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Piano Technique, Piano Technique. All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ /5 Basic Piano. 2. A-Play Piano Technique. Table of Contents. PIANO TECHNIQUE .

Piano Technique, Piano Technique

A-Play Piano Technique Table of Contents PIANO TECHNIQUE ..................................................................................... 5 THE ANATOMY OF A PIANO........................................................................................................................ 5 The Keys....................................................................................................................................................................7 Action (The Hammer and Damper System) .........................................................................................................7 Pedals ........................................................................................................................................................................8 Connections of a Digital Piano ...............................................................................................................................9

FINGERING................................................................................................. 10 FINGERING BASICS ................................................................................................................................... 10 FINGERING IN C ......................................................................................................................................... 11 C Major.....................................................................................................................................................................11 C Minor.....................................................................................................................................................................12 C Dorian...................................................................................................................................................................12 C Mixolydian............................................................................................................................................................13 C Blues.....................................................................................................................................................................13

CO-ORDINATION OF THE HANDS ............................................................ 14 EXERCISES ................................................................................................................................................. 14

SIGHT-READING ........................................................................................ 19 THE GEOGRAPHICAL METHOD................................................................................................................ 19 RHYTHM EXERCISES ................................................................................................................................ 20 INVERTED CHORDS................................................................................................................................... 26

CHORD ARRANGEMENTS ........................................................................ 32 SCALE C ...................................................................................................................................................... 33 Common Chords in C ............................................................................................................................................33 C Scales...................................................................................................................................................................33 Chord Tablature for Piano.....................................................................................................................................34 The Scales in C ......................................................................................................................................................35 Piano Arrangement Examples in C......................................................................................................................46 SCALE G ...................................................................................................................................................... 54 Common Chords in G ............................................................................................................................................54 G Scales ..................................................................................................................................................................54 Chord Tablature for Piano.....................................................................................................................................55 The Scales in G ......................................................................................................................................................56 Piano Arrangement Examples in G .....................................................................................................................71 SCALE F....................................................................................................................................................... 79 Common Chords in F.............................................................................................................................................79 F Scales ...................................................................................................................................................................79 Chord Tablature for Piano.....................................................................................................................................80 The Scales in F .......................................................................................................................................................81 Piano Arrangement Examples in F ......................................................................................................................95 SCALE E .................................................................................................................................................... 101 Common Chords in E...........................................................................................................................................101

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Piano Technique, Piano Technique E Scales.................................................................................................................................................................101 Chord Tablature for Piano...................................................................................................................................102 The Scales in E.....................................................................................................................................................103 Piano Arrangement Example in E......................................................................................................................119 LAST WORDS ON PIANO TECHNIQUE................................................................................................... 122

INDEX PIANO TECHNIQUE...................................................................... 123

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Piano Technique, Piano Technique All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ Series A-Play Basic Piano ISBN 9788791995095 st st 1 Edition, 1 Issue Spring 2007 Produced in Denmark

Digital Books™ is a trademark of NORDISC Music & Text, DK-2700 Broenshoej, Denmark www.nordisc-music.com Text, notes, musical examples, Illustrations, layout and concept © Copyright H.W. Gade 1984-2006

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Piano Technique, Piano Technique

Piano Technique We believe that our piano tutor will attract 2 kinds of students; the beginners with very little musical training and the musicians with e.g. guitar, sax or drums as their main instrument and a need for the piano for rehearsing and working with arrangements. The musician already proficient in music theory may skip parts of the 2nd chapter, but the musician with no theoretical background and no knowledge of note reading must learn the basic notes and theory properly, which means that you will have to learn to read notes, before you can play the piano. But all our students have of course already read their lesson by now, and are eager to get their hands on the piano rocking the neighbourhood, right? Well, let’s ride then – oh, you missed some of the theory sections? Most of them? All of them??? Back to the music theory, and don’t come back before you know the basics of the notes, scales and chords! Am I too rough? An old, irritating dinosaur from the sixties? Well, if you never learn the notes, you will never learn to play the piano. Face it; you have a mission now, music! THE ANATOMY OF A PIANO In this chapter, we have used a baby grand as the example. It looks great, costs a fortune and it is a breeze to play. Fortunately, you will meet these expensive instruments in the school, at the university and in the rehearsal room. Always take the opportunity to rehearse on a grand piano when you meet one. The feeling of the smooth hammer action; the beautiful, rich sounds and the expressiveness of the large register from the roaring depths to the refined top notes like temple bells. Then go home and proceed with the old upright piano inherited from your grandmother. Don’t cry, you will have a baby grand or a Yamaha digital grand one fine day. The piano has a range of keys (1). The size of the keys differs a little from brand to brand. Choose the size according to the size of your hands. You should at least be able to stretch an octave with one hand (actually, Grieg the Norwegian composer hardly reached 10 keys, but was a master piano player nonetheless. Below the keyboard, you have the pedals (2), which you will rehearse with later in this chapter. Just above the keys, you have the note rest (3), which is necessary even if you play from chord symbols only. Always have a pair of clothes pegs with you in your back with notes and texts. Nothing is funnier – for the audience and the band – than your notes slowly sliding down the keyboard and landing all over the stage. Be prepared.

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Piano Technique, Piano Technique A grand piano is made of a huge case (6), the heavy, metal frame (5) with 88 sets of strings and a soundboard (below the frame, no number). The baby grand also has a large lid (4), which works as a natural loudspeaker when you open the lid as shown in the drawing (mind the pin and your head!). Beneath the piano, there are 3-4 (blocked) wheels. Don’t try to move the piano; leave that to the experts. The strings of the piano are collected in pairs, three string per note in the bass, two strings for the middle notes, and one string for the high notes). The tension of the strings is enormous – up to 14 tons for an upright piano and 30 tons for a concert grand.

6

1 Keys

2 Pedals

3 Note rest

4 Lid

5 Frame

6 Case

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Piano Technique, Piano Technique The Keys The “interface” between the piano player and the piano is the keyboard. The keys of the C scale are white. The black keys are the altered tones, i.e. the tone used in scales with accidentals. All the keys used to be made of ivory, but now they are made of plastic (the elephants are extremely happy for that). The modern piano has 88 keys consisting of seven octaves and a minor third. Older pianos often have fewer keys. Do not accept a piano with less than 88 keys. Action (The Hammer and Damper System)

Keyboard and action of a grand piano. The lid has been removed. 1 Key

2 Action

3 damper

4 Hammer (not visible in this drawing)

Grand pianos: The Action is the name of a peculiar mechanical device (the “wippen assembly”) invented by the Italian piano maker Bartolomeo Cristofori in 1720 in Florence. Before the invention of the action, the keyboards used mechanical plectrums to let the strings sound, as on a guitar. The action consists of a key (1), a complicated balancing system, almost like a gear, transferring the power from the key to the hammer – the balancing system is the action (2). The system includes a wooden hammer (4) and a damper (3) made of felt. 1

The player strikes the key (1)

2

The power of the stroke is transferred to the hammer (4)

3

The damper (3) is lifted by the action (2) and the hammer strikes the string.

4

The player releases the key (1), and the damper is lowered to silence the string.

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Piano Technique, Piano Technique The key can be depressed not only once but many times making it possible to play very fast notes on the key. This is the main reason for the popularity of the so-called “hammer piano”, the modern piano. Before the invention of the action, it was very difficult to play really fast on a keyboard. Upright pianos: The upright piano uses an action with springs, which makes the upright piano slower and harder to play. Digital Pianos: The newest digital pianos are equipped with advanced digital actions, which are almost perfect imitations of the grand piano action. Pedals All pianos have at least one pedal. Normally there are two pedals; a soft pedal and a damper pedal, but quite a few pianos have a third middle pedal too,

1 Soft pedal

2 Sostenuto or middle pedal

3

Damper or Loud pedal

1. Soft Pedal (Leftmost) Grand pianos The soft pedal shifts the so-called “action” a bit to the right to force the hammers to strike only two of the three strings of each key. The sound is softened and the character changed. The action is the hammer mechanism producing the sound after a key has been struck by the player. Upright pianos The soft pedal lowers the hammer’s distance to the strings, thus reducing the volume of the strike. The character does not change (that’s why a baby grand costs €6,000). Digital pianos The soft pedal on a digital piano is used as a multiple-choice pedal, which can activate several instrumental sounds and functions like pitch bend, vibrato and other settings, according to the user’s programming of the front panel.

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Piano Technique, Piano Technique 2. Sostenuto Pedal (Middle) Grand pianos The sostenuto pedal, which is not always present even on modern grand pianos, makes it possible to prolong the sound of a note struck before the sostenuto pedal was pressed. The prolonged notes will sound while new notes can be added producing delicate overtones and other experimental sounds. Bass sustain: See Upright pianos. Upright pianos Most upright pianos do not have a sostenuto pedal. If they do have a middle pedal, it is used for: 1.

Practice pedal (muffling): The pedal dampens the sound of the strings to a minimum, allowing the player to rehearse without disturbing the neighbours. The practise pedal can often be locked to permit access to the other two pedals.

2

Bass sustain: The pedal lifts the dampers of the bass notes to strengthen the bass.

3.

Honky-tonk sound: The pedal releases a row of tap strips between the hammer and the strings to produce the famous out of tune sounds of the western saloon and ragtime pianos. Digital pianos The middle pedal – if present – is used for various purposes, similar to the leftmost pedal.

3. Damper, Loud or Sustaining Pedal (Rightmost) All piano types: All pianos have a damper pedal. When activating the pedal, all dampers are lifted, and all notes will continue sounding after the notes have been struck. This has two advantages: 1.

Legato playing: Legato means fluent or smoothly. The open strings facilitate complicated passages and link the musical phrases in a pleasant way.

2.

Overtones: The open strings produce a multitude of overtones enriching the sound of the music.

Digital pianos do not have physical dampers, but use electronic effects instead. Connections of a Digital Piano

This is a typical rear panel with connections to 1-2 computers, MIDI in/out, 1-3 pedals for damper pedal etc., jack line in and out, power switch and adapter connection. On the front panel, there are a wide range of sounds, recording controls, example files and drives for discs and CDs.

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Piano Technique, Fingering

Fingering The piano teacher Chuan Chang writes: “(The scales) should sound crisp and authoritative, not loud but confident; just listening to them should lift up one's spirits”. This is where we are heading now, the fingering and scale nightmare. But the nightmare happens to be pure fun, rewarding and developing your general motor and mental abilities. You will gain a greater self-confidence not only in music, but also in a lot of other areas, e.g. using the computer expertly, just to mention one of the bonus results. FINGERING BASICS We start with numbering your fingers on the left and right hands. The numbers are used for showing the preferred fingers for various scales and phrases. You will not die, if you don’t use the traditional fingering, but you will never become a competent piano player, and you will never be able to play fast figures and arpeggios.

Left hand

Right hand

The sooner you start learning the fingering of the basic scales, C, G, D, A, E, F, Bb and Ab (in major and minor), the sooner you will become a popular sideman on piano. Warning If you want to accompany a singer, you will need to learn all scales in both the major, minor, modal and blues variants.

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Piano Technique, Fingering

FINGERING IN C See the rest of the scale fingerings later in this chapter and in the chapter Exercises. Fingering Principles Fingering is either a 3 / 4 step or a 4 / 3 variant. The C, G, D, A and E major scales are built on fingering 1 2 3 and 1 2 3 4 5 (3 / 4). Minor scales are often built on fingering 1 2 3 4 and 1 2 3 4 (4/3) as are Major Bb, Eb, Ab, Db and Gb. Some of the flat scales also have their own fingerings, but the 4 / 3 variant is sufficient for rock and (slow) jazz. Dorian is a minor scale with a major sixth. Mixolydian is a major scale with a minor seven. Blues is a pentatonic scale. Start playing all the following scales with the correct fingering. Rehearse both the right and the left hand. Remember: the fingerings of the two hands are mirrored; first right hand finger is number 1 and first left hand finger number 5. The Chords and exercises chapters have a lot of new examples and exercises. C Major

C

D

E

F

G

A

B

C

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

2

1

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Piano Technique, Fingering (Scales and Fingering) C Minor

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

A

Right Hand

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Left Hand

5

4

3

2

5

4

3

2

C

D Eb

F

G

A Bb

C

Right Hand

1

2 3

4

1

23

4

Left Hand

5

4 3

2

5

43

2

C Dorian

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Piano Technique, Fingering (Scales and Fingering) C Mixolydian

C

D

E

F

G

A Bb

C

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3 4

5

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3 2

1

C Blues

C

Eb

F

G

Bb

C

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

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Piano Technique, Co-ordination of the Hands

Co-ordination of the Hands First thing to exercise is the co-ordination of your hands. The piano is capable of playing many bass and melody lines at the same time. In this basic piano tutor, we use only a few moving bass lines, but when you are ready to play in the band, you must invent and rehearse similar bass lines to make the rhythms rock or swing. This is just the beginning. EXERCISES Exercise 1 The left hand marches while the right hands rests in long notes/intervals. in the 7th bar, the marching rhythm changes to the right hand.

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Piano Technique, Co-ordination of the Hands (Co-ordination of the Hands 2-3) Exercise 2 The left and right hand alternate. The bass notes begin to move down and up with the chords and intervals.

Exercise 3 The rhythms become more and more complex. The bass still moves like a jazz bass player, but the chords and figures are free and create counter rhythms; a primitive swing feeling.

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Piano Technique, Co-ordination of the Hands (Co-ordination of the Hands 4-5) Exercise 4 An exotic theme starts with bass and treble in unison. Soon after, the melody breaks the monotony with a syncopated rhythm, i.e. rhythms placed before or after the basic beat of the melody.

Exercise 5 Now the whole melody uses syncopated movements in the bass and the chords. Bar 6 is composed to stretch your fingers. Don’t complain, it’s all for your best. Listen to the music.

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Piano Technique, Co-ordination of the Hands (Co-ordination of the Hands 6-7) Exercise 6 Here we have a pumping 1980-ies bass. The chords move fast or rest in a long interval or chord. The last 4 bars have a challenging rhythm alternating between treble and bass in 1/8’s:

Exercise 7 Again, the left and the right hands are playing with each other. They follow and break, pause and run. At the end of the little piece, the theme in the right hand is repeated (one chord extra to create a momentum in the musical flow, just before the melody ends.

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Piano Technique, Co-ordination of the Hands (Co-ordination of the Hands 8) Exercise 8 The tiny melody is constructed like a traditional psalm with a lively bass line and a solemn static melody.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading

Sight-Reading It is relatively easy to play chords from chord symbols – and that is of course one of the purposes of this book. But you cannot escape learning to sight-read, as you will often need to play the melody together with the chords. This is the hardest part of playing the piano, so you will have to rehearse sight-reading a lot. Here come some tips and some examples. In the rest of the basic piano tutor, you will find plenty of exercises and stylistic samples. If you manage to play of all them, you will eventually achieve a routine and speed that will make your life as a sight-reader much easier. THE GEOGRAPHICAL METHOD A popular short cut to reading the notes is using what is referred to as “the geographical method”, which is looking at the notes move up and down. Remember the melodic outline in the chapter Basic Music Theory? That’s another way of looking at the notes. 1.

The first example is a bit awkward as the notes look the same but they are not. The melody uses both quarters and fifths. You must look very carefully at the notes, before you play them; if you cheat and guess, you will play the wrong notes. If you accompany a singer, she will kill you.

2.

Tricky intervals and accidentals including a natural sign.

3.

Fast 1/8 notes with tight, unpredictable intervals.

4.

Large intervals and advanced modulations. The more advanced, the more important it is to quickly read and play exactly what the notes say. Play what you see, don’t imagine the next notes – or worse – learn by heart. If you learn the tunes by heart you will never be able to sight-read.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading

RHYTHM EXERCISES Here are some rhythm exercises. The styles are rock, funk and jazz. Watch out when you play the funk examples; funk has some intricate off beats in 1/16, so look out. Play the exercises with your music teacher – you do have a teacher, right? You cannot judge the results yourself. 1 Rock A classic Rock’n’roll rhythm with a rhythm gadget to end the example.

2 Rock A mixture between heavy rock and jazz, First example of ostinato bass figures, i.e. repeating a bass figure all the time, while the melody is busy upstairs.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading (Rhythm Exercises 3-4) 3 Funk A complicated offbeat exercise, where you must have a teacher or a pro sight-reader to help you play the little tricky beast as the mean author meant it.

4 Jazz A soft jazz ballad with triplets and other jazz specialties.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading (Rhythm Exercises 5-6) 5 Balkan An oriental theme with another bass ostinato. You have more and more notes and intervals coming. You may need help again from your teacher.

6 Rock 1980-ies 1/8s both in the melody and later in the bass.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading (Rhythm Exercises 7-8) 7 Rock Slow rock theme with variants and a little surprise in the end. I love surprises, don’t you?

8 Jazz A new bass ostinato and a fast melody. And to make things worse, the melody is played in harmony in bar 4. The author is cruel, I know.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading (Rhythm Exercises 9-10) 9 Funk Another off beat exercise. The tone gender oscillates between minor and major. The harmonies are typical for funk inspired by modern big band jazz.

10 Jazz A soft jazz tune with slow 1/4 triplets. Watch out; slow triplets are hard to play without missing the irrational rhythm of the triplet. Rehearse them again and again with a metronome keeping the basic beats.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading (Rhythm Exercises 11-12) 11 Boogie This is a classic figure, you are bound to meet sooner or later in the real music life. Train the figures with you teacher, and listen to a lot of boogie tunes (Fats Waller and Pete Johnson are the kings of Boogie and still available in the web music shops. Suggestion: “Alligator Crawl” with Fats Waller and one of Betty Smith’s recordings, for example “You got me Going”. Pete Johnson. Please note bar 4 where triplets and the boogie figure . collide. See chapter Advance Piano Playing, Polyrhythms for more information.

12 Jazz An example with bass and harmonies using major 6 and 7 in minor chords. This was very trendy in the 1950.ies. Listen to the James Bond theme written by a 1950-ies-guitar player.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading

INVERTED CHORDS As the last sight-reading exercises before we start playing chords from chord symbols, we will concentrate on the art of good chord inversion. An inverted chord is a chord where the fifth and/or third is lowered one octave. When the fifth is lowered, it is called the first inversion, and when the third is lowered too, it’s called the second inversion. 1. Ballad A slow ballad in the style of the 1970-ies. The C chord is in first inversion to let the third C E ring out in the beautiful soft tone of the middle C. G is standard position and the F is in second inversion to place the prime note at the top. From here, it’s easy to place the G chord 1 whole not up. Every movement of a note should be close. Do not place full chords in the bass area.

2. Balkan Style The chords move very little.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading (Inverted Chord Exercises 3-4) 3. Jazz The first chord is a teaser. Isn’t the key supposed to be C? Oh yes, but we nevertheless try to start on a subdominant chord; a Neapolitan minor sixth, to be more precise. After the Fm6, the tune becomes a classic jazz, C, C#dim, Em7 and G7, a standard phrase. And finally, a G+ and the crunchy Cmaj9 chord.

4. Modern “loose” rock The chords are displaced with emphasis on the sus2 or sus4, so typical for the rock music since Nirvana. The Bb is second inversion and Fmaj7 is a traditional chord position in first inversion with the major 7 placed directly under the prime (base).

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading (Inverted Chord Exercises 5-6) 5. Romantic Pop Ballad Now we are close to classic pop music. The bass is static and you can see the phrase ties to show that the arpeggio should be played in closed phrases, either a whole bar or (bar 6 and 7) in two half bar movements. Use the damper pedal to let the notes sound longer. The Am9 in the end is typical with the Minor third and the second (the 9) at the top. The Fifth is placed in first inversion and the prime note is hidden in the bass.

6. Arpeggio Exercise The arpeggio moves in broad waves over lively bass figures, first up, then down. In bar 5 to 6, the exercise modulates in a transitive non-functional jump, only to return to C a few seconds later. Home again. Sorry, we forgot the last full chord; only two naked notes – I would have been expelled from the conservatory! I don’t care.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading (Inverted Chord Exercises 7-8) 7. Non-functional Movements of Chords The chords in exercise 7 are typical for the late 1960-ies. The Dm7 and Em7 move up and down in a never-ending flow. In a real song from that period, the song would keep on playing the same two chords for 15 minutes or more. The rest of the tune contains your first double figure in the right hand (the F A G B) and a new awkward modulation before the last C6+9, a typical jazz chord, unrelated to the Dm7 – Em7, but nice…

8. Syncopated arpeggio The bass moves in a 3 3 2 pattern, a syncope. The “syncopated” arpeggio follows the rhythm. The scale is partly Dorian, the main scale of soul music. The Am D is the Dorian mark. Later, the scale changes to natural minor.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading (Inverted Chord Exercises 9-10) 9. Funky, non-functional chords Now we have another example of non-functional harmonies. C, Eb and F changes from C minor to Eb and F minor. This was common in the early jazz-rock bands, and the simplistic change a whole key at a time is perfect for the solo player, who doesn’t have to think of real modulations, which you will soon learn can be tricky.

10. Arpeggio with fixed ostinato note Often, the arpeggios are based on a ostinato or fixed note the is repeated all the time. The arpeggio spans a fifth and n octave, so you will have the day’s workout for your hands. Please note the G in the bass where the C chord ands. It sounds like a bad idea, but as the bass moves from A to G# in bar 7, G turns out to be a perfect last note. Always trust your ear.

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Piano Technique, Sight-Reading (Inverted Chord Exercises 11-12) 11. The Classic Blue Moon Vamp This a very primitive vamp or cadence. The song Blue Moon is built on these 4 chords, as are hundreds of similar songs. This standard form and many others, you will meet later in this piano tutor should be common knowledge for all musicians. So don’t laugh, just learn it.

11. The Hit the Road Jack Vamp This vamp is named after the famous rhythm and blues hit from 1961, sung by Ray Charles and written by Percy Mayfield. The chords are also the basis of “House of the Raising Sun” and other 1960-ies standards. The third intervals are a challenge – when you can play it fluently, we will be ready for playing chords from chord symbols – the reason you bought this book. No more music theory, no more scales? Oh no, you will have plenty of theory and scales. But now for the CHORDS.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements

Chord Arrangements Until now, all exercises have been written especially for this piano tutor. But for the rest of the book, the exercises will be excerpts from real songs selected from the author’s songs in rock, funk, jazz and blues styles. In the previous chapters and sections, you have been guided through general music theory, sight-reading, rhythms and chord layout. The coming exercises are even more demanding than the first ones. Now you will be the arranger of the chord positions and the bass lines. The exercises will consist of a vocal system with a vocal line and the chord symbols, and an empty piano system. You are supposed to fill-in the chords in sensible positions with an attractive, groovy bass, And you should – of course – be able to play you piano arrangement yourself. Each of the scale types in C, G, F and E will have a song for you to arrange, 28 songs in all. So welcome to the exciting world of music arrangements.

Note to the Student My chord symbol standard is based on the 1960-ies British sheet music designers, who once produced the Beatles’ extremely popular songbooks. The chords C-9 and C-10 are often called C7(b9) and C7(b10) or C(7)(#9) etc. I prefer the classic British simplicity. It’s much easier to read. C+ and C+7 are normally presented in various unreadable (but popular) forms. There are 2 empty bars in many of the examples in which you may correct my politically incorrect chord symbols -.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements

SCALE C Common Chords in C

C Scales Major

Minor

Dorian

Mixolydian

Blues

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Chord Tablature for Piano C

Cm

Cm7

C7

C9

Cmaj7

C+

Csus4

Cdim

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements The Scales in C C Major Scale

C

D

E

F

G

A

B

C

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

2

1

The following exercise songs in the chord and scales charts are quipped with chord symbols, vocals and an empty piano system with some hints of the original piano arrangement here and there. Listen to the song on www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm. Write down a piano arrangement with chords and bass. It is important that you can play the arrangement yourself.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements (Exercise: Nothing You May Say)

Words and Music © H.W. Gade 1974/2001

Comments “Nothing You May Say” was written in 1974. It was inspired by Carly Simon and the soft ballads of the time. The original song was recorded with Danish band Nekropolis 1977 and Shepherd Moons in 2006 see www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm. The triplet part in bar 12 should be followed by the bass. Use a steady 1960-ies bass for the verse like the example in bar 1. The chorus may be written in double tempo or slower than the verse with arpeggio – use your imagination.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements C Parallel Minor Scale

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

A

Right Hand

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

2

2

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Words and Music © H.W. Gade 2003

Comments “Exactly” was written in 2003. A happy love song recorded with Shepherd Moons in 2004. Listen to the song on www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm. Be careful with the off beats, as the vocal off beats must be followed by the piano – otherwise the singer will sound flat, and she will kill you. Again. The song changes from C minor, then to G minor and in the chorus to F major. The chords should be tight and soft, which doesn’t mean clumsy and stiff. The art lies in balancing the softness and loose piano playing with a tight feeling below the notes you play. The music is born as a pattern combing all the off beats to a tight whole.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements C Dorian Scale

C

D Eb

F

G

A Bb

C

Right Hand

1

2 3

4

1

23

4

Left Hand

5

4 3

2

5

43

2

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Words and Music © H.W. Gade 2003

Comments “Silver Spring” was written in 2003. This is a waltz in both 6/4 and 3/4. The theme is in double octaves to provide you with a little finger workout. The ending is a typical jazz final chord with a Cmaj9 (C E G B D).

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements C Mixolydian Scale

C

D

E

F

G

A Bb

C

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3 4

5

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3 2

1

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Words and Music © H.W. Gade 1979

Comments “Home” was written in 1979 in my second home, Finland. Listen to the song on www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm. Please note the marked difference between the MIDI version and the printed piano notes. Real boogie Woogie notes are always written as an approximation to the real notes, which move in the figure .. (with a 32-note), not in the traditional notation . (with a 16-note). Historically, the change from the stiff . to the blues figure .. happened around 1890 in New Orleans, when the jazz musicians fused the French marches and African rhythms into the early jazz. “Home” is also a handy catalogue of classic Rock’n’roll breaks and figures.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements C Blues Scale

C

Eb

F

G

Bb

C

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

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Words and Music © H.W. Gade 2002

Comments “Sweet Child” was written to my son Lukas in 2002 when he was 8 years old. The chords should be relatively tight and not placed too high; it shouldn’t sound like a harp. The bass could be a walking bass, but a slow funky bass would work fine, too. With “funky bass”, I mean your funky fingers, not the bass player of the band… In bar 4, you have an example of a third interval moving upwards to the next chord. This is a nice change from the eternal chord inversions. Piano Arrangement Examples in C A funk ballad in 7/4 “At 25” with some challenging arpeggio figures and a folk tune “Merrygo-round. Listen to both songs on www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm.

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n.c. in bar 14 means “no chords”. It is used for music fragments or single notes.

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SCALE G Common Chords in G

G Scales Major

Minor

Dorian

Blues

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Mixolydian

Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Chord Tablature for Piano G

Gm

Gm7

G7

G9

Gmaj7

G+

Gsus4

Gdim

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements The Scales in G G Major Scale

56

G

A

B C

D

E

F# G

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

2

1

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Words and Music © H.W. Gade 1991

Comments “Jericho” is a bitter song written in 1991. It’s a ballad driven by two very different chords; a normal G major chord and a diminished G(5), which creates the dark mood of the song, between harmony and despair. Experiment with some variations in the duration of the chords and using a (sparse) arpeggio now and then. The chorus is a good example of the feared slow syncope 3-3-2. It looks so easy, but it’s hard to play it in time.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements G Parallel Minor Scale

G

A Bb

C

D Eb

F

G

Right Hand

1

2 3

4

12

3

4

Left Hand

5

4 3

2

54

3

2

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Comments “Embracing You” was written in 1990. It was recorded in 2006 on the Home album of Shepherd Moons. Listen to the song on www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm. I have shown my original version, when the movement and placement of the chords isn’t obvious. Try to make variations of the soul-like Gm /// C /// theme. The chorus is in authentic 1980ies style (I was there). Try to update the piano style to 2006 and see what happens. Try to transpose the song to D minor (Dm /// G ///). Make a new arrangement in jazz rhythms. Add ninths, elevenths and sixths to most of the chords. Change all chords to empty quarters and fifths. Make an Electro version in of the song in A minor (Am / / / D / / /). Experiment, eat, experiment, sleep, experiment, always experiment with the music. The songs should be born anew every day.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements G Dorian Scale

G

A Bb

C

D

E

F

G

Right Hand

1

2 3

4

1

23

4

Left Hand

5

4 3

1

5

43

2

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Comments “Too Close to be Friends” was written in 2001. Try to place chords variations with minor 7, ninth and parallel minor chords replacing the composer’s original chords. Yours might be better than mine. Look at my suggestion to a jazz bass in bar 11-15. Write a better bass yourself.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements G Mixolydian Scale

66

G

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

2

1

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Comments “Broken Circles” was written in 2001. It was recorded with Ea Gemmer Haastrup and the author as a duo. Listen to the record on www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm. As you can probably feel in the chords, the song was originally written on guitar. Try to improve my quick and dirty arrangement.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements G Blues Scale

G

Bb

C

D

F

G

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

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Comments “Wrong Number Blues” was written in 1991. It is a weird blues. The feeling should be nervous – hide behind the door, love is coming.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Piano Arrangement Examples in G A Rock’n’roll “Seacruise IV” with a number of different attitudes to standard piano phrases and the Symphonic Rock anthem “Beyond the Border”. Both songs are almost complete to show the great possibilities for variations inherent in any kinds of songs. “Beyond the Border” is a nice exercise in speedy fingers emulating the invisible electric guitar. Listen to the songs on www.shepherdmoons.com/music/.

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Emerson, Lake and Palmer 1973, Symphonic Rockers 1973

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Symphonic Rock was the “egghead” style in the early 1970-ies. Besides Punk Floyd who practically invented the genre alone, the most famous bands were Procul Harum, Genesis and Yes. Even Beatles and Rolling Stones tried to break up their songs in mini songs and classical instrumental parts galore. The style disappeared when the punk movement killed their fathers in a heroic war of music. The author, though, loved the style, and Beyond the Border is a very typical example from the heights of the Symphonic style Craze in 1973-74.

Sex Pistols’ first single God Save the Queen

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements

SCALE F Common Chords in F

F Scales Major

Minor

Dorian

Mixolydian

Blues

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Chord Tablature for Piano F

Fm

Fm7

F7

F9

Fmaj7

F+

Fsus4

Fdim

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements The Scales in F F Major Scale

F

G A Bb

C

D

E

F

3

4

Right Hand

1

2

3 4

1

2

Left Hand

5

4

3 2

5

4

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3

2

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Comments “Rendezvous Berlin” was written in 2005 and recorded on the Home album in of Shepherd Moons in 2006 with the author on lead. Listen to the record on www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm. The intro should be in Jerry Lee Lewis Rock’n’roll style with high chords. When the verse starts, you should use a Rolling Stones style chord figure (see the example in the printed notes). The chorus should be played as written.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements F Parallel Minor Scale

84

D

E

F

G

A Bb

C

D

Right Hand

1

2

3

4

1 2

3

4

Left Hand

5

4

3

2

5 4

3

2

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Comments “It’s the Truth” was written in 2005. It has not yet been recorded. The song is written for a modern swing jazz band in the retro style of 2006. The left hand figures are standard boogie except for the ultra low bass in bar 21-22, which is a challenge to play (but sounds great). The hard 1 2 3 4 in bar 25-26 is a typical rhythm and blues break that lifts the excitement of the music. The song can be used for Jitterbug.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements F Dorian Scale

F

G A Bb

C

D

E

F

3

4

Right Hand

1

2

3 4

1

2

Left Hand

5

4

3 2

5

4

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2

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Comments “The Ballroom” was written in 1989. It has been recorded and/or performed by Lisbet Hess, Gitte Lund, Bente Colding Jørgensen and Louise Rasmussen. Jesper Brix is the lead singer in the latest version from 2005. Listen to the record www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm. The Ballroom is a very slow jazz blues. Make your own version in the second verse or add a solo. The last repeated chorus is a classic jazz finale with an Fm6+9 chord. Besides all that, it’s is one of my own favourite songs. Try to transpose back to the song’s original key, D# minor. Tough stuff. Ask your teacher to transpose it and he/she won’t like it either. There is only one key that’s worse, C# major.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements F Mixolydian Scale

F

G

Right Hand

1

2

Left Hand

5

4

A

B

C

D Eb

F

3 4

1

2

4

3 2

5

4

3 3

2

Comments “Demolition Man” was originally written in 1999 and finished in 2001, one month before the infamous attack on New York the 11 September. Actually it was based on a 1970-ies comic strip about New York being covered with ice. The feeling should be very tight and aggressive. Make you own bass lines; don’t use mine. What suits me (or you) does not always suit other piano players

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements F Blues Scale

F

92

Ab Bb

C

Eb

F

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

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Comments “Schizophrenia” was written 1974. It was recorded by Satyricon in 1983. Listen to the record www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm. This is a standard rock boogie as it was played in the early 1970-ies by for example Slade or Black Sabbath. The triplet intro should be played very tight, or the whole rhythm section will tilt. Experiment with the placement of the chords in the chorus. Move them up one octave or add extra notes out side of the chord symbol. Don’t be afraid of changing the song. You are supposed to do your own version.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Piano Arrangement Examples in F A peace and love song from 1977, “Shalom” and a funky ballad about a girl you should not trust. Listen to Trust on www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm in the recorded version from 2004. Shalom has some funny meters and Trust has some weird major 11th chords. But try to play the songs as they are written. You can always change the arrangements later, if you want to do a better version of the songs.

Nekropolis 1977, Horsens, Denmark, Gitte Lund on lead vocal

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SCALE E Common Chords in E

E Scales Major

Minor

Dorian

Mixolydian

Blues

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Chord Tablature for Piano E

Em

Em7

E7

E9

Emaj7

E+

Esus4

Edim

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements The Scales in E E Major Scale

E

F# G# A

B

C# D# E

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

2

1

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Comments Vadstena is a Swedish province town famous for the Holy St. Bridget who founded an order of nuns and monks in the city in the late 1300-ies. The song “Vadstena ” was written in 2004. The song is inspired by guitarist / singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell of Woodstock fame. I have tried to reproduce the guitar chords on the piano, which happens rather often these days. The music is dominated by guitars and the chords of piano and guitar are not always exchangeable. Ask your guitar-playing friends to show you some chords you can “translate” into real, smooth piano chords. Be aware that the guitar has six strings, which provides the guitar players with chords that are impossible to play on a piano. TIP The guitar very often uses double strings, for example the high and the low E-string. Do not try to copy this chord form – it sounds silly on a piano. You must “compress” the piano chords to produce a coherent sound. Don’t let the chord notes spread to the bass area, or the sound will become muddy and dull. Use arpeggio to “thin” the massive sound of complex chords like 11th and –10 chords or leave out notes, for example a fifth.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements E Parallel Minor Scale

C#”D# E

106

F# G# A

B

C#

Right Hand

1

2

3

4

1 2

3

4

Left Hand

5

4

3

2 5 4

3

2

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Comments “The Last Love Affair” was written in 1980. It was recorded 2004 with Jesper Brix on the lead vocal www.shepherdmoons.com/music.htm. The song is a waltz and features a number of different arpeggio figures. Experiment with a mixture of arpeggio and solid chords. Or single chords followed by melodic movements in intervals. Try to make the overall impression of the ballad lively and interesting. The first verse is “empty”, i.e. without piano. Place some discrete chords here and there to prepare for the first chorus, where the piano is properly introduced.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements E Dorian Scale

112

E

F# G

A

B

C# D# E

Right Hand

1

2 3

4

1

2 3

4

Left Hand

5

4 3

2

5

4 3

2

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113

Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Comments “Water’s Rising Above your Sanctuaries” is one of my oldest songs, written in 1973. It’s almost like a classical lied showing the inspiration from the folk singers that was popular in the 1970-ies, not least Don McLean who was the most gifted singer songwriter of them all together with Joni Mitchell. The piano theme in bar 1-2 with the characteristic trills can be expanded to real polyphonic parts; voices moving independently to create a pattern of tones. Try to make some patterns using the trill and minor 9 intervals. Bar 20-23 should be played as it is written. It’s difficult but fun. Note the beautiful arch created by the rising and falling of the notes. Musical notation can be a piece of art in itself (no, I did not plan the notes to be artistic, they simply sounded ok).

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements E Mixolydian Scale

E

F# G# A

B

C# D# E

Right Hand

1

2

3 4

1

2

3 4

Left Hand

5

4

3 2

5

4

3 2

Comments Share the Tears is written in 2002. It is a folk ballad in 6/8 like Broken Circles (one of the exercises in C scale). Once again, you must recreate the guitar on the piano; a task you will have to solve quite often, as the other musicians don’t know much about the piano; you are so to say the music teacher of your band. Start learning to convert guitar chords and playing styles to proper piano chords. In the chorus, you will notice that the rhythm in bar 11 is suddenly subdivided into 3/16 x 4, actually a syncope. This heightens the intensity of the chorus. Try to use the effect in the verse or as an introduction. Try to transpose back to the songs original key, D major.

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements E Blues Scale

E

G

A

B

D

E

Right Hand

1

2

3

1

2

3

Left Hand

5

4

3

5

4

3

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Piano Technique, Chord Arrangements Comments shadow.mid is written in 2002. It should be played “colla voce”, which means that the rhythm and phrasing should be organic and flexible. You have to figure out all chords and bass notes for yourself this time. You are not a newcomer anymore. Piano Arrangement Example in E A spiritual hymn to the eternal life in the universe, Pilot Light which can be found on Shepherd Moons Home album from 2006 with Gitte Lund as lead vocal.

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LAST WORDS ON PIANO TECHNIQUE The exercises in this chapter have been a selection of my own titles from the last 30 years. Besides the obvious copyright reasons, my production tend to be multi focussed, working with both classic rock, blues, jazz ballads and folk ballads and the songs represent a broad spectrum of all the basic styles of today. In the chapter Exercises, you can find even more exercises in musical, rock opera, funk, hip hop and many other styles.

But first of all: Make your own music; be inspired.

Now you have bought a piano, learned a lot of music theory and played a lot of exercises and technical stuff. Now it is time to play with the other boys and girls! Buy the full book with all the MIDI examples: All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ/ 5 Basic Piano ISBN 9788791995002

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Piano Technique, Index Piano Technique

Index Piano Technique Use the Index! By looking up in the index, you can find much more than you were looking for! Follow the strange leads and weird words. Learn by accidence. Be curious!

A action, 5, 7, 8 adapter, 9 alternate, 15 alternating, 17 Am, 5, 29, 62 Am9, 28 arpeggio, 28, 29, 30, 36, 46, 58, 105, 111 arrangement, 32, 35, 62, 68 attack, 90

B B, 11, 12, 29, 35, 37, 42, 56, 66, 90, 103, 106, 112, 115, 117 baby, 5, 6, 8 Balkan, 22, 26 ballad, 21, 26, 46, 58, 95, 111, 115 Ballroom, 89 band, 5, 14, 24, 36, 46, 86, 115 bar, 14, 23, 25, 28, 30, 36, 46, 53, 65, 86, 114, 115 bass, 6, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 35, 36, 46, 65, 86, 90, 105, 119 Bb, 10, 11, 12, 13, 27, 41, 43, 45, 59, 63, 69, 81, 84, 87, 92 beat, 16, 24 Beatles, 32, 78 beautiful, 5, 26, 114 blues, 10, 31, 32, 44, 70, 86, 89, 122 Bond, 25 Boogie, 25

break, 17, 78, 86 British, 32 Brix, 89, 111

C C, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 26, 27, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 56, 59, 62, 63, 66, 69, 81, 84, 87, 89, 90, 92, 103, 106, 112, 115 C#, 27, 89, 103, 106, 112, 115 C+, 32, 34 C+7, 32 C-10, 32 C6+9,, 29 C7, 32, 34 C7(b10), 32 C7(b9), 32 C9, 34 C-9, 32 cadence, 31 can, 123 careful, 40 Carly, 36 Cdim, 34 charts, 35 Cm, 34 Cm7, 34 Cmaj7, 34 Cmaj9, 27, 42 computer, 10 concert, 6 confident;, 10 connection, 9 conservatory!, 28 co-ordination, 14 copy, 105 copyright, 122

correct, 11, 32 create, 15, 17, 114 crisp, 10 Cristofori, 7 crunchy, 27 Csus4, 34

D D, 10, 11, 12, 13, 29, 35, 37, 41, 42, 43, 56, 59, 62, 63, 66, 69, 81, 84, 87, 89, 90, 103, 106, 112, 115, 117 D#, 89, 103, 106, 112, 115 damper, 7, 8, 9, 28 Danish, 36 dark, 58 days, 105 Db, 11 delicate, 9 depressed, 8 depths, 5 designers,, 32 despair, 58 developing, 10 device, 7 different, 58, 71, 111 differs, 5 digital, 5, 8 diminished, 58 dinosaur, 5 directly, 27 dirty, 68 disappeared, 78 discrete, 111 discs, 9 displaced, 27 distance, 8 Dm7, 29 Don McLean, 114

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ /5 Basic Piano

123

Piano Technique, Index Piano Technique Dorian, 11, 12, 29, 33, 41, 54, 63, 79, 87, 101, 112 double, 29, 36, 42, 105 drums, 5 duration, 58

E E, 10, 11, 12, 13, 26, 32, 35, 37, 42, 43, 56, 63, 66, 81, 84, 87, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 112, 115, 117, 119 E+, 102 E7, 102 E9, 102 Ea, 68 eager, 5 ear., 30 easy, 19, 26, 58 Eb, 11, 12, 13, 30, 41, 45, 59, 90, 92 Edim, 102 effects, 9 egghead, 78 electric, 71 elephants, 7 elevenths, 62 Em, 102 Em7, 27, 29, 102 Emaj7, 102 emphasis, 27 emulating, 71 Esus4, 102 experiment, 62

F F, 10, 11, 12, 13, 26, 29, 30, 32, 35, 37, 40, 41, 43, 45, 56, 59, 63, 66, 69, 79, 80, 81, 84, 87, 90, 92, 95, 103, 106, 112, 115 F#, 56, 103, 106, 112, 115 F+, 80 F7, 80 F9, 80 Face, 5 facilitate, 9 124

falling, 114 fame., 105 famous, 9, 31, 78, 105 fast, 8, 10, 17, 23 fathers, 78 Fdim, 80 feeling, 5, 15, 40, 70, 90 fifth, 26, 30, 105 fingering, 10, 11 finished, 90 Finland., 44 flat, 11, 40 flexible., 119 Florence, 7 flow, 17, 29 fluent, 9 fluently, 31 Fm, 80 Fm6,, 27 Fm6+9, 89 Fm7, 80 follow, 17 force, 8 Fsus4, 80 funk, 20, 24, 32, 46, 122 funny, 95 fused, 44

G G, 10, 11, 12, 13, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 35, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 62, 63, 66, 69, 71, 81, 84, 87, 90, 103, 106, 112, 115, 117 G#, 30, 103, 106, 115 G(5), 58 G+, 27, 55 G7, 27, 55 G9, 55 Gb, 11 Gdim, 55 gender, 24 general, 10, 32 Genesis, 78 genre, 78 geographical, 19 Gitte, 89, 119

Gm, 55, 62 Gm7, 55 Gmaj7, 55 go, 5, 46 Grieg, 5 groovy, 32 Gsus4, 55 guitar,, 5

H hammer, 5, 7, 8, 9 happy, 7, 40 harmony, 23, 58 harp, 46 heart, 19 heavy, 6, 20 Hess, 89

I information., 25 inherent, 71 inspired, 24, 36, 105, 122 instrument, 5 interesting, 111 interval, 17, 46 intricate, 20 invent, 14 inversion, 26, 27, 28 invisible, 71 irrational, 24 irritating, 5 Italian, 7 ivory, 7

J Joni Mitchell, 105, 114

L later, 5, 11, 22, 25, 28, 31, 95 less, 7 Lisbet, 89 lively, 18, 28, 111 loud, 10 love, 23, 40, 70, 95 low, 86, 105

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ /5 Basic Piano

Piano Technique, Index Piano Technique

M

natural, 6, 19, 29 Neapolitan, 27 Nekropolis, 36 nervous, 70 never-ending, 29 nevertheless, 27 New Orleans,, 44 Nirvana, 27 nonetheless., 5 non-functional, 28, 30 normal, 58 notation, 44, 114

pedal, 8, 9, 28 pedal., 8, 9 pentatonic, 11 period, 29 permit, 9 Pete Johnson, 25 phrase, 27, 28 physical, 9 Piano, 2, 4, 5, 9, 25, 34, 46, 55, 71, 80, 95, 102, 119, 122, 123 piece, 17, 114 placed, 16, 27, 28, 46, 114 placement, 62, 94 plan, 114 plastic, 7 polyphonic, 114 Polyrhythms, 25 Pop, 28 position, 26, 27 power, 7, 9 preferred, 10 prime, 26, 27, 28 primitive, 15, 31 Principles, 11 Procul Harum, 78 punk, 78

O

Q

octaves, 7, 42 offbeat, 21 open, 6, 9 opera,, 122 opportunity, 5 oscillates, 24 ostinato, 20, 22, 23, 30 other, 8, 9, 10, 17, 21, 31, 90, 115, 122 outline, 19 overtones, 9

quick, 68

mechanical, 7 mirrored;, 11 modal, 10 modulation, 29 Moon, 31 move, 6, 15, 17, 19, 26, 29, 44 movements, 16, 28, 111 multiple-choice, 8 musical, 4, 5, 9, 17, 122

N

P Parallel, 37, 59, 84, 106 pattern, 29, 40, 114 pause, 17 peace, 95 peculiar, 7

R ragtime, 9 rehearse, 5, 9, 14, 19 repeated, 17, 30, 89 rest, 5, 6, 11, 17, 19, 29, 32 rewarding, 10 rock, 11, 14, 20, 23, 27, 30, 32, 94, 122 Rolling Stones, 78, 83 Romantic, 28

S Satyricon, 94 Shalom, 95

Shepherd Moons, 36, 40, 62, 83, 119 sideman, 10 sight-read, 19, 21, 26, 32 smooth, 5, 105 solve, 115 songbooks., 32 songwriter, 105, 114 sostenuto, 9 soul, 29, 62 stiff., 40 stretch, 5, 16 stroke, 7 students, 5 sus2, 27 sus4,, 27 sustain, 9 swing., 14 syncopated, 16, 29 syncope, 29, 58, 115

T teacher, 10, 20, 21, 22, 25, 89, 115 teaser., 27 tempo, 36 theme, 16, 17, 22, 23, 25, 42, 62, 114 theory,, 5, 31, 32 third, 7, 8, 26, 28, 31, 46 ties, 28 tight, 19, 40, 46, 90, 94 tilt., 94 together, 19, 114 traditional, 10, 18, 27, 44 transpose, 62, 89, 115 treble, 16, 17 tricky, 21, 30 triplet, 24, 36, 94 tune, 9, 24, 27, 29, 46 tutor, 5, 14, 19, 31, 32

U unison, 16 universe, 119 university, 5 unpredictable, 19

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ /5 Basic Piano

125

Piano Technique, Index Piano Technique

V

W

Vadstena, 105 vibrato, 8 visible, 7 volume, 8

waltz, 42, 111 web, 25 wheels, 6 Woodstock, 105

126

workout, 30, 42

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ /5 Basic Piano