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NUTRIENT BUDGETING UNDER COCONUTBASED PATCHOULI FARMING SYSTEM ON HAPLUDALF a

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Y. Y. Kikon , A. K. Singh & V. B. Singh

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Department of Horticulture, School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development, Nagaland University, Medziphema, India Version of record first published: 11 May 2012.

To cite this article: Y. Y. Kikon , A. K. Singh & V. B. Singh (2012): NUTRIENT BUDGETING UNDER COCONUT-BASED PATCHOULI FARMING SYSTEM ON HAPLUDALF, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 35:7, 975-989 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2012.671402

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Journal of Plant Nutrition, 35:975–989, 2012 C Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Copyright  ISSN: 0190-4167 print / 1532-4087 online DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2012.671402

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NUTRIENT BUDGETING UNDER COCONUT-BASED PATCHOULI FARMING SYSTEM ON HAPLUDALF

Y. Y. Kikon, A. K. Singh, and V. B. Singh Department of Horticulture, School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development, Nagaland University, Medziphema, India

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Coconut-based farming systems are the tradition of tropical and subtropical regions. But, using patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco)] as an intercrop under coconut is of comparatively recent adoption and no information is absolutely available on the possibility of improving the quality of patchouli through better nutrient supply. A field experiment was, therefore, carried out using different sources of organic manures (M0 –control, M1 –FYM farmyard manure 20 tonnes ha −1, M2 –pig manure 10 tonnes ha −1 and M3 –vermicompost 5 tonnes ha −1) versus inorganic fertilizers (No –control, N1 - 60 kg ha −1, N2 –80 kg ha −1, and N3 –100 kg ha −1) within the interspaces of the coconut plantation on soil taxonomically classified as Orchic Hapludalf under humid tropics of northeast India. Application of treatment M3 alone produced maximum biomass of leaves (11.24 tonnes ha −1) followed by M2 (10.82 tonnes ha −1), and M1 (9.54 tonnes ha −1), all of which were significantly (P < 0.05) superior over M0 (7.54 tonnes ha −1). Among the various levels of nitrogen (N), maximum biomass yield of leaves was observed with N3 (11.63 tonnes ha −1) ≥ N2 (11.64 tonnes ha −1), followed by N1 (8.96 tonnes ha −1) with the highest yield (19.97 tonnes ha −1) registered through the combination of M3 N3 . Treatment combination M3 N3 in turn maintained higher fungal (118 × 10 2 vs. 31 × 10 2 with M0 N0 c.f.u.g −1 soil) and bacterial populations (48 × 10 5 vs. 31 × 10 3 with M0 N0 c.f.u.g −1 soil) for better nutrient acquisition through improvements in the concentration of soil available nutrients. These responses consequently improved the oil concentration in leaves (3.65% with M3 N3 vs. 2.40% with M0 N0 ) and alcohol (49.90% with M3 N3 vs. 44.52% in M0 N0 ) as quality indices. This research verified that the quality of patchouli leaves as an intercrop was raised, besides improving coconut yield (40 –55 nuts palm −1) as main crop, when utilizing combined treatments of vermicompost enriched with inorganic N under coconut-patchouli farming systems. Keywords: yield

nitrogen, oil and alcohol content, organic manures, patchouli, soil fertility,

Received 1 March 2009; accepted 13 September 2011. Address correspondence to A. K. Singh, Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Nagaland University, Medziphema 797 106, Nagaland, India. E-mail: aksingh [email protected]

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INTRODUCTION Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco)] is an aromatic plant known for its utility in the perfume industry. Indonesia (Sumatra Island) alone accounts for more than 80% of total production (1000 tonnes year−1), and the bulk of the remaining quantity comes from China (Robbins, 1982). Currently, India is producing a very meager quantity of patchouli oil, and annually importing about 20 tonnes of pure patchouli oil and 100 tonnes of formulated oils. Coconut-based farming systems are one of the oldest agricultural practices adopted across tropical and subtropical regions with predominantly Alfisols, Ultisols, and Oxisols rich in 2:1 non-expanding type of Kaolinitic minerals having poor soil fertility (Chew, 1982; Magat, 1992). Historically, patchouli was initially introduced into commercial cultivation as companion crop under forest plantations (Adiwigandha et al., 1973). Raising patchouli as an intercrop in plantation crops like coconut on predominantly Alfisols and Ultisols proved quite remunerative (Lalramathara et al., 2003; Jessykutty, 2005). But, biomass production and consequently the oil yield remained sufficiently low, questioning the suitability of patchouli as an intercrop. Like any other crop, multiple nutritional constraints on such soil types were the prime reason for sub-optimum oil production due to excessive leaf reddening and defoliation (Randhawa et al., 1984; Rao and Kumar, 1989; Saha et al., 1992). Restoring soil fertility with inorganic fertilizers and maintaining soil productivity has been thought successful but continued decline in soil fertility especially on Alfisols/Ultisols in the tropical/subtropical region poses a perennial problem of sustaining the production (Lal, 1993). Organic manures and inorganic fertilizers are the two major sources of plant nutrients, if used conjointy, that promises to improve the biomass of green leaves and oil yield in addition to improving the rhizosphere of both intercrop as well as main crop physiochemically and microbiologically. The information on nutrient influx and outflux is absolutely missing with reference to coconut-based patchouli farming. The outcome of such studies could be later fitted into developing a sustainable integrated nutrient management (INM) module. In this background information, studies were conducted to evaluate different types of organic manures and levels inorganic fertilizer treatments in patchouli as an intercrop in a nine-year-old coconut plantation on yield, nutrient budgeting, changes in soil fertility and microbiological properties, quality of intercrop, and cost to benefit ratio under humid tropical climate of northeast India. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental Setup A field experiment was conducted at Government Nursery Farm (25◦ 24 43 N latitude; 93◦ 53 04 E longitude), Department of Horticulture, 

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Government of Nagaland at 4th mile Dimapur, Nagaland during two seasons of the year 2005 –2006 and 2006 –2007. The site climatically belonged to sub-tropical type, predominantly humid, moderate to warm temperature (22 –35◦ C summer and 21 –25◦ C winter) and an average rainfall of 2000 –2500 mm received for about six months during April to October. Experimental soil was deep sandy loam, well drained with mild undulating topography having pH 5.4, organic carbon 25.0 mg kg−1, available nitrogen (N) 142.1 kg ha−1, available phosphorus (P) 14.3 kg ha−1, and available potassium (K) 112.3 kg ha−1. The soil was taxonomically classified as Ochric Hapludalf. A total of four sources of organic manure, viz. M0 (control), M1 (FYM, farmyard manure –20 tonnes ha−1), M2 —pig manure (10 tonnes ha−1), M3 —vermicompost (5 tonnes ha−1) and four levels of nitrogen viz., N0 (control), N1 (60 kg ha−1), N2 (80 kg ha−1) and N3 (100 kg ha−1) thus making 16 treatments as M0 N0 –M0 (no manure) + N0 (0 kg N ha−1), M0 N1 –M0 (no manure) + N1 (60 kg N ha−1), M0 N2 –M0 (no manure) + N2 (80 kg N ha−1), M0 N3 –M0 (no manure) + N3 (100 kg N ha−1), M1 N0 –M1 (farmyard manure at 20 tonnes ha−1) + N0 (0 kg N ha−1), M1 N1 –M1 (farmyard manure) + N1 (60 kg N ha−1), M1 N2 –M1 (farmyard manure) + N2 (80 kg N ha−1), M1 N3 –M1 (farmyard manure) + N3 (100 kg N ha−1), M2 N0 –M2 (pig manure at 10 tonnes ha−1) + N0 (0 kg N ha−1), M2 N1 –M2 (pig manure) + N1 (60 kg N ha−1), M2 N2 –M2 (pig manure) + N2 (80 kg N ha−1), M2 N3 –M2 (pig manure) + N3 (100 kg N ha−1), M3 N0 –M3 (vermicompost at 5 tonnes ha−1) + N0 (0 kg N ha−1), M3 N1 –M3 (vermicompost) + N1 (60 kg N ha−1), M3 N2 –M3 (vermicompost) + N2 (80 kg N ha−1), and M3 N3 –M3 (vermicompost) + N3 (100 kg N ha−1) were tested in a factorial randomized block design. Each treatment had a plot size of 2.15 × 3.0 m with a plot-to-plot and block-to-block spacing of 30 cm and 75 cm, respectively. Full dose of organic manure was applied three weeks before planting along with nitrogen at was applied in respective plot and mixed with the soil one day before planting and remaining nitrogen was applied in four splits doses after each cutting of the leaves. A common basal dose of phosphorus and potash each at the rate of 50 kg ha−1 was given to every treatment. For raising the planting materials of patchouli, cuttings were made in the first week of March 2005 with a length of 10 cm and cuttings were planted in polyethene bags in a size of 15 × 10 cm filled with FYM (0.5% on basis of weight of soil) and soil (1.2 kg soil) and kept in shade net house. Eight week-old saplings were later planted at 60 cm × 45 cm spacing and used as experimental materials. The coconut plantation was in bearing stage, hence the plants were given the maintenance NPK dose (at 400:200:800 g tree−1 year−1, respectively, along with 20 kg FYM) in two split applications (first dose in the beginning of monsoon, i.e., April and the second in the month of September).

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Sampling and Analysis Four representative plants in each plot were tagged at random in each plot and leaves of the tagged plants were cut during dry weather from 25 cm above the ground level including tender branches, discarding all yellow or decayed leaves. Selected parts were then dried under the shade. The collected leaves were spread on bamboo racks with sufficient aeration with frequent turning to ensure evenness in drying. The dry leaves were digested in di-acid mixture [perchoric acid (HClO4 ): sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ) in the ratio of 1:2.5]. N was directly analyzed through an auto nitrogen analyzer (Perkin Elmer Series II Model 2410; Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA, USA). Phosphorus and potassium in acid extracts were determined by the yellow color vanadomolybdophosphoric acid method and flamephotometrically (Chapman and Pratt, 1961). The girth of main crop (coconut) was taken at the height of one meter from the ground level. The number of nuts per palm was also recorded to express the response on yield of main crop. The volatile oil was determined by steam distillation method using modified Clevenger’s Apparatus for six hours of distillation. Qualitative estimation for alcohol was carried out in collected patchouli samples by gas chromatographic method (Chemito 8510 GC; Chemito Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India) equipped with PC based data processor using BP-20 GC analytical column (28 m × 0.53 m mid) with hydrogen as carrier gas. Soil samples were collected from skirt belt/perimeter of coconut trees as main crop and within area covered by intercrop, the zone having maximum concentration of feeder roots at soil depth of 0-20 cm. Collected soil samples were air dried, ground, and passed through 2-mm sieve, and subjected to analysis of pH (1:2) soil:1N potassium chloride (KCl) mixture, organic carbon titrimetrically using wet oxidation method (Walkley and Black 1934), available N-using alkaline potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ) steam distillation (Subbiah and Asiza, 1956), Bray-P using ammonium fluoride extraction by shaking 1g soil in 20 mL of 0.03 N ammonium fluoride (NH4 F) in 0.025 N hydrochloric acid (HCl) for 30 min. and K extractable in 1 N neutral ammonium acetate (NH4 OAc) in 1:2 soil:extractant ratio after shaking for 30 min. (Lanyon and Heald, 1982). The total bacterial and fungal colonies counts were determined using soil extract agar and potato-glucose agar medium, respectively, by dilution plate technique (Wollum, 1992) Statistical Analysis The data generated for two seasons were pooled and statistically analyzed for critical difference (CD) as per procedures described by Gomez and Gomez (1984). Nutrient budgeting was computed by deducting the amount of nutrients added from the amount of nutrients removed by intercrop (uptake in kg ha−1 by multiplying concentration of nutrients in per cent with

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yield in tonnes ha−1) and finally arriving at the balance of nutrients. The economics of response of different treatment combinations was worked out according to prevailing market prices. Gross return was calculated for each treatment combination of different dose of nitrogen and types of organic manures by multiplying the value of economic procedures and the prevailing market prices of output. Net return was estimated by subtracting the total cost of cultivation from the gross return and cost benefit ratio was calculated. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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Performance of Intercrop Pooled data analysis showed that yield of dry leaves of patchouli was significantly affected by different treatments involving both various sources of manures as well as increasing levels of inorganic nitrogen (Table 1). Response on biomass (dry leaves of herb) produced by patchouli intercrop showed that manuring with vermicompost as most responsive with the highest yield (15.17 tonnes ha−1) significantly (P < 0.05) superior to rest of the other two organic manure treatments (11.30 –13.02 tonnes ha−1) and TABLE 1 Performance of coconut (nuts palm−1) based patchouli yield (dry leaves) in response to organic manures and inorganic –N (pooled data of two seasons considering four cuttings in each season) Yield

Sr. no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Treatment M0 N0 M0 N1 M0 N2 M0 N3 M1 N0 M1 N1 M1 N2 M1 N3 M2 N0 M2 N1 M2 N2 M2 N3 M3 N0 M3 N1 M3 N2 M3 N3 CD (P = 0.05) Manures (M) Nitrogen levels (N) M × N interaction

CD: critical difference.

Intercrop dry leaves (tonnes ha−1)

Main crop (nuts palm−1)

7.54 8.96 11.64 11.63 9.54 11.39 12.55 13.83 10.82 12.12 13.60 15.55 11.24 13.39 16.36 19.97

18 21 24 31 19 23 27 35 21 28 36 42 24 35 41 52

1.02 0.94 1.86

4.3 3.1 8.1

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control (9.94 tonnes ha−1). The yield was likewise comparatively higher with pig manure (13.02 tonnes ha−1) than FYM (11.30 tonnes ha−1). Similarly, application of inorganic nitrogen responded significantly at all the levels of application increasing the biomass yield from 9.78 tonnes ha−1 at N0 level to as high as 15.17 tonnes ha−1 at N3 level. These responses suggest that patchouli as an intercrop is highly responsive to both organic manures and inorganic fertilization, but with varying magnitude. Earlier studies depending upon site specificity, recommended optimum N requirement for maximizing biomass yield of patchouli ranging from 100 kg to 200 kg ha−1 (Rao, 2001; Singh et al., 2002) as a monoculture crop. The fertilization requirement of patchouli as an intercrop is highly limited. Combined application of vermicompost (M3 ) along with N3 level of nitrogen produced the highest yield of 19.97 tonnes ha−1, suggesting the improved agronomic efficiency of both the organic manure and inorganicN. Likewise combination of M2 N3 produced the yield of 15.55 tonnes ha−1 which is significantly higher than 13.02 tonnes ha−1 with M2, alone but at par with N3 . Increase in magnitude of response was observed with M1 N3 treatment also, not superior to inorganic treatment N3 alone but superior to M1 alone. These observations suggested that slow nutrient release behavior of all the three manures that is very much translated into yield improvements. Earlier studies (Adiwigandha et al., 1973; Munsi, 1992) demonstrated increases in yield (dry weight of leaves) of patchouli at applications of 100 kg N ha−1. Applications of FYM at 5 tonnes ha−1 along with 80 N:50 P2 O5 :50 K2 O kg ha−1 produced the highest patchouli yield (Jessykutty, 2005). Performance of Main Crop A synergistic effect of rhizosphere changes in intercrop influenced the performance of main crop was as evident from increase in size of the coconut from 75.21 to 93.81 cm with simultaneously increase in yield from 18 nuts palm−1 (2812 nuts ha−1) to 52 nuts palm−1 (8125 nuts ha−1). These observations supplement the fact that monoculture of coconut is less sustainable in terms of yield of main crop, besides an additional yield obtained through raising intercrop than intercropped coconut. Long term fertilizer response studies in coconut (Srinivasa Reddy et al. 2002) on Alfisols showed that the fertilizer treatment 1000 g N –437 g P –1667 g K palm−1 year−1 recorded significantly higher nut yield (136 nuts palm−1) than treatment 500 g N –218 g P –833 g K palm−1 year−1 (104 nuts palm−1) and no fertilizer application (58 nuts palm−1). Nutrient Balance Various treatments involving different combinations of organic manures and inorganic-N showed significant effect (P < 0.05) on nutrient

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TABLE 2 Nutrient balance sheet of patchouli as intercrop under coconut-patchouli farming system Nutrient added (kg ha−1)

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Sr. no. Treatment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

M0 N0 M0 N1 M0 N2 M0 N3 M1 N0 M1 N1 M1 N2 M1 N3 M2 N0 M2 N1 M2 N2 M2 N3 M3 N0 M3 N1 M3 N2 M3 N3

Nutrient removed by intercrop (kg ha−1)

Balance (kg ha−1)

N

P

K

N

P

K

N

P

K

— 60 80 100 160 220 240 260 182 242 262 282 126 186 206 226

50 50 50 50 66 66 66 66 62 62 62 62 56 56 56 56

50 50 50 50 258 258 258 258 172 172 172 172 109 109 109 109

60.3 (0.80) 77.0 (0.86) 104.5 (0.90) 108.1 (0.93) 87.7 (0.92) 107.7 (0.94) 117.9 (0.94) 132.3 (0.95) 100.6 (0.93) 113.9 (0.94) 129.2 (0.95) 149.3 (0.96) 107.9 (0.96) 139.2 (1.04) 183.2 (1.12) 239.6 (1.20)

6.0 (0.08) 7.2 (0.08) 9.3 (0.08) 9.3 (0.08) 5.7 (0.06) 9.1 (0.08) 10.0 (0.08) 11.1 (0.08) 8.6 (0.08) 9.7 (0.08) 10.9 (0.08) 15.5 (0.10) 11.2 (0.10) 16.1 (0.12) 22.9 (0.14) 31.9 (0.16)

54.3 (0.72) 64.5 (0.72) 83.5 (0.73) 83.7 (0.72) 66.8 (0.70) 82.0 (0.72) 91.6 (0.73) 102.3 (0.74) 80.0 (0.74) 189.7 (0.74) 106.1 (0.78) 124.4 (0.80) 92.2 (0.82) 112.4 (0.84) 140.1 (0.86) 187.7 (0.94)

−60.3 −17.0 −24.5 −8.1 +72.3 +112.3 +122.1 +106.3 +81.4 +128.1 +132.8 +132.7 +18.1 +46.8 +22.8 −13.6

+46.9 +42.8 +40.7 +40.7 +60.3 +56.9 +56.0 +54.9 +53.1 +52.3 +51.1 +46.5 +44.8 +39.9 +33.1 +24.1

−04.3 −14.5 −33.8 −33.7 +138.2 +176.0 +166.4 +155.7 +92.0 −17.7 +65.9 +47.6 +16.8 −03.4 −31.1 −78.7

Figures in parenthesis are given as nutrient concentration in percent. Nutrient value of manures was computed on the basis of nutrient concentration in percent (FYM = 0.80N − 0.08P − 1.04K; pig manure = 1.82N − 0.12P − 1.22K; vermicompost = 2.52N − 0.11P − 1.18K). N1 , N2, and N3 stand for 60, 80 and 100 kg N ha − 1, respectively. Supply of nutrients (kg ha − 1) through organic manures (FYM = 160 N − 66 P − 258 K; pig manure = 182 N − 62 P − 172 K. Vermicompost = 126 N − 56 P − 109 K.

concentration of intercrop and nutrient uptake, thereby, amounting to differential nutrient balance (Table 2). Except P, inorganic N along with constant dose of P and K displayed a positive balance of N and K compared to either organic manures alone or in combination with inorganic-N. However, the treatments M3 N1 , M3 N2 , and M3 N3 showed a negative balance of K due to comparatively higher herb yield and K concentration, facilitating proportionately higher K uptake. Despite much higher response of M3 N0 (18.1N –44.8P –16.8 K) on herb yield compared to either M1 N0 (72.3N –60.3P –138.2K) or M2 N0 (81.4N –53.1 P –92.0 K) the net balance of N, P and K was observed positive. The efficiency of vermicompost improved remarkably with the combination of inorganic N upto M3 N3 registering nutrient uptake (kg ha−1) as high as 239.6 N - 31.9 P –187.7 K with the positive balance of P and negative balance of N and K. These observations suggest that negative values of N, P, and K are made available to the plant through mobilization of potentially (reserve) available forms of nutrients in the soil. Moreover, this treatment combination showed the highest herb yield of high quality. Quality indices of herb are commercially more important than any other parameter.

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Quality Attributes Various sources of organic manures and levels of nitrogen produced significant response on recovery of oil from patchouli leaves (Table 3). The oil content increased from 2.40% at control to as high as 2.90% with vermicompost, significantly superior (P < 0.05) to any other two manures viz., FYM (2.48%) and pig manure (2.52%). Similarly an increase in N level from N0 to N3 improved the oil content from 2.43 to 2.90%, respectively. The oil content further improved to as high as 3.65% with M3 N3 treatment involving combined application of vermicompost and N3 level of N application, which was significantly superior to M1 N3 (2.50%) or M2 N3 (2.58%). Earlier studies showed that various applications of N 100 kg ha−1 (Munsi, 1992), 120 kg ha−1 (Bhardwaj et al., 1983), and 200 kg ha−1 (Singh and Rao, 2005) improved the oil content in Japanese mint, Mentha citrate and Targets minuta, respectively. Excluding M3 N3 treatment, the oil content with M1 N3 or M2 M3 was statistically on par with mean effect of M1 (2.48%) and M2 (2.52%), respectively, but lower to mean effect of N1 (2.52%), N2 (2.65%), or N3 (2.90%). Such responses demonstrated that the magnitude of response of inorganic N on oil content was at par (2.67%) to average response with different organic manures (2.61%). Manjunatha et al. (2006) observed IPNS-based treatment consisting of 75% NP - 100% K - Azotobacter - Azospirilum - AM (arbuscular TABLE 3 Response of quality indices of patchouli as on intercrop as influenced by organic manures and inorganic N (pooled data of two seasons) Quality indices (%) Sr. no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Treatment

Oil

Alcohol

M0 N0 M0 N1 M0 N2 M0 N3 M1 N0 M1 N1 M1 N2 M1 N3 M2 N0 M2 N1 M2 N2 M2 N3 M3 N0 M3 N1 M3 N2 M3 N3 CD (P = 0.05) Manures (M) Nitrogen levels (N) M × N interaction

2.40 2.44 2.43 2.40 2.48 2.50 2.49 2.50 2.40 2.50 2.59 2.58 2.46 2.64 2.89 3.65

44.52 44.84 45.19 45.35 44.97 45.99 46.06 47.08 44.75 44.98 46.00 48.18 45.82 46.46 46.58 49.90

0.10 0.08 0.18

1.02 0.46 1.32

CD: critical difference.

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mycorrhiza) produced significantly higher oil yield of patchouli in cv Johore on Alfisol conditions. Bhaskar et al. (2005) observed the maximum oil yield of patchouli with compost at 30 tonnes ha−1 with combined application of gypsum and recommended doses of NPK fertilizers. The response of both, different organic manures and inorganic-N on alcohol content was observed highly significant (Table 3). The alcohol content increased from 45.01% at N0 to 47.62% at N3 level and from 44.97% with M0 to 46.19% with M3 treatment, improving further to 49.90 with M3 N3 as combination of two sources. Different organic manures are reported to produce significant response on oil content in Achillea mellifolium (Schaffer et al., 1993) and in ginger (Lalramathara et al., 2003) under humid tropical climate on Alfisols. The N application produced an improvement in alcohol content in all the three levels, while, amongst organic manures, the response of M1 and M2 was observed at par (45.97 –46.02%) but significantly superior to M0 (44.97%) Changes in Soil Fertility Indices Sustainability of a cropping system besides being evaluated on the basis on response, a serious consideration is to be given to soil health. Intercrop Rhizosphere Soil carbon and organic carbon as two important soil quality indicators showed significant changes in response to both organic manures, inorganicN and when combined together (Table 4). Interestingly, organic manure, M0 –M3 (pH 5.26 to 5.82) improved the soil pH more than inorganic N fertilizer N0 –N3 (pH 5.30 –5.55). These organic manures produce many hydroxyl organic acids as decomposition product which are very helpful in raising the soil pH. In two seasons using vermicompost (M3 ) when with inorganic N (N3 ) improved the soil pH further to as high as 6.15 to be able to maintain much better nutrient supply for both patchouli as intercrop and coconut as main crop. The treatment M3 improved the soil pH when combined with N0 from 5.45 to 6.15 with M3 N3 compared to only 5.30 and 5.26, respectively with M2 N0 and M3 N0 to 5.40 with M2 N3 or M1 N3 versus 5.20 with M0 N0 to 5.25 with M0 N3 . Organic carbon stock of soil acts as a sink or source of nutrients for microbial population which regulates the availability of different nutrients through microbial transformation. The net increase in organic carbon content was much higher with organic manures, M0 –M3 (26.9 to 32.9 g kg−1) over inorganic fertilizers, N0 -N3 (28.74 to 31.3 g kg−1) due to supply of carbon rich manures. In these studies, it is more interesting to observe the improvement in organic carbon status with inorganic-N fertilization supporting the biotic principle of carbon sequestration through improved biomass production. However, the improvement in organic carbon content was

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TABLE 4 Changes in soil pH and organic carbon within rhizosphere of intercrop and main crop in response to organic manures and inorganic N (pooled data of two seasons) Organic carbon(g kg−1)

pH

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Sr. no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Treatment

Intercrop

Main crop

Intercrop

Main crop

M0 N0 M0 N1 M0 N2 M0 N3 M1 N0 M1 N1 M1 N2 M1 N3 M2 N0 M2 N1 M2 N2 M2 N3 M3 N0 M3 N1 M3 N2 M3 N3 CD (P = 0.05) Manures (M) Nitrogen levels (N) M × N interaction

5.20 5.30 5.30 5.25 5.26 5.41 5.42 5.40 5.30 5.38 5.40 5.40 5.45 5.80 5.90 6.15

5.12 5.14 5.14 5.16 5.20 5.24 5.28 5.30 5.30 5.32 5.34 5.40 5.41 5.48 5.52 5.60

26.3 27.0 27.0 27.3 29.0 30.1 30.6 30.6 29.3 29.6 29.6 31.0 32.1 33.2 36.1 38.4

25.2 25.8 26.0 26.4 26.2 26.8 27.2 28.1 28.2 28.9 29.0 29.4 30.1 30.8 31.2 32.4

0.10 0.04 0.12

0.10 0.02 0.11

2.00 1.20 2.91

1.2 0.80 1.43

CD: critical difference.

significantly higher 37.4 g kg−1 with M3 N3 treatment compared to either M1 N3 or M2 N3 (29.6 –30.0 g kg−1) or N3 alone (31.3 g kg−1). On the contrary Schaffer et al. (1993) observed no effect of cattle manure on the changes in organic C, K, Ca, Mg supply level of soil with the exception of P which improved by 1.5 times over soil initial value. While another study by Anwar et al. (2005) showed combination of FYM and vermicompost maintained much higher organic carbon, N, P in soil compared to either of two source alone. Supply level of available nutrients (N, P, K) has significantly affected by different sources of organic manure, inorganic-N and their interaction (Table 5). The available N status improved substantially from 155.7 kg ha−1 with M0 at 214.7 kg ha−1 with M3 , which is comparatively much smaller than the change from 156.7 kg ha−1 at N0 to 207.6 kg ha−1 at N3 , improving further to 269.7 kg ha−1 with M3 N3 . Lesser effectiveness of organic manures over inorganic-N in available N supply is further overcome through their combined application, which is superior to the individual effect. Available P was also influenced by organic manures and inorganic-N fertilization alone and in combination, with highest P (24.6 kg ha−1) being observed with M2 N3 significantly superior to M1 N3 (16.7 kg ha−1) but on par with M3 N3 (23.8 kg ha−1). The magnitude of increase in available P from 16.0 to 17.6 kg ha−1 and from 15.7 to 17.5 kg ha−1 with M0 to M3 and N0 to N3 , respectively, suggested

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Nutrient Budgeting of Patchouli

TABLE 5 Soil fertility changes (kg ha−1) within the rhizosphere of intercrop and main crop in response to sole and combined application of organic manures and inorganic N (pooled data of two seasons) Available N

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Sr. no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Available P

Available K

Treatment

Intercrop

Main crop

Intercrop

Main crop

Intercrop

Main crop

M0 N0 M0 N1 M0 N2 M0 N3 M1 N0 M1 N1 M1 N2 M1 N3 M2 N0 M2 N1 M2 N2 M2 N3 M3 N0 M3 N1 M3 N2 M3 N3 CD (P = 0.05) Manures (M) Nitrogen levels (N) M × N interaction

142.3 151.3 161.0 168.0 151.0 170.0 179.3 193.3 166.0 220.0 223.3 229.3 167.3 220.3 231.7 269.7

140.6 142.1 144.3 145.2 142.7 141.2 144.3 146.2 146.4 147.3 148.2 147.8 148.2 150.3 151.2 152.6

15.0 15.0 15.2 15.6 16.0 16.7 17.0 16.7 16.8 18.2 19.2 24.6 16.0 18.3 20.0 23.8

14.2 14.1 14.4 14.2 15.1 15.8 16.0 16.4 15.3 15.8 16.1 16.8 16.8 17.2 17.8 18.4

119.0 132.7 154.7 168.0 130.0 169.3 172.7 179.3 124.7 183.3 198.0 202.0 128.0 185.0 193.0 203.3

112.3 112.8 114.0 114.2 116.1 118.1 119.0 120.1 120.2 126.1 129.2 130.1 124.1 134.2 141.6 149.9

8.52 8.52 17.05

2.41 4.3 5.21

0.80 0.20 1.58

0.40 0.25 0.56

14.11 14.11 28.23

2.32 1.81 4.20

CD: critical difference.

the almost similar effectiveness with both the sources. On the other hand, inorganic-N fertilization N0 to N3 (125.4 to 188.2 kg ha−1) maintained much lower available K with inorganic-N, N0 –N3 (125.4 to 188.2 kg ha−1) than organic manures, M0 to M3 (143.6 to 177.3 kg ha−1). But integrating two sources proved to be more effective in maintaining still higher available K, e.g. M2 N3 (202.0 kg ha−1) or M3 N3 (203.2 kg ha−1), both being statistically at par with each other. Such an increase in available K is attributed to pH induced conversion of non-exchangeable into exchangeable K. Main Crop Rhizosphere The effect of intercrops was likewise very much evident on different soil properties within the rhizosphere of main crop (Tables 4 and 5). The magnitude of improvement in soil pH and organic carbon was higher with combined application of different organic manures and inorganic (soil pH 5.24 –5.60 and organic carbon 26.8 –32.4 g kg−1) than either inorganic N (soil pH 5.12 –5.16 and organic carbon 25.2 –26.4 g kg−1) or organic manures (soil pH 5.20 –5.41 and organic carbon 26.2 –30.1 g kg−1). The available N, P and K supply within the rhizosphere of main crop also improved in response to different treatments. The available N, P and K showed a significant improvement with combined application of two

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Y. Y. Kikon et al.

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sources (141.2 –152.6 kg ha−1, 15.8 –18.4 kg ha−1 and 118.1 –149.9 kg ha−1) over either organic manures (142.7 –148.2 kg ha−1, 15.1 –16.0 kg ha−1 and 116.1 –129.1 kg ha−1,) or inorganic N alone (140.6 –145.2 kg ha−1, 14.2 – 14.4 kg ha−1, and 112.3 –114.2 kg ha−1). Microbiological Properties The fungal and bacterial colonies forming units were significantly influenced by both organic manures and when combined with inorganic –N (Table 6). Although, the population density of fungal (31 × 102 –118 × 102 c.f.u.g−1 soil) and bacterial colonies (31 × 103 –48 × 105 c.f.u.g−1 soil) within intercrop rhizosphere was comparatively higher (P < 0.05) than fungal (11 × 102 –48 × 102 c.f.u.g−1 soil) and bacterial colonies (22 × 102 –101 × 103 c.f.u.g−1 soil) within main crop rhizosphere, with the highest population obtained with the M3 N3 treatment under both intercrop (118 × 102 and 48 × 105 c.f.u.g−1 soil fungal and bacterial colonies, respectively) and main crop (48 × 102 –101 × 103 c.f.u.g−1 soil fungal and bacterial colonies). These observations suggest the strong compatibility of patchouli as intercrop with coconut as perennial plantation crop. The higher correlation of intercrop (patchouli) and main crop (coconut) yield with soil fungal population (r = 0.723, P = 0.01 and r = 0.524, TABLE 6 Soil microbial changes within the rhizosphere of intercrop and main crop in response to organic manures and inorganic N (pooled data of two seasons). Intercrop (c.f.u.g−1 soil) Sr. no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Main crop (c.f.u.g−1 soil)

Treatment

Fungi

Bacteria

Fungi

Bacteria

M0 N0 M0 N1 M0 N2 M0 N3 M1 N0 M1 N1 M1 N2 M1 N3 M2 N0 M2 N1 M2 N2 M2 N3 M3 N0 M3 N1 M3 N2 M3 N3 CD (P = 0.05) Manures (M) Nitrogen levels (N) M × N interaction

31 × 102 34 × 102 32 × 102 36 × 102 40 × 102 44 × 102 46 × 102 50 × 102 51 × 102 56 × 102 61 × 102 72 × 102 74 × 102 81 × 102 101 × 102 118 × 102

31 × 103 36 × 103 42 × 103 50 × 103 84 × 103 102 × 103 112 × 103 124 × 103 125 × 103 131 × 103 140 × 103 152 × 103 161 × 103 46 × 104 110 × 104 48 × 105

11 × 102 14 × 102 14 × 102 16 × 102 18 × 102 22 × 102 25 × 102 26 × 102 27 × 102 30 × 102 32 × 102 34 × 102 35 × 102 40 × 102 44 × 102 48 × 102

22 × 102 31 × 102 44 × 102 46 × 102 51 × 102 58 × 102 61 × 102 66 × 102 70 × 102 74 × 102 79 × 102 81 × 102 61 × 103 69 × 103 82 × 103 101 × 103

8.20 3.10 10.14

11.40 4.20 16.17

4.02 1.22 5.10

9.48 3.89 15.81

CD: critical difference.

987

Nutrient Budgeting of Patchouli

P = 0.01) and bacterial population (r = 0.814, P = 0.01 and r = 0.482, P = 0.01) over available N (r = 0.518, P = 0.01 and r = 0.412, P = 0.05) warranted a strong possibility of using soil microbial properties as a potential diagnostic tool for soil fertility evaluation under treatment of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers jointly.

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Economic Analysis The utility of nutritional response is dictated by the economics of returns from produce in ultimate terms. The net return obtained out of coconutpatchouli combination under increasing N level from N0 to N3 was observed to be increasingly higher from Re 1,48,740 to Re. 3,70,736 suggesting the better economics of N-fertilizer use (Table 7). Similarly, different organic manures produced differential returns, highest of Re. 2,87,840 (1:2.52 CBR) with M2 followed by Re. 251,540 with M3 (1:2.03 CBR) and Re. 226,520 (1:2.17 CBR) with M1 (1:2.56 CBR). The net return was invariably higher with combined application of organic manures and inorganic-N, significantly superior to organic sources, but not to inorganic sources. The combined application of M3 with N3 (M3 N3) produced the highest net return (Re. 633,916) followed by M2 N3 (Re. 494,216) and M1 N3 (Re. 400,336) with CBR values of 1:3.58, 1:3.60 and 1:3.05, respectively, suggesting each Re invested in meeting nutrient requirement, yielded returns more than 3 times. The difference of best treatment M3 N3 (Re. 633,916; 1:3.58 CBR) versus control M0 N0 (Re. 148,980; 1:1.80 CBR) was still wider and more prominent, TABLE 7 Economics of coconut patchouli cultivation in response to organic manures and inorganic N (pooled data of two seasons considering four cuttings in each season) Sr. no.

Treatment

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

M0 N0 M0 N1 M0 N2 M0 N3 M1 N0 M1 N1 M1 N2 M1 N3 M2 N0 M2 N1 M2 N2 M2 N3 M3 N0 M3 N1 M3 N2 M3 N3

CD: critical difference.

Cost of cultivation (Rs.)

Gross return (Rs.)

Net return (Rs.ha−1)

Cost benefit ratio (CBR)

183,240 184,280 184,632 184,984 193,240 194,280 194,632 194,984 188,240 189,280 189,632 189,984 243,240 244,280 244,632 244,984

331,980 394,460 512,160 555,720 419,760 498,960 552,200 595,320 476,080 533,280 598,620 684,200 494,780 589,380 719,840 878,900

148,740 200,180 327,528 370,736 226,520 304,600 357,568 400,336 287,840 344,000 408,988 494,216 251,540 345,100 475,208 633,916

1 : 1.80 1 : 2.13 1 : 2.77 1 : 3.00 1 : 2.17 1 : 2.56 1 : 2.83 1 : 3.05 1 : 2.52 1 : 2.81 1 : 3.16 1 : 3.60 1 : 2.03 1 : 2.94 1 : 2.94 1 : 3.58

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Y. Y. Kikon et al.

signifying the importance of integration of two divergent nutrient sources in order to harness the mutual benefit from each other. Sivaraman et al. (2002) observed that mono-cropping of coconut generates employment opportunities of only around 150 man days ha−1 year−1 with a net income of Re. 10,400 ha−1 year−1, whereas various cropping systems generate an additional employment of 130 –606 man days ha−1 year−1, with a net return of Re. 50,000 to 100,000 ha−1 in coconut-based mixed farming. Our studies revealed that the integrated use of manures and inorganic fertilizers provide an additional employment opportunity and the income with coconut-based patchouli intercropping. In an earlier study under a similar agroecosystem, Munsi and Mukherjee (1982) observed favorable impacts of fertilizer applications on the performances of crops like mentha, citronella, and palmarosa as subsidiary crops within inter-plant spaces of perennial plantation. The above data base support hence, warranted that raising patchouli as an intercrop in coconut not only provide an extra income to the planters, but sustains the additional nutrient requirement of intercrop in biomass production and any potential depletion in soil fertility. The studies also offer a possibility of exploiting the residual effect of mineralized nutrients in the soil solution so that the fertilizer input can be further reduced, the research on which is currently in progress. REFERENCES Adiwigandha, Y. T., O. Hutagalung, and P. Wibowo. 1973. Fertilizer experiment on patchouli on reddishbrown podzolic soils. Bulletin, Balai Pereletion Perkeebunan Medan 4: 107 –116. Anwar, M., D. D. Patra, S. Chand, A. Kumar, A. A. Nagvi, and S. P. S. Khanuja. 2005. Effect of organic manures, inorganic fertilizers on growth, herb and oil yield, nutrient accumulation and oil quality of French basil. Commmuications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 36: 1737 –1746. Bhardwaj, S. D., L. J. Srivastava, and A. N. Kaushal. 1983. Studies on the rate and split application of nitrogen on herb and oil yield of Mentha citrate, Ehrh. in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Perfumes 27: 99 –103. Bhaskar, S., M. Arun, E. Raja, and T. Kumar Vasantha. 2005. Effect of soil amendments on patchouli (Pogostemon patchouli) production. Indian Perfumer 45: 99 –102. Chapman, H. D., and P. F. Pratt. 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plants and Waters. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Science. Chew, P. S. 1982. Nutrition of coconuts –a review for formulating guidelines for fertilizer recommendations in Malaysia. Planter 55: 155 –141. Gomez, K. A. and A. A. Gomez. 1984. Correlation and regression analysis. In: Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research, eds. K. A. Gomez and A. A. Gomez, pp. 357 –424. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Jessykutty, P. C. 2005. Grow patchouli, add aroma to your life. Indian Journal of Acecanut Spices & Medincal Plants 1(1): 7 –9. Lal, R. 1993. Tillage effects on soil degradation, soil resilience, soil quality and sustainability. Soil and Tillage Research 27: 1 –8. Lalramathara, C. S. Maiti, T. Nakro, and V. B. Singh 2003. Comparative studies of farmyard manure and pig manure under terrace conditions of Nagaland on ginger cv Nagaland Local in respect of yield and quality. Journal Interacademicia 5: 176 –179. Lanyon, L. E., and W. R. Heald. 1982. Calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, eds. A. L. Page, R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney, pp. 247 –260. Madison, WI: ASA and SSSA. Magat, S. S. 1992. 5.7 Coconut. In: IFA World Fertilizer Use Manual, pp. 234 –244. Paris: International Fertilizer Industry Association.

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Manjunatha, R., A. A. Farooq, M. Vasundhara, and K. N. Srinivasapa. 2006. Effect of bio-fertilizers on growth, yield and essential oil content in patchouli. Indian Perfumer 46: 97 –104. Munsi, P. S. 1992. Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition response in Japanese mint cultivation. Acta Horticulturae 306: 436 –443. Munsi, P. S., and S. K. Mukherjee. 1982. Effect of fertilizer treatments on yield and economics of cultivation of mentha, citronella and palmarosa. Indian Perfumer 26: 74 –80. Randhawa, G. S. R. K. Mahey, B. S. Sidhu, and S. S. Saini. 1984. Effect of nitrogen application herb and oil yield of Mentha citrate. Indian Perfumers 28: 105 –107. Rao, B. R. R. 2001. Biomass and essential oil yield of rainfed palmarosa (Cymbopogon mastinii (Roxb) wals. Var., Motia Burk) supplied with different levels of organic manure and fertilizer nitrogen in semi-arid tropical climate. Industrial Crops Production 14: 171 –178. Rao, H. M., and T. Kumar Vasanth. 1989. Effect of different levels of phosphorus on yield oil content in different patchouli cultivars. Indian Perfumer 33: 8 –13. Robbins, S. R. J. 1982 Selected markets for the essential oils of Patchouli and Veliver. Report Tropical Products Institute 176: 7 –20. Saha, B. N., B. Baruah, D. N. Borodoloi, and P. K. Mathur. 1992. Prospect of growing patchouli (Pogostemon patchouli) in Arunachal Pradesh. Effect of nitrogen and its yield. Indian Perfumer 36: 57 –60. Schaffer, M. C., J. P. Ronzelli, and H. S. Koehler. 1993. Influence of organic fertilization on biomass yield and composition of essential oil of Achillea mallefolium L. Acta Horticulturae 331: 109 –114. Singh, M., and R. S. G. Rao. 2005. Effects of nitrogen, potassium and soil moisture regime on growth, herbage, oil yield and nutrient up take of South American merigolc (Tagetes minuta L.) in a semi-arid tropical climate. Journal of Horticulture Science & Biotechnology 80: 488 –492. Singh, M., S. Sharma, and S. Ramesh. 2002. Herbage, oil yield and oil quality of patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] influenced by irrigation, organic mulch and nitrogen application in semiarid tropical climate. Industrial Crops Production 16: 101 –107. Sivaraman, K., H. P. Singh, and P. Rethinam. 2002. Spices and herbs in coconut based farming system. Kochi, India: Coconut Development Board. Srinivasa Reddy, D. V., A. K. Upadhyay, P. Gopalsundaram, and H. Khan. 2002. Response of high yielding coconut variety and hybrids to fertilization under rainfed and irrigation conditions. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystem 62: 131 –138. Subbiah, B. V., and G. L. Asiza. 1956. A rapid procedure for determination of available nitrogen in soils. Current Science 25: 259. Walkley, A., and I. A. Black. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37: 29 –38. Wollum, A. G. 1992. Cultural methods for soil microorganisms. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part II, eds. A. L. Page, R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney, pp. 701 –801. Madison, WI: ASA, SSSA.

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