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Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Ana Nascimento Sabino ([email protected]) José Luís Nascimento ([email protected]) Fernanda Nogueira ([email protected]) Damasceno Dias ([email protected]) CAPP, ISCSP-ULisboa Center for Public Policy and Administration Social and Political Sciences Institute Lisbon University

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Introduction  In the last few years PA employees have suffered many changes in the work practices that led to a different work dynamic; 

Although these changes where cross-sectional, we need to address different types of PA (Bilhim, Ramos & Pereira, 2015; Brown, 2004; Charbonneau & Van Ryzin, 2016):  The Central PA has country level governance;  The Local PA has as main role the local governance being more close to the citizen;  The Special PA, organizations that, due to the nature of their mission, have a special and different status, usually characterized by their greater autonomy, for instance, hospitals or universities.

 The studies about organizational commitment in public institutions are scarce (Charbonneau & Van Ryzin, 2016; Gould‐Williams, 2004).

 One of the current organizational commitment research trend are the commitment profiles;  Another issue addressed in the current study concerns the austerity which is the result of TROIKA requests and could have an effect on public organizational commitment (Cepiku, Mussari & Giordano, 2016).

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Research Aims Portuguese Public Administration Different Types of PA (Central, Local and Universities)

Two different periods in time Organizational Commitment / Commitment Profiles

(2011/2012

and

2013/2014)

concerning the Austerity Measures applied in Portugal

1 - Identify the organizational commitment levels in Portuguese Public Administration. 2 - Identify and characterize the organizational commitment profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration. 3 - Identify the main differences in the organizational commitment profiles concerning the three types of PA. 4 - Analyze if there are any differences in the commitment in the PA employees before and after 2011. Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Organizational Commitment Organizational Commitment - "(...) as a process of social influence, resulting from a certain nature relationship ("mindset") between a subject and an object, or concrete entity, giving therefore a sense of social belonging and / or organizational and behavioral stability, allowing reduction of organizational ambiguity reduction (Klein et al., 2009 ; Meyer, 2009; Meyer, 2009; Meyer & Allen, 1991 and 1997; Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001; Mowday et al 1982;. Weick, 1995 and 2001)" (Nascimento, 2010, p 20).

Organizational Commitment Three-Component Model (Meyer & Allen: 1991, 1997)  Multidimensional construct composed by three distinct components:  Affective Commitment - the employee is emotionally attached to the organization  Normative Commitment - decision to remain is justified by the individual sense of responsibility through the organization  Continuance Commitment – cost–benefit analysis where the employee decides to stay in the organization because the evaluation of the individual investments is balanced with the extrinsic rewards obtained  These three psychological states which characterize the relationship between the individual and the organization are not mutually exclusive and can co-exist simultaneously (Meyer & Allen, 1991, 1997; Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001). Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Commitment Profiles  The commitment components’ simultaneous manifestation in different levels is called Commitment Profiles  Meyer and Herscovitch (2001) proposed eight commitment profiles, responding to the dominance of a certain component comparing with the presence of the others.  Although the commitment profiles are different according the samples characteristics or the context, there are a set of commitment profiles that are more common:  Highly Committed Profile (High AC/NC/CC);  Not Committed Profile (Low AC/NC/CC);  Moral Duty Profile (High AC/NC and Low CC);  Continuance Profile (High CC and Low AC/NC).

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Commitment and Public Administration in Portugal  Concerning the commitment, the main orientation has been related to the public employee motivation rather than the commitment (e.g., Brown, 2004; Cepiku et al., 2016; Charbonneau & Van Ryzin, 2016; Gould‐Williams, 2004; Leisink & Steijn, 2009);

 So there is the need to develop more research oriented to the public sector commitment in order to have a better understanding of the public employees’ commitments.  The major research concerning the PA have been focused in the comparison between the public sector versus private sector (Kim, 2005; Liou & Nyhan, 1994; Lyons, Duxbury & Higgins, 2006), suggesting the results a higher commitment in private sector than in public sector.  However, as Liou and Nyhan (1994. p.103) emphasized, “previous research has failed to examine the multidimensional aspects of organizational commitment”.

 Actually there are significant differences among these two sectors, determining different levels in the components of organizational commitment. Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Method  The three components of organizational commitment were measured using the 19 item-scale of Meyer and Allen (1997), adapted to Portugal by Nascimento, Lopes and Salgueiro (2008).  Responses were made on a 7-point Likert scale where 1 is “Strongly Disagree to 7 “Strongly Agree”.  The data were collected by university students from PA undergraduate and master students from 2011 until 2014.  During these four years 2461 public employees replied to questionnaire.  Females comprise 57.1% of the sample, 63.4% of the sample have more than 40 years old (Mean=44.4; SD=9.1). The average organizational tenure was 14.8 years (SD=8.9)  19.3% correspond to Central PA  32.3% correspond to Local PA  48.5% correspond to Universities Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Method - Analysis Options  In the first phase we conduct a descriptive analysis to identify the principal total sample characteristics, using a non-pondered index of each commitment component.

 In the second phase we conduct a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate the discriminant validity of the organizational commitment model. In order to assess differences between the three PA types and the differences before and after 2011 a multi-groups analysis was conducted;  Considering that all the previous analysis led to the notion that there are different PA types and their differences have an impact in the organizational commitment, in the third phase of the data analysis the data was separated into three different data bases each one referring to a different type of Public Administration. Thus, a CFA to each group was done, in order to create a pondered index using the final model’ factor loading. The three commitment components scores were standardized and submitted to a cluster analysis to determine whether distinct profiles could be identified. Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Results – First Phase Table 1 - Descriptive Statistics, Correlations and (Cronbach Alphas) M S.D. 1 2 3 1. I_CA 4,99 1,37 (0,83) 2. I_CN 4,14 1,40 0,68 (0,82) 3. I_CC 4,44 1,21 0,25 0,35 (0,76) Table 2 – Public Administration Types’ T-Test (using non-pondered index)

I_COA

Central PA- Local PA T-Test T sig -3,000 0,003

Central PA- Universities T-Test T sig -8,521 0,000

Local PA - Universities TTest T Sig -6,185 0,000

I_CON

-3,332

0,001

-2,803

0,005

0,838

0,402

I_COC

-4,045

0,000

2,288

0,022

7,687

0,000

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Results – Second Phase Figure 1 - Portuguese Public Administration’ Organizational Commitment Measurement Model

RMSEA=0,046; CFI=0,986; IFI=0,986; GFI=0,987; ϰ²=78,17; df=24; ϰ²/df=3,2 Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Results – Second Phase Table 3 – Organizational Commitment Multigroups Analysis ϰ² df Sig. Central PA – Local PA 47 6 0,05 Central PA – Universities 45,6 6 0,05 Local PA – Universities 32,9 6 0,05  Using the final commitment measurement model’ factor loadings, we conducted a pondered index in order to perform a t-student test, concerning que three possible combinations between groups :  Central PA – Local PA;  Central PA – Universities  Local PA – Universities

The previous analysis lead to the notion that in the PA we can found organisms that are different in their nature and organization and those differences have an impact in the organizational commitment, we decided that in the third and last phase of the analysis we should separate the data into three different groups, each one referring to a different type of PA – central, local or universities. Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Results – Third Phase Table 4 - Final Measurement Model Adjustment Indicators’ and Descriptive Statistics to Central PA, Local PA and Universities

Central PA

Final Measurement Model Adjustment Indicators’ RMSEA=0,083; CFI=0,938; IFI=0,938; GFI=0,955; ϰ²=62,05; df=24; ϰ²/df=2,5

Local PA

RMSEA=0,073; CFI=0,963; IFI=0,963; GFI=0,965; ϰ²=68,74; df=24; ϰ²/df=2,8

Universities

RMSEA=0,063; CFI=0,960; IFI=0,960; GFI=0,966; ϰ²=138,30; df=41; ϰ²/df=3,3

M I_CA=3,02 I_CN=2,64 I_CC=2,73 I_CA=3,22 I_CN=3,46 I_CC=2,77 I_CA=3,69 I_CN=2,86 I_CC=2,69

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

SD I_CA=0,92 I_CN=1,29 I_CC=0,84 I_CA=0,97 I_CN=1,30 I_CC=0,93 I_CA=1,09 I_CN=1,19 I_CC=0,87

Results – Commitment Profiles in the Central PA Table 5 – Commitment Profiles in the Central PA Central PA’ Commitment Profiles (R²=64,8%) Cluster 1 AC and CC Committed Cluster 2 CC Committed Cluster 3 Highly Committed Cluster 4 Highly Not Committed Cluster 5 Moral Duty (High AC / NC) Cluster 6 Indebted Obligation (High CC / NC)

N 82 55 94 63 84 96

% 17% 12% 20% 13% 18% 20%

 CC Committed, Highly Committed and the Moral Duty Profiles have more woman than men.  In every profiles approximately 50% have between 41 and 51 years old.  Concerning the employees’ tenure, we also conclude that approximately 85% of them works in that institutions for more than 10 years.  The profile with more individuals with lower tenure belong the Highly Not Committed profile.  Concerning the academic qualifications, the indebted obligation employees are the ones with biggest representation of 12º ano.

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Results – Commitment Profiles in the Local PA Table 6 – Commitment Profiles in the Local PA Local PA’ Commitment Profiles (R²=70,1%) Cluster 1 Highly Committed Cluster 2 Not Committed Cluster 3 Moral Duty (High AC / NC) Cluster 4 CC Committed Cluster 5 Highly Not Committed

N 204 169 131 175 83

% 27% 22% 17% 23% 11%

 We found more woman in all profiles.  The Highly Committed Profile has the older employees with approximately 65% above 40 years old and also have the higher tenure, next to the Continuance Committed Profile.  The Highly Not Committed Profile is the profile that has employees with lowest academic qualifications.

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Results – Commitment Profiles in the Universities Table 7 – Commitment Profiles in Universities Universities’ Commitment Profiles (R²=67,9%) Cluster 1 Low Indebted Obligation (Low CC / NC) Cluster 2 Highly Committed Cluster 3 Highly Not Committed Cluster 4 CC Committed Cluster 5 Not Committed Cluster 6 Moral Duty (High AC / NC) Cluster 7 CA and CC Committed

N 140 218 93 104 213 205 190

% 12% 19% 8% 9% 18% 18% 16%

 The younger employees belong to the Highly Not Committed profiles and they also have the lowest tenure.  On the other hand the profiles with higher tenure are the Highly Committed and the CA and CC Committed ones.  In each profile, the academic qualifications are high, above the 70%.

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Results – Differences in Organizational Commitment in 2011/2012 and in 2013/2014 periods

Table 8 – Organizational Commitment Multigoups Analysis (2011/2012 and 2013/2014)

T-Test

I_COA I_CON I_COC

2011/2012 2013/2014 2011/2012 2013/2014 2011/2012 2013/2014

T -7,447

sig 0,000

-2,937

0,03

3,500

0,000

M

S.D

4,21 4,61 2,78 2,95 2,88 2,74

1,31 1,25 1,37 1,33 0,94 0,93

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Conclusions  The higher affective commitment is in universities, following by Local PA and then the Central PA , still they are all high;

 We noticed more discrepancy in the normative commitment where the biggest sense of responsibility is in the Local PA, probably because it is in Local PA where the employees (and also the politicians) are more close to the citizen. The next higher level of normative commitment it is in the universities and, with the lowest level, the Central PA;  In every PA types, the lowest rates concern the continuance commitment. This result could be explained, on one hand by the high central regulation, namely in remuneration and compensation;

These results show that we are faced with different organizational realities. There are the need to study the PA not only as one single reality but as a multidimensional and complex one. Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Conclusions

 Considering the commitment profiles we identified four that are common in every PA type:  Highly Committed;  Moral Duty  CC Committed  Highly Not Committed.  These four profiles were also identified in other studies as highlighted by theoretical framework.  The results also allowed us to identify some profiles stabilization.

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Conclusions  From the period 2011/2012 to period 2013/2014, the results showed that affective and normative commitment increased and the continuance commitment decreased  These results are apparently contradictory with the assumption that the increasing austerity could lead to a decreasing of employees’ commitment.  With the austerity measures introduction, these employees have become more emotional attached to their organizations and their sense of responsibility have been higher, suggesting news commitment foci (Meyer, et al., 1998; Meyer, 2009) such as, “commitment to public service and self-sacrifice” (Charbonneau et al., 2016, p.6).

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Conclusions - Limitations  High rate of non-responses considering the demographic variables which made harder the commitment profiles’ characterization.  We also considered that the commitment antecedents and consequences’ introduction could add more value to the analysis, both in the commitment profiles but also in the analysis of commitment rates between the two periods of time.  We need also to highlight the fact that this research refers to the organizational commitment in the different Portuguese PA types. Thus the main focus was not the analysis of all the impacts of the austerity in Portugal but either to verify these measures consequences in terms of employees’ organizational commitment.  At last, it is established that the organizational commitment is affected by the organizational industry, nature and dimension and it was not possible to control this variable. Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Conclusions – Future Research Taking into account the lack of studies about organizational commitment profiles in the Portuguese PA we propose that this topic needs further attention:  Studying the major differences and similarities between the three PA types and their impact in the employees’ organizational commitment  Studying the different organisms that have a special status in PA for instance universities and hospitals, others health care entities or also others agencies.  The addition of commitment antecedents and consequences will be a benefit to the analysis. We propose the introduction of the behavioral strategies (Nascimento, 2010; Sabino, 2015) as commitment consequences.  We also propose the realization of studies concerning which austerity measures had more impact on employees’ organizational commitment, both in public and private organizations.  We also would like to deepen the impact of austerity measures in every PA type. Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Conclusions We would like to highlight the complexity of the Portuguese Public Administration, concerning the impact that the three types of PA organisms have on employees’ commitment profiles.

Thank You!

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study

Ana Nascimento Sabino ([email protected]) José Luís Nascimento ([email protected]) Fernanda Nogueira ([email protected]) Damasceno Dias ([email protected]) CAPP, ISCSP-ULisboa Center for Public Policy and Administration Social and Political Sciences Institute Lisbon University

Organizational Commitment Profiles in the Portuguese Public Administration: An Exploratory Study