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Gerhard Fischer. 1. TU Delft, Jan 2012. Wisdom is not the product of schooling but the lifelong attempt to acquire it. - Albert Einstein. Beyond Interaction:.

Wisdom is not the product of schooling but the lifelong attempt to acquire it. - Albert Einstein

Beyond Interaction: Meta-Design and Cultures of Participation

Gerhard Fischer Center for LifeLong Learning & Design (L3D) Department of Computer Science and Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado, Boulder

Delft University of Technology, January 21, 2012 Gerhard Fischer

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Outline  The Center for LifeLong Learning & Design (L3D)  Problems  Theoretical Frameworks  System Design: Examples  Practice  Assessment  Impact  Conclusions

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L3D’s Research Framework

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L3D’s Research Focus and Intellectual Identity  Artificial Intelligence (AI)  Intelligence Augmentation (IA) - replacement - emulate

 empowerment  complement (exploit unique properties of new media)

 instructionist learning  constructionist learning - learning about - when the answer is known

 learning to be  when the answer is not known

 individual  social (cultures of participation, social creativity) - knowledge in the head - access - within cultures

 knowledge in the world (distributed intelligence)  informed participation  across cultures

 generic - human-computer interaction - general Gerhard Fischer



specific

 

human problem domain interaction customization, personalization 4

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L3D’s Research Focus and Intellectual Identity

 design



meta-design

    

reflective community all stakeholders seeds open systems cultures of participation

 “gift-wrapping” - adding technology to existing processes



co-evolution

 

reinventing new processes about learning and working and new learning organizations

 desktop



ubiquitous computing

 

integration physical and digital table-tops + smartphones + tablets

-

reflective practitioners developers complete systems closed systems consumer cultures

- digital - desktops / laptops

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Problems

(for which “cultures of participation” may provide some answers)

 problems of a magnitude which individuals and even large teams cannot solve and require the contribution of all interested citizens  problems of a systemic nature requiring the collaboration of many different minds from a variety of backgrounds  problems being poorly understood and ill-defined and therefore requiring the involvement of the owners of problems because they cannot be delegated to others



problems modeling changing and unique worlds supported by open and evolvable systems based on fluctuating and conflicting requirements

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Theoretical Frameworks  new discourse for Human-Computer Interaction  meta-design  cultures of participation

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New Discourses for Human Computer Interaction usable systems — evaluation and design of interfaces

⇓ useful systems — making systems fit tasks

⇓ socio-technical systems — integrating social and technical developments

⇓ quality of life — new ways of living thinking, working, learning, collaborating

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Different Time Frames in HCI    (Newell  and  Card,  1985)  

    Gerhard Fischer

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Meta-Design = Design for Designers  meta-design explores: - the invention and design of a culture in which participants can express themselves and engage in personally meaningful activities

 meta-design requires - designers giving up some control at design time - active contributors (and not just passive consumers) at use time

 meta-design raises research problems of fundamental importance including - new design methodologies - a new understanding of collaboration, motivation, innovation and creativity - the design of innovative socio-technical environments

 meta-design provides a theoretical framework for Web 2.0 technologies Gerhard Fischer

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Design Time and Use Time key system developer

user (representative)

end user

time

use time

design time world-as-imagined prediction planning

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world-as-experienced reality situated action

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The Seeding, Evolutionary Growth, Reseeding (SER) Model Supporting Meta-Design

 at design time: - development of an initial system that can change over time (seed) - underdesign: creating design options for users

 at use time: - users will experience breakdowns by recognizing “bad fit” at use time - end-user modifications allow users to address limitations they experience - evolutionary growth through incremental modifications

 reseeding: - significant reconceptualization of the system - account for incremental modifications, mitigate conflicts between changes, and establish an enhanced system

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The Seeding, Evolutionary Growth, Reseeding (SER) Model

Seeded Information Space

Evolved Information Space

Reseeded Information Space

Users

Seeding

ReSeeding Evolutionary Growth

Developers Users

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Developers

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Users

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Cultures of Participation consumer cultures focus: produce finished goods to be consumed passively

⇓ cultures of participation focus: provide all people are with the means to participate actively in personally meaningful problems

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Characteristics of Cultures of Participation  low barriers to expression, civic engagement, design, decision making  meta-design  strong support for creating and sharing one’s creations  warehouses, repositories  informal mentorship  learning-to-be (complementing learning-about)  members believe their contributions matter  reputation economies  social connection between members  niche communities

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Potential Benefits of Cultures of Participation  opportunities for peer-to-peer learning  community networks, forums  a changed attitude toward intellectual property  free culture (balance between anarchy and control)  the diversification of cultural expression  making all voices hear  the development of skills valued in the modern workplace  lifelong learning, soft skills  more empowered conception of citizenship  democratizing innovation, impact on political developments, grass-roots movements

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Environments Created by Cultures of Participation Site Wikipedia

Objectives and Unique Aspects web-based collaborative multilingual encyclopedia with a single, collaborative, and verifiable article; authority is distributed (http://www.wikipedia.org/) iTunes U courses by faculty members from “certified institutions”; control via input filters; material can not be remixed and altered by consumers (http://www.apple.com/education/itunes-u/) YouTube video sharing website with weak input filters and extensive support for rating (http://www.youtube.com/) Encyclopedia of documentation of the 1.8 million known living species; development of an Life (EoL) extensive curator network; partnership between the scientific community and the general public (http://www.eol.org/) SketchUp and repository of 3D models created by volunteers organized in collections by 3D curators and used in Google Earth Warehouse (http://sketchup.google.com/3dwarehouse/)

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Environments Created by Cultures of Participation

Scratch

Learning environment for creating, remixing, and sharing programs to build creative communities in education (http://scratch.mit.edu) Instructables socio-technical environment focused on user-created and shared do-ityourself projects involving others users as raters and critics (http://www.instructables.com/) PatientsLikeMe collection of real-world experiences enabling patients who suffer from lifechanging diseases to connect and converse (http://www.patientslikeme.com/) Stepgreen library of energy saving actions, tips, and recommendations by citizen contributors for saving money and being environmentally responsible (http://www.stepgreen.org/)

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Examples  SketchUp + 3D Warehouse + Google Earth o collaboration with Google (Boulder) to model the whole world in 3D o repository of 3D models created by volunteers organized in collections by curators and used in Google Earth

 Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory (EDC) o urban planning, collaborative design (“create user-modifiable versions of Simcity”) o table-top computing environment to support collaborative design

 Community of Soundscapes: o enables users to contribute and share sounds o more info from: Elisa Giaccardi

 Energy Sustainability o exploit smart grids, smart meters, and new infrastructures o address energy literacy and support humans to change their behavior

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SketchUp + 3D Warehouse + Google Earth

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3D Warehouse http://sketchup.google.com/3dwarehouse/

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Google Earth: CU Boulder in 3D

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Downtown Denver in 3D

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The Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory (EDC)

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Boulder City Council and University of Colorado Regents

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Buildings Sketched into a Google-Earth Client

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Emerging Insights: Walking Distances to a Bus Stop

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Energy Sustainability 

energy sustainability = a theme of national and worldwide importance



technical innovations: - Smart Grid + Smart Meters - advanced metering infrastructures



challenges of harvesting the benefits of technical innovations: - most citizens are unaware of new technological developments (“energy illiteracy”) - information presentation is poorly designed - feedback alone is not persuasive enough to change human behavior



claim: all of these challenges are grounded in the intersection of human behavior (at individual and social levels) and technology

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Socio-Technical Environments for Energy Sustainability Electric Grid 

Smart Grid (“automate”) 

Human Grid (“informate”)

Smart Grid: smart meters advanced metering infrastructure

Human Grid: energy illiteracy social norms intrinsic motivation changing human behavior

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Learning from and Being Motivated by other’s Experiences

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Practice  Courses-as-Seeds  From Reflective Practitioners to Reflective Communities

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From Reflective Practitioners to Reflective Communities “Superhuman”: Desired but Unrealistic Tools/Media Knowledge high

low high

low

Domain Knowledge

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Realistic: Learning “something” about the Other Domain Tools/Media Knowledge high

low high

low

Domain Knowledge

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Objective: Reflective Communities Tools/Media Knowledge high

reflective community

low high

low

Domain Knowledge

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The Fish-Scale Model for Reflective Communities  “collective comprehensiveness through overlapping patterns of unique narrowness” (Campbell, 1969)

research questions: symmetry of ignorance, common ground, shared understanding, boundary objects, ……

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Assessment  Low Threshold / High Ceiling  Rich Ecologies of Participation  Drawbacks

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Finding the Right Challenge: “From Usable / Useful”  “Low Threshold / High Ceiling”

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Rich Ecologies of Participation

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Rich Ecologies in Open Source Communities

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Design Trade-Offs for Cultures of Participation



advantages of cultures of participation -



extensive coverage of information creation of large numbers of artifacts creative chaos by making all voices heard reduced authority of expert opinions

disadvantages of cultures of participation -

participation overload accumulation of irrelevant information lack of coherent voices fragmented culture based on too many idiosyncratic voices (a modern version of the “Tower of Babel”)

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Impact Major Cultures Changes Caused by New Media and New Technologies

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Beyond Interaction: New Discourses for HCI  motivation: extrinsic and intrinsic, material gain and social capital, recognition and reputation  control: erode monopoly positions held by professions, educational institutions, experts, and high-tech scribes  ownership: allow participants to contribute to real decision; do not “misuse” them to fix problems that the developers did not fix themselves  social creativity: incorporate user-driven innovations, take advantage of breakdowns, and exploit the symmetry of ignorance  quality and trust: avoid blindly believing in what others (specifically experts or teachers) are saying  changing human behavior: use technologies to create feasibility spaces for new social practices

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Summary of Contributions  theoretical frameworks to support the design of socio-technical environments in which users can act as co-designers in personally meaningful problems  design methodologies supporting the creation of evolvable seeds for open systems  broadening the scope of the usability of systems to providing resources and incentives to encourage participation and sustain it  understanding the impact of meta-design and cultures of participation on important fundamental societal problems

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