olive groves, tradition, olive oil & quality

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Offering expertize on agronomic services to the culture of olive (conduction ... How to produce good quality of olive oil. ... Density: 4 to 8 m (ambient, Cultivar).

OLIVE GROVES, TRADITION, OLIVE OIL & QUALITY

Hairi Ismaili Agricultural University of Tirana Albania Gene Bank Tirana Albanie

29-31 July 2015

Abstract

The situation of the olive groves in areas of center of Albania and steps to be taken for the improvement of the olives quality. Offering expertize on agronomic services to the culture of olive (conduction of training on the theory and demonstration on practice of the agronomic services of olive. Conduction of the training according to the topics below: How to create new plantations of olive. Selection of the new variety. Ways of pruning and stage of production. Rehabilitation from the frost, age and infections. Methods and time of harvesting, wais of packaging and transportation. Demonstration on practice of the agronomic services. How to produce good quality of olive oil.

2

Main problems in the olive groves

Today o o o o o o o

Incorrect choice of varieties The olive grove badly maintained The trees badly formed Errors in pruning The old trees no regenerate Badly damaged by pathogens Time and method of harvesting is wrong 3

Why and how should created olive groves?

o The environment terrain study and climate

o Variety : Resistance, morphological and chemical haracteristics o

Technological system: The density, forming, maintenance

Higher profitability Low periodicity Long exploitation period High quantity & quality of oil 4

Analysis of errors

Col. Varietall

Bad terrain

The biggest density

Variety

Bad terrain

[email protected]

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Ulliri: Prodhimtari, Biodiversitet & qendrueshmeri

General findings : Drying of new trees Long non-productive period Major infections diseases, falling of leaves Damage from cold

Table

Oil production constant % Oil & Quality Resistant of Cycloc

Resistant of Cycloc & Bractocera 6

UB U. Z Perper MICK

In the Hill - local cv - Mick, U.bardhe, Freng, Lundra, UZ, UK, Boç, Kaninjot, Perk

Boç Gjykats

Kryps E

In low areas: Lecino, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Cunatis, Roxhanela, Itrana, Marksi

Freng

Perk

Information on cultivars that have good suitability in the area

Lundra

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while the varieties : Most important element should be under the full responsibility of the specialist

Observations Sapling 3-4-6 years have been planted, many adults; But Long trunks, burning from the sun, frost, small vegetation Low resistance & suitability The drying big percentage, Not entered into production recommendations: is selected varieties Age of saplings 0.5 – 2 year On dependencies of planting time

For saplings should be known…the age…standard … the links with the type of soil…. .climate … planting time…, destination and irrigation

The formation of new tree

Density: 4 to 8 m (ambient, Cultivar) should: Cheaper form of the crown/ conical , policonical, vases No more than three main branches, 3 II, and 3-III. tronc 50-80cm Little or no cutting of the tree new 1- 5 years 9

Pruning in the production phase: Were observed severe cutting Reduced production of the following year Pruning carried out in December-February, unacceptable It should be removed annually 5-10% of the tree, for renovation. Each 5-6 years should be reduced branch III / III, Pruning time March 1 to 30 10

Century trees

should Of wood reduction to 90% ... nitrogen compounds ….. vegetation management…. regeneration… make the……… prolongation of life 11

1. Very degraded of centuries tree Cutting in the trunk. Reduced to 90% of wood, The crown sits on the trunk, are regenerated ramule. Trees produce in the fourth years

2. Centuries tree for regeneration Cutting over three sceletal branches, reduced to 70% of wood, low crown, new ramule are regenerated, the tree produces in the year III

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Regenerated trees with pruning The wood reduce 70-90% Food with nitrogen Added production capacity of 5-8 times

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New formative pruning:

New tree degraded From – malformation infections competition, polarity

Trees 3 years later 14

Immediately reformation of new trees From this tree 18 years, 3.2 m³ firewood

Pruning regulates: Fisiological Ec (C/N) 1-1 Wood / Vegetation 0.3 -0.7 sprig renovation 90% 15

Reformated trees by specialists in the IP-Vlore, Shtyllas Fier

Trunk is made 60 cm Homogenised varieties in 12% (grafting) The crown type vase

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Frost

Tuberkulozi

Frost

Pseudomonas

Age

Age

Rehabilitation from frost, age and infections

Fire 17

AGRONOMY Information about phenology Soil fertility, The relief Characteristics of varieties in production Organic material (intercalar and organic fertilizer) Mineral manures, Nitrogen, new trees added to 100 g / year. Tree production 3-6kg /tree Time: one or two doses according to ability irrigation. (February + april)

mulching

Ugar

Intercalary Soils inclined: should the meadow interkalar culture october to april Time and schemes. Irrigation: June, July, August Norm: by age

Agronomy – Phenological stage Without knowing the stages of development not be used nitrogen + water

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pathogens and protection

Pests of first order :

Bractocera, Cycloconium, Prays, Cocenilie

With two mineral oil treatments in July and August waned 58% of number of larvae and the end of November 3 times less. Bacillus thuringiensis.

By two treatments

Bractocera

Reduces the quantity of oil to 50% and Increases the acidity of the oil The pitfalls 5x20 cm with ammonium carbonate (nourishing attractive for Bractocera) and sexual pheromone capsule Flies come into contact with the insecticide (Deltametrine) and die. It determines the dynamics of flight and estimated damage threshold

Control by chemical means

Touchwood treatments protein localized in the southern part of the tree, each 5 tree 1 -2 m² and each month. July, August, September. Reducing insect biological basis

chemical treatments : When the number of the butterfly captured is on three during the three observations. : Dimethon, Aragol, Rogor, Lejbacid, Kohinor, etj

Method and time of harvesting, The quality and quantity of oil: production periodicity Practical methods: (i) the color indicator (COI), (ii) visual.

Scientific Method: The maximum weight of the fruit - the corresponding percentage of oil

Vitamine E

At this stage index, fruits contain the maximum quantity Omega 3 and omega 6

Oleuropeina dhe Flavonoidet

form the pigments responsible to change the color of the fruit

Exerts protective action

antibactérial dhe antiviral.

Tree: The more leaves the more resistant to diseases.

C16:0 C16:1 C16:1 C17:0 C17:1 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C18:1 C20:1 C22:0 C24:0 C20:0

ω9 ω7 ω8 ω9 ω6 ω3 ω7 ω9

Acide palmitik………………………… 11,8 Acidi hypogéik……………………… 0,12 Acidi palmitoléik……………………. 0,81 Acidi margarik……………………….. 0,08 Acidi margaroléik…………………… 0,15 Acidi stéarik ………………………….. 2,2 Acidi oleik ……………………………...72,6 Acidi linoléik…………………………... 7,9 Acidi linolénik………………………… 0,65 Acidi cis-vaccénik……………………. 2,3 Acidi gondoïk…………………………. 0,28 Acidi béhénik…………………………. 0,11 Acidi lignocérik ………………………. 0,05 Acidi arachidik………………………….. 0,37

ACIDET qe kane intéres te veçante

Acidi oléik

ω3

Acidi cis-vaccénik

Ac.ruménik

Acidi linoléik (CLA)

Anti Cancer

No

Yes

The harvesting is permitted or prohibited

METHOD The tree ... the fruits are clean ... but .. they break down the method of harvesting ...... .. ...... .. transport packaging. Fruits should be harvested from the tree clean and undamaged

The harvesting only with nets

When the color is such

It must be packaged in crates .... And immediately transported to the factory

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before harvest: Cleanse place under crown, emplace nets, fruit for the table manually, not shake off the rod ….

Vjelje nga pema me dore

Por paraprakishte Pergatitet vendi

arrange fruit in crates ... dirt, transporting produce to the factory immediately!!

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Transported directly to the factory

Wash fruits with clean water ... remove leaves ... stones, ... clay etc ... Grind to 45 degrees

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B.GJ

L’Olivicoltura è un Patrimonio Naturale per il sistema agricolo di Scutari…

elemento di Paesaggio …. per il singolarissimo Alimento che fornisce….“l’Olio Buono”…. , è esempio di Esclusività Alimentare, di Tradizione, di Intelligenza e di Cultura.

A. Cimato, H. Ismaili