Occupational exposure to indium: what does

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Jul 8, 2011 - [In(OH)3], and/or metal indium) may represent a risk of interstitial .... on D-3, D-2, D-1 and D-0. InCl3 anhydrous (CAS 10025-82-8, >96% purity, FLUKA) was dis- ... Indium was quantified at m/z 115 with Rhodium. (m/z 103) as ..... Sulfate, Gallium Arsenide, Indium Phosphide and Vanadium Pentoxide. Lyon.

Toxicology Letters 213 (2012) 122–128

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Toxicology Letters journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/toxlet

Occupational exposure to indium: what does biomonitoring tell us? Perrine Hoet a,∗ , Emmy De Graef b , Bert Swennen c , Théo Seminck a , Yousof Yakoub a , Gladys Deumer a , Vincent Haufroid a , Dominique Lison c a b c

Louvain Centre for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (LTAP), Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Brussels, Belgium Umicore PMR, Department of Health & Safety, Hoboken, Belgium Umicore Corporate Environment, Health and Safety, Umicore, Brussels, Belgium

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Article history: Available online 8 July 2011 Keywords: Indium Occupational Biological monitoring

a b s t r a c t Background: The industrial uses of indium, a rare metal with no known physiological role in humans, have increased dramatically over the past 15 years. The results of animal toxicity studies showing pulmonary and systemic effects as well as some reports in workers have created a growing concern about the possible occurrence of toxic effects in exposed workers. Validated biomarkers to assess exposure to indium are not available. Objectives: This work aimed at investigating the kinetics of indium in urine (In-U) and plasma (In-Pl) in workers manufacturing In ingots and mainly exposed to hardly water-soluble In compounds. All nine workers from the In department of a large metallurgical concern participated in the study as well as 5 retired workers and 20 controls. Methods: Personal breathing zone air was collected throughout the work shift on Monday and Friday. Blood and urine samples were collected, before and after the shift, on the same day as the air sampling and on preshift the next Monday after a non-working week-end. Moreover, rats were given either InCl3 by intraperitoneal injection or In2 O3 by pharyngeal aspiration, In was followed in plasma during 120 days and measured in tissues 120 days after exposure. Results: Higher In-Pl and In-U concentrations were found in both current (range 0.32–12.61 ␮g/L plasma; 0.22–3.50 ␮g/g creat) and former (0.03–4.38 ␮g/L plasma; 0.02–0.69 ␮g/g creat) workers compared with controls (

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