On Information and Communication Technology Cooperation Between China and GCC Members (Translated Edition, Published in Chinese)
Huang Lei University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
E-mail: [email protected]
This paper has been published in Arab World Studies at Jul.2016.
Abstract The founding of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) has shown China’s positive motivation of development. Exuberant arguments about the benefits of AIIB have been released. Meanwhile, queries of the overestimate of AIIB reflect the apprehension of both participants and observers. Some critical comments are being exposure under the flashlight. Specifically, people worry about the establishment of AIIB will make the venture capital in high-tech investments cheaper. There was a longterm history of Science and Technology (S&T) transfer between ancient China and Arabic world. Significant achievements of S&T, which had been made by the transfer before the industrial society boosted. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) investment represents the core capability of high-tech investment. By the rapid ICT development, Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) members have already stepped into neo evolutions, which consist of the implications of knowledge economy and information society. Further, the future of ICT will be navigated by big data technology. Data-Driven ICT transfer will upgrade the regulatory framework. The value of ICT transfers between China and GCC countries will be discussed in this paper. The more valuable cooperation will be the dynamic of ICT transfer between China and GCC countries. Keywords: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC); information and communication technology(ICT); technology transfer; knowledge spillover Introduction With the increasing deepening of the globalization process, the relations between the technology transfer within the industry and international technology transfer become increasingly close. The technology transfer is one of the most important means of obtaining technologies between countries, which is further divided into purchasing permissions, foreign direct investment and even illegal modeling and trading.(Tanaka, Iwaisako, & Futagami, 2007) For post-developing countries and regions, realizing the transfer of relevant knowledge is one of the principal aims of implementing the international technology transfer strategy. Meanwhile, understanding the introduction and absorption of advanced technology through global merger & acquisition has become one of the important means of current international technology transfer. The sustained technology transfer is favorable for the complement of technological knowledge and other technical resources between technologicallyadvanced countries and technologically post-developing countries. It also produces a large-scale knowledge spillover effect that is helpful for both parties’ technical innovations. Only by realizing actual knowledge spillover effect can countries further achieve the re-innovations of knowledge. Therefore, the process of understanding the spillover effect is also the process of overcoming technical introduction barriers, actually realizing the localized technical application and achieving the identification of innovative values in the technology transfer process. Literature Review At present, the academic circle hasn’t formed a unified definition of technology transfer. Barry Bozeman thought the definition of technology transfer could be categorized from the research principle and research aim. (Bozeman, 2000)The economists represented by Kenneth J. Arrow tend to discuss the definition of technology from common knowledge’s particularly special. Meanwhile, their research on technology transfer is mainly centered on the research related to production and designing variables. (Arrow, 1969) The research on management is focused on the technology transfer inside the industry of commercialized modes. (Johnson, 1970)Some scholars closely relate technology transfer and corporates’ technological development strategies. (Teece, 1977)Among them, corporates also form into technical associations to achieve technological development and transfers, thereby forming joint competitiveness. (Hagedoorn, 1990)Sociologists tend to combine technology transfer and innovations and consider technology as the causal relations containing uncertainties, thus designing mechanic actions to obtain expected results.(Rogers & Shoemaker, 1971) However, anthropologists are more inclined towards discussing technology transfer in the range of social and cultural changes, as well as changes influenced by technology. (Merrill, 1972)In the current field of researching technology transfer, however, the concept and definition of technology transfer are more influenced by management theories. Currently, the research on the international technology transfer is mainly concentrated in the following three dimensions. Firstly, between developed countries (regions). The differences between developed countries regarding the economy, society, culture, law and political system are small. Meanwhile, they have certain technical comparative advantages. Because of this, the channels and forms of technology transfer between these countries are more diversified than those of other nations. Moreover, their efficiency of technology transfer is higher. The technology transfer of developed countries is aimed at maintaining -1-
their technical first-mover advantages through cooperation. Therefore, the scale and number of technology transfer are two of the most important factors in developed countries’ technology transfer process. Technology transfer is determined by the relatively mature market mechanism of developed countries and is explicitly represented as the completeness of labor and the capital market, as well the country’s mature technology transfer market. Moreover, large-scale technical venture capital plays a significant role in the technology transfer between developed countries. Taking the technology transfer between America and Germany as examples, the indexes of the R&D fund and R&D performance show both countries are highly similar regarding the industry, governmental input, higher education institutions and private & non-profit research institutions. Although there are some structural differences between these two countries, these two nations’ technology transfer systems are similar regarding the functional positioning, namely these two countries embrace similar technical challenges and opportunities through technology transfer. (Abramson, Encarnacao, Reid, & Schmoch, 1997) Secondly, between the developed country and the developing country. overall, developing countries’ economic level and technological level fall behind those of developed countries. Developing countries tend to seek their urgently needed technical resources through the technology transfer with developed countries and inspire their technological innovation advantages through these resources, thereby catching up with developed countries technologically. However, developed countries transfer technological products of the late manufacturing phase to developing countries and further explore such technical products’ values. This becomes one of the important reasons why developed countries implement technological monopoly and restrict the technological diffusion. In recent years, partial developing countries have gradually enjoyed technical advantages in some areas and realized the technology transfer to developed countries to some extent. However, developing countries can hardly narrow the technological gap between them and developed countries in the short term. Thirdly, between developing countries. Although there are vast technical differences between developed countries and developing countries, the developing countries that are at different developmental levels also have their technological advantages. Moreover, it is easier for developing countries to realize the retransfer of their advantageous technology and absorbed technology through technology transfer. Meanwhile, they can also complement each other’s advantages and obtain the capital and technical resources for further developing their abilities to make independent innovations. Taking China and ASEAN countries as examples, the increasingly frequent economic exchanges between both parties make China and ASEAN countries achieve complement in technical resources, products, and market through technology transfer. For China, ASEAN countries are important markets that supply raw materials to industrial goods. Meanwhile, they are also the consumption demands of various technological products. For ASEAN countries, they also improve their technical levels through the technology transfer with China. For post-developing countries, this means of technology transfer acts as a valuable complement to their technological development strategies. (Jianping Gao, 2014) In the process of technology transfer, the technical superiority owned by technically-advanced countries will usually trigger the conflicts between technically post-developing countries’ social cultures and techniques. Due to similar economic development levels among economically post-developing countries, the possibility for such conflicts to occur is small. According to the rational decision-making model of Graham T. Allison, the solution to conflicts are based on the evaluation of conflict solution aim of the government, which is a reasonable decision-maker. However, the rational decision-making is determined by whether the policy solution mechanism can obtain consistent returns. Both China and GCC member have obtained a tremendous impetus for economic development from information and communication technology. Under the dual role played by technical progress and market demands, both parties will further increase their technology transfer of information and communication technology. For both sides, the economic development model oriented on knowledge and innovations will become critical choices for the social and economic development in the future. Historical Experience of Technology Transfer and the Current Status of Information Technological Development of GCC Members For the modern information and communication technology, rational thinking, mathematic and engineering knowledge are essential. Although the modern information and communication technology is indispensable to the development of Western scientific technology, the mathematic and scientific knowledge of ancient China and the Arabian world has made a significant contribution to the development of modern information and communication technology. Through the transfer of technological knowledge, the ancient Arabian world has promoted the prosperity and development of the Western scientific technology. In the golden period of the Arabian Islam culture, Dar al-Hikmah provided a communication platform for Western and Eastern science and technology knowledge by translating a large number of scientific works in ancient Greece, Persia, and India. With such translated scientific treatises, medieval Arabian scientists and artisans carried out creative improvements in -2-
technology while making technology transfer. Meanwhile, the silk road provided a possibility for China and the Arabian world to achieve technology transfer. Under the high demand of spreading Koran, Muslim people improved the technology of printing Koran based on the ancient paper-making technology of China.(Bloom, 2001) This not only enhanced the efficiency of spreading Koran but also exerted tremendous influences to the social communications between different regions in the Eurasia.(Robinson, 1993) The scientific innovations of the Medieval Arabian world were indispensable with the scientific connections between the Eastern and Western worlds. Meanwhile, the technology transfer was one of the principal means of communications and has brought technical innovations. The scientific history’s relevant research results show: The Medieval Arabian empire had made unique contributions in the transfer, absorption, and innovations in the science and technology. Its contributions are mainly represented in the following three aspects: Firstly, saved the ancient Greek scientific and technological knowledge by means of translating classical works. The rebirth of Western science and technology was dispensable with the knowledge transfer between ancient Greece and the Medieval Arabian world. Through the 100 Years’ Translation Movement, the Arabian Empire achieved constant transfers of scientific knowledge between the 8th century and 10th century A.D. Many classical ancient Greek works that exert far-reaching influences on the modern society are passed down by translating Arabian works into Latin. In the process of knowledge transfer, the Arabian world has realized the re-innovation of knowledge based on absorbing knowledge. As a crucial component of the Medieval Arabian philosophy, the new Arabian Platonism achieved new development.(Adamson, 2005) Secondly, the Arabic mathematics made original contributions to the development of algebra’s development. In the Abbasids, a famous mathematician named Al-Khwarizmi introduced the Indian decimal system into the Islamic world and spread it to Europe. This is the famous Arabic numeral. Between the 10th century and 12th century A.D., the Arabian mathematics played a significant role in spreading and developing mathematics in Europe. In the book, which titled Methods of Calculating Integration and Equation, Al-Khwarizmi was devoted to working out the positive roots of a one-variable polynomial and multi-variable polynomial, which equaled the achievements made by ancient mathematician Diophantus in algebra. (Boyer, 1991)Seen from the perspective of scientific and cultural communications, ancient China and the Arabian world had similar mathematic writing and expressing means regarding working out the root. However, whether there are significant relations between such similarities are open to further investigations.(Chemla, 1994) Thirdly, three brothers and Medieval inventors named after Banu Musa invented the earliest programmable machine in the world. In the Abbasids period, Banu Masa wrote the famous Kitab alHiyal, which described plentiful methods of designing and using the automatic mechanic equipment. Besides the mechanic devices invested by Banu Musa, this book also introduces abundant mechanical devices manufactured under the inspiration of the ancient Greek, Chinese and Indian engineering technology. (Musa, 1979) The Translation Movement that arose from the Umayyad Dynasty reached its peak during the Abbasid Dynasty. “Arabian scholars absorbed the knowledge developed by ancient Greece for hundreds of years with decades of years.”(Yang, 1995) Such a high efficiency of knowledge transfer has been rare both in the ancient times and the modern world. However, similar phenomena are taking place in modern China. The transfer of technological knowledge is a major component of technological innovations of the Medieval Arabian world. According to the findings of historical investigations, the Islamic civilization has strong demands for developing its scientific technology in the long-term and large-scale process of knowledge transfer on the Eurasian. The differences between economic development levels, political systems, and religious cultures cause a new technology to suffer restriction from all sectors of the society, namely the phenomenon of technology resistance. Similar to the unique quality that Chinese civilization absorbs everything, the acceptance, absorption, and innovations of technology take a deep root in the Arabian Islamic culture and become an endogenous demand of the Arabian—Islamic civilization. In the 21st century, the diversification of economic development models and the working opportunities of creating more high-tech levels have become two of the core competitiveness of various countries. Meanwhile, China and GCC member are all devoted to improving the standard of high-tech labor resources and transiting to the knowledge-intensive economic development mode. Meanwhile, both parties have also formulated relevant policies to accelerate and achieve such a transition. In this process, the information and communication technology will continue to play an important role, making the post-developing countries have more urgent demands for modernized information and communication technology transfer. -3-
Compared with other nations in the Middle East, GCC member have undoubtedly made significant achievements in exploring the knowledge-intensive economic mode and constructing the informationbased society. The research results of the World Bank show: GCC member enjoys abundant resources and plays an incredibly important role in the socioeconomic development of the Middle East that endows countries with different levels of natural resources. The enormous wealth accumulated by GCC members through petroleum resources has laid a solid economic foundation for these countries to develop towards the knowledge-intensive society. However, the non-renewable nature of petroleum resources is also one of the important reasons why GCC members cannot keep themselves outside of the global informational revolution.(Dutta & Coury, 2002) Meanwhile, GCC member is fast elevating their positions in the global commercial environment through the information-based construction, which provides higher requirements on this region’s environment of researching and developing information and communication technology. According to the reports of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, UAE ranked seventh regarding the ease of doing business index in 2014. Meanwhile, other five GCC member all ranked among the top 100 around the world. (Business, 2015)Although the proportions of GCC member’ R&D funds to GDP have continually been rising in recent years, they are still at a low level worldwide. In 2013, the average proportion of the R&D expenditures of the Middle East and the South African regions was only 2%. Meanwhile, the portions of the R&D expenditures allocated by Oman, UAE, and Kuwait to their GDPs were respectively 3.4%, 3.2%, and 1.4%.(World Bank Group, 2015) At present, the technology transfer is one of the important channels for maintaining the fast development of GCC member’ information and communication technology. In the past ten years, GCC member has input a large number of resources in the ICT transfer, which is mainly represented as the contribution in the ICT-related infrastructure, educational resources, and public services. Firstly, GCC member has made long-term progress in the investment and effectiveness of information technological infrastructure. As of 2014, the average Internet popularization rate of GCC member had exceeded 80% (the Internet popularization rates of Qatar, Bahrain, and UAE all exceeded 90%). In the past ten years, these countries’ internet clients have been increasing at a fast speed. Secondly, GCC member is constructing one higher education force that enjoys certain international competitiveness by the global integration of educational resources related to information and communication technology. The fast development of information and communication technology has provided a significant number of hightech talents for GCC member. Meanwhile, a batch of universities that enjoy internationally advanced ICT education, including KAUST and NYUAD, have been set up in succession. Thirdly, GCC member has experienced exceptional competence of making independent innovations in applying information and communication technology to public services. Among the electronic public affairs, Bahrain’s smart card technology and UAE’s certification authority technology have been approved in the Gulf area. It is just with the government’s constant and large-scale input in the information and communication field and the adoption of application-oriented measures to actively turn resources into a real application that make GCC member occupy an absolute leading position in the ICT field in the Middle East. The fast development of ICT in the areas mentioned above significantly improves the information levels of GCC member, while the knowledge spillover effect brought by a larger-scale of high-tech cooperation has been enlarged through ICT. The information and communication technology has been one of the necessary guarantees for GCC member to develop their knowledge-intensive economy. For the recipient countries of technological knowledge transfers, the differences between the application environment make it tough to change the achievements of technological knowledge transfers into independent innovations. One transfer of technological knowledge will usually face the repulsions from recipient countries’ social cultures. The traditional opinion thinks such aversions and resistance that come from other departments in the society will exert negative influences on technology transfer. When the e-mail technology had just been introduced to UAE, it faced repulsions for all social classes regarding its application. The main reason was that the Arabian people are more inclined towards faceto-face communications under the influences of the Islam traditional religious culture and pay a higher emphasis to create the family atmosphere in the social organization structure. In the application process, however, the e-mail technology severs the emotional and communication bonds that people rely on through direct contact. Because of this, the e-mail technology was slowly accepted in Arabian countries back then. There are also scholars who think technological resistance can be taken as one resource of technical innovations, while the social culture plays an active role in adapting to and developing the technological application. (Bauer, 1997) Under the dual function of the pressure brought by external world’s quick changes and the endogenous impetus of Arabian countries’ social and economic development, an increasing number of Arabians have gradually accepted the changes in their life that are caused by ICT under the influences of other modern ICT’s application and relevant knowledge education. Meanwhile, they have also found a balance point between technical transitions and traditional culture. This is also an important guarantee for GCC member to construct a knowledge-type society and develop the knowledge-intensive economic -4-
model. It is noteworthy that even the same type of technology needs to adapt to its application environment and conditions when transferred to different regions. When the modern information and communication technology are transferred to different regions or countries, it is impossible to prevent conflicts from occurring in the localization process. Taking the technology of renting automobile as an example, Uber’s agile development in American is indispensable with the entire law, credit and insurance systems, all of which tend to be immature in post-developing countries. Therefore, China and many post-developing countries still face huge institutional barriers when carrying out the vehicle renting technology transfer and application. Besides, GCC member also faces some other problems when developing the information and communication technology fast. Compared with developed countries, GCC member’ protection of intellectual property is still weak. Through the research on the crucial indexes of information and technology development, one can easily find out: As of 2014, the export of GCC member’ ICT products and services still faced huge differences and instability. Because of this, the input of more excellent information and communication infrastructure will become the urgent demand and correct choice of GCC members. However, the constant large-scale ICT transfers should be further deepened and optimized. Opportunities and Challenges of the ICT Transfer Between China and GCC Members The GCC plays an indicative role in the Gulf area, the Arabian world and international affairs unmatched by other organizations in the Middle East.(Zhang, 2000) Meanwhile, it has been maintaining close cooperation relations with China in the past years. In recent years, the bilateral trading volume between China and GCC member have continued a steady increase and the direct investment between both parties have continuously been growing. However, the investing cooperation between both sides remains small and unmatched with their economic development levels. Therefore, the further cooperation needs to be enhanced.(Wu, 2015) According to UNCDAT’s analysis of the statistical data in the global information and technology industry, the communication equipment has become the main impetus for driving the increase in the trading in the ICT field. At present, China is the world’s largest export and import country of information and communication equipment. Meanwhile, the Gulf area is becoming the region suitable to carry out global commercial activities fast. This tendency shows GCC member’s allocation of global ICT market’s strategies is paramount. Moreover, China has surpassed Korea, U.S., and EU to become the GCC member’s largest ICT trading partner (see Fig. 1). Computers, communication equipment, consumer electronics, electronic units and other information and communication equipment that are necessary for information and communication infrastructural construction have become the most important components of the ICT trading between China and GCC members. Among them, computer equipment accounts for the largest proportion of all information and communication equipment export, while the increase of consumer electronics is the fastest (see Fig. 2). According to the data analysis and prediction, China and America will become two of the most important of GCC member’ ICT trading partners in the future.
Fig.1 Comparison of Top 5 Export Trading Volumes of ICT Products of GCC Member Between 2009 and 2003 ( million dollars). Data source: UNCDAT Statistics, http://unctadstat.unctad.org/wds/ReportFolders/reportFolders.aspx
Access at: February 18th, 2016.
Fig.2 The Comparison of Main ICT Products Exported by China to GCC Member Between 2009 and 2013 (unit: million dollars). Data source: UNCDAT Statistics, http://unctadstat.unctad.org/wds/ReportFolders/reportFolders.aspx . Access at February 20th, 2016.
The establishment of “Asian Infrastructure Investing Bank” (AIIB) will provide a wider platform for the high-tech cooperation, transfer, and application between China and GCC member. Kuwait became a founding member of AIIB on October 24th, 2014, while Saudi Arab and AEU signed The Articles of Agreements of AIIB in 2015. It is noteworthy that AIIB’s member are not limited to developing countries. Meanwhile, partially developed countries and various international political and economic organizations also make an investment in other infrastructure and relevant production fields covered by AIIB. The correlation between ICT and post-developing countries’ economic increase has been widely discussed and approved worldwide. (Avgerou, 2003)The appropriate information infrastructure is imperative to constructing the knowledge-intensive knowledge. China has obtained substantial resources for building the information-based society from ICT transfers, namely the relevant technological knowledge. Moreover, it also realized the large-scale spillover effect of technological knowledge through independent innovations and industrialization. Meanwhile, the social, economic development becomes increasingly relied on the massive investment and fast increase of the information and communication technology industry.(Meng & Li, 2002) With the official establishment of AIIB, undoubtedly, the investment in constructing the regional ICT infrastructure will achieve a large-scale increase. Among such investment, the investment in postdeveloping countries’ ICT and consistent production will also be more valuable. With its huge regional influences, AIIB attracts the helpful resources of countries with informational, technological first-mover and significantly increases the efficiency of member’ transfers of post-developing countries. Meanwhile, it will also produce a larger-scale spill-over effect of technological knowledge for the technology output and receiving parties. The One Belt& One Road Initiative of China provides new opportunities for ICT industry to participate in the construction and cooperation of international information and communication infrastructure. Throughout the world, the politics that relies on modernized ICT is rising. Meanwhile, the BDS system, as the most significant spatial information infrastructure of China, is becoming one of the primary satellite navigation systems of China after the GPS(American), GLONASS(Russian), and Galileo(EU). With the fast improvement of making innovations in ICT, China has independently developed the BDS system that has independent intellectual property. This system then becomes an important carrier of scientific diplomacy. With the constant maturity of the ICT application security environment, technical conditions and relevant policies, these countries’ construction of knowledgeintensive society has increasing demands for the satellite navigation system. GCC member is countries that enjoy a relative stability of social, political and economic development in the Arabian world, which makes them a bridgehead of promoting Chinese BDS system to the Arabian world. Meanwhile, the BDS system that represents the strength of Chinese information and communication technology is also an important factor that guarantees the efficient ICT transfer between China and GCC member. Besides emphasizing independent innovations, it is necessary for Chinese ICT corporates to actively seek international cooperation and increase innovative dimensions through technology transfer. -6-
At present, Chinese ICT corporates are devoting themselves to the international market competition with an unprecedented depth and width. They have also made many remarkable achievements. Meanwhile, the Chinese ICT corporates represented by Huawei and ZTE have high international competitiveness. However, China is still a technologically post-developing country and faces similar challenges from technology transfer when carrying out independent innovations with GCC members. Firstly, how to balance the demands between ICT transfers and social stability. For China and GCC members, the rapid economic development is indispensable with the support from information and communication technology. The development of the information and communication technology injects new vigor into the economy, provides more employment opportunities and promotes the upgrade of labor resources. However, the development of the information and communication technology also proposes higher requirements on their social development. The rapid evolution of the information and communication technology improves the society’s requirements on labor resources. Meanwhile, it also causes a certain degree of technological unemployment, while the widespread application of the information technology is inevitably followed by the flooding of digital information, which further causes the risks of informational misuse. Secondly, how to formulate regulations and policies that match information and communication technology transfer. As developing countries, China and GCC member have relatively complete regulations and policies on information and communication technology, including the laws that protect intellectual property, relevant policies on educational reform and policies on informational security. For post-developing countries in ICT, it is still necessary to continuously explore and do practices in information and communication regulations and policies that suit their national conditions in the fast process of developing technology. Thirdly, how to create an innovative environment that is favorable for independent research and development through information and communication technology transfer. In the context of globalization, the information technology development of developing countries is indispensable with technical cooperation, diffusion, transfers and other means of obtaining technology. However, the final aim of obtaining technology is to serve the country’s social and economic development. Based on this purpose, the spillover effect will be inevitably produced in the transfer process. The spillover effect’s scale directly influences developing countries’ abilities to make independent innovations. Meanwhile, it also proposes higher requirements on the environment and conditions of making independent innovations. Fourthly, how to input advantageous resources in the construction of information and communication infrastructure. With the rapid economic development of China and GCC member, a larger-scale of social resources will be input in the information and communication technology field under the dual role of the market’s demands and technological revolutions. The investing quality of information and technology infrastructure will play an extremely crucial role in cultivating domestic and external market demands and inspiring technological upgrade. However, there are still certain rentseeking behaviors in the process where developing countries absorb technology. The deficiency of relevant policies, regulations and parallel systems cause the investment of information industrial infrastructure construction fail to give play to their due roles. Meanwhile, the requirements on the efficiency of investing in information and technology infrastructure will also further influence the effectiveness of technology transfer between China and GCC members. The problems mentioned above will become the challenges that must be faced by China and GCC members when investing in the construction of information and communication technological infrastructure. Meanwhile, how to break the bottlenecks of information technology development when absorbing and applying technology to the cooperation and exchange in the technology transfer process will become a major theme jointly discussed by various members of AIIB. Prospect For China and GCC member, the future cooperation in the information and communication technology field will rely on the current technology transfer and previous achievements. The investment in the construction of educational information structure, the strong demands for the economic increase and constant technological innovations will provide a basis for information and communication technology transfer and innovations. The urbanized process of GCC member is more relied on the development of knowledge economy. Therefore, the construction of the knowledge-intensive economic models is indispensable with the information technology of efficient, stable and secure information. At present, GCC members have taken a leading position regarding E-performance in the Middle East. Meanwhile, they are gradually shifting to driving-oriented intelligent-performance. According to the estimation of the Cisco company, the Internet population rate of GCC member in recent years will -7-
continue to increase, while market demands and technical innovations will continue to drive the investment in the construction of large-scale ICT infrastructure. Meanwhile, this also provides a more thorough application support and lays a more solid foundation for constructing the knowledge-type society. The fast development of the data science brought revolutions of information and communication technology worldwide. Benefited from the technical development and market demands, the costs of data saving are continually decreasing. (Mayer-Schönberger, 2011)The data science is changing the relations between the information and communication technology and economic development. Moreover, the influences exerted by relevant technologies on the social and economic life are more direct and widespread, while a large-scale of knowledge spillover effect will be realized. Meanwhile, the data science technology will carry out a massive transfer between industrial departments and between countries. The information and communication technology driven by data will also face some new changes. Firstly, humans’ memories become increasingly relied on external memory in the modern society. The memory’s external storage mainly exists by means of data storing. Meanwhile, the data’s sustainability and security will significantly influence the quality of data storage. The population of social network and e-commerce also have increasingly high requirements on online data services. In the era of Big Data, the quality and security of data storage are not only determined by PC terminals’ storage capacities but have more reliance over the developmental level of public storage equipment. For example, the number of security network servers owned by China and GCC members (per million people), which is an important index of constructing the information-based society, falls greatly short of the average level of developed countries. By the end of 2014, the average number of security internet servers of GSS member (172.1/ million people) had been still lower than the global average level (190.4/million people). However, the available security internet servers within China is only seven in a million inhabitants. (World Bank Group, 2016) How to optimize the means of storing data and improving data’s security will become enormous challenges for post-developing countries. Secondly, the information and communication technology driven by data needs to shift from fundamental science to industrial departments. Meanwhile, the vast amount of data produced by ebusiness includes valuable reports on the market.(Mayer-Schönberger & Cukier, 2013) The research on the industrial development is indispensable with the analysis of commercial reports. According to the IBM Tech Trends Report launched by IBM in 2011, the industries of commercial analysis, mobile computing, cloud computing and social media industries are four major informational technologies between 2010 and 2020.(IBM, 2011) The BI & A 3.0 report will have a high reliance on the development and application of data technology. The BI& A 3.0 report’s analyzing technology will be widely applied in researching the analysis of e-business and market information, e-affairs and politics and scientific & technological development, intelligence health, public sector and other fields. It will also actually abstract the valuable information in those areas and utilize it. (Chen, Chiang, & Storey, 2012)In the future, the obtaining of data and the access permission will become one of the primary standards of various countries’ competitiveness. Thirdly, the differences between the development level of data science cause the international transfers of information and communication technology driven by data. The gathering and processing of data and the visualized technological level will influence a country’s developmental potential in the development and application of data scientific development and implementation. Taking America as an example, IBM shifted the data mining technology of Hadoop from basic research to the application on the market as early as 2005. This also reflects that the information and communication technology’s high development provides an important guarantee for developed countries to overcome data science’s technological barriers in the preliminary phase. How to form one’s ability to make independent innovations in the data science field will become a problem that China and GCC member have to face. Fourthly, the formulation of the information and communication technology standards that are supported by data technology will propose higher requirements on post-developing countries. With the development and perfection of data technology, the pressure from evaluating and comparing data technology’s effectiveness and price evaluation becomes increasingly significant. At present, the data systems based on Oracle, Teradata, and Map Reduce as well as other mainstream parallel data management systems haven’t formed one unified technical benchmark.(Ghazal et al., 2013)Different from the database’s standard formulation that occurred in the mid-1980s, the parallel data management system will represent its integration with the real world to the largest extent. In the process of technology transfer, different technical application environments will not produce different requirements on professional standards. Although the Chinese data science technology has obtained long-term development in recent years, there haven’t formed a set of universal standards of applying data technology. This is also one crucial problem that must be solved when China makes information and -8-
communication transfers in the future. Besides, the impetus that inspires the development of small, medium-sized and micro-sized corporates has become an important measure for the current global economic transition. It is also an important aspect for China and GCC members to realize knowledge-intensive economic constructions. According to the strategic planning of Chinese Internet Plus, the development of the small, mediumsized corporates and micro-sized corporates will be highly dependent on modernized information and communication technology and means. Whether the information and communication technology driven by data can provide a bigger impetus for the development of both parties’ small, medium-sized and micro-sized corporates will become one of the important indexes measuring both sides’ ICT transfer efficiencies. Meanwhile, the leverage of ICT transfers driven by data will influence the cooperation between both sides in other fields. It will also be essential for promoting the changes of both parties’ economic development modes and completely change the global information and communication technology industry’s pattern. In conclusion, the data science’s transfer from fundamental science to industrial departments will propose higher requirements on the construction of the information and communication technology infrastructure of China and GCC member. Based on such changes, it is necessary for China to adopt a more active attitude to enhance its information and communication technology transfer and cooperation with GCC member, entirely give play to the role played by AIIB as an infrastructure construction and investment platform and absorb the advantageous technological resources from information and communication first-mover countries. Meanwhile, how to improve more dynamic information and communication technology transfer to achieve more valuable cooperation and further realize the improvement of making independent innovations in the technology transfer process will become the primary impetus for China and GCC member to deliver ICT transfers.
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