Nutrition in Clinical Practice

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Nutritional Management in Clinical Practice: Diet, ... 6 Diet, Diabetes Mellitus, and Insulin Resistance . .... 43 Vegetarianism, Veganism, and Macrobiotic Diets .

Nutrition in Clinical Practice ISBN: 9781451186642 David L. Katz, MD, MPH, MS Director, Prevention Research Center, Yale Hospital; Clinical Instructor in Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine; Director, Integrative Medicine Center, College of Lifestyle Medicine, Derby, CT Rachel S.C. Friedman, MD, MHS

Medicine, University of California, Sean C. Lucan, MD, MPH, MS

Bronx, New York

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CONTENTS

About the Authors vii Contributing Authors ix Preface xi Preface to the First Edition xiii Acknowledgments xvii

SECTION I

Clinically Relevant Nutrient Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 3 4

SECTION II

Nutritional Management in Clinical Practice: Diet, in Sickness and in Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

SECTION III

Clinically Relevant Carbohydrate Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Clinically Relevant Fat Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Clinically Relevant Protein Metabolism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Overview of Clinically Relevant Micronutrient Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Diet, Weight Regulation, and Obesity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Diet, Diabetes Mellitus, and Insulin Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Diet, Atherosclerosis, and Ischemic Heart Disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Diet and Hypertension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Diet and Hemostasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Diet and Cerebrovascular and Peripheral Vascular Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Diet and Immunity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Diet and Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Diet and Hematopoiesis: Nutritional Anemias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Diet, Bone Metabolism, and Osteoporosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Diet and Respiratory Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Diet and Renal Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Diet and Hepatobiliary Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Diet and Common Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Diet, Dyspepsia, and Peptic Ulcer Disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Diet and Rheumatologic Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Diet and Neurologic Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Diet and Dermatoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Diet and Wound Healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Food Allergy and Intolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Eating Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Malnutrition and Cachexia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

Special Topics in Clinical Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 27 28 29

Diet, Pregnancy, and Lactation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 Diet and the Menstrual Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Diet and Early Development: Pediatric Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

xix

xx

Contents 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

SECTION IV

45

428 441 449 459 468 475 485 503 514 521 528 537

Culture, Evolutionary Biology, and the Determinants of Dietary Preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 Dietary Recommendations for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564

Principles of Effective Dietary Counseling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583 46 47

SECTION VI

408 416

Diet and Health Promotion: Establishing the Theme of Prudent Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 44

SECTION V

Diet and Adolescence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diet and Senescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ergogenic Effects of Foods and Nutrients: Diet and Athletic Performance & Sports Nutrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Endocrine Effects of Diet: Phytoestrogens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diet, Sleep–Wake Cycles, and Mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diet and Cognitive Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diet and Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diet and Dentition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hunger, Appetite, Taste, and Satiety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Effects of Chocolate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Effects of Ethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Effects of Coffee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macronutrient Food Substitutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vegetarianism, Veganism, and Macrobiotic Diets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Models of Behavior Modification for Diet and Activity Patterns and Weight Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 Dietary Counseling in Clinical Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606

Controversies in Contemporary Clinical Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 48 49 50

The Calorie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621 The Search for Scapegoats and Silver Bullets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624 Obesity as Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628

SECTION VII Appendices and Resource Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E APPENDIX F APPENDIX G APPENDIX H

Nutrition Formulas of Clinical Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Growth and Body Weight Assessment Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dietary Intake Assessment in the US Population . . . . . . . . . . . . Dietary Intake Assessment Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nutrient/Nutriceutical Reference Tables: Intake Range and Dietary Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resources for Nutrient Composition of Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diet–Drug Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nutrient Remedies for Common Conditions: Patient Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

633 634 644 644 646 703 703 704

Contents APPENDIX I APPENDIX J APPENDIX K APPENDIX L Index

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xxi

Print and Web-Based Resource Materials for Professionals . . . . Print and Web-Based Resource Materials for Patients . . . . . . . . Patient-Specific Meal Planners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patient-Specific Supplement Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

705 706 708 709