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This work has not been previously submitted for a degree or diploma in any university. To the ... the performance of information technology in construction.

LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) PROJECTS IN CONSTRUCTION

A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

by

RODNEY ANTHONY STEWART B.Eng. (Hons1), MIEAust, J.P.

from

School of Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology GRIFFITH UNIVERSITY GOLD COAST CAMPUS

July 2002

Declaration ii

DECLARATION This work has not been previously submitted for a degree or diploma in any university. To the best of my knowledge and belief, the thesis contains no material previously published or written by another person except where due reference is made in the thesis itself.

Rodney Anthony Stewart July 2002

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

Acknowledgements iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research on which this thesis is based was undertaken at the School of Engineering, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, under the supervision of Senior Lecturer Dr. Sherif Mohamed. The author is greatly indebted to Dr. Mohamed for having provided this research opportunity and for his enthusiastic supervision, enlightening inspiration, continuing encouragement and invaluable technical suggestions throughout the course of this investigation. The author also appreciates the guidance given in improving his research skills and the support provided for him to attend international conferences over the course of the candidature. Special thanks are due to all the academic, technical and administrative staff at the School of Engineering, particularly the Head of School, Professor Yew-Chaye Loo; to Ron Sharpe, from CSIRO, and Michael McMahon for their assistance with the questionnaire survey; to Raul Daet, from Transfield Services, for his assistance with the strategic IT implementation case study; to Carmel Wilde for her professional editing of the thesis dissertation; and finally to all the questionnaire respondents and case study participants who made this research possible. The author also thanks Griffith University and the Australian Postgraduate Award (APA) Scholarship Scheme for providing the necessary financial support, which allowed this research to continue, unhindered. The support is gratefully acknowledged. To his partner, Lisa, the author expresses deep gratitude for her constant encouragement and continuous moral and administrative support. Last, but not least, the author is indebted to his parents, brother and sister for their understanding and encouragement, right from the very beginning. The completion of this research is but a very small reward for their efforts and great expectations.

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

List of Publications iv

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS The following papers were produced to disseminate the concept and results of the work undertaken by the author during the course of this Ph.D. research study. Journal Publications 1. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. (2001) “Using benchmarking to facilitate strategic IT implementation in construction organisations.” Journal of Construction Research, Volume 2, 25-33. 2. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. (2001) “Utilising the balanced scorecard for IT/IS performance evaluation in construction.” Journal of Construction Innovation, Volume 1, Number 3, 147-163. 3. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. (2002) “Balancing risk and value in IT projects selection.” Journal of Building and Construction Management, Volume 7, Number 1, 9-14. 4. Stewart, R.A. Mohamed, S. and Daet, R. (2002) “Strategic implementation of IT/IS projects in construction: A case study.” Journal of Automation in Construction, Volume 11, Number 6, 681-694. 5. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. (2002) “IT/IS projects selection using multi-criteria utility theory.” Logistics Information Management, Volume 15, Number 4, 254-270. 6. Mohamed, S. and Stewart, R.A. (2003) “An empirical investigation of users’ perceptions of web-based communication.” Journal of Automation in Construction, Volume 12, Number 1, 43-53. 7. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. (2003) “Evaluating the value IT adds to the process of project information management in construction.” Journal of Automation in Construction, forthcoming. 8. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. (2003) “IT/IS project selection: A case study from the construction industry.” Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, (Under review). Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

List of Publications v

Conference Publications 1. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. (2000) “Adaptability of the balanced scorecard to measure the performance of information technology in construction.” Proceedings of the 4th AsiaPacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC 2000), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, September 13-15, pp. 59-66. 2. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. (2000) “Linking IT performance measures to decisionmaking tiers of a construction organisation.” Proceedings of the 4th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC 2000), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, September 13-15, pp. 201-208. 3. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. (2000) “Selecting technology projects based on an information economics approach: a step towards integrating innovation into business strategy.” Proceedings of the 17th Int. Symposium of Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC 2000), Taipai, Taiwan, September 18-20, pp. 403-408. 4. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. (2000) “Selecting information technology projects in construction: balancing risk and value.” Proceedings of the Millenium Conference on Construction Project Management, Hong Kong, October, pp. 69-76. 5. Mohamed, S. and Stewart, R.A. (2001) “Selecting IT/IS projects in construction: A critical review of modern selection methodologies.” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Construction Project Management: From Fragmentation to Integration, Singapore, 29-30 March 2001, pp. 536-545. 6. Stewart, R.A. and Mohamed, S. and Daet, R. (2002) “Strategic implementation of IT/IS projects in construction.” Proceedings of the First International Conference on Construction in the 21st Century (CITC2002), Challenges and Opportunities in Management and Technology, Miami, Florida, USA, 25-26 April, pp. 545-552.

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

Synopsis vi

SYNOPSIS The last twenty years has seen a tremendous change in the way companies do business. Much of this change can be attributed to the so-called information revolution. The integrated interaction between Information Technology (IT) and business processes has changed from its initial function of automating clerical tasks (e.g. payroll, inventory) to providing pertinent information for operational, managerial and executive groups within the organisation. In more recent times, IT has enabled some organisations, including those in the construction industry, to transform or re-engineer their business processes in the face of the rapidly changing business environment. As international competition continues to intensify, significant numbers of construction organisations are investing large amounts of resources into IT as they seek to gain competitive advantage. IT is increasingly being implemented for strategic reasons, so as to enable improved efficiency, better control and enhanced productivity of internal processes. The failure of realising expected IT-induced benefits has led to a growing number of senior executives to question the value of IT investments. Thus, questions like the following are typical: •

Are we getting our money’s worth from our IT investment?



Are we spending too much or too little on IT?



What IT projects make the best use of our resources?



How can we improve the return on our IT investments?

This Ph.D. research study was inspired by the perceived lack of a structured framework for the selection, implementation and performance evaluation of IT projects in construction. The development of such a generic framework that could capture the IT project lifecycle management process, and the associated guidelines and procedures for its effective implementation, is a young field of research, still struggling to define its place within the large family of academic disciplines. Being a young branch of science, it might be argued that IT in construction lacks a solid methodological foundation. An IT project lifecycle management process is an integrated approach that provides for the continuous identification, selection, implementation, monitoring and performance evaluation of IT projects. This structured process should provide a systematic method for construction organisations to minimise risks while maximising returns on IT investments. To effectively Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

Synopsis vii

employ IT in construction, the IT project lifecycle management process should have elements of three essential phases: (1) IT project(s) selection; (2) strategic IT implementation and monitoring; and (3) IT performance evaluation. However, each phase should not be viewed as a separate step. Rather, each is conducted as part of a continuous, interdependent management effort. Information gained from one phase is used to support activities in each of the other two phases. With this in mind, this research study aimed to develop an appropriate framework and associated tools for each phase of the IT project lifecycle. The developed three frameworks are detailed individually in the following paragraphs. The developed IT project(s) selection framework utilised information economics theory to encompass the full spectrum of direct and indirect costs, tangible and intangible expected benefits and the intangible risks associated with IT project proposals, considered for funding by the organisation. To incorporate the uncertainty that normally surrounds quantifying costs, benefits and risks, the framework employed a simple but powerful fuzzy logic technique to integrate all the monetary and non-monetary factors into a form that enabled the ranking of proposals. A case study was undertaken with a large international project management and development organisation to demonstrate the framework’s applicability. The case study illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach for ranking IT project proposals. Once a portfolio of IT projects is selected for funding by the organisation, it needs to be strategically implemented and monitored over its lifecycle. A strategic IT implementation and monitoring framework was developed to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of this phase. The framework is premised on a hybrid analysis utilising the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and SWOT analysis. A case study was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed framework in the strategic implementation and monitoring of a Project Management Information System (PMIS) by a large Australian construction-contracting organisation. The framework application proved to be successful in helping the organisation to develop appropriate strategies for the effective and efficient implementation of the PMIS. An IT performance evaluation framework and method was then developed for the final phase of the lifecycle. This framework was the primary focus of this Ph.D. research study and was structured using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) principles adapted to the specific requirements of the construction industry. The framework was structured using a hierarchy of IT performance perspectives, indicators and measures. Five definable perspectives were conceptually developed through analysis and synthesis of the ‘IT business value’ evaluation literature. These are: operational, benefits, technology/system, strategic competitiveness and user orientation. Indicators and measures were extracted from the mainstream IT literature and construction Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

Synopsis viii

management literature, as well as the emerging literature on information economics. The preliminary list of indicators was initially screened through consultation with construction professionals and conceptual cause-and-effect mapping. The screened list of project-tier indicators was further refined through questionnaire dissemination. The questionnaire was sent to 322 construction project participants from large construction-contracting and project management organisations located within Australia. The five framework perspectives were statistically validated through the principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation. Each perspective and indicator’s relative weight was numerically established using the questionnaire survey results as input to the recently developed Performance Measurement Process Framework (PMPF). The reason that the performance measures were not justified through a quantitative analysis was due to their dynamic nature. Most performance measures change, and will continue to change, with new technology. The developed perspectives, indicators and measures were all compiled into a generic ‘Construct IT’ BSC that can serve as a template for application at other decision-making tiers of a construction organisation. The problem of combining performance measures, with varying metrics, into commensurable units (utiles) was achieved by applying utility theory. Finally, the developed ‘Construct IT’ BSC was utilised for a project-tier survey to test the interrelationship between framework indicators and perspectives. Using information collected from 82 project professionals, from large construction-contracting and project management organisations, correlation and independent sample t-tests (one-tailed) provided support for the ‘Construct IT’ BSC. Specifically, findings suggest that the ‘Construct IT’ BSC can be used as a tool for monitoring the IT-induced value creation process. In addition, it appears that the proposed ‘Construct IT’ BSC framework and associated performance evaluation method is both flexible in design and can be modified to suit the needs of individual organisations. These characteristics make the framework continuously relevant to the dynamic nature of IT projects. In summary, the proposed IT project lifecycle management process, and its associated frameworks, provides a holistic view of IT implementation in construction and offers significant contributions to current body of knowledge on IT in construction.

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

Table of Contents ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page .................................................................................................................... i Declaration .................................................................................................................. ii Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................... iii List of Publications ..................................................................................................... iv Synopsis ....................................................................................................................... vi Table of Contents ....................................................................................................... ix List of Figures ............................................................................................................. xvii List of Tables .............................................................................................................. xx

CHAPTER 1.

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 1.2 Objectives and Scope ...................................................................................... 1.2.1 Compilation of knowledge .............................................................. 1.2.2 Conceptual framework .................................................................... 1.2.3 Questionnaires/interviews and analysis of results .......................... 1.2.4 Refined framework ......................................................................... 1.2.5 Summary of developed frameworks ............................................... 1.3 Layout of Thesis ..............................................................................................

1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-5 1-5

2.

Information Technology in Construction ................................................................ 2-1 2.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 2-1 2.2 Definition ........................................................................................................ 2-1 2.3 Background ..................................................................................................... 2-2 2.4 IT in Construction ........................................................................................... 2-4 2.5 Reported Levels of IT Adoption in the Construction Industry ....................... 2-6 2.5.1 Australia .......................................................................................... 2-6 2.5.2 United Kingdom ............................................................................. 2-7 2.5.3 Republic of Ireland ......................................................................... 2-9 2.5.4 Hong Kong ...................................................................................... 2-10 2.5.5 Canada ............................................................................................ 2-11 2.5.6 Finland ............................................................................................ 2-12 2.6 IT Applications and Use in the Construction Industry .................................... 2-12 2.6.1 The Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) ............................ 2-13 2.6.2 Wireless technology ........................................................................ 2-16 2.6.3 Integrated databases ........................................................................ 2-16 2.6.4 Electronic tendering ........................................................................ 2-18 2.6.5 Videoconferencing and recording ................................................... 2-18 2.6.6 Virtual reality and simulation ......................................................... 2-19 2.7 Cost Implications of IT ................................................................................... 2-20 2.7.1 Tangible costs ................................................................................. 2-20 2.7.2 Intangible costs ............................................................................... 2-21 2.8 Potential,Use and Benefits of IT in Industry Sectors ...................................... 2-21

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Table of Contents x

2.8.1 2.8.2

2.9

2.10

2.11

2.12

Potential, use and benefits – consulting engineers .......................... 2-21 Potential, use and benefits – principal and specialist contractors ................................................................. 2-22 2.8.3 Potential, use and benefits – architects ........................................... 2-24 2.8.4 Potential, use and benefits – building suppliers and manufacturers ........................................................... 2-25 Benefits, Barriers and Critical Success Factors to Change ............................. 2-26 2.9.1 Benefits of IT implementation ........................................................ 2-26 2.9.2 Barriers to successful IT implementation ....................................... 2-27 2.9.3 Critical success factors to successful IT implementation ............... 2-35 E-commerce in Construction ........................................................................... 2-41 2.10.1 Benefits of e-commerce in construction ......................................... 2-41 2.10.2 Barriers to e-commerce implementation in construction ................ 2-42 2.10.3 Emergence of e-commerce in construction ..................................... 2-42 Research Activities .......................................................................................... 2-42 2.11.1 Government Departments - Australia ............................................. 2-42 2.11.2 Groups and organisations ................................................................ 2-43 2.11.3 Universities ..................................................................................... 2-44 2.11.4 Research organisations ................................................................... 2-45 Summary ......................................................................................................... 2-45

3.

IT Project Lifecycle .................................................................................................... 3-1 3.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 3-1 3.2 Overview of the IT Project Lifecycle .............................................................. 3-2 3.3 IT Project Selection ......................................................................................... 3-3 3.3.1 Overview of phase .......................................................................... 3-4 3.3.2 Persuasion (needs and comparison) ................................................ 3-5 3.4 Strategic IT Implementation and Monitoring .................................................. 3-7 3.4.1 Overview of phase .......................................................................... 3-7 3.4.2 Persuasion (needs and comparison) ................................................ 3-8 3.5 IT Performance Evaluation ............................................................................. 3-9 3.5.1 Overview of phase .......................................................................... 3-10 3.5.2 Persuasion (needs and comparison) ................................................ 3-10 3.6 Summary ......................................................................................................... 3-12

4.

Critical Review of Investment Appraisal Techniques ............................................ 4-1 4.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 4-1 4.2 Which Investment Appraisal Technique? ....................................................... 4-2 4.3 Summary of Appraisal Techniques ................................................................. 4-3 4.4 Discounted Cash Flow Methods ..................................................................... 4-6 4.4.1 Application: NPV calculation for investment in PWIME .............. 4-6 4.4.2 Advantages and disadvantages of NPV method ............................. 4-7 4.5 Option Pricing Theory .................................................................................... 4-7 4.5.1 Application: Valuation of installed software on PWIME ............... 4-8 4.5.2 Advantages and disadvantages of option pricing theory ................ 4-10 4.6 Balanced Scorecard ......................................................................................... 4-11 4.6.1 Cause-and-effect ............................................................................. 4-11 4.6.2 Outcome measures and performance drivers .................................. 4-12 4.6.3 Linkage to financial measures ........................................................ 4-12 4.6.4 Diversity, format and content of measures ..................................... 4-13 4.6.5 The IT balanced scorecard .............................................................. 4-13 4.6.6 Application: Using the IT BSC for performance evaluation .......... 4-14 4.6.7 Advantages and disadvantages of the balanced scorecard .............. 4-17 Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

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4.7

4.8

4.9

4.10

4.11 4.12 4.13

4.14 5.

Information Economics (IE) ........................................................................... 4-19 4.7.1 Determining the value of an IT project ............................................ 4-19 4.7.2 Application: IT project selection using IE ...................................... 4-20 4.7.3 Advantages and disadvantages of IE .............................................. 4-22 Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) .............................................................. 4-23 4.8.1 Developing a framework for IT project selection in construction ................................................................. 4-24 4.8.2 Application: IT project selection using AHP .................................. 4-26 4.8.3 Advantages and disadvantages of AHP method ............................. 4-31 Utility Theory .................................................................................................. 4-32 4.9.1 Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) ........................................ 4-32 4.9.2 Multi-attibute addititive utility function ......................................... 4-34 4.9.3 Application: IT project selection using MAUT .............................. 4-34 4.9.4 Advantages and disadvantages of MAUT ...................................... 4-44 Fuzzy Logic Process (Possibility Theory) ...................................................... 4-45 4.10.1 Triangular fuzzy numbers ............................................................... 4-45 4.10.2 Fuzzy synthetic extent analysis ....................................................... 4-46 4.10.3 Advantages and disadvantages of fuzzy logic ................................ 4-47 Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) .......................... 4-48 4.11.1 Advantages and disadvantages of SWOT ....................................... 4-49 The Application Portfolio Approach ............................................................... 4-50 Aligning Appraisal Techniques with IT Project Lifecycle ............................. 4-52 4.13.1 IT project selection ......................................................................... 4-52 4.13.2 Strategic IT implementation and monitoring .................................. 4-53 4.13.3 IT performance evaluation .............................................................. 4-54 Summary ......................................................................................................... 4-54

IT Project Selection ................................................................................................... 5-1 5.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 5-1 5.2 IT Project Selection Phase .............................................................................. 5-2 5.3 Forming an IRC .............................................................................................. 5-3 5.4 New IT Proposals ............................................................................................ 5-4 5.5 IT Planning and Analysis ................................................................................ 5-4 5.6 Screening of IT Projects .................................................................................. 5-6 5.7 Developing a Framework for Analysing and Ranking IT Projects ................. 5-6 5.8 STEP1(a): Identify Tangible Cost and Benefit Factors .................................. 5-8 5.8.1 Select relevant IT project costs ....................................................... 5-8 5.8.2 Select relevant IT project benefits .................................................. 5-12 5.9 STEP1(b): Identify Intangible Value and Risk Factors .................................. 5-15 5.9.1 Select relevant value and risk criteria ............................................. 5-17 5.9.2 Select relevant value and risk sub-criteria ...................................... 5-18 5.9.3 Developing a hierarchy of intangible criteria and sub-criteria ................................................................... 5-22 5.10 STEP2: Define Possibility Distribution for Each Factor ................................ 5-24 5.10.1 Why possibility theory? .................................................................. 5-24 5.10.2 Possibility distribution theory ......................................................... 5-25 5.10.3 Define monetary (tangible) distributions ........................................ 5-26 5.10.4 Define non-monetary (intangible) distributions .............................. 5-30 5.11 STEP3(a): Develop Aggregated Possibility Distribution (Monetary Factors) ..................................................................... 5-32 5.11.1 Vertex method ................................................................................. 5-32 5.11.2 Develop the resultant cost and benefit distribution ......................... 5-34 5.11.3 Combining cost and benefit distributions ....................................... 5-35 5.12 STEP3(b): Develop Aggregated Possibility Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

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5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18

Distribution (Non-monetary Factors) .............................................................. 5-37 5.12.1 Weight selection factors .................................................................. 5-37 5.12.2 Combining non-monetary possibility distributions – averaging method .................................................... 5-38 5.12.3 Obtaining the resultant non-monetary possibility distribution .................................................................... 5-39 STEP4: Create Resultant Combine Possibility Distribution ........................... 5-40 STEP5: Ranking IT Projects ........................................................................... 5-42 5.14.1 Ranking two or more distributions - the ranking index method ............................................................. 5-42 Selection of IT Portfolio ................................................................................. 5-45 Application ...................................................................................................... 5-45 Strategic IT Implementation and Monitoring .................................................. 5-45 Summary ......................................................................................................... 5-45

6.

Strategic IT Implementation and Monitoring ......................................................... 6-1 6.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 6-1 6.2 Research Literature on Definition of Implementation .................................... 6-3 6.3 Output Versus Expectation ............................................................................. 6-4 6.4 Need for Strategic Implementation Framework .............................................. 6-6 6.5 Critical Review of Implementation Models and Processes ............................. 6-7 6.5.1 All industries ................................................................................... 6-7 6.5.2 Construction .................................................................................... 6-9 6.6 Developing a Strategic IT Implementation Framework for Construction ............................................................................ 6-19 6.7 Forming an IT Review Committee (RC) ......................................................... 6-21 6.8 IT Project Selection Phase .............................................................................. 6-22 6.9 STEP 1: SWOT Factors .................................................................................. 6-22 6.9.1 External analysis ............................................................................. 6-23 6.9.2 Internal analysis .............................................................................. 6-24 6.10 STEP 2: SWOT analysis ................................................................................. 6-25 6.10.1 Outline for applying AHP in SWOT analysis ................................ 6-26 6.10.2 Application – Project Web Information Management Extranet (PWIME) .................................................... 6-28 6.10.3 SWOT summary ............................................................................. 6-30 6.11 STEP 3: IT Diffusion Strategy ‘Story Telling’ ............................................... 6-31 6.12 STEP 4: Operational Strategy ......................................................................... 6-33 6.13 STEP 5: Implementation Strategy ‘Action Plans’ ........................................... 6-34 6.13.1 Definition of action plans ............................................................... 6-34 6.13.2 Elaboration of action plans ............................................................. 6-34 6.13.3 Risk mitigation and coping strategies ............................................. 6-35 6.14 STEP 6: Monitoring Plan ................................................................................ 6-36 6.14.1 Performance measures .................................................................... 6-37 6.14.2 Data collection ................................................................................ 6-37 6.15 Predictors ........................................................................................................ 6-39 6.16 Summary ......................................................................................................... 6-39

7.

IT Performance Evaluation ....................................................................................... 7.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 7.2 Benchmarking ................................................................................................. 7.3 Benchmarking IT in Construction ................................................................... 7.3.1 Internal IT benchmarking ............................................................... 7.3.2 Benchmarking IT at the project level ..............................................

7-1 7-1 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6

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7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11

7.12 7.13

7.14

7.15 8.

7.3.3 External IT benchmarking .............................................................. 7-8 Performance Measurement .............................................................................. 7-9 IT Performance Measurement in Construction ............................................... 7-11 Applying IT Performance Measurement at Organisational Tiers ................... 7-14 A Tiered Framework for IT Performance Measurement in Construction ......................................................................... 7-16 7.7.1 Organisational theory ...................................................................... 7-16 7.7.2 Typical construction company organisational structure ................. 7-17 7.7.3 Establishing the right organisational structure ................................ 7-18 7.7.4 Matching IT and organisational structure ....................................... 7-19 Linking IT Performance Measures to Organisational Tiers ............................ 7-20 Overview of the BSC Concept ........................................................................ 7-23 7.9.1 The process of building a BSC ........................................................ 7-23 7.9.2 BSC case studies ............................................................................. 7-24 Applying the BSC Concept to Decision-making Tiers of a Construction Organisation .............................................................. 7-26 Building a Tiered ‘Construct IT’ BSC and Performance Evaluation Framework ............................................................... 7-28 7.11.1 ‘Construct IT’ BSC layout and explanation .................................... 7-28 7.11.2 IT performance perspectives ........................................................... 7-29 7.11.3 IT performance indicators ............................................................... 7-30 7.11.4 IT performance measures ................................................................ 7-30 7.11.5 Tiered IT performance evaluation framework ................................ 7-31 Research Design .............................................................................................. 7-31 Research Methodology ................................................................................... 7-31 7.13.1 Information required ........................................................................ 7-32 7.13.2 Selection of data collection methods .............................................. 7-33 7.13.3 Research instruments ...................................................................... 7-35 7.13.4 Selection of industry sectors ........................................................... 7-36 7.13.5 Selection of industry tiers ............................................................... 7-37 7.13.6 Pilot study ........................................................................................ 7-37 7.13.7 Types of data collected and analysed ............................................. 7-38 7.13.8 Data analysis ................................................................................... 7-39 Research Tasks ................................................................................................ 7-39 7.14.1 Task 1: Development of IT performance perspectives .................... 7-40 7.14.2 Task 2: Collation of IT performance indicators and measures .................................................................. 7-41 7.14.3 Task 3: Screening of IT performance indicators and measures ................................................................... 7-41 7.14.4 Task 4: Refinement of framework perspectives and indicators ............................................................. 7-41 7.14.5 Task 5: Building the ‘Construct IT’ BSC ........................................ 7-42 7.14.6 Task 6: Development of a framework for IT performance evaluation ........................................................ 7-42 7.14.7 Task 7: Applying the ‘Construct IT’ BSC and performance evaluation framework .......................................... 7-42 Summary ......................................................................................................... 7-43

Developing IT Performance Measurement Framework Perspectives .................. 8.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 8.2 IT Performance Measurement Frameworks .................................................... 8.3 Justification for a New IT Performance Measurement Framework ................ 8.4 Developing an IT Performance Evaluation Framework for Construction ...........................................................................

8-1 8-1 8-2 8-7 8-9

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8.5

8.6

8.7 8.8

Justification for Proposed Framework – Pilot Study ...................................... 8-12 8.5.1 Survey design .................................................................................. 8-12 8.5.2 Survey method ................................................................................ 8-15 8.5.3 Data analysis ................................................................................... 8-15 Applying Developed Perspectives to the BSC Concept .................................. 8-18 8.6.1 Measuring and evaluating the operational perspective ................... 8-19 8.6.2 Measuring and evaluating the benefits perspective ........................ 8-20 8.6.3 Measuring and evaluating the technology/system perspective ....................................................... 8-21 8.6.4 Measuring and evaluating the strategic competitiveness perspective ............................................................ 8-21 8.6.5 Measuring and evaluating the user orientation perspective ............ 8-22 Implementation ............................................................................................... 8-22 Summary ......................................................................................................... 8-23

9.

Developing IT Performance Indicators and Measures ........................................... 9-1 9.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 9-1 9.2 Performance Measurement Terminology ........................................................ 9-2 9.3 STEP 2: Collation of Performance Indicators and Measures .......................... 9-3 9.4 STEP 3: Screening of Performance Indicators and Measures ......................... 9-4 9.5 STEP 4: Refinement of IT Performance Indicators ........................................ 9-6 9.5.1 Project tier questionnaire development ........................................... 9-7 9.5.2 Project tier quantitative analysis ..................................................... 9-8 9.5.3 Part A analysis: Classification of respondents ................................ 9-8 9.5.4 Part B analysis: Perspectives and indicators ................................... 9-14 9.5.5 Data reduction: Factor analysis ....................................................... 9-16 9.5.6 Part C analysis: Performance measurement relationship matrix .......................................................................... 9-18 9.5.7 Results summary: Ranking perspectives and indicators ................. 9-20 9.6 Developing IT Performance Measures ............................................................ 9-22 9.6.1 A critique of performance measures ............................................... 9-22 9.6.2 Improving the use of performance measures .................................. 9-23 9.7 Developing IT Performance Measures ............................................................ 9-24 9.7.1 Step 1: Determine IT measurement objectives ............................... 9-25 9.7.2 Step 2: Develop IT performance measures that characterise success ................................................................. 9-28 9.7.3 Step 3: Build baselines and collect data .......................................... 9-33 9.7.4 Step 4: Evaluate, interpret and report results .................................. 9-34 9.7.5 Step 5: Review performance measures ........................................... 9-35 9.8 Applying IT Performance Measures ............................................................... 9-36 9.9 Building a ‘Construct IT’ BSC ....................................................................... 9-40 9.10 Applying the IT Performance Evaluation Framework .................................... 9-41 9.11 Summary ......................................................................................................... 9-42

10.

Method to Evaluate IT Performance Improvement at Decision-making Tiers ................................................................... 10-1 10.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 10-1 10.2 The ‘Construct IT’ BSC .................................................................................. 10-1 10.3 IT Performance Measurement at Organisational Tiers ................................... 10-3 10.4 IT Performance Evaluation Method ................................................................ 10-4 10.4.1 Step 1: Develop IT performance measures ..................................... 10-5 10.4.2 Step 2: Establish weights ................................................................ 10-7

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10.4.3 10.4.4

10.5

Step 3: Apply IT performance measures ........................................ 10-9 Step 4: Develop utility functions for each IT performance measurement ...................................................... 10-11 10.4.5 Step 5: Evaluate overall IT performance improvement ............... 10-14 Summary ...................................................................................................... 10-16

11.

Application and Validation ....................................................................................... 11-1 11.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 11-1 11.2 IT Project Selection ......................................................................................... 11-1 11.2.1 Case study organisation .................................................................. 11-1 11.2.2 Case study overview ....................................................................... 11-2 11.2.3 IT project proposal .......................................................................... 11-2 11.2.4 Step 1: Identify monetary and non-monetary factors ..................... 11-4 11.2.5 Step 2: Define possibility distributions ........................................... 11-6 11.2.6 Step 3: Develop resultant aggregated possibility distribution ..... 11-10 11.2.7 Step 4: Combine resultant aggregated possibility distribution .... 11-12 11.2.8 Step 5: Rank IT project proposals ................................................ 11-13 11.2.9 Selection of IT portfolio .............................................................. 11-13 11.3 Strategic IT Implementation and Monitoring ............................................... 11-14 11.3.1 Case study description ................................................................. 11-14 11.3.2 Step 1: SWOT factors .................................................................. 11-14 11.3.3 Step 2: SWOT analysis ................................................................. 11-16 11.3.4 Step 3: IT diffusion strategy ‘story telling’ ................................. 11-16 11.3.5 Step 4: Operational strategy ......................................................... 11-18 11.3.6 Step 5: Implementation strategy ‘action plans’ ........................... 11-19 11.3.7 Step 6: Monitoring plan ............................................................... 11-21 11.3.8 Case study summary .................................................................... 11-22 11.4 IT Performance Evaluation .......................................................................... 11-23 11.4.1 Validation study overview ........................................................... 11-23 11.4.2 ‘Construct IT’ BSC framework ................................................... 11-23 11.4.3 Research method ........................................................................... 11-25 11.4.4 Data analysis and results .............................................................. 11-27 11.4.5 Discussion .................................................................................... 11-31 11.4.6 Validation study summary ........................................................... 11-34 11.5 Summary ...................................................................................................... 11-35

12.

Conclusions, Contributions and Implications ......................................................... 12-1 12.1 General Remarks ............................................................................................. 12-1 12.2 Research Objectives and Outcomes − Overview ............................................. 12-2 12.2.1 IT project selection ......................................................................... 12-2 12.2.2 Strategic IT implementation and monitoring .................................. 12-3 12.2.3 IT performance evaluation .............................................................. 12-3 12.3 Contribution to Academic Knowledge Base ................................................... 12-5 12.4 Implications for Research ............................................................................... 12-6 12.5 Implications for the Construction Industry ..................................................... 12-7 12.6 Directions for Future Research ....................................................................... 12-9 12.7 Closure ……………….. .............................................................................. 12-10

References ............................................................................................................................. R-1

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

Table of Contents xvi

Appendix A

IT Performance Indicators, Objectives and Measures .................................. 1. General Remarks .................................................................................. 2. Project Tier ........................................................................................... 3. Business Unit Tier ................................................................................ 4. Enterprise Tier ......................................................................................

A-1 A-1 A-1 A-1 A-2

Appendix B

Screened IT Performance Indicators, Objectives and Measures .................. 1. General Remarks .................................................................................. 2. Project Tier ........................................................................................... 3. Business Unit Tier ................................................................................ 4. Enterprise Tier ......................................................................................

B-1 B-1 B-1 B-1 B-2

Appendix C

Refined Project Tier IT Performance Indicators Objectives and Measures .............................................................................. C-1 1. Project Tier ........................................................................................... C-1

Appendix D

Project Tier Questionnaire ........................................................................... D-1

Appendix E

Validation Study Questionnaire ................................................................... E-1

Appendix F

Validation Study Questionnaire Results ...................................................... F-1 1. General Remarks .................................................................................. F-1 2. User Orientation Perspective ................................................................ F-1 3. Benefits Perspective ............................................................................. F-7 4. Operational Perspective ........................................................................ F-13 5. Technology/System Perspective ........................................................... F-19 6. Strategic Competitiveness Perspective ................................................. F-25

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

List of Figures xvii

LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1.1

Research activities and expected output

1-3

Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2

IT project lifecycle (Stewart and Mohamed, 2000) IT project selection process (Stewart and Mohamed, 2000)

3-3 3-5

Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12

The BSC links performance measures (Kaplan and Norton, 1992) Four perspectives of the IT BSC (Martinsons, 1999) IT performance measurement baseline monitoring tool IT graphical selection tool Framework for IT project selection IT project selection flow chart using AHP Normalised net benefit and costs Characteristic utility curves (Holt, 1998) IE-based framework for IT project selection Pair of lotteries for Criterion (6) organisational impact Utility curve for criterion (6) IT application portfolio (Ward, 1990)

4-12 4-14 4-18 4-23 4-25 4-27 4-32 4-33 4-37 4-41 4-42 4-50

Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4

IT project selection phase Strategic mix of IT projects (Ward, 1990) IT project selection flow chart Technology and business domain factors (adapted from Parker et al., 1988) Framework for IT project selection (intangible factors) Possibility theory distribution types (a) Single value possibility distribution (b) Interval number possibility distribution (c) Triangular possibility distribution (d) Trapezoidal possibility distribution Terms of linguistic variables value and risk (a) Terms of linguistic variable ‘Value’ (b) Terms of linguistic variable ‘Risk’ Applying the vertex method Three types of resultant possibility distributions (a) Positive NPV possibility distribution (b) Negative NPV possibility distribution (c) Positive/negative possibility distribution Resultant possibility distribution Range of monetary possibility distributions (Project A,B & C) (a) Range of resultant monetary possibility distributions (Projects A, B and C) (b) Normalised monetary possibility distributions (Projects A, B and C) Example: ranking index method (a) The area used in the ranking index is represented by the shaded area (b) Example: ranking index method

5-3 5-5 5-9 5-18

Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6

Figure 5.7 Figure 5.8 Figure 5.9

Figure 5.10 Figure 5.11

Figure 5.12

5-23 5-26

5-31 5-33 5-36

5-37 5-43

5-44

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

List of Figures xviii

Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Figure 6.4 Figure 6.5 Figure 6.6 Figure 6.7 Figure 6.8 Figure 6.9 Figure 6.10 Figure 6.11 Figure 6.12 Figure 6.13 Figure 6.14 Figure 6.15 Figure 7.1

Level of influence on project outcomes (Boyd and Paulson, 1995) Elements of an AEC information strategy (Leslie, 1996) Cornerstones of re-engineering (Myllymaki, 1997) Centralised information system (De Oliveira, 1999) Matching the organisation with its environment (Toole, 1998) Mitigation strategy model (Myllymaki, 1997) CIC planning methodology (Jung and Gibson, 1999) IT strategic planning framework (Pena-Mora et al., 1999) The productivity paradox: differential rates of change across four organisational dimensions (Dos Santos and Sussman, 2000) Strategic IT implementation and monitoring strategy (Stewart et al., 2002) A result of SWOT analysis for the PWIME Graphical representations of the results of pairwise comparisons of SWOT groups and factors The strategic plan and the results IT performance measurement focus and timing (adapted from GAO/AIMD-97-163, 1997) Projected effects of recommendations on rates of change

6-11 6-12 6-13 6-14 6-15 6-16 6-17 6-18 6-20 6-20 6-29 6-31 6-35 6-38 6-40

IT performance ‘baseline’ data collection (Stewart and Mohamed, 2001) Graphical representation of IT performance evaluation data Xerox tiered information management matrix Simplified overview of Hochtief & subsidiary company Thiess organisational structure (Adapted from www.thiess.com.au /corporate_structure/cdstruct.html) Management tiers and project participants (Stewart and Mohamed, 2001) IT performance measurement results chain (user orientation perspective) Data collection measures and tools at decision-making tiers Adapting the BSC approach to construction organisation structure A tiered BSC example for evaluating IT performance ‘Construct IT’ BSC layout and explanation Research design Research tasks to develop the ‘Construct IT ‘ BSC

7-12

8-2 8-3 8-5 8-7

Figure 8.7

Information system success model (DeLone and McLean, 1992) Four perspectives in the IT BSC (Martinsons et al., 1999) Management framework (Priest et al., 1995) Faces of the prism – ‘IT business value’ dimensions (Cronk and Fitzgerald, 1998) (a) Faces of the prism – ‘IT business value’ dimensions (b) Cross section of prism – cross dimensional measures The five perspectives of the IT performance measurement framework Applying developed perspectives to the BSC concept (Stewart and Mohamed, 2001) Key steps to IT performance measurement in construction

Figure 9.1 Figure 9.2

Project tier cause-and-effect diagram Data analysis procedure

Figure 7.2 Figure 7.3 Figure 7.4

Figure 7.5 Figure 7.6 Figure 7.7 Figure 7.8 Figure 7.9 Figure 7.10 Figure 7.11 Figure 7.12 Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 8.4

Figure 8.5 Figure 8.6

7-13 7-15 7-17

7-20 7-22 7-22 7-27 7-27 7-29 7-32 7-40

8-12 8-19 8-22 9-5 9-6

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

List of Figures xix

Figure 9.3 Figure 9.4 Figure 9.5 Figure 9.6 Figure 9.7 Figure 9.8 Figure 9.9 Figure 9.10 Figure 9.11 Figure 9.12 Figure 9.13 Figure 9.14 Figure 9.15 Figure 10.1 Figure 10.2 Figure 10.3 Figure 10.4 Figure 10.5 Figure 10.6 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.2 Figure 11.3 Figure 11.4 Figure 11.5 Figure 11.6 Figure 11.7 Figure F.1 Figure F.2 Figure F.3 Figure F.4 Figure F.5 Figure F.6 Figure F.7 Figure F.8 Figure F.9 Figure F.10

Company profile Respondent position profile Respondents construction experience profile IT portfolio of respondent organisations IT implementation period Primary driving force to IT implementation Five-step procedure to develop and use performance measures GAP analysis Measurement focus and timing at decision-making tiers (Stewart and Mohamed, 2001) Matching performance measures to key requirements IT performance baseline and targets Control chart example Project tier ‘Construct IT’ BSC Proposed ‘Construct IT’ BSC with five performance perspectives (Stewart and Mohamed, 2001) Tiered ‘Construct IT’ BSC layout (Stewart and Mohamed, 2001) Five-step IT performance evaluation methodology Project tier framework for IT performance measurement (Stewart and Mohamed, 2001) Pair of lotteries for measure OP1-M1 Utility curve for measure OP1-M1 Graphical representations of the results of pairwise comparisons of SWOT groups and factors (Stewart et al., 2002) Operational strategy for proposed PMIS (Stewart et al., 2002) ‘Construct IT’ BSC theoretical framework Data analysis procedure User orientation perspective significant correlation overview User orientation perspective significant correlations (two-tailed) Interrelationship between perspectives and indicators User orientation perspective significant correlation overview User orientation perspective significant correlations (two-tailed) Benefits perspective significant correlation overview Benefits perspective significant correlations (two-tailed) Operational perspective significant correlation overview Operational perspective significant correlations (two-tailed) Technology/system perspective significant correlation overview Technology/system perspective significant correlations (twotailed) Strategic competitiveness perspective significant correlation overview Strategic competitiveness perspective significant correlations (two-tailed)

9-9 9-10 9-11 9-12 9-13 9-13 9-25 9-28 9-29 9-30 9-31 9-35 9-41 10-2 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-12 10-14 11-17 11-20 11-25 11-26 11-30 11-30 11-34 F-2 F-2 F-8 F-8 F-14 F-14 F-20 F-20 F-26 F-26

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

List of Tables xx

LIST OF TABLES Page Table 2.1 Table 2.2

Percent of companies using IT by Australia Industry (ABS, 1999) Independent market places in Australia, Europe and the US

2-3 2-43

Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12 Table 4.13 Table 4.14 Table 4.15 Table 4.16 Table 4.17 Table 4.18 Table 4.19 Table 4.20 Table 4.21 Table 4.22 Table 4.23 Table 4.24 Table 4.25 Table 4.26 Table 4.27 Table 4.28

Appraisal techniques and references (adapted from Irani et al., 1997) Goals and performance measures for the business value perspective Goals and performance measures for the user orientation perspective Goals and performance measures for the internal process perspective Goals and performance measures for the future readiness perspective IE scorecard for the construction PWIME (Project 1) IT project scores for a construction company using IE Pairwise comparison scale (adapted from Saaty, 1990) Value and risk pairwise comparison matrices for level 3 Value and risk pairwise comparison matrices for level 4 Value and risk assessment scale Value assessment (0 lowest risk and 10 highest risk) Risk assessment (0 lowest risk and 10 highest risk) Project 1 value analysis results Value/risk and benefit-cost analysis table Estimated IT projects cost over implementation period Weights for the main criteria of the case study Relative weights of sub-criteria for the case study Value and risk assessment scale ‘Value’ criteria scores for the four IT projects ‘Risk’ criteria scores for the four IT projects Project scores for criterion (6) organisational impact Utility values for the best and worst outcomes for criterion (6) Utility values for different scores for criterion (6) Utility values for the four projects as assigned by Mr Jukes Overall utility values for Mr Jukes Overall utility and ranking of IT projects Some key issues in the segments of the portfolio (Ward, 1990)

4-5 4-15 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-21 4-22 4-26 4-27 4-28 4-29 4-29 4-29 4-30 4-31 4-35 4-38 4-38 4-38 4-39 4-39 4-41 4-41 4-42 4-43 4-44 4-44 4-51

Table 5.1

IT project lifecycle cost matrix (adapted from GAO/AIMD-97-63, 1997) Sample enterprise tier benefits Sample business unit tier benefits Sample project tier benefits Activity cost matrix for start-up stage of IT project lifecycle Annual cost matrix for each stage of the IT project lifecycle Overhead cost savings possibility distribution Annual benefits matrix for proposed PMIS Value and risk assessment scale Value factors possibility distributions for three sample IT projects Pairwise comparison scale (adapted from Saaty, 1990) Aggregated ‘value’ possibility distribution for Project A Ranking of IT project proposals A, B and C

5-11

Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 5.7 Table 5.8 Table 5.9 Table 5.10 Table 5.11 Table 5.12 Table 5.13

5-14 5-14 5-14 5-28 5-28 5-29 5-29 5-30 5-31 5-38 5-40 5-45

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

List of Tables xxi

Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 8.1

Stages of implementation completion (adapted from Gottschalk, 1999) Implementation predictors derived from organisational practice Priorities and consistency ratios of comparisons of the SWOT groups and factors carried out for PWIME implementation Risk factors and coping strategies: the enterprise tier

6-4 6-8 6-30 6-36

Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 8.4 Table 8.5 Table 8.6

Dimensions of the ‘IT business value’ construct (Cronk and Fitzgerald, 1998) Comparison of reviewed frameworks Summary of questionnaire responses (Mohamed and Stewart, 2002) Varimax factor loadings for the initial five-factor solution Varimax rotated factor loadings for the five-factor solution Sample project-orientated performance indicators and measures

8-11 8-16 8-17 8-18 8-20

Table 9.1 Table 9.2 Table 9.3 Table 9.4 Table 9.5 Table 9.6 Table 9.7 Table 9.8 Table 9.9 Table 9.10 Table 9.11 Table 9.12 Table 9.13

Performance measurement terminology Classification of respondents IT performance perspective weighting Summary of IT performance indicator responses Varimax factor loadings for the initial five-factor solution Varimax rotated factor loadings for the five-factor solution Performance measurement relationship matrix Ranking perspectives Ranking indicators Other indicators suggested by respondents Performance assessment scale Example 1: Measurement description card for IT training proficiency Example 2: Measurement description card for IT training budget

9-3 9-9 9-14 9-15 9-16 9-17 9-19 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-36 9-39 9-40

Table 10.1

IT performance indicators and measures for the operational perspective Relative weight of IT performance indicators Measurement description card for measure OP1-M1 Monthly measurement results for measure OP1-M1 Performance assessment scale Utility values for different targets for measure OP1-M1 Hierarchy and analysis of project tier IT performance measures

10-7

Table 10.2 Table 10.3 Table 10.4 Table 10.5 Table 10.6 Table 10.7 Table 11.1 Table 11.2 Table 11.3 Table 11.4 Table 11.5 Table 11.6 Table 11.7 Table 11.8 Table 11.9 Table 11.10 Table 11.11 Table 11.12 Table 11.13 Table 11.14 Table 11.15 Table 11.16

PWIME lifecycle cost matrix Identification and definition of value factors Identification and definition of risk factors Activity cost matrix for project initiation stage of PWIME lifecycle Annual cost matrix for each stage of the PWIME lifecycle Overhead cost savings possibility distribution (Year 1) Annual benefits matrix for proposed PWIME (overheads) Annual benefits matrix for proposed PWIME (document management) Value factor possibility distributions for proposed PWIME Risk factor possibility distributions for proposed PWIME Resultant aggregated monetary (tangible) possibility distribution Aggregated ‘value’ possibility distribution for PWIME Aggregated ‘risk’ possibility distribution for PWIME IT project proposals being reviewed by ABC Ranking of PWIME and PMIS project proposals Priorities and comparisons of SWOT groups and factors

8-6

10-8 10-10 10-10 10-11 10-13 10-15 11-5 11-6 11-7 11-7 11-7 11-8 11-8 11-9 11-10 11-10 11-11 11-11 11-12 11-12 11-13 11-15

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

List of Tables xxii

Table 11.17 Table 11.18 Table 11.19 Table 11.20 Table 11.21 Table 11.22 Table 11.23 Table A.1 Table A.2 Table A.3 Table A.4 Table A.5 Table A.6 Table A.7 Table A.8 Table A.9 Table A.10 Table A.11 Table A.12 Table A.13 Table A.14 Table A.15 Table B.1 Table B.2 Table B.3 Table B.4 Table B.5 Table B.6 Table B.7 Table B.8 Table B.9 Table B.10 Table B.11 Table B.12 Table B.13 Table B.14 Table B.15 Table C.1 Table C.2 Table C.3 Table C.4

Action plan for ‘installation and networking of PMIS’ (Stewart et al., 2002) Risk factors and coping strategies: PMIS project (Stewart et al., 2002) PMIS monitoring strategy (Stewart et al., 2002) Mean value and standard deviations for indicators Inter-correlations of ‘Construct IT’ BSC perspectives Interrelationship of the operational and user orientation perspectives Interrelationships ‘not’ or ‘marginally’ supported Operational perspective indicators, objectives and measures Benefits perspective indicators, objectives and measures Technology/System perspective indicators, objectives and measures Strategic competitiveness perspective indicators, objectives and measures User orientation perspective indicators, objectives and measures Operational perspective indicators, objectives and measures Benefits perspective indicators, objectives and measures Technology/System perspective indicators, objectives and measures Strategic competitiveness perspective indicators, objectives and measures User orientation perspective indicators, objectives and measures Operational perspective indicators, objectives and measures Benefits perspective indicators, objectives and measures Technology/System perspective indicators, objectives and measures Strategic competitiveness perspective indicators, objectives and measures User orientation perspective indicators, objectives and measures Operational perspective indicators, objectives and measures Benefits perspective indicators, objectives and measures Technology/System perspective indicators, objectives and measures Strategic competitiveness perspective indicators, objectives and measures User orientation perspective indicators, objectives and measures Operational perspective indicators, objectives and measures Benefits perspective indicators, objectives and measures Technology/System perspective indicators, objectives and measures Strategic competitiveness perspective indicators, objectives and measures User orientation perspective indicators, objectives and measures Operational perspective indicators, objectives and measures Benefits perspective indicators, objectives and measures Technology/System perspective indicators, objectives and measures Strategic competitiveness perspective indicators, objectives and measures User orientation perspective indicators, objectives and measures Operational Perspective (OP) indicators, objectives and measures Benefits (BE) perspective indicators, objectives and measures Technology/System (TS) perspective indicators, objectives and measures Strategic Competitiveness (SC) perspective indicators, objectives and measures

11-19 11-21 11-22 11-28 11-29 11-32 11-33 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-5 A-6 A-7 A-8 A-9 A-9 A-10 A-11 A-12 A-13 A-14 A-15 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-5 B-6 B-7 B-8 B-9 B-9 B-10 B-11 B-12 B-13 B-14 B-14 C-2 C-3 C-3 C-4

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

List of Tables xxiii

Table C.5

User Orientation (UO) perspective indicators, objectives and measures

C-5

Table F.1

Interrelationship of the user orientation and technology/system perspectives Interrelationship of the user orientation and operational perspectives Interrelationship of the user orientation and strategic competitiveness perspectives Interrelationship of the user orientation and benefits perspectives Interrelationship of the benefits and operational perspectives Interrelationship of the benefits and strategic competitiveness perspectives Interrelationship of the benefits and technology/system perspectives Interrelationship of the benefits and user orientation perspectives Interrelationship of the operational and benefits perspectives Interrelationship of the operational and strategic competitiveness perspectives Interrelationship of the operational and technology/system perspectives Interrelationship of the operational and user orientation perspectives Interrelationship of the technology/system and operational perspectives Interrelationship of the technology/system and benefits perspectives Interrelationship of the technology/system and strategic competitiveness perspectives Interrelationship of the technology/system and user orientation perspectives Interrelationship of the strategic competiveness and operational perspectives Interrelationship of the strategic competiveness and benefits perspectives Interrelationship of the strategic competiveness and technology/system perspectives Interrelationship of the strategic competiveness and user orientation perspectives

F-3

Table F.2 Table F.3 Table F.4 Table F.5 Table F.6 Table F.7 Table F.8 Table F.9 Table F.10 Table F.11 Table F.12 Table F.13 Table F.14 Table F.15 Table F.16 Table F.17 Table F.18 Table F.19 Table F.20

F-4 F-5 F-6 F-9 F-10 F-11 F-12 F-15 F-16 F-17 F-18 F-21 F-22 F-23 F-24 F-27 F-28 F-29 F-30

Lifecycle Management of IT Projects in Construction

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