Nutrition & Food Science

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replaced at the rate of 20 per cent with RPO fortified shortening. The carotenoids content of cookies varied depending on the content of RPO. A moderate loss ...

Nutrition & Food Science Emerald Article: Storage studies of red palm oil fortified cookies M.S. Butt, K. Sharif, N. Huma, T. Mukhtar, J. Rasool

Article information: To cite this document: M.S. Butt, K. Sharif, N. Huma, T. Mukhtar, J. Rasool, (2004),"Storage studies of red palm oil fortified cookies", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 34 Iss: 6 pp. 272 - 276 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00346650410568345 Downloaded on: 22-03-2012 References: This document contains references to 11 other documents To copy this document: [email protected] This document has been downloaded 1470 times.

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Introduction

Storage studies of red palm oil fortified cookies M.S. Butt K. Sharif N. Huma T. Mukhtar and J. Rasool The authors M.S. Butt is an Associate Professor, K. Sharif is a PhD Scholar, N. Huma is a Lecturer and J. Rasool is a Student, all based at the Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. T. Mukhtar is a Production Manager at Golden Juices, Lahore, Pakistan.

Keywords Edible oils, Vitamins, Confectionery, Pakistan

Abstract Use of red palm oil fortified shortening was explored for combating vitamin A deficiency in Pakistan. Six types of cookies were prepared in which normal shortening was progressively replaced at the rate of 20 per cent with RPO fortified shortening. The carotenoids content of cookies varied depending on the content of RPO. A moderate loss was noticed after a 60-day storage. An increase in moisture content was observed, while other chemical characteristics remained unchanged. Sensory analysis showed that cookies containing 40 per cent RPO were most acceptable, while those prepared from 80-100 per cent RPO developed an oily flavour. The best treatment having 40 per cent RPO þ 60 per cent NS provides 344.15 to 312.86 mg/10 g of carotenoids at 0 and 60 days respectively. Recommends that five cookies would provide 40-50 per cent of RDA of vitamin A to school-going children.

Electronic access The Emerald Research Register for this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/researchregister The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0034-6659.htm

Nutrition & Food Science Volume 34 · Number 6 · 2004 · pp. 272-276 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited · ISSN 0034-6659 DOI 10.1108/00346650410568345

Carotenoids are responsible for yellow to orange red colors of fruits, vegetables, flowers as well as trout. In addition, carotenoids function as source of provitamin A, absorbers of light energy, antioxidant, and probably other functions (Bauernfeind, 1981). Crude palm oil, a richest natural source of carotenoids, contains 500-700 ppm carotenoids of which 37 per cent a and 50 per cent b are principal carotenoid. (Scrimshaw, 2000). These are better absorbed (98 per cent) than other plant sources (37-75 per cent) because they are in oil medium (Narasinga Rao, 2000). The absorbance is 15 and 40 times the carotene content of carrots and vegetables respectively (Scrimshaw, 2000) and its retinol equivalent is 15 times than the carrot and 300 times that of tomatoes (Tan, 1989). Food-based programs have potential to prevent and alleviate vitamin A deficiency by providing long-term and sustainable solutions. Cookies are widely accepted, especially for children, and are thus suitable vehicle for vitamin A fortification using RPO. The project was planned with collaboration of Malaysian Palm Oil Board to explore the suitable level of RPO fortified shortening and its effects on shelf life, carotenoid content and sensory attributes of cookies.

Experimental procedure Preparation of cookies Various trials were conducted with normal shortening to set formulation of cookies by the following method, with some modification given in AACC (2000). Modified recipe for cookies is as follows: Flour 46.20 per cent Sugar 21.00 per cent Shortening 21.00 per cent Egg 8.82 per cent Baking powder 0.84 per cent Water 2.10 per cent Color 0.025 per cent (added in control sample only) Cookies of average weight (10 g) were prepared by using normal shortening and RPO shortening in different combinations as mentioned in Table I. The research was supported by a grant from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board. A special note of appreciation goes to Prof. Dr. Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Director, Institute of Food Science and Technology for the inspiring, skilful guidance and valuable suggestions in execution of this research work.

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Storage studies of red palm oil fortified cookies

Nutrition & Food Science

M.S. Butt, K. Sharif, N. Huma, T. Mukhtar and J. Rasool

Volume 34 · Number 6 · 2004 · 272-276

Table II Carotenoids (ppm) in raw materials

Table I Different combinations of shortenings used for cookie preparation Treatment T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

Raw materials

RPO shortening (%)

Normal shortening (%)

0 20 40 60 80 100

100 80 60 40 20 0

Mean

Flour RPO shortening Normal shortening Egg

3.85 ^ 0.01 416.51 ^ 0.96 7.34 ^ 0.55 4.97 ^ 0.09

Table III Proximate analysis of flour Quality characteristics (%)

Physical analysis of cookies Width, thickness and spread factor of cookies were determined at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, according to methods described in AACC (2000). Chemical analysis of cookies Cookies were analyzed for moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days by the procedures of AACC (2000) and pH was determined by pH meter following the method of AOAC (1990). Carotenoids For estimation of carotenoids 0.1000 g fat was dissolved in n-hexane to form a 25 ml solution. This solution was taken in 1 cm cuvette and absorbance was measured at 446 nm visible range by spectrophotometer (PORIM, 1993). Sensory evaluation Cookies were also evaluated by a panel of judges for various sensory attributes like color, taste, flavor, texture and overall acceptability at 15-day intervals by using the method of Larmond (1977). Statistical analysis The data obtained from each treatment was subjected to statistical analysis to determine the level of significance within the treatments and storage intervals by applying two factors completely randomized design. The treatments were then compared with Duncan’s multiple range test (DMR) by following method of Steel et al. (1997).

Mean

Moisture Ash Crude fat Crude protein Crude fiber pH

11.04 ^ 0.07 0.53 ^ 0.02 1.05 ^ 0.04 10.41 ^ 0.02 Traces 6.15 ^ 0.05

Analysis of cookies Cookies prepared from RPO fortified shortening were evaluated for physical, chemical and sensory characteristics (Tables IV-VII). The interpretation regarding results is given below: Table IV Means for spread factor of cookies Storage

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Mean

0 days 15 days 30 days 45 days 60 days Mean

43.45 44.28 43.68 43.77 43.40 43.71d

44.07 45.33 44.90 44.48 44.25 44.60c

45.09 45.04 45.42 45.07 45.25 45.17b

45.52 45.52 45.52 44.62 45.42 45.32b

46.15 46.79 45.80 45.00 46.05 45.95a

46.89 46.89 45.63 46.09 46.34 46.36a

45.19 45.64 45.15 44.84 45.12

Note: Superscripts indicate the implementation of statistical technique DMR (Duncan’s Multiple Range test) values Table V Means for moisture percentage of cookies Storage

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Mean

0 days 15 days 30 days 45 days 60 days Mean

2.60 2.67 3.09 3.72 3.94 3.20

2.61 2.64 3.45 3.88 3.92 3.30

2.64 2.80 3.25 3.78 3.89 3.27

2.55 2.75 3.24 3.74 3.81 3.22

2.52 2.71 3.27 3.64 3.74 3.18

2.59 2.70 3.36 3.46 3.70 3.16

2.59e 2.71d 3.28c 3.70b 3.83a

Note: Superscripts indicate the implementation of statistical technique DMR (Duncan’s Multiple Range test) values

Results and discussion Table VI Means for carotenoids of cookies (mg/10 g)

Carotenoids in raw materials (ppm) Carotenoids determined in flour, RPO shortening, normal shortening and in eggs (Table II), showed that RPO shortening contains highest amount of carotenoids (416.51 ppm) than other ingredients. Flour analysis Proximate analysis of commercially available flour used for preparation of cookies is given in Table III.

Storage

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Mean

0 days 15 days 30 days 45 days 60 days Mean

28.50 28.00 27.28 26.54 24.89 27.04

182.31 179.87 176.86 170.47 163.77 174.65

344.15 340.46 334.87 327.03 312.86 331.87

508.28 504.63 497.93 481.27 458.52 490.12

676.41 665.74 655.66 636.36 619.12 650.66

853.52 840.47 825.64 808.47 786.21 822.86a

432.19a 426.53b 419.70c 408.36d 394.23e

Note: Superscripts indicate the implementation of statistical technique DMR (Duncan’s Multiple Range test) values

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Storage studies of red palm oil fortified cookies

Nutrition & Food Science

M.S. Butt, K. Sharif, N. Huma, T. Mukhtar and J. Rasool

Volume 34 · Number 6 · 2004 · 272-276

Table VII Means for total score of sensory characteristics of cookies

0 days 15 days 30 days 45 days 60 days Means

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Means

7.28 6.98 6.58 6.28 6.00 6.62d

7.28 7.10 6.72 6.58 6.24 6.78c

7.80 7.54 7.14 6.94 6.78 7.24a

7.54 7.34 7.08 6.78 6.60 7.06b

6.18 6.00 5.70 5.52 5.40 5.76e

5.88 5.72 5.40 5.12 5.02 5.42f

6.99a 6.78b 6.43c 6.20d 6.00e

Figure 1 Effect of different treatments and storage on carotenoids of cookies (mg/10 g)

Note: Superscripts indicate the implementation of statistical technique DMR (Duncan’s Multiple Range test) values

Physical analysis of cookies Spread factor. Spread factor is a ratio which depends on the values of width and thickness. Table IV indicates an increasing trend of spread factor (43.71-46.36) with increasing the level of RPO fortified shortening. DMR test explained that there is a non-significant difference between T5 & T6, T3 & T4, while these varied significantly from T1 and T2. Chemical analysis of cookies Results regarding chemical analysis showed a nonsignificant effect on moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat and pH irrespective the level of shortenings. However, during storage, moisture content is affected significantly, while other parameters had a non significant change. The moisture content of cookies (Table V) increased from 2.59 per cent to 3.83 per cent after 60 days. DMR test revealed that there is a significant increase in the moisture content after every 15 days. The phenomenon of moisture absorption during storage is also supported by Wade (1988) observed that when biscuits are sealed in moisture proof packaging, small amounts of moisture present in the atmosphere within the package rapidly come in equilibrium with the product and when the biscuits are exposed to the outer environment they quickly absorb the moisture. Carotenoids in cookies (mg/10 g) It is obvious from Table VI that higher RPO content gives higher carotenoids. T1 (100 per cent NS) contains minimum (28.50 mg) while T6 (100 per cent RPO) contains the maximum quantity (853.52 mg) of carotenoids at 0 days which decreased to 24.89 mg and 786.21mg for T1 and T6 respectively after two months. The gradual decrease (8-12 per cent) of carotenoids was observed in all treatments which may be due to oxidation of pigments at high temperature of storage. Manorama and Rukmini (1991) also observed 70-88 per cent retention or 12-30 per cent loss of carotenoids during cooking of red palm oil. Figure 1 explored and strengthened these results. Regression analysis illustrated in Figure 2

showed a linear relationship between carotenoids loss and storage intervals and there was consecutive decrease in carotenoids content (ppm) with increasing storage intervals, however, the rate of destruction of carotenoids in all the treatments follows the same pattern. DMR test further elaborated that among treatments, T6 is at the top followed by T5, T4, T3 and T2, while T1 is at the bottom. However, best treatment regarding sensory evaluation having 40 per cent RPO provides 344.15 to 312.86 mg/10 g at 0 and 60 days respectively.

Sensory evaluation Sensory evaluation is usually performed towards the end of product development. It is carried out to access the reaction of judges towards the product, and they rate their liking on a scale. Level of RPO and storage significantly effect color, flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptability however their interaction is non-significant. Pooled scores of sensory attributes mentioned in Table VII showed T3 (RPO 40 per cent) as best accepted cookies followed by T4 (RPO 60 per cent) and T2 (20 per cent). These cookies remained acceptable even after 60 days storage, while T5 (RPO 80 per cent) and T6 (RPO 100 per cent) being at the bottom of graph were acceptable in beginning but at the end of storage they were disliked due to development of oily taste and flavor. These results are further supported by DMR test and line graph (Figure 3) which shows the order of total scores gained by different treatments and their respective score loss at different storage intervals.

Conclusions Vitamin A deficiency among the people of Pakistan demands some immediate remedial actions. Red

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Storage studies of red palm oil fortified cookies

Nutrition & Food Science

M.S. Butt, K. Sharif, N. Huma, T. Mukhtar and J. Rasool

Volume 34 · Number 6 · 2004 · 272-276

Figure 2 Loss of carotenoids (ppm) at different storage intervals

palm oil is thus a potential source for combating widespread Vitamin A disorders, especially among children, when incorporated into cookies. It is recommended that cookies made with 40 per cent RPO would contribute 331.87 mg carotenoids which would have a useful effect on vitamin A deficiency problems. It is worth mentioning that prepared cookies showed a small decrease in carotenoids i.e. 8-12 per cent after two months of storage. Furthermore, the use of RPO fortified

shortening has several other advantages that render it ideally suited for fortification purpose in the baking industry. The process is trouble-free, easy to monitor and it can be used for mass supplementary feeding programs in regions where vitamin A deficiency problems are known to occur. Moreover, it will have a further benefit of adding antioxidant activity to foods, which may help to increase resistance to coronary diseases and malignancy.

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Storage studies of red palm oil fortified cookies

Nutrition & Food Science

M.S. Butt, K. Sharif, N. Huma, T. Mukhtar and J. Rasool

Volume 34 · Number 6 · 2004 · 272-276

Figure 3 Score loss of sensory attributes

References AACC (2000), Methods of American Association of Cereal Chemists, Am. Assoc. of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St Paul, MN.

AOAC (1990), Methods of Analysis, 15th ed., The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA. Bauernfeind, J.C. (1981), Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursor: Technological and Nutritional Application, Academic Press, New York, NY. Larmond, E. (1977), Laboratory Methods for Sensory Evaluation of Foods, Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. Manorama, R. and Rukmini, C. (1991), “Effect of processing on b-carotene retention in crude palm oil and its products”, Food Chem., Vol. 42 No. 3, pp. 253-64. Narasinga Rao, B.S. (2000), “Potential use of red palm oil in combating vitamin A deficiency in India”, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 202-11. PORIM (1993), Porim Test Methods, No. 6, Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 2-6. Scrimshaw, N.S. (2000), “Nutritional potential of red palm oil for combating vitamin A deficiency”, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 195-201. Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. and Dickey, D. (1997), Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Tan, B. (1989), “Palm carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols”, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., Vol. 66, pp. 770-7. Wade, P. (1988), “Biscuits, cookies and crackers”, The Principle of Craft, Vol. 1, Elsevier Applied Science, London.

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