Non traditional rearing of temperate tasar silkworm ...

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region) using Terminate catappa as host plant was carried out. .... Terminalia catappa leaves contained the nutrients which fulfilled the requirements b.

Recent Trends in Biodiversity and Biotechnology, 2007

Non traditional rearing of temperate tasar silkworm Antheraea proylei J (lepidoptera: saturnidae) Kumbhar V.J., Chougule A. K.* and

Bhawane G. P.

* Department of Zoology, Rajaram College Kolhapur. Department of Zoology, Shivaji University Kolhapur.

ABSTRACT The indoor study on rearing of temperate tasar silkworm, A, proy/e/(\n tropical region) using Terminate catappa as host plant was carried out. The economic characters of cocoons were studied. Results were compared with available data about traditional rearing of temperate tasar silkworm, A. proylel. The results showed thatthere was 5.887o, 6.6%, 9.71%, 13.26%, and 11.04 increase in the larval size, larval weight, cocoon weight, shell weight and shell ratio percentage respectively as compared to traditional rearing of A. proylei. However, there was no change in larval period.

INTRODUCTION The information is available on effects of host plants and different agro climatic conditions on growth and economic characters of mulberry silkworm (Narayan et al 1966 Krishnaswami et al 1970 a & b; Shyamala et al 1991; Srivastava et al 1994) and tropical tasar silkworm (Prasad et al 2004). However, such information is limited for temperate tasar silkworm, A. proylei A. proylei xx\d\v\y feeds on Quercus Linn (Oak) and Q. incana, Q. serrata, Q. delabata, Q. himalayana and Q. semiserrata and are used as traditional rearing food. However, traditional out door rearing of tropical tasar accounts 50 to 55% loss due to unfavourable climatic conditions and attack of pests and predators that causes 357o to 40% loss (Jolly et al 1987). During the course of exploration, cocoons of A. mylitta were found on T. cstappa plants. The tasar silkworm is the member of genus Antheraea and is found in both tropical and temperate regions. Antheraea mylltta D is the tropical species and 588

ft

Recent Trends in Biodiversity and Biotechnology, 2007

Antheraea proy/e/3 is the temperate species of it reared in North Eastern States of India. The temperate species is the hybrid of A. roy/ei and A. pereny/ and their larvae are mainly feed on oak leaves and is commonly called oak tasar. It has a wide ^ /

range of host plants belong to genus Quercus (oak) with distinct chemical constituents (Sinha and Jolly 1971; Sinha et al 1986). It is adapted to feed exclusively on young foliage during early stages of development and on old foliage at later stages (Pandey et al 1989). Due to favorable climatic conditions and availability of primary food plants it is predominantly reared out door in North Eastern States of India on commercial scale (Jolly et.al 1987). The host plants and different agro climatic conditions affect the growth and economic characters of mulberry silkworm (Narayan et.al^ 1966; Krishnaswami et al 1970a and b; Shyamala et all978), muga silkworm (Barah and Sengupta 1991, Shrivastava et al 1994) and tropical tasar silkworm (Prasad et al, 2004). However, such information is not available for temperate tasar silkworm, A. proylei). T. tomentosa, Shorea rcbusta and T. arjuna are considered as the primary food plants because both economic characters and reproduction are well expressed after rearing on these food plants (Prasad et al 2004). Successful indoor rearing of tropical tasar in the laboratory was carried out in Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (Maharashtra, India). The response of temperate tasar silkworm, A. proylei \Nas studied using leaves of Terminal/a catappa under tropical conditions of Kolhapur. Tropical tasar is polyphagous and can surivive on many host plants (over 36) and other yet to be identified (Prasad et al 2004). MATERIAL A N D M E T H O D S During the present study indoor rearing of temperate tasar silkworm Antheraea proylei v^as carried out under tropica! conditions at Kolhapur. Kolhapur is located 390 to 900 meter at sea level. Temperature of Kolhapur ranges between 22.6^^0 to 41.66°C during summer, 23.3°C to 31.5°C during rainy season and 14.44°C to 27.6°C during winter and relative humidity ranges between 50 to 65%, 92 to 957o and 80 to 85% during respective seasons. The seed cocoons of temperate tasar were obtained from Thobaul District, 589

Recent Trends in Biodiversity and Biotechnology, 2007

Recent Trends in Biodiversity and Biotechnology, 2007

Manipur State (India) and were reared at 26°C to 28°C temperature and relative humidity 75 to 807o. The moths emerged from these cocoons were allowed to mate and fertilized eggs were collected. For this standard grainage practice of Jolly et al (1979) was followed. The eggs were incubated at 26°C ± I^C and 75 to 80%

i

relative humidity and larvae hatched from them were allowed to grow under laboratory condition Golly et al 1987). They were provided with leaves of Terminalia catappa - fresh tender leaves were provided to early instars and to late instars old fresh leaves were provided. During the course of larval rearing observations were made on larval behavior, larval period cocooning. The economic characters of cocoons were also recorded. The results obtained were compared with the results of the same species reared in temperate regions by using its primary food plant Quercus species Oolly et a l l 987). RESULTS A N D DISCUSSION Initial efforts on the nontraditional indoor rearing of temperate tasar Antherea proy/e/under tropical laboratory conditions were proved to be successful. All five rearings were carried out with 70% survival of larvae. Interesting fact is that the larvae of temperate tasar were fed on the leaves of new host plant,

Terminalia

catappa. The new food plant was accepted by the larvae and the growth pattern was also normal. The data on total larval duration, effective rate of rearing, average length and weight of larvae as shown in the Plate 1 and Table 1. The economic characters of the cocoons obtained in this nontraditional indoor rearing of A, proy/eion (unusual food plant L catappa) showed little improvement over the economic characters of cocoons of traditional rearing of the same species (Jolly

et.al

1970).

This

indicated

that

Terminalia catappa leaves contained the nutrients which fulfilled the requirements b

of temperate tasar. The species of silkworms including tasar are continuous and voracious feeders. The quality and quantity of food plants leaves influence the growth and development as well as other characters including development. A food plant is considered to be suitable when it fulfills all the nutritional requirement leading to the normal growth, development and reproduction in insects. The importance of food plant suitability is related to the physiological potential, the insect life history performance and fitness relative to the environment (Prasad et al 2004) .The wild nature of temperate tasar silkworm Antheraea proy/e/ has a wide scope for survival in nature, as its usual food plants are distinct, Quercus that have definite nutritional value to support the silkworm. New food plant T. catappa shov^ed little improvement in all the larval and economic characters of cocoons.

REFERENCES Barah A and Sengupta AK (1991) Correlation and regression studies between pupal weight and fecundity of muga silkworm Antheraea assama Westwood (Lepidoptera: Sturnidae) on four different food plants. Acta physiologica Hungarica, 78 (3):261264 Jolly M S, Sen S K, Sonwalkar, T N and Prasad CA'(1979). Manual on Sericulture, FAO agriculture sevlces bulletin Jolly MS, Sen 5K, Sonwalkar TN& Prasad JK(1979) Vol. IV, FAO Agricultural services Bulletin^ Rome 592

Recent Trends in Biodiversity and Biotechnology, 2007

Jolly et al., (1987) Manual on Sericulture, MO agriculture sevices bulletin Krishnaswami S, Noamani MKR and Ahsan M (1970) Studies on the quality of mulberry leaves and silkworm cocoon crop production, part I. Quality differences due to varieties. Indian J.Seric. 9 (1) : 1-10 Narayana ES, Kasiviswanathan K and Sitsrama Iyengar MN (1966) Effects of varietal feeding, irrigation levels and nitrogen fertilization on the development and cocoon characters of Bombyx mori L Indian J. Seric 1 (1): 1-5 Pandey RK, Rath PC and Goel RK (1989) Oak tasar silkworm rearing in India. Indian silLlQ

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Pandey RK and Goel RK (1991) Constituent of the young and leaves of primary host plants of oak tasar silkworm Atheraea proylie. J. Indian J. Seri, (1991), 30 (1); 70-71 Prasad BC, Rath SS, Nagendra BRRP (2004) Cashew: Another food plant for tropical tasar silkworm, Indian Silk May, 2004; 1 7 - 1 8 Shrivastav AK, Sinha AK, Singh BMK, Sinha BRRP and sinha SS(1994) Efficiency of rearing on different host plants in three non-mulberry silkworms int. J. Wild Silkmoth and Silk, l(2):241-244 Sinha SS (1994) Efficiency of rearing on different host plants in three non-mulberry Silkworms. Int. 3. Wild Silkmoth and Silk. l(2):241-244 Shyamala MB, Viseswara Gowda BL and Vincent Monteiro P (1978) Nutritive value of local M3 (K^) varietes of Mulberry. All Indian Symposium on Seric. Sci. UAS, Bangalore (Abstract): p. 54 Sinha AK and Jolly MS (1971) Foliar constituents of the food plants of tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta D. Indian forester,.95 (5): 261-263 Sinha AK, Chaudhary SK, Brahamachary BM& Sengupta K(1986) Foliar constituents of the food plants of temperate tasar silk worm Antheraea proylei ]. Indian J. Seri.,25(l):42-43

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