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GAMES IN EDUCATION: PARADIGMS ... Review of Educational Research; 77, 1. Hoska, D. ... Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

PLAY TOGETHER LEARN TOGETHER Priscilla Haring Mediapsycholoog

YOUR FIRST QUESTION

THE NEXT 60 MINUTES

Theory & research Social aspects in GBL Player types Competition / Collaboration Get up out of your chair Questions?

Coloured Tables

Intrinsic motivation

“People are active organisms, driven by natural tendencies toward psychological growth and development, while trying to maintain a coherent sense of self.”

(Deci & Ryan,1985; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000)

SDT AND PLAY

SOCIAL REALITY Social comparison theory - consensus (poldermodel) Social proof - bandwagon Shared mental models - co-creation

PLAY AS CULTURE “Culture arises and unfolds in and as play… culture itself bears the character of play.” Johan Huizinga – Homo Ludens

Voice your colour

Play: a definition

     

essentially free separate uncertain unproductive governed make-believe

(Huizinga - Homo Ludens, 1938) (Caillios, 1957)

Sapolsky – Science of Pleasure

LEARNING POWER  Attention  Attitudes for successful behaviour  Task competence  Active participation  Step-by-step demonstration of behaviour  Repetitive practise  Motivating (Buckley & Anderson, 2006)

MECHANISMS IN SERIOUS GAMING  Practising skills  Gathering knowledge by exploration  Cognitive problem solving  Social problem solving (Ratan & Ritterfeld, 2009)

GAMES IN EDUCATION: PARADIGMS

PRESENCE  Self - “being”  Spatial - “being in”  Social - “being with” The more presence the more room for game based learning

SOCIAL AND PARASOCIAL

 Fictional characters  Avatars  Non Player Character

Bartle Player Taxonomy – Extra Credits

Social engagement verbs (Kim, 2010)

Bartle Player Groups

Gather Your Colours

Competition – Dan Pink

Extrinsic rewards

Controlling strategy: • surveillance, • evaluation, • and competition, all of which have been found to undermine enhanced-engagement and regulation.

“undermine people’s taking responsibility for motivating or regulating themselves”. (Deci & Ryan, 1985)

Connecting all the colours RED – YELLOW - BLUE

COLLABORATION  Facilitation  Present problem and make room  Evaluation?  Intrinsic motivation > self-development, selfregulation

Performance Goals

competition primes performance as most important

cooperation primes the task as most important

(Hoska, 1993)

Journey anonymous collaborative play

Michael Wu, 2011

Coloured Meaning

Literature Buckley, K. E., & Anderson, C. A. (2006). A theoretical model of the effects and consequences of playing video games. In P. Vorderer & J. Bryant (Eds.), Playing video games; Motives, responses, and consequences (pp. 363-378). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Caillois, R. (1957). Le jeux et les Hommes [Man and play] (M. Barash, Trans.): University of Illinois press. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. Gartner Newsroom (2011). Gartner says by 2015, more than 50 percent of organizations that manage innovation processes will gamify those processes. Gartner press releases online. Haring, P., Chakinska, D., & Ritterfeld, U. (2011). Understanding Serious Gaming: A Psychological Perspective. In P. Felicia (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Improving Learning and Motivation through Educational Games: Multidisciplinary Approaches. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. Hattie J. & Timperley H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research; 77, 1. Hoska, D. (1993) Motivating Learners Through CBI (Computer-based Interaction) Feedback: Developing a Positive Learner Perspective. In Dempsey & Sales (Eds), Interactive instruction and feedback. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Huizinga, J. (1938). Homo ludens. Proeve eener bepaling van het spel-element der cultuur. [Homo Ludens – A study of play element in culture]. In E. L. B. et al. (Eds.), Verzamelde werken V. Cultuurgeschiedenis III (pp. 26-146). Haarlem: H.D. Tjeenk Willink & Zoon N.V.t Ratan, R., & Ritterfeld, U. (2009). Classifying serious games. Serious games: Mechanisms and effects, 10-24. Ritterfeld, U., & Weber, R. (2006). Video games for entertainment and education. Playing Video Games-Motives, Responses, and Consequences, 399-413. Smith, P. & Ragan, T. (1993) Designing Instructional Feedback for Different Learning Outcomes. In Dempsey & Sales (Eds), Interactive instruction and feedback. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Wang, H., Shen, C., & Ritterfeld, U. (2009). Enjoyment of digital games: What makes them seriously fun? In Ritterfeld, Cody, & Vorderer (Eds.), Serious games: Mechanism and effects. New York: Routledge Winne, P. & Butler, D. (1994). Student cognition in learning from teaching. In Husen & Postlewaite (Eds.), International encyclopaedia of education. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.