juntos Ã s quais se encontram mais de quarenta das invisÃveis, e nenhuma delas se afasta mais de meio grau das seis mencionadas. Apenas assinalamos trinta.
A Planetarium Session around Galileo 5th European Conference of Small and Portable Planetariums Espinho (Lat. 40° 48′ N, Long. 08° 40′ W) 9-11 October, 2008 Portugal
Vasco Teixeira Núcleo Museológico da Politécnica Museu de Ciência da Universidade de Lisboa
The Building • 17th century - Jesuit School • 18th century - School for nobles • 19th century - The Polytechnic School
• 20th century - Faculty of Sciences Since 1985 is the Museum of Science
The Museum of Science ∙ Devoted to the socalled “exact” sciences and their applications, namely: – – – –
Physics Chemistry Mathematics ... And applications Astronomy and Earth Sciences
Museum’s Mission – Science Communication promoting Scientific Culture
Museum’s Mission Heritage preservation and research, mainly from the University of Lisbon.
– With a collection of 8000 to 10000 objects still being studied
Astrolábio Circular, fabricado por Elias Allen entre 1620 e 1630.
Laboratorio Chimico & Amphitheatro (19th century) Amphitheater and Laboratorio Chimico, before 1888.
Chemistry Night Sky Observation
Quadrants and Sundials
Projector Skymaster, ZKP2, from Zeiss
Small Planetarium (40 places) • Mainly, an educational resource for schools • Big interaction between the Planetarium Operator and the students • Live presentations
Zeiss Skymaster Projector, ZKP2
• • • •
Starting with a context, creating an atmosphere Motivate students for science by means of astronomy Create a good memory Teach and Learn Give food for thought
Projector Skymaster, ZKP2, from Zeiss
And the Library... •
Aprox. 25 000 books. – –
684 from 17th century and before. ~ 9 000 from 19th century.
Rare books and manuscripts... –
A few from Galileo: •
Sydereus Nuncius – 1655
Discorsi e Dimonstrazioni Matematiche intorno a due Nuove Scienze – 1638
Dialogo sopra i due Massimi Sistemi del Mondo – 1632, 1st edition
An Example... Title:
Sidereus Nuncius (Sidereal Messenger)
Author: Galileo Galilei Edition: 1655, 17th century
Who is Galileo Galilei? Galileo (1564 – 1642) • Natural Philosopher: Physicist, mathematician, inventor, astronomer, theologist, writer. • He was the father of experimental science. • Galileo by observation and experimentation departs from the establishment starts using mathematics to explain phenomena.
“Mathematics is the alphabet God used to write the Universe.“ Galileo Galilei
Justus Sustermans, 1636
How can we think the World at a first glance? The Earth is at the centre of the Universe.
“Em primeiro lugar, preparei um tubo de chumbo em cujos extremos adaptei duas lentes de vidro, ambas planas numa face enquanto a outra face era convexa em uma lente e côncava na restante. Assim, com o olho na côncava, vi os objectos tão grandes e próximos...”
Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florença, Itália
Galileo offers his perspicillum to the city of Venice.
• • • • • • • •
Phases of Venus The Moon Satellites of Jupiter Sun Milky Way Saturn The Pleiades (M45) Orion: Constellation and Nebula (M42) • Praesepe (Beehive Cluster, M44)
Galileo started to point his telescope to objects visible with the unaided eye.
Phases of Venus
Quarter Crescent of Venus
Moon Observation • Galileo discovered that the Moon has mountains, valleys and craters. • He also refers to the existence of water and an atmosphere, like Earth’s.
Jupiter and Galilean Moons Io Europa Ganymede Callisto
Ganymede and Callisto are bigger than Mercury
Today we know that Jupiter has, at least, 63 moons !
Saturn Observation Galileo started observing Saturn in 1610 and thought it had two moons. In 1612 the moons had desapeared! In subsequent years they reapeared in 1616. Galileo describes Saturn has having two handles or ”ears”. Only in 1659 did Christiaan Huygens explained that Saturn had a solid ring rotating around it.
The full use of the dome: The sky with the unaided eye
“(...) pintamos as seis estrelas do Touro denominadas Plêiades (digo seis pois a sétima quase nunca aparece) que estão no céu dentro de estreitissimos limites e juntos às quais se encontram mais de quarenta das invisíveis, e nenhuma delas se afasta mais de meio grau das seis mencionadas. Apenas assinalamos trinta delas, (...)”
Stars from the Belt and from the Sword of Orion
The Big Nebula of Orion
Praesepe (Beehive Cluster, M44)
The Sun and Sun’s Spots Galileo was the first to observe sun spots and to notice changes in their number and positions. Important observations prove that the Sun is not a perfect sphere.
What is a Sun Spot?
Sun, without spots
Region of the Sun’s surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than the surroundings and has an intense magnetic activity.
A Word for Science: “Science is great!”