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... to understand what var- ious phiosophies of the world have to say about the origin ... phies such as Vedanta, Tantra and all the 18 Puranas has its roots in the ...

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Philosophy and physics Vikram H. Zaveri

B-4/6, Avanti Apt., Harbanslal Marg, Sion, Mumbai 400022 INDIA (Dated: August 3, 2011)

Some of the highly regarded ancient philosophies of the world proclaim that the universe originated with a vibration in an ocean of unmanifested fundamental substance called energy. The universe so originated undergoes cyclic evolution and involution implying cyclic nature of time. The author has attempted to relate this philosophical concepts of the origin of the universe and the time with the prevailing mathematical concepts of the modern science. This paper is a synopsis of the philosophical interpretation of a mathematical theory called periodic relativity, so developed elsewhere. It is proposed that the vanishing of the quantum invariant in an absolute sense can be associated with the cosmological theories of Vedanta, Tantra, Sankhya, Purana, and old and new testaments. Keywords: Philosophy, Cosmology, Time, Relativity.

1. INTRODUCTION Here we will make an attempt to understand what various phiosophies of the world have to say about the origin of the universe. Vedanta, Sankhya and Tantra are three competing philosophies associated with the most ancient scriptures of the world called Veda. There are four books of Veda. Vedanta means the end part or concluding portion of Veda and consists of three category of texts called Upanishads [1], Bhagvad Gita [2] and Brahma-sutra [3]. These are mainly commentories on four vedas. There are 108 upanishads, of which about dozen are considered major upanishads. Bhagvad Gita is extracted from the great epic Mahabharata. Brahma-sutra presents the teachings of upanishads in logical order and in a condensed form. Puranas are 18 in number and depict mythological exploits of gods mixed with vedic discourses. The fundamental di erences between the cosmology of Sankhya, Vedanta and Tantra are discussed by Sir John Woodro e [4] in detail. Sankhya and Vedanta, both hold that creation is the appearance produced by the action of primordial energy existing in association with the principle of intelligence. The initial creative motion which disturbs the equilibrium of three Gunas of primordial energy is known as Cosmic Sound (spandana) in Tantra philosophy. Sankhya philosophy goes beyond the scienti c concept of primordial energy in declaring that this vibration exists in causal body, in subtle body and in gross body. The rst cosmic vibration is symbolically represented by the sound Om. This rst vibration is what has been described as 'word' in the Gospel according to John which opens with the declaration 'In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God.' The fundamental di erence between the Sankhya and the Vedanta is that former regards both Purusha (observer, witness) and Prakriti (nature, energy) as real and independent of each other where as the later regards

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Brahman (i.e. Purusha) as the only reality and considers Maya (i.e. Prakriti) as unreal [5], having only illusory existence. The famous example of mistaking a rope for a snake is put forward by Vedantins to explain the concept of Maya (illusion). Vedantins hold that the universe is unreal and Brahman alone is real. Tantra philosophy points out a middle path by recognizing Prakriti or the manifest universe as real at the same time di ering from Sankhya in proclaiming that Prakriti is not separate or independent from Brahman (Purusha). Sri Ramakrishna [6] has described Brahman and Sakti (Prakriti) as identical, like re and its power to burn, or like milk and its whiteness or like ocean and its waves. If you accept one, you must accept the other. When thought of as inactive, He is called Brahman, and when thought of as active, the creator, preserver and destroyer, She is called Primordial Energy. Here we digress to elaborate on Vedantic concept of Maya(illusion). There is a sriking similarity between Vivekananda's thoughts [7] and Swedenborg's thoughts [8] concerning the cause of the observer's perception of sights and colors. Vivekananda has frequently stated that the cause of the human sight is due to the following sequence of events. First comes the external vibration due to light; second the nerve motion that carries it to the mind; third the reaction from the mind along with which

ashes the knowledge of the object. This reaction of the mind and the ashing of the knowledge is what is called spiritual in ow by Swedenborg. Because the ashing of the knowledge of the object is independent of the external sense stimulus, sometimes it is possible to mistake a rope for a snake or have dreams and spiritual visions. Vedantins hold that the observer's perception of the entire universe is just like mistaking a rope for a snake [9]. i.e. mistaking the absolute for the relative. As long as the false perception persists, the snake appears real. The doctrine of creation described in various philosophies such as Vedanta, Tantra and all the 18 Puranas has its roots in the Sankhya Philosophy rst expounded by the sage Kapila [10] thousands of years ago. According to sankhya philosophy, in the beginning was the Purusha and the Prakriti. Purusha is the unmanifest conscious

2 principle, the observer and the witness. Prakriti is the primordial energy consisting of three gunas or qualities (sattva, rajas and tamas). We digress here to compare the concept of energy as understood by the physicists with that given in the philosophies. For physicists, energy is something insentient because physicists generally deal only with the gross matter which philosophers put under one head called Tamas. Tamas encompass only 10 of the total 24 categories that evolve out of the primordial energy. The remaining 14 categories fall under either Sattva or Rajas. These 14 categories include ner materials of creation which are used to create entities such as intelligence, mind, ego, senses, organs of action etc. Here by senses is not meant the external organs such as eye or ear etc. but the inner centers in the subtle body where all the sense perception converge. Thus, in the beginning was the Purusha and the Prakriti. Prakriti was in a state of total dissolution as all the three gunas were in a state of equilibrium. At the end of this total dissolution, the Supreme Lord, the Absolute enters both the unmanifest Purusha and the Prakriti and agitates them. When unmanifest is thus agitated, the Mahat or Ishvara is evolved and in its turn it evolves the universe through its successive evolutes consisting of 24 categories which are Intelligence, Ego, Mind, Unmanifest, 10 sense organs ( ve of perception and ve of action), ve subtle elements (such as light, sound etc.) and ve gross elements (earth, water, wind, re, space which cover all 111 elements known to modern science). All these 24 categories are also mentioned in Bhagavat Gita, chap.13, sloka 5. About the evolutes of ve gross elements, it is mentioned that the ve subtle qualities (i.e. tanmatras) were rst evolved from which were created the gross elements, each characterized by the respective gross quality. Thus from Subda (i.e. word or sound) evolved Akasha (i.e. space or ether). This is like saying that when a wave appears, the wavelength comes into picture. From Akasha successively evolved wind, re, water and earth with their respective qualities of touch, color/form, taste and smell. Each successive evolutes had the quality of the previous one added to it, i.e. wind has two qualities sound and touch. Fire has three qualities: sound, touch and form/color. Water has four qualities: sound, touch, form/color and taste. Earth has ve qualities: sound, touch, form/color, taste and smell. From this it is clear that the sound or vibration permeates everything. If we look at the Old Testament, the book of Genesis opens with the statement;

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form and void; and the darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. Here again we must infer that the waters referred in this scenario can not be the ordinary water that we know, because the previous sentence made it clear that the earth

was without form and void. These waters must be understood as the primal energy with the three gunas sattva, rajas and tamas in equilibrium. And the next sentence says, the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. When you move waters, naturally you get waves. Therefore the rst movement was the vibration. The rst vibration must be of a very subtle (or rather causal) kind comparable to the vibration due to human thought, which can not be detected by any instruments. It was only latter that the God said let there be light and thus we had grosser form of electromagnetic vibrations.

A. Periodic relativity In order to mathematically relate this ancient concept of universe beginning with a vibration to the present day science, I have evaluated some of the fundamental concepts of the relativistic and quantum physics, and the associated formalism [11, 12]. Here we arrived at the conclusion that space-time is not only curved but also wavy and that time does not ow in one direction but is strictly a periodic or cyclic phenomenon. Further we derived an expression for the quantum invariant which can vanish in an absolute sense when the energy and frequency of the associated wave approach in nity. In this case the space-time continuum connecting two points gets completely obliterated and the resulting sub-quantic medium resembles a singularity. Such a singularity suggests an equilibrated state of primal energy devoid of ripples which we called the unmanifest energy. Bhagavad Gita declares the existence of two unmanifested states. One is the lower state of the unmanifest prakriti (nature, energy) and another is the ultimate unmanifested state of the supreme purusha (Purushottama, observer, witness). The vanishing of the quantum invariant represents the unmanifest prakriti. This repose is disturbed when initial vibration sets o a chain reaction of creative processes. With the vibrations comes the periodic phenomenon. Therefore, in the beginning was the vibration, and the vibration was with energy and the vibration was energy. The vanishing of the quantum invariant leads one to conclude that energy and vibrations are not independent entities. Nowhere in the observable universe can one nd any form of energy which is not in a state of vibration. The analogy of oneness of the waves and the ocean when former subsides will suce to explain the vanishing of the quantum invariant. Another conclusion is that the space and energy are equivalent. There is nothing like empty space. All space is either lled with vibrating energy or with the unmanifest energy in equillibrium. One cannot conceive of space without associating it with some form of energy. In other words, space-time of Einstein's theory are mere imaginary artifacts superimposed on vibrating energy which is the only real substance. Similarly concept of time as adopted by Einstein's relativity and Newton's classical mechanics assumes that the time is

3 linear and ow in one direction from past to present and from present to future. This prevailing concept of time moving in one direction is a self-imposed illusion of the mind, just like imagining a blue sky which in reality is colorless, or riding a marry-go-round while all the time thinking that we are moving forward. Other authors have arrived at similar conclusion by analyzing the block universe concept [13]. In periodic relativity linear time is replaced by periods of the waves which are inverse of frequency of vibrations.

B. The observer Relativity theories mainly deal with the interactions between the observer and the observed. During the last century much scienti c progress has been reported concerning the observed but very little has been said about the observer. This treaty puts more emphasis on the inner workings of the observer during the process of observing. When this unmanifest is viewed through the limitations of the manifested energies, as is usually done by an individual 'observer', it appears as empty space, which in reality is a redundant description. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle would rule out any possibility of detecting the existance of unmanifest energy. This statement is true if the observer depends on some external instrument for acquiring such knowledge through the agency of his mind. By their very nature, both the physical measuring instrument as well as the mind of the observer are in a state of vibration. The knowledges acquired by such processes are in the form of thoughts which themselves are states of vibrations of the subtle energy. Therefore there is no way for the observer to get a real feel as to the state of the primal energy free from vibrations. However, observer himself being rooted in the equilibrated primal energy, if he can manage to bring his own mind to a state which is completely free from any vibrations (easy said than done), i.e. free from any thoughts whatsoever (and yet not sleeping), then he is able to detect his own primal state of being free from any vibrations. Here the distinction between the observer and the observed is lost. Hence such knowledge acquired by the observer is called self-knowledge in vedantic literature. Vedanta declares that this unmanifest is knowable and implanted in the hearts of all beings and is of the size of a thumb [1].

The kingdom of God cometh not with observation; Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you. { Luke 17:21.

2. PHILOSOPHY BEHIND VIBRATORY COSMOLOGY The philosophy behind the big bang theory was born in 1927 with a proposal from the Belgian priest Georges Lemaitre followed by Hubble's discovery that the galaxies are ying away from each other. The case of the steady state cosmological theory is somewhat unusual. The philosophy behind this theory was born while a group of scientists were returning home after watching a ghost movie! The philosophy behind vibratory cosmology comes straight from the scriptures such as puranas, tantras, sankhya, vedanta [14], and old and new testaments which have established themselves over a period of thousands of years. This philosophy can be summed up as follows. 1. The universe began with a vibration or word designated by the symbol Om [15]. 2. The universe evolves from the primal creative energy also called Sakti. 3. The universe undergoes cyclic dissolutions according to yuga classi cation scheme based on cyclic time. We shall see how all these well known philosophical ideas can be related to the mathematical model we discussed for explaining the vanishing of the quantum invariant. A very early attempt at relating this philosophy with mathematics is recorded in one of the letters of Swami Vivekananda [16, 17]. Referring to his discussion with Nikola Tesla (the inventor of ac induction motor and ac transmission system, and a collaborator of Thomas Edison), Swami wrote,

Mr. Tesla was charmed to hear about the vedantic prana and akasha and kalpas, which according to him are the only theories modern science can entertain. Now, both akasha and prana again are produced from cosmic mahat, the universal mind, the Brahma or Ishvara. Mr. Tesla thinks he can demonstrate mathematically that force and matter are reducible to potential energy. I am to go and see him next week, to get this new mathematical demonstration. In that case, the vedantic cosmology will be placed on the surest of foundations. Here prana means vibration or force which can be causal (such as Om), subtle (such as human thought) or gross (such as the motion of lungs and heart). Akasha is like primordial matter or space. Kalpa refers to certain period of time in the yuga classi cation scheme. In this vedantic scenario of creation, the universe begins when prana acts on akasha or when vibration acts on primordial matter.

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A. Experiential proof of the theory Therefore in the beginning was the sound or word or vibration. Now this idea of universe arising from sound has been sco ed at by many individuals, especially in the west, and one of them is John Dobson [18], a staunch admirer of Vedanta, whose book Advaita Vedanta and Modern Science aroused great deal of my interest in the search for a link between vedanta and science. Here I quote his opinion about Om from his book.

. . . the entire Indian nation thinks that this universe arises from sound. But that is wrong. They have even designated the sound: It is Aum. But the energies of this universe do not arise from sound. Sound arises by transformation . . . Now, what is meant by sound in scriptures is not the ordinary sound that travels through the medium of air; it is not even electromagnetic signal. This sound Om is much more subtle than all the gross sounds known to human beings. As a matter of fact only yogis can hear this causal sound in their meditation, for which external ears are not necessary. Sri Ramakrishna used to give a simile of the waves and the ocean and the oneness of both when the waves subside to explain his mystical experiences concerning AUM (Om) and its meaning [19], see appendix A. This should be treated as the rst experiential proof of this theory. The second experiential proof comes from the records of mystical experiences of Swami Muktananda [20] where he describes the various nada (sounds) that he heard and how a yogi hears chanting of Om before nal illumination and ecstasy. How this sound Om is self-begotten and self-existent and not created or composed by sages and abbots like the various mantras of di erent sects; see appendix B. The third experiential proof comes from the records of mystical experiences of Paramahansa Yogananda [21]. This experience made him realize that the spirit of God is exhaustless Bliss. This also made him see the entire cosmos glimmer within the in nitude of his own being. Finally he heard the creative voice of God resounding as Aum, the vibration of the Cosmic Motor which he explicitly relates to the word mentioned in John 1:1. See appendix C. We have no choice but to rely on these experiential proofs because earlier we have ruled out the possibility of experimental proof. Every one do not have such experiences but some yogis do because they have disciplined their body-mind complex suciently enough to allow them to use it as a laboratory and as an instrument of observation of subtle energies. As a result of disciplines, yogis (knowingly or unknowingly) undergo certain evolutionary transformations (in subtle body), especially along the length of the spinal chord, which are well described in Tantra philosophy. The yogis are also called seers because there is a process of seeing involved. As a result of evolutionary transformation, yogis are

able to develop what is called a third eye or spiritual eye mentioned in Bhagvad Gita (BG 11:8), with which to observe movements of the subtle and causal energies, beyond which lies the Great Cause, the unmanifest. The unmanifest being more conscious than the borrowed consciousness that the yogi has, there is a factor of grace involved; which limits what a yogi can and cannot do with his disciplined body-mind complex. Symbol Om also represents four states of the mind. Everyone has awareness of the three states; waking, dream, and deep sleep. The fourth state is a superconscious state called Turiya, which is accessible to yogis. When a yogi experiences this fourth state, it becomes so real to him that if he manages to return to the relative plane of existance, the experiences of the waking state then appears to him to be unreal, unsubstantial and speculative like the shadowy experiences of the dream state. Since our theory proposes one indivisible consciousness in the entire universe [22], all the observed individual consciousness behind various life forms must have some connection with this in nite indivisible consciousness and therefore it must be possible to experience such an indivisible state of consciousness. Therefore the theory presented here is in agreement with the knowledge of those who have experienced such a state [2, 3, 9, 19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25]. In these cases the human body itself becomes a laboratory and the pure mind an instrument of detection. Hence these experiences should be treated as proofs of this theory. In most cases such experiences are so overwhelming that it dissolves the instrument of detection. It is like a salt doll trying to measure the depth of the ocean. The moment it enters the ocean, it dissolves. Then who is left there to tell others about the depth of the ocean. Eventhough we have ruled out the possibility of experimental veri cation of this theory, there are certain byproducts of the theory that can be subjected to conventional experimental tests. I have discussed these results elsewhere [11, 12, 26].

3. CYCLIC TIME In the beginning was the vibration, and the vibration was with energy and the vibration was energy. This is the signi cance of the vanishing of the quantum invariant when energy and frequency approaches in nity. This is where physics ends and metaphysics begins. In the statement given above, lies the secret of "time". "Beginning" invariably refers to time and vibrations are invariably associated with what physicists call frequency. And frequency is the inverse of the period of the wave and the period measures time between two successive events. The mathematical relation between period and frequency T = 1= is understood only with a partial clarity of vi-

5 sion. It is not yet fully recognized that this is the only fundamental and basic expression which relates the otherwise arbitrary conception of time with the objective world. Needless to say, the entire Puranic cosmology is founded upon cyclic time. In Srimad Bhagavata [10, 27], Sri Krishna says, The cause of all this delusive experi-

ence of divisiveness is Ahamkara (i.e. ego or sense of 'I-ness'), which has evolved from Mahattattva by the action of time, which is the principal factor responsible for the agitation of the Gunas and the evolution of the 24 categories. Again while describing the dissolution of the universe [27], Sri Krishna says, The superior category Mahattattva dissolves into cause, the three Gunas of Prakriti and these into Prakriti which is the state of equilibrium of three Gunas. Prakriti dissolves in Time which is now without any movement. This shows that the time, vibration and movement are very closely related. Then He says, the Time dissolves in the creative spirit, which is my power of Maya (i.e. illusion) and that power of Maya dissolves in Me the Original and Unborn Being. In another place in Srimad Bhagavata it is mentioned that Time gets a form or expression when it causes the stirring or agitation of the three Gunas of Prakriti. Thus in these ancient philosophies, the rst movement considered responsible for disturbing the equilibrium of the primal energy (sakti or prakriti) is sometimes described as time (kala) [10], sometimes as vibration (spandana) [28], and sometimes as unheard sound or word (nada, subda or Om) [20, 28]. The Puranas [10, 29, 30, 31] give us the theory of Yugas and Kalpas to classify time on a cosmological scale. The duration of each Yuga in terms of Divine years and Human years are as follows. Y uga DivineY ears Krta 4800 T reta 3600 Dvapara 2400 Kali 1200

HumanY ears 1; 728; 000 1; 296; 000 864; 000 432; 000

According to this scheme we are into 4996th year (in 1994 AD) of the Kali Yuga of the 28th Chaturyuga of the 7th Manvantara of the 1st Kalpa of the 2nd Parardha . Another view holds that we are into 5096th year (in 1994 AD) of the Kali Yuga. A set of 4 yugas make 1 Chaturyuga. Puranas regard one human year as one day of gods, therefore one Divine year = 360 human years. Thus, 1 Chaturyuga = 12,000 divine years = 4:32  106 human years. Now, 1 day of Brahma = 1000 Chaturyuga = 4:32  109 human years. And 1 night of Brahma = 4:32  109 human years. And 1 Kalpa = 1 day and night of Brahma = 8:64  109 human years. 1 day of Brahma is divided into 14 Manvantaras. Hence 1 Manvantara = 308,571,428.57 human years = 71.43 Chaturyugas. Also Brahma's lifetime is 100 years according to his scale = 2 Parardha = 1 day or night of Vishnu.

A. Age of the Universe The Puranas mention two types of universal dissolutions. The rst kind is called the total dissolution (Brahma pralaya or Prakriti pralaya) which occurs at the end of ruling Brahma's life span of 100 years. The second kind is called the quasi-dissolution (Naimittika pralaya) which occurs at the end of Brahma's day. With this information we can calculate the age of the universe and compare it with the modern scienti c theories. There is one diculty however, and that is, how to account for the night of Brahma, the period during which the universe remains in a state of partial dissolution. The period between two total dissolutions is 3:1104  1014 years = 1 day of Vishnu, or 6:2208  1014 years if the night of Vishnu is included. However during this period the universe undergoes 36,000 quasi-dissolutions comparable to the dissolution up to radiation era in the big bang cosmology. The reason for such comparison is this. The period between two quasi-dissolutions is 8:64  109 years = period of 1 Kalpa. Moreover from our present position on this time scale given earlier, we can calculate the approximate age of the universe from the last total dissolution as 1:55522  1014 years and from the last quasi-dissolution as 1:972  109 years. This last gure of 2 billion years was also the rst and the original prediction of the astronomer Edwin Hubble himself. Ironically this gure was in direct con ict with the prediction due to the radioactive dating techniques which put the age of some of the oldest rocks on this planet at 4.5 billion years. Later on Hubble's technique was re ned by Walter Baade and other astronomers who classi ed certain class of stars called cepheid variables into two groups of which only one was considered suitable for use as a standard candle for measuring the astronomical distances. This and other technique involving planetary nebulae and type 1A supernova have given age estimates for the universe ranging from 7 to 20 billion years. Both these techniques, radioactive dating and the astronomical, rely on linear extrapolation of the measured data. Scientists have no way of knowing whether nature had exhibited any nonlinear behaviour (such as superconductivity or the symmetry breaking) in the distant past. A study conducted by Freedman group [32] using repaired Hubble telescope puts the age of the universe between 8 and 12 billion years where as the age of the globular clusters remain at 16 billion years{a troublesome contradiction for the big bang model. An earlier study by Robin Ciardullo and his group using planetary nebulae [33] also gave 10 billion years for the age of the universe. A recent study using Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) [34] puts the age at 13.7 billion years. Accepting that there is no perfect agreement between the Puranic cosmology and the modern cosmology in this regard, we still have sucient reason to stipulate that for every major creative cycle that begins with vibration Om, there are 36,000 minor cycles of creation comparable to big bang, and the major creative cycles are endless like the quasi

6 steady state theory. However, as opposed to quasi steady state theory, Vibratory Cosmology does not deny beginning to the universe. This is in conformance with the Puranas which state that all the three Gunas were in a state of equilibrium during the period of total dissolution. There is another Yuga classi cation scheme proposed by Swami Yukteswarananda [35] in modern times, who claimed that the Kali Yuga is over and we are into Dwapara Yuga. This scheme does not give the age of the universe in terms of billions of years and hence is not comparable to the big bang cosmology. This scheme also con icts with the currently assessed value of the precession of equinoxes.

B. Time and Motion All this leads to the conclusion that the fundamental unit of time must be a period of the wave. When vibration begins, the time begins with it and when vibration ceases, the time or more speci cally period ceases with it. In every day life when you say, a particular person lived for 75 years, all you mean is that the heart of that person vibrated for so many number of cycles. The world's most accurate time measuring instruments are Atomic Clocks. One such atomic clock is installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Colorado, USA. The clock excites the atoms of Cesium metal from one energy state to the next with the help of microwaves having a very precise frequency, which is 9,192,631,770 cycles/sec or hertz, which corresponds to one second . Mechanical pendulum clocks oscillate only once in one second. A mechanical wrist watch oscillates about 10 cycles/sec. A quartz crystal watch oscillates 32,768 times in one second. Higher the frequency, greater is the accuracy in measuring time because time and frequency are the inverse of each other. If a pendulum clock misses one cycle due to the inherent non linearity of its own physical nature, the clock goes o by one second from our imaginary linear conception of time. If the atomic clock misses one cycle, it goes o only by about 9.2 billionth part of a second and hence we consider it to be in much more conformance with our imaginary linear conception of time. One may never nd a person who do not have a sense of time. What is it that gives the human being this sense of time? The most logical answer would be that every person must have a naturally built in clock in the inner most depth of his being oscillating at an extremely high frequency, much more higher than our best atomic clocks that hardly misses a cycle. When the person compares the oscillations of his natural clock with any other external oscillations, he gets the sense of time. These natural oscillations are the ones that the yogi hears as the anhata sound of pranav om. When you say I am measuring time, in reality you are simply measuring oscillations or vibrations of some physical device and nothing more. Therefore time is an

imaginary concept; vibrations or oscillations have some real objective existence. Therefore time is always associated with the oscillations of one or the other kind. In other words time is strictly a periodic phenomenon and does not ow in one direction as is generally assumed. In this context, one might ponder about the signi cance of Planck time around which most of the GUTs revolve. The signi cance, however, is best described by George F. Smoot, COBE's cartographer in following words [36]. When you start talking about 10 43 seconds, no body

knows what that is. Not even physicists, really. Naturally with adoption of cyclic time as the fundamental unit of time, we are also prompted to look into the nature of fundamental motion. If the entire relative universe has arisen from the motionless absolute in the form of waves, then this vibratory nature must re ect through the entire sentient and insentient creation. That this indeed is the case becomes evident when we carefully observe this phenomenal universe. All seemingly straight line motions appear to have a cyclic or oscillatory motion as their basis. In order to form a generalized view, it will be worthwhile reviewing few such motions, which otherwise we take for granted. Examples of such motions are rotating wheels of the automobiles and locomotives, rotating propellers of aircrafts and ships, back and forth movement of the human and animal legs (no need to resort to interferometry to detect such obvious wave properties), orbiting planets, cyclic swings of the bird's wings, wave motion of light, sound and other particles, vibrating molecules of the spacecraft rocket propellant, the pulsating hearts of the beings, the cyclic breathing of the lungs and the list can go on and on. Wave Mechanics provides ample support to the generalization that the basic constituent particles of all the complex material structures inclusive of the life forms move in a periodic or cyclic fashion. It should be noted here that the researchers began doing interferometry for detecting the wave property of the whole atoms only very recently. Such experiments are extraordinarily dicult because the mirrors, lenses and crystals have to be replaced by metal plates etc. [36]. All the modern cosmological theories are based on the idea of time that ow in one direction. Entire classical mechanics as well as general relativity are founded upon linear time that ow forward without break from past to present and from present to future. This sometimes creates very confusing situations such as twin paradox and tachyons that travel faster than the speed of light. All these imaginary notions are meaningless in present theory. In this connection it is necessary to relate akasha and prana of Vedanta philosophy with identical notions of the present day physics. The closest concept to akasha in the present day physics is that of the uni ed quantum eld in vacuum state or the ground state. The prana which is always associated with the akasha appears as vacuum

uctuations. In wake of the space-energy equivalence, the same eld when viewed from the geometrical perspective appears as the Hilbert space. It is interesting to note that Prof. John Hagelin [37, 38] who is a co-developer of

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FIG. 1: (Color online) Hidden levels of reality

the ipped SU(5) model (Superstring theory) has made a similar attempt to relate modern science with the vedic science. At this stage it becomes possible to identify one more deeper hidden level of reality beyond the uni ed eld (or the sub-quantic medium). We have already described this hidden level as the equilibrated primal energy in which the uctuations are completely absent, in the sense that the frequency of the uctuations are in nite. Now we are left with two concepts, namely the absolute and the equilibrated primal energy which hitherto we have considered as identical with the assumption that they are simply di erent names of the same underlying reality. But the Vedanta says, not so. The absolute (i.e. Brahman) cannot be described by the human speech or thought and thus could not be comprehended by the human mind but could only be hinted at by the process of negation. Therefore it becomes possible to distinguish one more causal hidden level beyond the equilibrated primal energy. This is done simply by negating that the Absolute is not the equilibrated primal energy. The resulting heirarchy of di erent levels of reality would appear as shown in Fig. 1. Here we have something to replace the ideas associated with twin-paradox and tachyons. From Fig. 1 we can see that the locality principle [39] is naturally upheld at the level of uni ed quantum eld. At the same time the instantaneous action is fully justi ed at the level of the equilibrated primal energy (hyper space) where the distance between two space-time points gets completely obliterated (Omnipresence).

C. Hidden levels of reality 4. THOUGHTONS This kind of generalization leads to another question: the question about the nature of human thoughts. Can the human thought be compared to an electromagnetic wave signal? Vedanta has long ago recognized human thoughts as well as gravitation as forms of prana (vibrations) [7]. On one end of the electromagnetic spectrum we have very low frequency hard-to-detect gravi-

tons. Similarly there is reason to believe that there might be particles like thoughtons at the other end of the spectrum having much more higher frequency than gamma rays. Such particles have already been detected and are well known among Theosophists [40] as thought forms. These particles cannot be detected in a cloud chamber but can be seen in a mind chamber and as the name implies, not only do they have distinct forms but also colors which of course are not imaginary as that of quarks. The forms and colors of these particles depend on the rate of the vibration and whether the wave is a monochromatic or a compound wave. Human thought is one force that all the other grand uni cation theories have completely ignored to account for. Vedanta recognizes the entire universe as the manifestation of the universal thoughts originating from the universal mind (Mahat). Science has gradually come to recognize almost all forms of matter as energy. The discussion given above shows that the human thought is also a form of energy. Emanuel Swedenborg [8] has maintained that it is the thought and the intention that produces energy (conatus) to move the organs and muscles of the whole body. However, we are not used to quantifying the energies of human thoughts. We do recognize thought as a force but we never describe a particular thought as carrying so many electron volts of energy. So how would you write a mathematical equation for something which you cannot even quantify. By equating the vanishing of the quantum invariant with the rst vibration Om, we have actually done just that. It must be remembered, however, that physics and mathematics have never ventured beyond the domain of Tamas, one of the three Gunas, whereas Om represents the rst vibration responsible for the agitation of the equiliberated state of all the three Gunas - sattva, rajas, and tamas. Energies of sattvic or rajasic type may not be easy to detect or to quantify. Gross forms of energies can be found in oil elds or nuclear rods, but subtle energies are to be found in life forms. Subtle energies have more life manifesting through them. Swedenborg's concept of The Universal Human is identical to the Puranika view of the Virat Purusha or the Cosmic Being [10] who is made up of 24 cosmic principles.

A. In nity, Anahata Sound and CBR Here it is necessary to make few remarks about the concept of in nity. In nity can not be two or more. There can be only one in nity otherwise there will be a boundary between two in nity which will make them nite. Normally in physics, by in nity we mean either spatial or numerical in nity. In light of the equivalence of space-time and energy-vibration continuums, it is possible to introduce a broader concept [not to be confused with Aristotle's concept] which I call potential in nity (omnipotence). By energy approaching in nity, we simply mean the highest possible potency for the form of energy regardless of spatial or numerical considerations,

8 which are but geometrical concepts. Here we are trying to describe something which the vedantins call 'one without a second'. Spatial and numerical concepts help only where there is multiplicity. In other words, all forms of energy with lower potencies have their origin in forms of energy with higher potencies. It is not a mere coincidence that word Om is considered a sound sphota or sound potency and the particle energies are also measured in terms of potential di erence, i.e. electron volts. According to Sankhya, the sound Om is the attribute of Akasha, and the Upanishads have emphatically declared that the Akasha which is in the universal space is also within the human heart (spiritual center, not the organ) [3]. This Anahat Sound of Pranava Om is considered a spontaneous sound going on by itself. This sound is said to originate from both, the navel (spiritual center) of the yogi as well as from the Supreme Brahman resting on the ocean of milk [19]. This sound in my opinion, must have some connection with the cosmic background radiation (CBR) also known as microwave background noise. In the vocabulary of Swedenborg [8], it is possible to say that there is a correspondence between the Anahata sound and the cosmic microwave background noise. Leadbeater [41] uses the term counterpart for describing such correspondences. The quantum invariant and the general form of quantum hypothesis naturally accommodates all kind of radiation phenomena, which includes CBR or any other carrier particle of force such as photon, graviton, W and Z particles or pi meson and gluon and of course the thoughton.

See appendix D. This experience should be treated as the fourth experiential proof of this theory.

5. WHAT IS LIFE?

Devotee: A, U and M (i.e. Om) means creation, preservation and destruction. Sri Ramakrishna: But I give the illustration of the sound of a gong: 'tom'. It is the merging of the Lila in the Nitya: the gross, the subtle and the causal merge in the Great Cause; waking, dream and deep sleep merge in Turiya. The striking of the gong is like the falling of heavy weight into a big ocean. Waves begin to rise; the Relative rises from the Absolute; the causal, subtle and gross bodies appear out of the Great Cause; from Turiya emerge the states of deep sleep, dream and waking. These waves arising from the Great Ocean merge again in the Great Ocean. From the Absolute to the Relative, and from the Relative to the Absolute. Therefore I give the illustration of the gong's sound, 'tom'. I have clearly perceived all these things. It has been revealed to me that there exists an Ocean of Consciousness without limit. From It comes all things of the relative plane and in It they merge again. Millions of Brahmandas rise in that Chidakasa and merge in It again. All this has been revealed to me; I don't know much about what your books say.

Since the advent of the cell theory (1830-1860), the scienti c community has recognized the cell as the basic unit of life. When it comes to viruses, genes and self replicating molecules, such unanimity does not exist amongst scientists [42]. Before a scientist could see eye to eye with a metaphysician, he will have to convince himself of the existence of a conscious principle behind every atom of which a virus is composed. A simplest tobacco mosaic virus contains about 5,250,000 atoms. Not only so, he will also have to recognize the same conscious principle behind every form of energy of which the atom is composed. The di erence between the sentient and insentient forms in this universe is only that of the degree of manifestation of this conscious principle. The conventional view held by most of the present day orthodox scientists on this subject is nothing more than a scienti c taboo. Swami Vivekananda also used to ridicule the teachings of advaita (non-dual) vedanta by saying Can it ever be possible that the water

pot is God, the cup is God, whatever we see and all of us are God? But the intoxicating mystical experience he had at the transforming touch of Sri Ramakrishna made him realize that it was indeed so, and from then on he could never doubt the truth of non-duality [23];

Chapter 13 of the Bhagavad Gita is the most ancient and comprehensive eld theory available to mankind, and the truth of non-duality is explained in the 33rd sloka in following words:

As the one sun illumines the whole world, even so does the supreme soul (kshetri) illumine all bodies (kshetram). { BG 13:33. Kshetra means eld, and the word is used for the individual living body. Kshetram means entire universe including all living bodies, the ve great elements (earth, water, re, air and space), and even the unmanifest (avyakta). Kshetri means the lord of the eld (param brahma or param atma). The word kshetragnya is used for the individual embodied soul. There is another universal principle called Bliss (Ananda) which Vedanta recognizes as synonymous with the absolute in nite consciousness. The modern cosmogonists have virtually nothing to say about this principle, in the absence of which the propagation of creation would become very insipid if not impossible. This principle of bliss can manifest itself through the senses in an adulterated form or it can manifest supersensuously in the persuit of spirituality.

APPENDIX A: SRI RAMAKRISHNA ON OM.

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APPENDIX B: SWAMI MUKTANANDA ON OM.

My dear Siddha students, when I heard the sounds of the ute in sahasrara, I lost consciousness even of Tandraloka. I did not know where the inner Witness had gone. I had no idea where I was going or what was happening as I listened to the sweet music of the ute . . . Sometimes I danced, sometimes I swayed, and sometimes I was drunk with love and lost in the divine nada (subtle sound). The nada is Parabrahman. It is a bursting forth of the throbbing vibrations of Parashakti Mahamaya Sri Kundalini . . . 'God originally manifested as sound.' I saw God in these sounds. They represented the later phase of my awakening Kundalini. As one keeps listening to the nada, the mind centers on the place from which it arises. I could observe the place from where sparks ew out of the divine light activated by the vibrations of the nada. All my senses were drawn toward it; even my tongue hurried toward it. During this phase, whenever I heard a certain nada, my body would react with a corresponding quivering that was slightly painful. Then it seemed that my whole body would fall to pieces. I was bathed in sweat. My head shook violently. It felt as if a gentle re was burning throughout my body. Sometimes a tiny drop of nectar would drip from the upper akasha, or else sensations of the di erent tastes were released from there{salty, sour, bitter, and hot. Sometimes while I was listening to the nada, a nectar like milk trickled down my palate and then to the gastric re, from where it went out into the 720 million nadis (neural network in subtle body). As a result of this, many subtle ailments of the body vanished. However much I worked my body, I never felt tired anymore. As I listened to these divine nadas, knowing them to be shabdabrahman, Brahman in the form of sound, I directly experienced shabdabrahman in the form of nada . . . As I listened to the Lord's ute, I developed insight into many mysterious things. I heard the nada for longer and longer periods, and even during my everyday activities{while I was coming and going, sleeping and eating{ I heard it. When I got angry, I heard it still more. The more I listened to the ute, the richer my own voice became. I bene ted from the various qualities of the di erent nadas that I heard. When I heard the sound of the kettledrum, I acquired clairvoyance and could see things far away. Sometimes I would be sitting in my room and would see what was

happening in another room. And it would sometimes happen that I would enter a room just when someone was doing something in secret, as if I had been called there. However, I would simply say that such and such a person had called me. I listened to the kettledrum nada and absorbed its virtues. My meditation progressed each day like the waxing moon. After the nada of the kettledrum, I heard the nal nada, which is called meghanada, the sound of thunder. It is a most divine nada, the king of nada, the celestial cow which ful lls the wishes of yogis. When it is heard, the upper space trembles. For a few days the sadhaka is not himself because of this continuous thundering, for this is the nada that leads to samadhi (ultimate illumination), the goal of yoga. From within this nada, the yogi hears the chanting of Om. Then he learns that Om is self-begotten. It is not created by sages like the various mantras of di erent sects. No abbot composed it. It is self-existent. It arises by itself out of the upper spaces of the sahasrara. It is born of itself; it is not caused by anything else. When this nada comes, the yogi falls into a tremendous ecstasy. APPENDIX C: SWAMI YOGESHANANDA ON OM.

A few morning later I made my way to Master's (Sri Yukteswar) empty sitting room. I planned to meditate, but my laudable purpose was unshared by disobedient thoughts. They scattered like birds before the hunter. 'Mukunda!' (Swami Yogeshananda), Sri Yukteswar's voice sounded from a distant balcony. I felt as rebellious as my thoughts. 'Master always urges me to meditate,' I muttered to myself. 'He should not disturb me when he knows why I came to his room.' He summoned me again; I remained obstinately silent. The third time his tone held rebuke. 'Sir, I am meditating,' I shouted protestingly. 'I know how you are meditating,' my guru called out, ' with your mind distributed like leaves in a storm! Come here to me.' Thwarted and exposed, I made my way sadly to his side. 'Poor boy, mountains cannot give you what you want.' (Swami had just aborted an attempt to escape to the Himalayas). Master spoke caressingly, comfortingly. His calm gaze was unfathomable. 'Your heart's desire shall be ful lled. 'Sri Yukteswar seldom indulged in riddles; I was bewildered. He struck gently on my chest above the heart. My body became immovably rooted; breath

10

was drawn out of my lungs as if by some huge magnet. Soul and mind instantly lost their physical bondage and streamed out like a uid piercing light from my every pore. The esh was as though dead, yet in my intense awareness I knew that never before had I been fully alive. My sense of identity was no longer narrowly con ned to a body but embraced the circumambient atoms. People on distant streets seemed to be moving gently over my own remote periphery. The roots of plants and trees appeared through a dim transparency of the soul; I discerned the inward ow of their sap. The whole vicinity lay bare before me. My ordinary frontal vision was now changed to a vast spherical sight, simultaneously allperceptive. Through the back of my head I saw men strolling far down Rai Ghat Lane, and noticed also a white cow that was leisurely approaching. When she reached the open ashram gate, I observed her as though with my two physical eyes. After she had passed behind the brick wall of the courtyard, I saw her clearly still. All objects within my panoramic gaze trembled and vibrated like quick motion pictures. My body, Master's, the pillared courtyard, the furniture and oor, the trees and sunshine, occasionally became violently agitated, until all melted into a luminescent sea; even as sugar crystals, thrown into a glass of water, dissolve after being shaken. The unifying light alternated with materializations of form, the metamorphoses revealing the law of cause and e ect in creation. An oceanic joy broke upon calm endless shores of my soul. The spirit of God, I realized, is exhaustless Bliss; His body is countless tissues of light. A swelling glory within me began to envelop towns, continents, the earth, solar and stellar systems, tenuous nebulae, and oating universes. The entire cosmos, gently luminous like a city seen afar at night, glimmered within the in nitude of my being. The dazzling light beyond the sharply etched global outlines faded slightly at the farthest edges; there I saw a mellow radiance, ever undiminished. It was indescribably subtle; the planetary pictures were formed of a grosser light. The divine dispersion of rays poured from an Eternal Source, blazing into galaxies, trans gured with ine able auras. Again and again I saw the creative beams condense into constellations, then resolve into sheets of transparent ame. By rhythmic reversion, sextillion worlds passed into diaphanous luster, then re became rmament.

I cognized the center of the empyrean as a point of intuitive perception in my heart. Irradiating splendor issued from my nucleus to every part of the universal structure. Blissful amrita, nectar of immortality, pulsated through me with a quicksilver like uidity. The creative voice of God I heard resounding as Aum, the vibration of the Cosmic Motor. (fn: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. - John 1:1) Suddenly the breath returned to my lungs. With a disappointment almost unbearable, I realized that my in nite immensity was lost. Once more I was limited to the humiliating cage of a body, not easily accommodative to the Spirit. Like a prodigal child, I had run away from my macrocosmic home and had imprisoned myself in a narrow microcosm. APPENDIX D: THE TRUTH OF NON-DUALITY.

One day the Master told Narendra (Swami Vivekananda) many things indicating the oneness of Jiva (individual soul) and Brahman (supreme soul) according to the non-dual philosophy (Vedanta). Narendra heard those words, undoubtedly with attention, but could not comprehend them, and went to Hazra at the end of the Master's talk. Smoking and discussing those things again with Hazra, he said, 'Can it ever be possible that the water pot is God, the cup is God, whatever we see and all of us are God?' Hazra also joined Narendra in ridiculing the idea and both of them burst into laughter. The Master was till then in the state of partial consciousness. Hearing Narendra laugh, he came out of his room like a boy with his cloth in his armpit, and coming to them smiling, said a ectionaly, 'What are you both talking about?' He then touched Narendra and went into ecstasy. Narendra said to us afterwards, 'There was a complete revolution in the state of my mind in a moment at the wonderful touch of the Master. I was aghast to see actually that there was nothing in the whole universe except God. But I remained silent in spite of seeing it, wondering how long that state would last. But that inebriation did not at all diminish that day. I returned home; it was all the same there. It seemed to me that all I saw was He. I sat for my meal when I saw that all{food, plate, the one who was serving as well as I myself{were nothing but He. I took a mouthful or two and sat quiet. My mother's affectionate words,{'Why do you sit quiet; why

11

don't you eat?'{brought me to consciousness and I began eating again. Thus, I had that experience at the time of eating or drinking, sitting or lying, going to the college or taking a stroll. I was always overwhelmed with a sort of indescribable intoxication. When I walked along the streets and saw a carriage coming along before me, I did not feel inclined, as at other times, to move away lest it should collide with me. For I thought, 'I am also that and nothing but that.' My hands and feet always remained insensible at that time. While taking food, I ceased to feel that I was taking. It seemed to me as if someone else was taking the meal. Sometimes I lay down while eating and got up in a short time to continue eating. On some days I thus ate much more than the usual quantity of food. But that did not cause any disease. My mother was alarmed and said, 'I am afraid you have some severe ailment within.' Again she said sometimes, 'He may not live more.' When the overwhelming intoxi-

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cation diminished a little, the world appeared to me to be a dream. Going for a walk on the bank of the Hedu tank, I knocked my head against the iron railing round it to see whether what I saw were dream rails or actual ones. On account of the insensibility of my hands and feet, I was afraid that I might be going in for paralysis. I could not escape that terrible intoxicating mood and overwhelming condition for some time. When I came to the normal state, I thought that it was the indication of non-dual knowledge. So what is written in the scriptures about it is by no means untrue. Since then, I could never doubt the truth of non-duality.' ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author gratefully acknowledges the permission granted by the publishers to quote from [19, 20, 21, 23].

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