

gas

The

nutrient

act

N 2

salts,

habitation

from

wastes

for

final

and

wastes

solid

(9).

fermentation-like

processed

combined

Org-N

anaerobic

wastes,

further

to

a

preparation

NH3-N.

ity

through

spent

300

as

inorganic

stage

human

than

nitrogen

(NH3-N)

The

of

less

of

water,

plants.

accomplished tion

loss

nitrogen

leaching

generated

temperature

minimize

recovery

the

a

implemented quality

separation

ultraviolet

of (UV)

bacteriological water

to

could

qualbe

supplied

by

process

water

occurring

vapor

compression

stage

to

The

be

liquid

in

highly

or

filter,

etc.)

the

NH3-N

to

convert

oxidation

of

carbon

by being

carbon

system

growth

of

viruses

well

and

activated

separation

transferred would

bacteria

remove while

including

oxidation

system

activated

carbon.

to

would

plant

plant be

used

CONCLUSION

261

CO 2

and

to

plant

and

UV

would

regenerate

growth

wet

incomplete during

require

additional

disinfection

unit. which

the

necessary

cells

will

water

from

by

the

occur,

Following

other

pathogens. to

would

the

microbial

carbon

trickling

processed

growth

disinfection

potential also

be

effluent

residual UV

and

will

biologi-

effluent

to

the

(activated

to

liquid

adsorption the

by

(NO3-N).

Due of

liquid

carbon

carbon

as

which

oxidation

nitrogen

NH3-N.

of

growth

returned

could

well

contactor,

the

be

leachate.

processed

nitrogen

as

to

the

be

organic

solids

Org-N

processing,

before

and

as

as

nitrogen

nitrate

would

microbial

oxidation

the

stage both

from

preprocessing

liquid

step,

solids,

unit

water,

The

polishing

of

the

NH3-N

suspended

and

concentrate

to

biological

Carbon

to

sent

could

as

(rotating

microbial

supply

biological

NH3-N, such

the

oxidation

nutrients.

oxidation

Org-N

biological to

wet

and

The

concentrated

the

majority

of

be

preprocessing

systems. the

unit.

the

film

separation

unit

growth

the

oxidation

transforming

evqaporation/transpiration

would

concentrated

fixed

the

from

from

(microbial)

and

with

leachate

sludge)

plant

distillation

effluent

contain

from

the

combined

liquid

cal

condensed

The can

destroy

activated

stimulate bacteria

The

wet

the

spent

the

in

a

The

production

life

support

grown

for 1

have

and

to

etc.,

emphases

on

2),

and

waste

treatment

of

well

as

in

a

demonstrate a

life

as

reflect

differing

life

formation

required

and from

system.

magnitude

system

rates

products

support

the

are

scenarios

tradeoff

the

support

plants

balances,

stream

indicate

needed

also

developing

waste

which

found

considerations

they

the

streams

recycling

qualitative energy

waste (in

Two

and

to

of

habitat

presented;

are

here

space

from mass

as

content

discussed.

been

that

presented to

a

responses

composition,

challenge

for

derived

have

their

data

solid

been

quantitative

studies,

and

system

food)

(Figures opposed

rate

of

with

a

The

the high

degree

Space,"

A

closure.

REFERENCES i.

S.K.

Ride,

Report 2.

D.B.

"Leadership

to

the

Parker

Samples

in

Conference Century,

NASA

and

and

S.K.

Lunar No.

to

Future (August

Gallagher,

Relation

on Paper

America's

Administrator,

in 1987).

"Distribution

Sizing

Waste

Bases and LBS-88-107.

of

Processing

Human

in

Space Activities Houston, TX,

Waste

Space,"

in the 21st (April 5-7,

1988). 3.

T. Wydeven, CELSS," NASA

4.

D. Putnam, "Composition Urine," NASA Contract tract

5.

with

F.H.

"Composition Technical

Schubert,

6.

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and

12,

pp.279-288

R.A.

Douglas Wynveen,

Environmental

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used

Science,

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(June

Quattrone,

and

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Res.,

Vol.

Umpqua given

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Vol.

Space

46,

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Phase

pp.

145-151

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7.

and Concentrative NASI-8954, Langley

McDonnell

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and Analysis of Memorandum 84368,

Myrtle as

8

o

"PMMS

Water

Management

Laboratory," Astronautics •

C.C. Model ciety (July

I0.

177422, Ii.

Space

for Number St.

the

Space

MDC E3224, Louis, MO,

Johnson and T. Wydeven, "Wet Waste," SAE Technical Paper Conference on Environmental

Station

United

McDonnell (1987).

Oxidation Series, Systems,

States

Douglas

of a Spacecraft Fifteenth IntersoSan Francisco, CA

1985).

T. Salvin, Ecological Waste

Report Company,

F, Liening, Life Support

Management Boeing Station

Systems Aerospace Trace

36__.

Marshall

Missles

and

Space

M. Oleson, Systems

Evaluation," Company,

Contaminant

Space Co.,

and R.L. (CELSS):

Flight Sunnyvale,

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Olson, "Controlled Physiochemical

NASA

Contractor

Seattle, Control,

Center CA

WA NASA

Contract (1988).

Report

(June

1986).

Contract with

NAS8-

Lockheed