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Project Plan Komodo National Park

Hesti Handayani Widiastuti Widodo Komodo National Park – World Heritage Site Project Labuan Bajo, January 2004

Table of Contents Project Site Summary..............................................................................................................3 Site Description......................................................................................................................3 A. Introduction...................................................................................................................3 B. Legal Basis and Status of Komodo ...............................................................................3 C. Biodiversity of Komodo National Park.........................................................................4 D. Socio-Economic and Cultural Aspect ...........................................................................5 E. Political Situation ..........................................................................................................7 F. Geological Aspect..........................................................................................................7 G. Threat to Komodo National Park ..................................................................................8 H. Other Conservation Works and Agencies.....................................................................8 Stakeholder Matrix and Narrative.......................................................................................10 Photos from Stakeholder Meeting........................................................................................15 Initial Concept Model ............................................................................................................17 Summary of Survey Questionnaire ......................................................................................18 Sample Questionnaire..........................................................................................................19 English Version................................................................................................................19 Bahasa Version ................................................................................................................22 Summary of Survey Results..................................................................................................25 A. Respondent’s Sex, Age, Occupation, Education Profile............................................25 B. Media Preferences ......................................................................................................30 C. Perception and Knowledge on Komodo National Park Resources ............................32 D. Flagship Species and Slogan......................................................................................44 Flagship Species .....................................................................................................................49 Species Summary .................................................................................................................49 Distribution ......................................................................................................................49 Behaviour.........................................................................................................................50 Biology.............................................................................................................................50 Size...................................................................................................................................50 Reproduction....................................................................................................................51 Manta Rays in Komodo National Park ............................................................................51 Revised Concept Model .........................................................................................................52 Revised Concept Model Narrative .......................................................................................53 Work Plan...............................................................................................................................54 Monitoring Plan...................................................................................................................73 Project Timeline...................................................................................................................79 References...............................................................................................................................81 Acknowledgements .................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

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Project Site Summary Site Description A. Introduction Komodo National Park (KNP) is located in the Eastern part of the Indonesian Archipelago. It is situated along the western border of East Nusa Tenggara Province, next to West Nusa Tenggara Province. The Park was stated as World Heritage Site and Man Biosphere Reserve by United Nation Education, Social, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1986 based on its biological importance. Komodo National Park was initially established in 1980 to protect the unique Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis). KNP’s coordinates currently are 119°20’ 95" up to 119° 49’ 20" East longitude and 8° 24’ 35" up to 8° 50’ 25" South latitude. Figure 1 illustrates administrative park boundaries.

Figure 1. Map of Komodo National Park (Source: Ministry of Forestry, 2000)

Currently, the Park encompasses 1,817 km2, which includes marine and terrestrial area. The park has distinctive features, including mountainous terrain with steep slopes in some locations, white sandy beaches, and open grass-woodland savannah (693 km2). Of the total area, 1,124 km2 is marine area with highly diverse marine habitat including coral reef, seagrass, mangrove, and semi enclosed bay (KNP Management Plan Book 1, 2000). These habitats support some endangered species listed on IUCN Red List Data Book such as Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), Dugong (Dugong dugon), and Cetaceans such as Sperm Whale, Humpback-Whales, and Killer Whale.

B. Legal Basis and Status of Komodo Protection of the park was begun by Sultan Bima in 1915 by issuing Sultan Bima Decree on Komodo protection. From 1926 until 1968, there were four legal regulations which regulated Wildlife and Nature Protection: Decree of Autonomous Administration of 1926 on Protection of the Komodo, Statutes on Wildlife Protection of 1931, Nature Monument and Wildlife Reserve Ordinance of 1932, Statute on Nature Protection of 1941 (Ministry of Forestry, 2000). Regarding the establishment of Komodo National Park, there are four important laws and regulations issued: Decree of Ministry of Forestry No.66 Year 1965 on the Assignment of Komodo National Park

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Komodo Island as a Wildlife Reserve, Decree of Governor of East Nusa Tenggara No. 24 Year 1969 on the Assignment of Padar, Rinca, and Wae Wuul/Mburuk plain as a Tourist Forest/Nature Reserve, Decree of Forestry Director General No. 79 Year 1970 on the formation of the Section of Forest Protection and Conservation at Labuan Bajo, and Announcement of Ministry of Agriculture of March 6, 1980 on the Establishment of the Komodo National Park (Ministry of Forestry, 2000). Komodo National Park was stated as a natural World Heritage Site in 1992 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) which met the criteria of World Heritage Site Convention criteria (iii): contains superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance; and criteria (iv): contains the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation. In Komodo National Park, therefore, these characteristics are the beauty of terrestrial habitat and communities who live in it.

C. Biodiversity of Komodo National Park C.1. TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM Komodo National Park lies in the Wallacea Region of Indonesia, identified by WWF and Conservation International as a global conservation priority area. This is the transitional zone between the Australian and Asian flora-fauna, containing both (Ministry of Forestry, 2000). The terrestrial ecosystem richness in the Komodo National Park area is affected by the climate; the combination of a lengthy dry season with high temperatures and low rainfall, and seasonal monsoon rainfalls have had a major impact on the presence of vegetation. Terrestrial ecosystem includes open grass-woodland savannah. The lontar palm (Borassus flobellifer) is the dominant savanna tree. Alang-alang grass (Imperata cylindrica), which is commonly found throughout Indonesia, is rare in Komodo National Park. Timor Deer, the main prey for Komodo, rely much on Grass-Woodland Savanna. Due to the long dry season, the terrestrial flora species richness in Komodo is very low. There are three species of orchid (Vanda sp.) reported exist in KNP. For tree species, in KNP there are three species of deciduous trees and various non-deciduous trees which are important for the local fauna, namely Tamarindus indicus, Borassus floberllifer, Saruga floribunda, Ficus sp, etc (Ministry of Forestry, 2000). Terrestrial fauna in KNP is also low in diversity but significant in term of endemism. The Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the main attraction in KNP. It is one of the largest reptiles in the world. The Komodo Dragon population in Komodo National Park, based on a survey conducted by San Diego Zoo’s team (2003) is approximately 2000 individuals left. It was found that there are 12 species of snakes in KNP and 9 species of skink lizards, geckos, and limbless lizards. In addition, there are 11 species of mammals and 28 species of birds.

C.2. MARINE ECOSYSTEM KNP’s biodiversity includes coral reef, seagrass bed, mangrove ecosystem, seamount, and semi-enclosed bay. Together, different types of ecosystems have been able to support more than 1,000 species of fish, 260 species of reef building coral, 70 species of sponges, 18 species of whales and dolphins, 4 species of sea turtles, dugong, and manta rays (Ministry of Forestry, 2000).

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Coral Reef Ecosystem Coral reefs are communities of many different marine animal and plants. There are three main types of coral reef in KNP (Ministry of Forestry, 2000) o Fringing reef, which developed by coral growing along the seashore of land masses or island. o Patch reefs may eventually develop into islands as they grow and reach the surface of water. This reef stands alone in the sandy beaches around small islands called Sabita and Papagaran. o Seamounts, which are submerged pinnacles encrusted with coral reef. Over 250 species of coral from 70 genera have been found in KNP. Sponges, which are made of spongy fiber and categorized as primitive animal, are particularly abundant and at least 70 species of sponges are found in KNP. There is a strong positive correlation between coral and fish species richness; it has also been suggested that there is a positive correlation between the degree of live coral cover and species richness and abundance of reef fishes (World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 1992). In line with this statement, in KNP it is found that more than 1,000 species of reef fishes rely on coral reef ecosystems, which include cartilaginous fishes (shark and manta rays) and bony fishes (damsel fish, wrasse, parrotfish, butterfly fish, angel fish, gobies, blennies, cardinal fish, surgeon and puffer fish, trigger fish, and pelagic fishes) (Ministry of Forestry, 2000). Seagrass Ecosystem Seagrass is a flowering plant species, which has adapted to the marine environment. It has been found in KNP that there are 8 seagrass species and 43 species of seaweed. Thallasia sp and Zoostera are the common species found in KNP (Ministry of Forestry, 2000). Many threatened species such as Dugong (Dugong dugon), giant clam (Tridacna gigas, Tridacna derassa), and coral occur in seagrass bed. Mangrove Ecosystem Mangroves are found in three main islands in KNP: Padar, Rinca, and Komodo Island. Research that was done by JICA found that there are at least 19 species of true mangroves and several more species of mangrove associates inside KNP borders (Ministry of Forestry, 2000).

D. Socio-Economic and Cultural Aspect D.1. POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC There are four settlements in the Park: Komodo village, Papagaran village, Rinca village and Kerora village (Figure 2). These villages have been established before the area stated as National Park in 1980. Total population in four settlements in the Park was 3,267 people and 16,816 people for the whole sub-district Komodo (Ministry of Forestry, 2000). As of January 2003, the population in sub-district Komodo reached 38,850 people (Sub-District Komodo Report, 2003) due to local migration as a result of good marine resources on which they can rely.

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Figure 2. Map of villages/settlement in and around Komodo National Park (Source: Ministry of Forestry, 2000)

Table 1: Population in Komodo National Park Area No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Village Name Labuan Bajo Warloka Pasir Putih Komodo Papagaran Pasir Panjang (Rinca and Warloka)

Population* 1,174 1,176 1,957 1,174 1,014 1,048

* as of January 2003

Komodo village had the highest population of 1,169 people in 1999. This might have happened because of in-migration of the Sape people (sub-district Bima, West Nusa Tenggara Province), Madura, Manggarai, and South-Sulawesi people (Ministry of Forestry, 2000) in search of reach marine resources. The smallest community in the Park is Kerora village. Its remote location and difficulty in reaching the area might limit access for inmigration. Rinca village in-migration has been primarily from Bima, Sape, Selayar, Manggarai, and Ende.

D.2. ECONOMIC ASPECT A combination of low education level, limited access to land, poor soil, low rainfall level, and limited water source push the local community to rely much on extracting marine resource. Ninety seven percent of thetotal population relies on fishing activities; the rest are traders and civil servants (Ministry of Forestry, 2000). Sudibyo in Ministry of Forestry (2000) stated the characteristic of local fishing communities as follows: o Daily and seasonal income are highly variable o The catch is perishable and should be marketed quickly o Large working capital is needed and high risks are involved o Small share of profit for fishers o Traditional processing of marine products is low in quality

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D.3. CULTURAL ASPECT Communities living in the Park and surrounding area are mainly Bajo, Bugis, Bima, and Manggarai. Most communities living in the Park can speak Bahasa Indonesia but the Bajo language is the common language used in daily conversation in most communities. There are 7 languages used by local communities living in and surrounding the Park: Bajo, Bugis, Bima, Manggarai, Komodo, Ara, and Javanese. The majority of religion in Komodo National Park area is Islam and the communities from Manggarai are mostly Christian. These communities are governed under Manggarai Barat district headed by Bupati, and locally by Village Representatives.

D.4. INCOME PER CAPITA East Nusa Tenggara province’s annual per capita income in 1995 was recorded as one third of the national income per capita which equal to Rp. 785, 281.00 (USD375), while nationally it was Rp. 1,940,462 (USD 883); the province’s population displays the nation’s highest incidence of poverty (BPS, 1997). East Nusa Tenggara rates for infant mortality and adult illiteracy rank as the highest in the nation (Corner in Lentz, Fisher, and Mulyana, 1998).

E. Political Situation Administratively, Komodo National Park is part of sub-district Komodo. Decentralization and autonomous policy (Act No. 22 Year 1999 on Regional Government and Act No. 25 Year 1999 on Regional and National Revenue) have led people in sub-district Komodo and four other sub-districts (Macang Pacar, Kuwus, Lembor, and Sano Nggoang) to form new district. Supported by the issued of Act No. 8 Year 2003 on the Formation of West Manggarai District in East Nusa Tenggara Province, new district West Manggarai was officially formed on July 17, 2003. The changing in administrative structure brings consequence on District Development Plan (Rencana Pengembangan Kota) and District Revenue (Pemasukan Daerah) sources. The formation of a new district has led to at least two problems: the impediment of governmental structure and post, and community polarization in supporting their candidates for legislative board and head of district. As a consequence, it will influence local support from target villages to any program implemented in the villages.

F. Geological Aspect Komodo National Park is located at the juncture of Sahul and Sunda Plate. The friction and pressure of two plates has caused up thrusting of the coral reef, and the islands in Komodo National Park are volcanic in origin (Ministry of Forestry, 2000). Many of islands in Nusa Tenggara and Maluku appeared only within the last 1 to 10 million years, and in East Nusa Tenggara Komodo and Flores are two of the main inner volcanic islands (Monk, Fretes, Reksodiharjo-Lilley, 1997). Inner volcanic islands (some of the simplest geological structures within this complex region) are basically young oceanic volcanic islands, often ringed by reef limestone or by other sedentary material that has eroded from the main body of the island and built up between the tongues of lava and other extrusions. Komodo is the exception among mainly Cenozoic (Tertiary) volcanic islands. The western half of Komodo is formed on a Jurassic volcanic mass (145-210 million years ago), flanked by the expected sedimentary rocks (lenses of tuffs, sandstones, and conglomerates with

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intercalated limestone, sandy shales, and clays). The eastern part of the island has an early to mid-Tertiary (Eocene) volcanic complex, again flanked with steeply tilted beds of corraline-limestone. Both Padar and Rinca are composed of the same limestone (Auffenberg in Monk, Fretes, Reksodiharjo-Lilley, 1997).

G. Threat to Komodo National Park As stated in Komodo National Park’s 25-Years Management Plan (Ministry of Forestry, 2000), the Park faces numerous problems both at land and sea, including: o Human population pressure and increased demand on natural resources are leading to degradation of both marine and terrestrial resources, o Destructive fishing practices, o Overharvesting of marine resources especially demersal species such as groupers and wrasse. o The introduction of non-native species (invasive) to the Park, o (Sea) pollution input from land activities, o Forest fire due to poacher (of deer) and/or accidental activity, o The poaching of deer, turtle eggs, fruit bats, and cave swiftlets nest, and o Global warming could pose a significant threat to the area near future. Base on UNESCO/UNEP/UNF/RARE/KNP Vision Workshop May 2002 in Labuan Bajo on Threat Reduction Analysis (TRA) (Margoluis and Salafsky, 1998), destructive fishing such as bomb, cyanide fishing, and the use trawl was considered as the highest rank on intensity, coverage, frequency. The others in order of priority included poaching and illegal extraction of natural resources, coral mining, overfishing, crown of thorn starfish. Students with Park Staffs worked on the TRA in January 2004, and the results can be seen in Table 2 below.

Table 2: Threat Reduction Analysis on KNP Biodiversity Factors Destructive fishing practices Poaching and Illegal Resource Extraction Outside Fisher Crown of Thorn Starfish Forest fire

Urgency 19 11 15 9 6

Area 16 10 13 13 8

Intensity 15 13 19 8 5

Total 50 34 47 30 19

Rank 1 3 2 4 5

Source: Pride Campaign – TRA Meeting (January 2004)

H. Other Conservation Works and Agencies Currently in Labuan Bajo, there are 2 big organizations working on conservation issues in Komodo National Park, namely The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and San Diego Zoo. Both are international organizations. There are also many local community organizations that work primarily on building community awareness such as conservation cadres, Forum Peduli Lingkungan Hidup (FPLH) Komodo, Conservancy Club and The Komodo Foundation. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) has been working in Komodo National Park for 8 years since 1995 with its marine conservation program. Its program has been expanded into a conservation education and awareness program, community development, resource use monitoring (surveillance), and policy issues such as supporting the creation of local regulation on fishing gears and collaborative management. TNC assisted the central government (Ministry of Forestry – Nature Protection Department) and the Park in designing 25-Years Management Plan in Komodo National Park based on extensive ecological and socio-economic survey. It also carries out a biological monitoring program together with the Park’s staff to regularly monitor coral reef coverage, coral recovery program, spawning Komodo National Park

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aggregations (SPAGs) sites, fish abundance, turtles, manta, and cetacean migrations in the Park. Recently, TNC carried out a seagrass watch and monitoring survey in and around KNP. San Diego Zoo has been working closely with the Park since 2002 to monitor the Komodo Dragon population and conservation actions for this species. A tagging program has been done for the Komodo Dragon in Komodo island, Rinca island, and Gili Motang island. It was found that there was an approximate population of 2000 Komodo Dragons in the Park.

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Stakeholder Matrix and Narrative Local stakeholder in sub-district Komodo were involved in the pre-project planning stage to update information and factors which directly and indirectly contribute to an understanding of the state of Komodo National Park biodiversity. Twenty-three participants attended the stakeholder meeting, which was held in Komodo National Park Meeting Room on October 16, 2003. The use of Conceptual Models as described in this document is based the work of Richard Margoluis and Nick Salafsky of Foundations of Success (FOS) and draws from their 1998 publication Measures of Success: Designing, Managing, and Monitoring Conservation Development Projects, published by Island Press. Their approach has have been re-worked and re-tooled to fit the needs of Rare staff and local counterparts working on site assessments for projects supported by Rare. The development of concept models also includes a methodology known as “Braining, Naming, Ordering” as an adaptation of the ToP (Technology of Participation) concept developed by Sherwood Shankland and the Institute of Cultural Affairs. List of participants and their motives, potential contribution, and consequence for involving them in designing the concept model can be seen in the table below. No

Stakeholder

Name

Key Issue

Interest/Motive (what participant brings to meeting)

Potential Contribution (what the meeting can give to participant)

Consequences

1

Education and Culture Official

Drs. Blasius Jebagun. Abun Yoanes, A.Ma.

Curriculum development for Love Beach Movement, local content, teaching quality

Love Beach Movement integrate with CE, how to improve teaching quality, ask for teacher training on conservation education

Ensure facilitation on conservation curriculum development (technical assistance)

2

Tourism Official

Anselmus Darman

Tourism attraction and authority, KNP Management Authority, KNP Revenue

KNP Authority, Involvement in managing the park, revenue for tourism affairs.

3

Sub District Komodo Official

Drs. Liber Habut Abdullah Nur

New district development, supporting conservation (KCMI), local capacity building

Development of sub-district Komodo which has West Manggarai district capital, awareness and education program involving local community.

Alternative for curriculum development together with local partner, acknowledgement from new district Mayor on conservation local content. Legal basis for Park Management authority, regulation which support management, adapting the social marketing technique for marketing tourism Opportunity to show his performance and his view on conservation efforts in KNP, alternatives in creating government proposal.

4

Warloka Sub-Village Leader

Mudin Ahmad

Fishing ground, patrol system, alternative livelihood project

New alternative livelihood, fishing ground change and zoning system

Komodo National Park

Opportunity to meet Mayor, opportunity to know alternative livelihood for supporting tourism.

Provide government view and perspective, make sure for project buy in.

Provide government view and perspective, make sure project buy in, community involvement in the project Provide information on friendly fishing technique, introduce ecotourism concept.

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No

Stakeholder

Name

Key Issue

Interest/Motive (what participant brings to meeting)

Potential Contribution (what the meeting can give to participant)

Consequences

5

Komodo Village Leader

Haji Abidin

Provide information on Ecotourism project and Education in a way with KCMI

Papagaran Village Secretary, Fisher

Abu Lahar

Awareness and education activities in village, ensure villagers participation noticed, relationship between KCMI and CE Village regulation (traditional poisonfishing technique), Patrol staffs' attitude, Ignorance to poisoning ban

Village buy in, revenue for village from tourism.

6

Patrol system, zonation in KNP, Alternative Livelihood, Professional park management Patrol System, Zonation in KNP, Village Regulation, KCMI

Alternative livelihood for local community, opportunity to discuss directly with new Mayor.

Provide information on Ecotourism project and Education in a way with KCMI

7

Pasir Panjang Village Leader

Mustamin, Ibrahim Hamsi

Patrol System, Zoning in KNP, Village Regulation

Alternative for local community capacity building through CE.

Provide information on alternative project in away with CEC

8

Pasir Putih Village Leader

Haji Idris

Fishing ground, patrol system, coral fishes trade, patrol system.

Community involvement in alternative livelihood project and patrol system, fishing regulation Market development, fishing technology and tools, park regulation

Improve tools and technology of fishing activity

7

Pasir Panjang Village Leader

Mustamin, Ibrahim Hamsi

Patrol System, Zoning in KNP, Village Regulation

Alternative for local community capacity building through CE.

9

Conservanc y Club

Abdul Asis John Jalessy

Group empowerment, supporting conservation activities

Community involvement in alternative livelihood project and patrol system, fishing regulation Lack of motivation, resources, conservation responsibility

Ensure community participation, build local knowledge, targeting behavioural change Provide information on alternative project in away with CEC

10

Youth Group (Nusantara Komodo Club)

Angel Soe

Youth group participation

Support youth religious activity, Support Outreach activity, Involvement in Art Competition, Access to local business partners

11

Principal of Junior High School

Drs. Stefanus Syukur

Private interest for horse ownership in Rinca, Involvement in CE

Smoothing CE in school program, support for teacher involvement in Love Beach Movement

Self esteem organization, involvement in CE, ideas and design for youth activities, increase young generation role in nature conservation Land and Animal Ownership, Access to KNP, Involvement in CE Program

Komodo National Park

Alternative livelihood project, Supporting CE in school for local content, alternative in improving project proposal.

Ensure participation and involvement in CEC, refresh the skills and knowledge, build selfinitiative Ensure youth participation, build knowledge, raise interest of youngster to the project Ensure project buy-in and involvement in CE activities in Junior High School Level

11

No

Stakeholder

Name

Key Issue

Interest/Motive (what participant brings to meeting)

Potential Contribution (what the meeting can give to participant)

Consequences

12

Hotel Owner (Gardena)

Francis

Tourism attraction in KNP

Profit oriented, environmental friendly accommodation.

Support on local event, spreading CE news (marketing).

Ensure project buy in, involvement in CE activities

13

Hotel (New Bajo Owner), Fish Trader

Hendrik Candra

Involvement in KNP management, coral fishes trade

Fish trade information, view from tourism business owner, fishing regulation implementation

Support on local event, spreading CE news (marketing).

Ensure project buy in, involvement in CE activities

14

Local NGO (LP2M)

Hamka Abdullah

Involvement in KNP conservation activity, community advocation

Group involvement in developing new district on poverty and conservation issue

Alternative in improving project proposal, getting CE technique and adapt for organizational development

Ensure participation and involvement in CEC, build selfinitiative

15

Committee for New District West Manggarai Formation (Sekber PMMB)

Florianus S. Adu

Political interest, KNP Management (KCMI), access to KNP

Support for project implementation and development in new district education system (local content), Contradictory argument

Alternative project for developing the area, get input directly from community level.

Ensure project buy-in and participation in supporting CE

16

Kapolsek Komodo

Victor Jemadu Abdul Karib

Law enforcement, Patrol system in KNP

Knowledge in law enforcement in the area, destructive fishing cases

support and cooperation in finding ways to reduce destructive fishing

provide local legal perspectives and practices, ensure law officer participation, build knowledge

No

Stakeholder

Interest/Motive (what participant brings to meeting)

Potential Contribution (what the meeting can give to participant)

Consequences

Potential for traditional knowledge information, religious background in spreading conservation message. Potential for running the campaign, curriculum development, motivating local education core group, involvement of Coral Ambassador students

Incorporate religious knowledge in spreading conservation message in CE

Ensure community buy in and participation, incorporating religious knowledge in CE Ensure new district education and culture division support and involvement in CEC, build knowledge, reach more people.

Name

Key Issue

17

Pastor

Romo Franstasar Pr

Religious education

18

Teacher

Felix Beda Tukan

Curriculum development for Love Beach Movement, local content, teaching quality, conservation actions

Komodo National Park

Education material, conservation education curriculum development technique, education activity.

12

No

Stakeholder

Name

Key Issue

Interest/Motive (what participant brings to meeting)

Potential Contribution (what the meeting can give to participant)

Consequences

19

Navy Commander

Agus Edi S.

Boat Identification, Transportation Law Enforcement

Knowledge in law enforcement in the area, destructive fishing cases

Support in finding way reducing destructive fishing technique.

20

Komodo Conservatio n Cadres

Bahtiang

Alternative livelihood, capacity building, basic capital

Endorsement of cadre in village

Alternative in developing project proposal and involvement

provide local legal perspectives and practices, ensure law officer participation, build knowledge Ensure cadres participants in CEC

21

LumbaLumba Papagaran Conservatio n Cadres

Nurhasan

Group empowerment, village regulation

Self esteem in community, alternative livelihood, capacity building continuation, direct involvement in patrol system

Alternative in developing project proposal and involvement

Ensure cadres participants in CEC

22

Fisher, Informal Leader Rinca, Conservatio n Cadres

Baco Ahmad

KNP Management, Patrol System, Community Involvement

Support in finding way lessening threat from outside fisher and village regulation proposal.

Ensure community participation, build local knowledge, targeting behavioural change

23

Fisheries Resort Officer

Korinus

Catch Reporting and Revenue for department

Village regulation information and initiatives, current threat from outside fishers, and current condition in village due to political movement and land ownership matter Information on catch result monthly basis and boat number

Alternative livelihood program for supporting fisheries department

Ensure participation and involvement in CE

24

Military Command Officer

Saemun

Law enforcement, Patrol system in KNP, Join Operation with KNP Rangers

Law enforcement case in KNP and cause-effect relationship,

Alternative way for lessening threat from poacher and illegal activity

25

Fisher Group (Harapan Baru)

Rusdin

Allowable catch/fishing gear

Catch result and alternative livelihood project result.

Alternative for fishing technology and business development.

26

Elementary School Teacher and Religious Leader

Abdul Latif Har

Teaching systems, religious education

Potential for smoothing CE in islands, integrate CE and religious knowledge in spreading conservation message.

Education material, conservation education curriculum development technique, education activity.

provide local legal perspectives and practices, ensure law officer participation, build knowledge Ensure community participation, build local knowledge, targeting behavioural change Ensure project buy in. Provide the appropriate suggestions for campaign according the knowledge and the local community’s situation.

Komodo National Park

13

No

Stakeholder

Name

Key Issue

27

Reefseeker, Dive Operator

Ernest Nurdin

Dive sites, environmentally friendly tourism

28

Indonesia Fisher Folk Association

Drs. Blasius Pandur

29

Teacher in Warloka, Informal Leader

Muhammad Tayeb

30

The Komodo Foundation, Local Conservatio n NGO

Paulus Boleng

31

The Nature Conservanc y, International NGO, KNP Partner

Gede R. Wiadnya Abubakar Pasya

32

Komodo National Park Authority

Mattheus H. Halim Heru R., H. Radi, Lily Y.

Interest/Motive (what participant brings to meeting)

Potential Contribution (what the meeting can give to participant)

Consequences

Better KNP Management, Quality of Dive sites, Entrance Fee

Attraction ideas, new dive sites, expanding market.

Ensure project buy in and dive operators participation in succeeding CE

KNP Management, Allowable fishing gear

Fishing ground in KNP, MPA roles, fishers's role, political interest

Alternative for fishing technology and business development, alternative on food technology.

Ensure fisher participation; build knowledge and awareness on sustainable fisheries.

Curriculum development for local content, teaching quality, conservation actions, education material Clean Up, conservation actions

Potential to support CE in village level and encourage local community to get involve, information on current village condition and education system.

Education material, conservation education curriculum development technique, education activity.

Involvement of local community in the project, possible activities for CE

Alternative for developing organizational acknowledgement and recognition

Ensure new district education and culture division support and involvement in CEC, build knowledge, reach more people. Ensure participation, build awareness on networking system

Marine ecosystem protection, marine protected area, support for KNP authority management Marine and terrestrial biodiversity conservation, better management of Park

Support for CE on ground, ideas on how to integrate CE with other activities

Ideas on how to integrate awareness and education program with other organization

Ensure participation and provide CE material for outreach activities

Support for CE on ground, smoothing CE process inside the Park, smoothing CE in governmental level.

Ideas on how to integrate awareness and education program with other organization.

Ensure participation and provide CE material for outreach activities

Note: Red = could not attend Black = attended

Komodo National Park

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Photos from Stakeholder Meeting

Stakeholder Meeting – Explaining 2002 Concept Model

Stakeholder Meeting – Komodo National Park Stakeholders

Komodo National Park

15

Stakeholder Meeting – Lesson Learned Gathering Limiting and Success Factors

Stakeholder Meeting – Komodo National Park New Concept Model

Komodo National Park

16

Initial Concept Model Global Climate Change Forest Fire

Drought Forest fire human activity Tradition

Information Access

No conservation education subject in formal education

(Lack of) education facility and infrastructure

(Low) Human Resource Capacity Population Growth

Money Oriented Mentality Poverty

Inter Marriage Want to Increase Welfare

Legend:

Direct Factor

Komodo National Park

Indirect Factor

Demand for basic need

Contributing Factor

(Lack of) Law Enforcement

Illegal Logging

Terrestrial Ecosystem

(Lack of) Socialization of KNP

Anchoring Marine Ecosystem

Coral Mining Overfishing

Economic Need (Lack of) Alternative Livelihood

Komodo National Park Biodiversity

Tourism Activity

(Lack of) Conservation Awareness Market Demand

Poaching and Illegal Extraction of Natural Resources

Destructive fishing techniques Crown of Thorn Outside Fisher

(Lack of) Fish Predator

Note: Different color arrows are used simply to aid in viewing the direction of arrows and do not indicate different types of relationships. 17

Summary of Survey Questionnaire A community survey was conducted to get additional information and test the underlying assumptions and information gathered from the stakeholder meeting regarding the initial concept model. A questionnaire consists of 31 questions that solicit open and closed questions (multiple choices) on respondent personal data (sex, age, and occupation), radio and music preference, opinion and knowledge, flagship species, and campaign slogan. Eight enumerators had been chosen from park rangers and Conservancy Club members. Students trained the enumerators on survey techniques, Survey Pro 3 (Apian Software) question and answers entry techniques, and provided them the print-out of survey guideline. Target communities consisted of four villages: Komodo (1,174 people), Papagaran (1,014 people), Pasir Putih (1,957 people), and Warloka (1,176). The total target population is 5,321 people. Five percent of the sampling population (253 respondents) was taken into consideration to get significant representative data (Table 1). Due to conflict between community and the Park authority on zoning system and land ownership, the survey could not be done in Pasir Panjang (Rinca and Kerora) village. A total of 264 questionnaires from target communities were returned, 11 out of it could not get into further analysis. The control group was Labuan Bajo village, which is the capital of West Manggarai District, and the total 50 respondents gathered for this survey.

Table 3: Population and Survey Sample in Komodo National Park Area No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Village Name Labuan Bajo** Warloka Pasir Putih Komodo Papagaran Pasir Panjang (Rinca and Warloka**)

Population* 1,174 1,176 1,957 1,174 1,014 1,048

Sample (5%) 50 50 98 59 51 50

* As of January 2003 ** Control group, minimum 50 samples.

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Sample Questionnaire English Version [1] Sex? (FILL IN BOX WITHOUT ASKING PLEASE) [ ] Male [ ] Female [2] In which village do you currently live? (WRITE IN NAME OF VILLAGE OR COMMUNITY) ________________ [3] Location of residence of the respondent. (PLEASE CHECK BOX WITHOUT ASKING) [ ] Campaign target area[ ] Comparison area outside target area [4] How old are you? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] 15-24 years old [ ] 25-49 years old 80 years old [ ] More than 80 years old

[ ] 50-60 years old [ ] No Answer

[ ] 61-65 years old

[5] What is your highest education level? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Elementary School [ ] Junior High School [ ] High School [ ] University Other ________________

[ ] 66-

[ ] No Education [ ]

[6] What is your main livelihood? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Fisher [ ] Fish trader [ ] Farmer [ ] Civil servant (other than policeman) [ ] Student [ ] Businessman/woman [ ] Tour guide [ ] Handicrafter [ ] Teacher [ ] Housewife [ ] Policeman [ ] Other ________________ [7] How long have you been living in this community? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Less than 10 years [ ] 10-20 years [ ] 21-30 years [ ] More than 30 years

[ ] Don't know

[8] Which radio station do you mostly listen to? (CAN ANSWER MORE THAN ONE) [ ] RRI Makassar [ ] RRI Jakarta [ ] RRI Bima [ ] RPD Ruteng [ ] Stasiun Bulu Kumba [ ] Radio Ruteng [ ] None [ ] Other ________________ [9] When do you listen to the radio? (CAN ANSWER MORE THAN ONE) [ ] 06.00 - 10.00 [ ] 10.00 - 14.00 [ ] 14.00 - 18.00 [ ] 18.00 - 22.00 [ ] No definite time [ ] All day [ ] Usually weekends [ ] During weekends [ ] All days of the week [ ] Never [] Other ________________ [10] What kind of music do you like? (CAN ANSWER MORE THAN ONE) [ ] Dangdut [ ] Qasidah [ ] Pop [ ] Reggae [ ] Rock [ ] Traditional music Other ________________ [11] What languange do you prefer for your music? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Bahasa Indonesia [ ] English [ ] Bajo [ ] Manggaraian [ ] Bugis Other ________________

[ ] None [ ]

[ ] Don't care

[]

[12] In your opinion, how important is it to have laws protecting marine resources in your area? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Very important [ ] Somewhat important [ ] Not important [ ] Don't know [13] Is there any punishment for breaking these kinds of laws? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Don't know [14] How strongly do you agree or disagree with this punishment? (ONE ANSWER ONLY)

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[ ] Disagree strongly know

[ ] Disagree somewhat [ ] Agree somewhat

[ ] Agree strongly

[ ] Don't

[15] Do you know that you are living inside or adjacent to a national park? (One answer only) [ ] Yes [ ] Uncertain [ ] No [16] In the past six months what activities have you done inside Komodo National Park? (DO NOT READ OUT ANSWERS - CHECK ONE ANSWER OR MORE) [ ] Touring for recreation [ ] Fishing for food [ ] Fishing for sale [ ] Fishing for recreation [ ] For viewing wildlife [ ] Mining (eg.g. rock and soil) [ ] Collecting wood (e.g. building house, handicraft [ ] Don't know [ ] Don't use the park [ ] Other ________________ [17] Is the Park important to you? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Yes [ ] Uncertain [ ] No [18] Why do you feel this way? ________________ [19] Does Komodo National Park benefit you? If so, how? (CAN ANSWER MORE THAN ONE) DO NOT READ OUT OPTIONS [ ] No, no benefit [ ] Marine resource for food [ ] Marine resource for money [ ] Terrestrial resources for food [ ] Terrestrial resources for money [ ] Many supports from government and non-government [ ] Place to live [ ] Gather income from tourism [ ] Famous [ ] Other ________________ [20] In your opinion, is the health of marine environment in this area improving, staying the same, or getting worse? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Improving [ ] Staying about the same [ ] Getting worse [ ] Don't know [21] Do you think that Marine Park's resources are threatened? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Yes [ ] Uncertain [ ] No [22] Please state what you think are the top 3 threats to this area's marine environment. (DO NOT READ OUT OPTIONS, NUMBER 1 = HIGHEST THREATH, 3 = LOWEST THREAT) [ ] Forest fire [ ] Drought [ ] Poaching and Illegal Resource Extraction [ ] Reef gleaning [ ] Destructive fishing practice [ ] Overfishing [ ] Crown of Thorn Starfish [ ] Need of land [ ] Global warming/climate change [ ] Outside fisher [ ] Forest fire caused by Human activity [ ] Tourism activity [ ] Other ________________ [23] Why do you think people threatened the resource? (CAN ANSWER MORE THAN ONE) [ ] Tradition [ ] Subsistence [ ] Economic motive [ ] Get land for housing [ ] Weak law enforcement [ ] No alternative livelihood [ ] Don't know [ ] Lack of conservation knowledge [ ] Low human resource capacity[ ] Other ________________ [24] How do people usually destruct marine ecosystem? (CAN ANSWER MORE THAN ONE) [ ] Gleaning the reefs [ ] Using cyanide [ ] Using bomb [ ] Using purse seine [ ] Using poison (traditional) [ ] Other ________________ [25] Do you think that damaging marine ecosystem (such as coral reef) will influence fisheries resource? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Yes, a lot [ ] Yes, somewhat [ ] Yes, a little [ ] Uncertain [ ] No [26] Who do you trust the most to give you accurate and true information about threats to environment? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Radio [ ] TV [ ] Newspaper [ ] Law enforcement official [ ] Community leader [] Religious leader[ ] Cultural (adat) leader [ ] Government employee [ ] Conservation officer [ ]

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Friends and family [ ] Teacher [ ] Other ________________

[ ] Politicians

[ ] No one

[ ] Don't know

[ ] Don't care

[27] Which character do you think could better represent your area? (ONE ANSWER ONLY) [ ] Komodo Dragon [ ] Giant Manta (Manta Ray) [ ] Hawksbill Turtle [ ] Baleen Whale [ ] Common Dolphin [ ] Timor Cackatoo [ ] Napoleon Wrasse [ ] Mouse Grouper [ ] Marlin [ ] None [ ] Other ________________ [28] Why do you think the character could better represent your area? (CAN ANSWER MORE THAN ONE) [ ] Beautiful [ ] Famous [ ] Only happen in Komodo area [ ] Link to other animals [ ] I am proud of it [ ] Source of income [ ] Don't know [ ] Other ________________ [29] Which slogan do you prefer to represent your pride to KNP? (One answer only) [ ] My pride: Giant Manta protected, Komodo sustained [ ] Komodo sustained, Our common Expectation [ ] Move forward to conserve Komodo [ ] Giant Manta protected, Komodo sustained, My Nation's Pride [ ] My Loved Giant Manta, I will conserve Komodo [ ] None of the above [] Other ________________ [30] Over the past 6 months have you heard about KNP environment conservation activities through any of following? ( CAN ANSWER MORE THAN ONE) [ ] Radio [ ] TV [ ] Newspaper [ ] Community visit [ ] School visit [ ] Posters [] Billboards [ ] Songs [ ] Comics [ ] Sermons [ ] Friend/Family[ ] No heard anything [ ] Don't know [ ] School children [ ] Community discussion [ ] Talks with family/friends [ ] Volunteer events [ ] Puppet show [ ] Fact sheet [ ] Legislation booklet [ ] Other ________________ [31] In the last 6 months, have you been involved in conservation awareness acitivity? If so, what was it? (CAN ANSWER MORE THAN ONE) [ ] Planting mangrove [ ] Involve in community beach clean up [ ] Report an illegal environmental activity [ ] Talk to family about conservation issue [ ] Join a conservation groups [ ] Collecting and sorting the garbage [ ] All of the above [ ] None of the above [ ] Don't know [ ] Don't care [ ] No [ ] Other ________________

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Bahasa Version [1] Jenis kelamin? (ISI PILIHAN JAWABAN TANPA BERTANYA KEPADA RESPONDEN) [ ] Laki-laki [ ] Perempuan [2] Di desa mana Anda tinggal saat ini? (TULISKAN NAMA DESA ATAU NAMA KOMUNITAS MASYARAKAT) ________________ [3] Lokasi tempat tinggal Responden. (ISI PILIHAN JAWABAN TANPA BERTANYA KEPADA RESPONDEN) [ ] Lokasi target kegiatan pendidikan konservasi [ ] Lokasi kontrol kegiatan pendidikan konservasi [4] Berapa umur Anda? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] 15-24 tahun [ ] 25-49 tahun [ ] 50-60 tahun [ ] 61-65 tahun [ ] 66-80 tahun [ ] Lebih dari 80 tahun [ ] Tidak ada jawaban [5] Apa pendidikan tertinggi Anda? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Sekolah Dasar [ ] Sekolah Menengah Pertama [ ] Sekolah Menengah Umum [ ] Tidak Sekolah [ ] Other ________________

[ ] Universitas

[6] Apa pekerjaan utama Anda? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Nelayan [ ] Pedagang Ikan [ ] Petani [ ] Pegawai pemerintah (selain polisi) Pelajar [ ] Wiraswasta [ ] Pemandu wisata [ ] Pengrajin [ ] Guru [ ] Ibu rumah tangga [ ] Other ________________

[] [ ] Polisi

[7] Sudah berapa lama Anda tinggal di daerah ini? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Kurang dari 10 tahun [ ] 10 - 20 tahun [ ] 21 - 30 tahun [ ] Lebih dari 30 tahun [ ] Tidak tahu [8] Stasiun radio apa yang paling sering Anda dengarkan? (JAWABAN BISA LEBIH DARI SATU) [ ] RRI Makassar [ ] RRI Jakarta [ ] RRI Bima [ ] RPD Ruteng [ ] Stasiun Bulu Kumba [ ] Radio Ruteng [ ] None [ ] Other ________________ [9] Kapan Anda biasa mendengarkan radio? (JAWABAN BOLEH LEBIH DARI SATU) [ ] 06.00 - 10.00 [ ] 10.00 - 14.00 [ ] 14.00 - 18.00 [ ] 18.00 - 22.00 [ ] Tidak ada waktu khusus [] Sepanjang hari [ ] Biasanya akhir minggu [ ] Di akhir minggu [ ] Sepanjang hari selama seminggu [ ] Tidak pernah [ ] Other ________________ [10] Jenis musik apa yang paling Anda suka? (JAWABAN BISA LEBIH DARI SATU) [ ] Dangdut [ ] Qasidah [ ] Pop [ ] Reggae [ ] Rock [ ] Musik tradisional [ ] Other ________________

[ ] Tidak ada

[11] Bahasa apa yang Anda sukai untuk lirik lagu? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Bahasa Indonesia [ ] Bahasa Inggris [ ] Bajo [ ] Manggaraian [ ] Bugis [ ] Other ________________

[ ] Tidak perduli

[12] Menurut pendapat Anda, apakah memiliki peraturan yang melindungi sumber daya laut di daerah Anda cukup penting? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Sangat penting [ ] Agak penting [ ] Tidak penting [ ] Tidak tahu [13] Apakah ada hukuman dari pelanggaran yang dilakukan dari peraturan yang ada? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Tidak tahu

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[14] Seberapa setuju / tidak setuju Anda terhadap hukuman atas pelanggaran aturan tersebut? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Sangat tidak setuju [ ] Agak tidak setuju [ ] Agak setuju [ ] Sangat setuju [ ] Tidak tahu [15] Apakah Anda tahu bahwa Anda tinggal di dalam kawasan atau sekitar kawasan Taman Nasional? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Ya [ ] Tidak Yakin [ ] Tidak [16] Selama 6 (enam) bulan terakhir kegiatan-kegiatan apa saja yang telah Anda lakukan di dalam kawasan Taman Nasional Komodo? (JANGAN MEMBACAKAN PILIHAN JAWABAN - BISA MENJAWAB LEBIH DARI SATU) [ ] Melakukan wisata [ ] Menangkap ikan untuk makan sehari-hari [ ] Menangkap ikan untuk dijual [ ] Menangkap ikan untuk rekreasi [ ] Untuk melihat kehidupan liar [ ] Melakukan penambangan (contoh batu dan tanah) [ ] Mengumpulkan kayu (contoh untuk membangun rumah, membuat kerajinan) [ ] Tidak tahu [ ] Tidak menggunakan Taman Nasional [ ] Other ________________ [17] Apakah Taman Nasional penting untuk Anda? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Ya [ ] Tidak Yakin [ ] Tidak [18] Kenapa Anda merasa seperti itu (jawaban nomor 17)? ________________ [19] Apakah Taman Nasional memberikan manfaat untuk Anda? Jika ya, dengan cara apa? (JANGAN MEMBACAKAN PILIHAN JAWABAN - BISA MENJAWAB LEBIH DARI SATU) [ ] Tidak, tidak ada manfaat [ ] Sumber daya laut untuk kebutuhan makanan [ ] Sumber daya laut untuk kebutuhan uang [ ] Sumber daya daratan untuk kebutuhan makanan [ ] Sumber daya daratan untuk kebutuhan uang [ ] Tempat tinggal [ ] Mendapat banyak bantuan/dukungan dari pemerintah dan non-pemerintah [ ] Mendapatkan uang dari kegiatan pariwisata [ ] Terkenal [ ] Other ________________ [20] Menurut Anda, apakah kesehatan lingkungan laut di daerah ini meningkat, tetap sama, atau semakin buruk? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA). [ ] Meningkat [ ] Hampir tidak ada perubahan (hampir sama) [ ] Lebih buruk [ ] Tidak tahu [21] Apakah Anda merasa sumber daya laut Taman Nasional Komodo terancam? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Ya [ ] Tidak pasti [ ] Tidak [22] Tolong berikan 3 (tiga) rangking tertinggi ancaman terhadap sumber daya laut Taman Nasional Komodo. (JANGAN MEMBACAKAN PILIHAN, NOMOR 1 = ANCAMAN TERTINGGI, NOMOR 3 = ANCAMAN TERENDAH) [ ] 1 High []2 [ ] 3 Low [23] Menurut Anda, kenapa manusia merusak sumber daya alam Taman Nasional? (JAWABAN BOLEH LEBIH DARI SATU) [ ] Tradisi [ ] Sumber penghidupan [ ] Motif ekonomi [ ] Mendapatkan lahan untuk rumah [ ] Penegakan hukum yang rendah [ ] Tidak ada mata pencaharian alternatif [ ] Tidak tahu [ ] Kurangnya pemahaman konservasi [ ] Rendahnya kualitas SD Manusia [ ] Other ________________ [24] Biasanya, bagaimana orang-orang merusak sumber daya laut Taman Nasional? (JAWABAN BOLEH LEBIH DARI SATU) [ ] Mencungkil karang [ ] Menggunakan sianida [ ] Menggunakan bom [ ] Menggunakan pukat cincin [ ] Menggunakan racun tradisional (tuba) [ ] Other ________________

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[25] Menurut Anda, apakah perusakan ekosistem lautan (seperti terumbu karang) bisa mempengaruhi sumber daya ikan di Taman Nasional? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Ya, sangat mempengaruhi [ ] Ya, agak mempengaruhi [ ] Ya, sedikit mempengaruhi [ ] Tidak yakin [ ] Tidak [26] Siapa yang paling Anda percayai untuk memberikan informasi yang benar dan akurat tentang ancaman terhadap lingkungan? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Radio [ ] TV [ ] Koran [ ] Petugas penegak aturan [ ] Pemimpin masyarakat [ ] Pemimpin agama [ ] Pemimpin adat [ ] Pegawai pemerintah [ ] Petugas konservasi [ ] Teman dan keluarga [ ] Guru [ ] Politikus [ ] Tidak seorang pun [ ] Tidak tahu [ ] Tidak perduli [ ] Other ________________ [27] Menurut Anda karakter (hewan/tumbuhan) apa yang paling cocok mewakili Taman Nasional Komodo? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Komodo [ ] Pari Manta [ ] Penyu sisik [ ] Paus Balin [ ] Lumba-lumba [ ] Kakatua timor [ ] Ikan Napoleon [ ] Kerapu tikus [ ] Ikan Marlin [ ] Other ________________ [28] Menurut Anda, kenapa karakter tersebut bisa mewakili daerah Anda? (BISA MENJAWAB LEBIH DARI SATU) [ ] Cantik [ ] Terkenal [ ] Hanya ada di Komodo [ ] Berhubungan dengan organisme lainnya [ ] Saya bangga akan hewan/tumbuhan tersebut [ ] Sumber pendapatan [ ] Tidak tahu [ ] Saya merasa bangga [ ] Other ________________ [29] Mana slogan yang Anda pilih untuk menunjukkan kebanggaan Anda pada TNK? (HANYA SATU JAWABAN SAJA) [ ] Kebanggaanku: Manta Terjaga, Komodo Lestari [ ] Komodo Sustained, Our Common Expectation [ ] Maju Bersama dalam Komodo Lestari [ ] Manta Terjaga, Komodo Lestari, Bangga Bangsaku [ ] Manta Cintaku, Komodo kan Ku Lestarikan [ ] Tidak satupun di atas [ ] Other ________________ [30] Selama 6 (enam) bulan terakhir apakah Anda pernah mendengar kegiatan pelestarian lingkungan Taman Nasional Komodo melalui kegiatan-kegiatan berikut ini? (JAWABAN BOLEH LEBIH DARI SATU) [ ] Radio [ ] TV [ ] Koran [ ] Kunjungan masyarakat [ ] Kunjungan ke sekolahsekolah [ ] Poster [ ] Papan Billboard [ ] Lagu-lagu [ ] Komik [ ] Lembar dakwah [ ] Teman/Keluarga [ ] Kunjungan ke sekolah anak-anak [ ] Diskusi masyarakat [ ] Kegiatan-kegiatan sukarela [ ] Panggung boneka [ ] Lembar informasi [ ] Buku saku peraturan [ ] Tidak mendengar apapun [ ] Pembicaraan dengan teman/keluarga [ ] Other ________________ [31] Selama 6 (enam) bulan terakhir, apakah Anda pernah terlibat dalam kegiatan yang berhubungan dengan pelestarian lingkungan? Jika ya, apa saja? (BISA MENJAWAB LEBIH DARI SATU) [ ] Menanam bakau [ ] Terlibat dalam kegiatan bersih pantai [ ] Melaporkan kegiatan pelanggaran aturan lingkungan [ ] Berbicara kepada keluarga tentang isu konservasi [ ] Bergabung dengan kelompok konservasi [ ] Mengumpulkan dan menyortir sampah [ ] Semua pilihan di atas [ ] Tidak satupun di atas [ ] Tidak tahu [ ] Tidak perduli [ ] Other ________________

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Summary of Survey Results A. Respondent’s Sex, Age, Occupation, Education Profile A.1. TARGET GROUP Among the 253 respondents, mostly are male respondents (73.12%), in target area 50.59% are aged between 25-49 years old which considered as productive age group, 33.20% are aged between 15-24 years old, 10.67% are between 50-60 years old, 2.77% are between 66-60 years old, 1.58% are between 61-65 years old, and only 1.19% of the respondents gave no answer.

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Of those 253 respondents, 67.6% of their main livelihood is fisherman, 18.6% is housewife, 4.7% is fish trader, 3.6% is businessman, 1.6% is handcrafter, 1.2% is teacher, 1.2 % is farmer, 0.8% is civil servant, and 0.8% is student and unemployed.

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A low education level in target area can be seen from the sampling data which shows that 67.19% graduated from elementary school, 11.07% graduated from junior high school, 9.88% have no education, and only 5.93% graduated from high school. Mostly the respondents have already been living in target area between 10-20 years (37.15%) and more than 30 years (23.32%). This means that they have already settled in target area mostly when the Park has established in 1980.

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A.2. CONTROL GROUP In control sites, it is found that mostly respondents are male (94%) and the rests are female (6%).

Among 50 respondents, 78% are aged between 25-49 years old, 14% are 50-60 years old, 6% are 15-24 years old and only 1% refused to answer. It tells us that the respondents in target site are in productive age stage.

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Main livelihood of control group respondents is fisher (70%). The rests occupations are businessman, tour guide, and house wife which compose 22% of the total control respondents.

Of those 50 respondents from control group, 54% graduated from elementary school, 30% graduated from high school, 10% graduated from junior high school, 4% have no education. This information shows that there is a different from target group education profile. In Labuan Bajo, the respondents have better education compare to other target areas.

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Respondents from control group mostly have already been living in Labuan for more than 30 years (28%). The second most is living in Labuan Bajo between 10-20 years (26%). It means that the respondents have already settled when the Park established in 1980.

B. Media Preferences B.1. TARGET GROUP Respondents in target area mostly listen to RRI Makassar (90.51%), RRI Jakarta (20.95%), and Stasiun Bulu Kumba (20.16%). Of those 253 respondents, time preference to listen to radio mostly between 06.00-10.00 and 18.00-22.00, and some of them listen to radio all day. Favourite music in target area are Dangdut (84.98%), Qasidah (45.06%), and Pop (18.97%). Those respondents prefer to hear music in Bahasa Indonesia.

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B.2. CONTROL GROUP Ninety two percent of control group respondents mostly listen to RRI Makassar, RPD Ruteng (32%), and RRI Jakarta (16%). Of those 50 respondents mostly they do not have definite time to listen to radio (72%), but some of them usually listen to radio between 06.00-10.00 (12%), 14.00-18.00 (12%), 18.00-22.00 (12%).

Their favourite music is Dangdut (78%), Pop (42%), and Qasidah (32%). There can be seen that the respondents from Labuan Bajo or mainland Flores on the top second choice of music, they chose Pop rather than Qasidah. It might happen due to cultural value of Manggaraian people, as the most dominant ethnic group in the mainland, who likes more modern pop music for dancing.

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C. Perception and Knowledge on Komodo National Park Resources C.1. TARGET GROUP From 253 respondents in target area, 73.12% knew that they live inside or adjacent to Komodo National Park, 15.42% do not know, and 11.46% feel uncertain about their living area is inside or adjacent to the Park.

80.63% of the respondents perceived that the Park is important for them, 9.49% are uncertain and 9.88% perceived that the Park is not important for them. This means that mostly people who live adjacent and inside the Park realize that the Park is important for their live.

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Of those 253 respondents who said yes that the Park important to them, 65.7% do fishing in the Park for commercial purposes, 38% do fishing for food (subsistence), 10.3% don’t know on what they did in the Park, 5.5% don’t use the park, only 3.9% do recreation in the Park. People are given more than one choice to answer.

For the result obtained indicates that fishing for commercial purposes and fishing for subsistence are two main activities done inside the Park.

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Of those respondents who said yes to the importance of the Park, 58.8% get benefit from marine resources for food reason (subsistence), 36.3% get benefit from marine resources for money reason (commercial), 17.2% get benefit from many support from government and nongovernment organization, 13.7% get benefit from gather income from tourism. But still 12.3% of them perceived that the Park does not benefit them.

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Respondents perceived that marine environment quality is staying about the same (49.80%), getting worse (19.37%), do not know about the quality (17.79%), and only 13.04% perceived it is getting better.

It is found from the survey that only 14% of the fishermen perceived that the health of marine environment is improving, however 52% perceived that it is staying about the same, while 18.7% perceived it is getting worse, and the rest do not know about it. In fact, the marine environment in the Park is improving which is due to better surveillance program, alternative livelihood program, and public awareness program.

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Also most respondents aware that marine resources are threatened (60.08%), 30.43% feels uncertain, and only 9.49% perceive that marine resources are not threatened. Top 3 threats to Park’s marine resources as perceived by respondents are destructive fishing practices (190), outside fishermen (77), and crown of thorn starfish (65).

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Based on survey conducted, it is found that from 253 of those interviewed, the most frequent answer on why people threaten marine resources is mainly due to lack of conservation knowledge (125), economic motives (119), and subsistence (73).

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Of those respondents in target area, mostly (76.68%) said that it is important to have law protecting marine resources in their area, 11.07% do not know about the need of law, 9.49% said somewhat important, and only 2.77% said not important. 73.52% of the respondents aware about the presence of punishment for breaking the laws protecting marine resources, 23.7% do not know about the punishment, and the rest said there is no punishment for breaking the laws. Mostly, respondents (fishermen-50.3%) showed their strong agreement to punishment (48.62%), 24.51% said they did not have any preference to show agreement or disagreement, 12.65% strongly disagree, and 11.07% somewhat agree to the punishment. Interestingly, 50.3% of the fishermen interviewed strongly agree with the punishment given for breaking marine ecosystems protection laws. For those who could not show their agreement or disagreement seems like having perception that the questionnaire might bring bad impact to their lives, or even they might have ignorance already to the law enforcement system in KNP.

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C.2. CONTROL GROUP Of those respondents from control group area, 92% knows that they live adjacent to the Park, 6% feels uncertain, and 2% do not aware that they live adjacent to the Park. 100% of the respondents mentioned that the Park is important for them.

Of those respondents in control group, 100% perceived that the Park important for them. It is due to the abundance of marine resources and visitation to the Park.

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From 50 respondents, for the past six months they have done several activities in the Park. Mostly they went fishing for selling purpose-commercial (58%), fishing for food/daily need – subsistence (46%), touring for recreation (16%), did not use the Park (14%), and the rest were using the park for other purposes.

For the result obtained from control group that commercial fishing and subsistence fishing are too main activities done by respondents in the Park. 100% of the respondents in control group found that the Park is important for them and it also brings benefit such as marine resource for food (52%), marine resource for money (48%), gather income from tourism (14%), famous (14%), terrestrial resource for money (4%), and others (8%).

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From 50 respondents in control group, 60% do not know about current marine environment quality whether it is improving, staying about the same, or getting worse. 18% respondents said that it is getting worse, 18% said staying about the same, and only 4% said improving.

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Of those respondents in control area, 88% perceive that marine environment is currently threaten, 8% perceived it is not threaten, and only 4% felt uncertain. Top 3 threats to marine environment are destructive fishing practice (94%), outside fisher (46%), and COT starfish (40%).

Based on survey conducted in control area, it is found that from 50 of those interviewed, the most frequent answer on why people threaten marine resources is mainly due to low human resource capacity (74), economic motives (72), and no alternative livelihood (64).

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Most respondents believe it is important to have laws that protect marine resources in their area (98%). Only 2% said it is not important. But of those respondents who believe that it is important to have laws to protect the marine environment, 96.9% do not know about punishment for breaking the present laws and only 3.1% do know about the punishment. Of those who are aware on the presence of punishment, 72.2% said they strongly agree with the punishment, 11.1% said agree somewhat, 11.1% did not mention their opinion, and 5.6% mentioned disagreement.

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D. Flagship Species and Slogan D.1. TARGET GROUP 60.87% of those respondents interviewed chose Komodo Dragon as the character which represent their area, 27.27% choose Manta Rays, and 3.95% choose Napoleon Wrasse.

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Of those respondents who chose Komodo Dragon which represent their area mostly because they are proud of it (20.1%), source of income (8.4%), and it links to other animals (2.6%). While for Manta Rays, respondents choose it because they are proud of it (53.6%), source of income (4.3%), and link to other animals (1.4%).

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D.2. CONTROL GROUP 74% of those interviewed in control area chose Komodo Dragon as the character which represent their area, 12% choose Common Dolphin, and 10% chose Manta Rays.

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Of those respondents who chose Komodo Dragon, reason why choosing it mostly because of its famous (73%), only happen in Komodo area (67.6%), and because they are proud of it (43.2%). Common Dolphin; most frequent answer for why choosing it because they are proud of it (66.7%) and its beautifulness (80%). While for Manta Rays; respondents in control area chose it because they are proud of it and Manta Rays is beautiful creatures.

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Flagship Species Manta Ray (Manta birostris, Dandorff 1798) Species Summary Kingdom: Phylum: Class: Sub-Class: Order: Family: Sub Family: Genus: Species: Common name: Local name:

Animalia Chordata Chondrythyes Elasmobranchii Rajiformes/Myliobatiformes Myliobatidae Mobulinae Manta birostris Manta ray, devil ray, devilfish, giant manta, sea devil, and skeete. Pari Manta, Manta Raksasa

Photograph by Steve Jones

Distribution The Manta ray inhabits temperate, tropical, and subtropical waters worldwide, between 35° N and 35° S latitudes. Occasionally this ray is observed as far north as New Jersey and San Diego. Other locations include the east coast of Africa, in the Gulf of Aden, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, as well as the Indo-Pacific. It occurs most often in near shore waters (mainly over-continental and insular shelves, but occasionally over deep water), near coral and rocky reefs.

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Behaviour The Manta ray swims by flapping its large pectoral fins, and is usually observed near the surface or in the mid-waters of reefs and lagoons. It sometimes migrates into temperate waters. Manta birostris sometimes swims in loose aggregations and spends considerable time near the surface. Mantas have been observed breaching, jumping clear of the water and returning with a splash. Three types of jumps have been observed: forward jumps landing head first, forward jumps landing tail first, and somersaulting. Groups of these animals have been seen participating in this behaviour, breaching one after the other. While it is not understood why this behaviour is exhibited, some speculate it may play a role in attracting mates or is a form of play.

Biology Adults are easily recognized by their large triangular pectoral fins and projecting cephalic fins, forward extensions of the pectoral fins that project anteriorly on either side of the head. Each cephalic fin is about twice as long as its base is wide. The length of each cephalic lobe, from tip to the mouth, is 14% of the disc width. They are rolled like spirals when swimming and flattened when eating. This ray has smooth skin, a broad, rectangular terminal mouth located at the front of the head, and a tail that lacks a spine.

Dorsal (A) and Ventral (B) view of juvenile male (Source: http://www.elasmo-research.org/index.html)

The mouth is in the terminal location. The spiracles and the eyes are located laterally, while the gills are located ventrally. The disc is 2.2 times wider than it is long, not including the cephalic lobes. The tail from cloaca to tip is as long as the cloaca to the front of head. The tail is slightly flattened and is shorter than disc width. The head is slightly concave between the cephalic lobes, thereby forming a shallow triangular cavity anteriorly. The head region also forms a crest from nape to should but is otherwise flat. M. birostris has a dorsal fin that is located just anterior of the pectoral axis. The height of the dorsal fin is 83% of its base length. The base of the dorsal fins is 34% as long as the mouth is wide.

Size Manta rays can achieve a maximum disc width of 29.5 feet (9 m), with an average width of about 22 feet (6.7m). The largest specimens of the manta weigh up to 3,000 pounds (1350 kg). Estimated life span for these giants is approximately 20 years.

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Reproduction Males reach maturity at a disc width of at least 13 feet (4 meters) while females mature at a disc width of 16.5 feet (5 meters). During copulation male rays bite the pectoral fins of the females before aligning themselves, abdomen to abdomen, inserting one clasper into the female’s cloaca. Manta rays reproduce by ovoviviparity with the birth of one pup during a breeding season. Embryos have been shown to reach 50 inches in disc width and weigh 20 lbs. or more. Parturition occurs in relatively shallow water where the young remain for a few years prior to expanding their range offshore.

Manta Rays in Komodo National Park There has been a manta ray tagging program done by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and Pfleger Institute of Environmental Research (PIER). Twenty-three manta rays were tagged to find out their movement pattern in the Park (PIER and TNC, 2001). Five main locations for Manta migration in Komodo National Park have been identified: Tatawa Kecil island, Padar Kecil island, Karang Makassar, Manta Alleys, and German Flag.

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Revised Concept Model Global Climate Change Drought No conservation education subject in formal education

Forest Fire

(Lack of) Law Awareness

Information Access

Poaching and Illegal Extraction of Natural Resources

Tradition

Terrestrial Ecosystem

(Lack of) Socialization of KNP

(Low) Human Resource Capacity (Lack of) education facility and infrastructure

(Lack of) Conservation Awareness Money Oriented Mentality

Market Demand

Overfishing

Komodo National Park Biodiversity

Destructive fishing techniques

Marine Ecosystem

Population Growth

Poverty

Inter Marriage

Legend:

Direct Factor

Komodo National Park

Demand for basic need

Outside Fisher

Economic Need

(Lack of) Fish Predator

Crown of Thorn

(Lack of) Alternative Livelihood

Indirect Factor

Contributing Factor

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Revised Concept Model Narrative Komodo National Park (KNP) has relatively abundant marine resources. This has led fishers, who live inside and adjacent to the Park, to come to catch the fish and other marine resources in the park. Not only has fish catch decreased (caused by destructive fishing techniques such as bomb and cyanide, and overfishing), in some other places around the Park, many outside fishers also have been trying to stay inside the Park and get resident status by marrying local community members who settled in four settlements in the Park (inter marriage). It is not surprising to know that the population inside the Park has grown drastically, about 1000% in the last 50 years. In sub-district Komodo, education facilities and infrastructure are still low. The number of teachers and teaching materials are not in balance with the need of education. The education level of people living in the Park and surrounding area is mostly elementary school. Lack of education has caused people to have less chance to develop their capacity; as a result they do not have various decent jobs. This has brought about them living in poverty. Poverty and lack of education have put people living in the Park in a vicious circle: they extract park resources in unsustainable ways but are getting poorer so that they extract in more unsustainable ways. The local community who lives inside and in the surrounding area of KNP has a low level of awareness about KNP marine resources. Lack of dissemination of information on current marine resource and biodiversity in the park to the communities is believed as one factor that leads to the low level of conservation awareness. Tourism activities are also considered to be a factor that contributes to the degradation of park resources mostly through waste produced and irresponsible snorkelling and diving activities. It might happen because of lack of conservation awareness and lack of understanding of the importance of park resources. For example, anchoring in some areas has destructed coral reef ecosystem in the Park. Lack of alternative livelihood is also one reason that drives local community to practice coral mining for the purpose of money, housing, and constructing beach barriers; using inappropriate fishing gear such as purse seine in the area of less than 3 miles from the lowest tide lines (overfishing); using destructive technique to get fish as much as they can regardless its sustainability. The terrestrial ecosystem is threatened mostly from both natural and human-caused forest fire. In many cases, setting of fire is a common trick to cheat rangers, so poachers can flee from them. Human–caused forest fire is normally a side impact of poaching and illegal extraction of natural resources. In addition, harvesting fruits from the Park has also been done for years by local and non-local community every low tide and half moon cycle. They also cut the woods for their housing material. Land ownership in the Park is still a hot issue raised by local residents. It is occurring because some people claim over a piece of land that had already been declared as part of KNP. There is also local perception that the trees that had been planted by their ancestors could be harvested for their own needs. Lack of awareness of laws in the Komodo area might be due to a few reasons: people are not well informed about existing laws and regulations which are effective in the Park; many law enforcement officers themselves still have no clear understanding about the content of existing law; and people argue about the existing zoning system which they perceived as a Park product that local communities were never involved in designing.

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Work Plan GOAL: To protect the marine biodiversity of Komodo National Park by reducing destructive fishing practices in order to benefit both the Park’s plant and animal life, and the people for now and for future generations. SUB-GOAL 1: Through educating fishermen, housewives and fish traders in four villages inside and surrounding the Park which are Komodo, Papagaran, Pasir Putih, and Warloka, fishermen will be more conscious about allowable and sustainable fishing techniques, law/regulation, and the importance of conserving marine ecosystems in Komodo National Park as World Heritage Site. After completion of the program in October 2004, the fishing community will actively participate in various activities reducing threat to marine ecosystems. OBJECTIVE (01): By the end of October 2004, 35% (up from 14%) of fisherman in 5 communities will have knowledge on condition of KNP Marine environment and be able to state at least two relationships between the health of marine ecosystems and fisheries resources. Refer to Question number 6 and 20 on Community Survey Questionnaire. FACTOR IN CONCEPTUAL MODEL TARGETED BY THE OBJECTIVE: Lack of conservation awareness. PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS: 1. The questionnaire survey accurately reflects that within the target population, only 14% of fisherman could mention that marine condition in KNP is getting better. UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS: 1. Providing real and accurate data on the relationship between marine ecosystems and fisheries resources in KNP will lead to significant change of knowledge of those people who got exposed to the messages. 2. People will support conservation efforts if they understand the benefits for their lives and they feel that the objective will ultimately benefit them. 3. People tend to believe things/results which they can see in reality. 4. Using the different approach of the Pride Methodology, people’s attention can be captured and they will become involved in the project. ACTIVITY-1 (A1): VILLAGE VISIT Conduct community outreach activities in four villages, by hosting discussion with fishermen group in community and also presenting the biological monitoring survey result in Komodo National Park for the last 10 years. •



Why do this activity? In order to inform the fishermen about the current condition of marine resource in the park, the relationship between the health of marine ecosystem with fisheries resources, and informing the impact of destructive fishing practice to the environment. How will this activity be carried out? Project counterpart Hesti Widiastuti Widodo will visit 5 target sites to run 45 minutes community discussion with 20 minutes presentation of biology monitoring data. In the first round of village visit before the discussion start, Hesti Widodo will ask attendee to answer the question: What is the relationship between the health of marine ecosystem with fisheries resources?

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• • • • • • •

Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Fishermen and fish traders in four target villages. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka (Four target villages = 5 sub-villages). When will this activity take place? March - April, July – August 2004 Assumptions: That community outreach activities that involve community members face to face, are an effective way of ensuring participation, generating discussion and increasing levels of knowledge. Pre-requisites: Permit from Head of KNP, permit from Head of Sub-District Komodo, permit from Head of Villages, KNP Biology Monitoring 10 years data result, Boat Data (number of boat operated in KNP), Coral Reef Flip Chart, Video Cassette. Monitor: o What (Indicators): Percentage of fishermen who demonstrate understanding of the relationship between marine environment and fisheries resources and able to state at least two relationships. o How (Method and Task): Survey; develop pre and post test questionnaire, administer questionnaire to target community and control, compare post survey with initial survey.

ACTIVITY-2 (A2): MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL BOOKLET The production and distribution of environmental booklet in two languages (Bahasa and Bajo). This booklet will contain accurate reference of KNP marine resources and best practices relating to KNP resource use. •



• • • • • • •

Why do this activity? Marine environmental booklet with concise information and informative pictures will serve as reference with accurate information, and fishermen will have guidance on doing their fishing activities in ways that do not disturb marine ecosystems. How will this activity be carried out? Compile research result of KNP marine biodiversity and regulations, design and print the booklet with catchy and interesting layout for 2000 pieces booklets (each 1000 piece), distribute to fishermen community. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Fishermen in four target villages. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Production in February 2004 and distribute in May, July, and September 2004 Assumptions: That marine environmental booklet will be an attractive media to convey conservation messages. It will be easier to understand about best practice guidelines. Pre-requisites: support from fisheries ecologists, data available, picture and/or photograph available, translator, printing agency. Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Percentage of fishermen who demonstrate understanding on KNP marine resources and friendly fishing practice. o How (Method and Task): Survey using questionnaire for pre and post test.

ACTIVITY-3 (A3): ENVIRONMENTAL QUIZ Run environmental quizzes in each village to encourage more fishermen to get involved in learning about the marine environment and to attract more attention from community in general. This quiz will have questions which relates to sustainable fishing practices and

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gears, knowledge on marine ecosystems, world heritage site, and alternative way to support marine conservation program. •



• • • • •

• •

Why do this activity? Quizzes are fun, not only testing knowledge which fishermen have already learned before but also attract other people to also learn about the environment through the activity. A reward system of the quizzes will bring pride to the winner. How will this activity be carried out? (1) Create questions that relates to KNP marine biodiversity and research result; relationship between marine ecosystems and fisheries resource; and the benefit of protecting natural value of the Park, (2) select 30 questions; contain 15 general questions and 5 final questions, (3) run the quiz in the fourth month of project time. The winner from every village will compete on final quiz in the sixth month. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo with support from Park technician and conservation cadres representative from each village. Who will this activity target? Fishermen in 5 communities. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? July and September 2004. Assumptions: Conservation Education Campaign program has already been started for four months, fishermen have learned about KNP marine biodiversity and conservation efforts. That quizzes will drive participants to learn more to win the competition. Pre-requisites: data available, panel of judges available, presents from local sponsor available for prizes. Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Participants demonstrate confidence on talking about marine conservation efforts in KNP. o How (Method and Task): Number of Quiz’s participants and number of questions that participants can answers correctly which relates to KNP as World Heritage Site, the importance of marine ecosystems to fisheries resources, and understanding on laws/regulations implemented in KNP.

ACTIVITY-4 (A4): BUMPER STICKERS Production and distribution of catchy bumper stickers to raise public interest and awareness on flagship species, and key conservation message. • • • • • • • •

Why do this activity? To spread out the conservation messages, reminding effect to wider audience How will this activity be carried out? Work with local artists in drawing flagship picture, 1,000 will be printed and distributed in four target villages. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo work with local artists and Don Bason-TNC. Who will this activity target? General public particularly fishermen in five communities. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka (in public areas). When will this activity take place? Production in February 2004 and distribute in April, June, August, and September 2004. Assumptions: Stickers will be a good media for delivering conservation messages. Pre-requisites: (local) artists to draw flagship species, printing company.

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OBJECTIVE (02): By the end of October 2004, at least one fisherman conservation group existed in target communities. FACTOR IN CONCEPTUAL MODEL TARGETED BY THE OBJECTIVE: Lack of conservation awareness. PROJECT ASSUMPTION: 1. Providing real and accurate data on marine ecosystem in Komodo National Park will lead people to be more concern to their environment and their fisheries resource. UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS: 1. People will support conservation efforts if they understand the benefits for their life and they feel that the object is part of their need. 2. People tend to believe things/results which they can see in reality. 3. Different approach should be implemented to attract people’s attention and involvement. ACTIVITY-1 (A1): VILLAGE VISIT Conduct community outreach activities in four villages, by hosting discussion with fishermen group in community and also presenting the biological monitoring survey result in Komodo National Park for the last 10 years. Through this meeting Project Counterpart (Hesti Widodo) will solicit opportunity for fishermen in community of forming fisherman conservation group to actively participate and run conservation awareness activities in their villages (Incorporated with A1-O(01)-SG1). •



• • • • • • •

Why do this activity? In order to inform the fishermen about the current condition of marine resource in the park, the relationship between the health of marine ecosystem with fisheries resources, and informing the impact of destructive fishing practice to the environment. How will this activity be carried out? Project counterpart Hesti Widiastuti Widodo will visit 5 target sites to run 45 minutes community discussion with 20 minutes presentation of biology monitoring data. During the discussion Hesti Widodo will bring the idea of self – initiative conservation efforts in village (conservation group). Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Fishermen and fish traders in four target villages. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka (Four target villages = 5 sub-villages). When will this activity take place? March - April, July – August 2004 Assumptions: That community outreach activities that involve community members face to face, are an effective way of ensuring participation, generating discussion and increasing levels of knowledge. Pre-requisites: Permit from Head of KNP, permit from Head of Sub-District Komodo, permit from Head of Villages, KNP Biology Monitoring 10 years data result, Boat Data (number of boat operated in KNP), Coral Reef Flip Chart, Video Cassette. Monitor: o What (Indicators): Number of fisherman group formed in target communities. o How (Method and Task): Count group number and group member.

ACTIVITY-2 (A2): MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL BOOKLET The production and distribution of environmental booklet in two languages (Bahasa and Bajo). This booklet will contain accurate reference of KNP marine resources and best practices relating to KNP resource use (Incorporated with A2-O(01)-SG1).

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• • • • • • •

Why do this activity? Marine environmental booklet with concise information and informative pictures will serve as reference with accurate information, and fishermen will have guidance on doing their fishing activities in ways that do not disturb marine ecosystems. Through reading the booklet, fishermen will be attracted to support conservation effort by actively participate in conservation awareness activities and have initiative to form fishermen conservation group. How will this activity be carried out? Compile research result of KNP marine biodiversity and regulations, design and print the booklet with catchy and interesting layout for 2000 pieces booklets (each 1000 piece), distribute to fishermen community. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Fishermen in four target villages. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Production in February 2004 and distribute in May, July, and September 2004 Assumptions: That marine environmental booklet will be an attractive media to convey conservation messages. It will be easier to understand about best practice guidelines. Pre-requisites: support from fisheries ecologists, data available, picture and/or photograph available, translator, printing agency. Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Percentage of fishermen who demonstrate understanding on KNP marine resources and friendly fishing practice. o How (Method and Task): Survey using questionnaire for pre and post test.

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GOAL: To protect the marine biodiversity of Komodo National Park by reducing destructive fishing practices in order to benefit both the Park’s plant and animal life, and the people for now and for future generations. OBJECTIVE (03): By the end of October 2004, 25% (up from 6.38%) of housewives in 5 communities will have knowledge on KNP marine environment condition and had participated in at least two conservation activities within the previous 6 months. Refer to Question number 6 and 20, 6 and 31 on Community Survey Questionnaire. FACTOR IN CONCEPTUAL MODEL TARGETED BY THE OBJECTIVE: Lack of conservation awareness. PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS: 1. The survey accurately reflects that within target communities 6.38% housewives are able to mention that the health KNP marine environment is getting better. 2. The questionnaire survey accurately reflects that within target communities 76.60% of respondents who said that damaging marine ecosystem will influence fisheries resource are housewives. UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS: 1. Women are in general more aware of conservation than men and women can play a pivotal role to convey and transfer environmental messages within their family (husbands and kids) and environment so by increasing housewives' understanding of conservation and sustainable development will eventually influence the changing behaviour of their community. 2. Providing real and accurate data on marine ecosystems in KNP will lead to significant change of knowledge of those people who got exposed to the messages. 3. People will support conservation efforts if they understand the benefits for their lives and they feel that the objective will ultimately benefit them. 4. People tend to believe things/results which they can see in reality. 5. Using the different approach of the Pride Methodology, people’s attention can be captured and they will become involved in the project. ACTIVITY-1 (A1): SERMON SHEET PRODUCTION Production and distribution of sermon sheet within women religious meeting event to evoke religious aspect in the importance of protecting marine environment from religious perspective and the benefit for local community. The sermon sheet for women group will emphasize on women role in conserving the nature, how to get involve in conservation awareness activities, and how they can help the nature. • •



Why do this activity? In order to educate women community especially housewives to understand the impact of gleaning the reefs and other unsustainable extractive activities to marine environment and fishing results. How will this activity be carried out? Baseline data will be gathered from focus group discussion with specific housewives target group. Hesti will work together with religious leader in the area to design sermon sheet which tailored for women audiences. The sermon sheet will be distributed in religious events and women group meeting. Five hundreds (500) pieces of sermon will be produced for this activity. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo.

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• • • • • •

Who will this activity target? Housewives in 5 target communities. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Production in March 2004, distribute in May, June, October 2004 Assumptions: People tend to have faith in religious aspect and trust the religious leader. Pre-requisites: KNP Biology Monitoring 10 years data result, Boat Data (number of boat operated in KNP), Holy Qur’an verse (CD), support from imam/ustadz in village. Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Production of 500 sermon sheets. o How (Method and Task): Count the number sermon sheets produce

ACTIVITY-2 (A2): WOMEN’S MEETING Facilitating women group meeting to talk and discuss about KNP marine resource, threats to marine environment, and current conservation issues. The meeting will emphasize more on how women group can participate in conservation awareness activities, the benefits and the barriers, and also how to eliminate the barriers to support conservation efforts. •

• • • • • • • •

Why do this activity? Women in KNP area are also active player of reef gleaning activity. Meanwhile, they also have ability to influence their family’s decision making process. This activity will let women community to have courage to talk more to their family and deliver conservation messages in daily life. How will this activity be carried out? Work with existing women group leader and wives of Head Sub-District and village leader to run the meeting. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Women in target area. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? May, July, September 2004 Assumptions: That by hearing about how the Holy Qur’an promotes environmental messages, women will give greater support to protect the environment. Pre-requisites: Sermon sheets, Coral reef flipchart, Environmental Booklet, Approval from village leader, village representatives (BPD) and head of sub-district to run the meeting in village. Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Percentage of housewives who participate in the meeting and percentage of housewives who have confidence in participating conservation awareness activities in villages such as attending discussion on meeting series, beach clean-up, and recycle product. o How (Method and Task): Survey using questionnaire for pre and post test (Cross tab data between occupation and conservation awareness activity involvement).

ACTIVITY-3 (A3): CAKE COMPETITION Manta Rays – shape cake competition. • •

Why do this activity? To attract more attention from women in the community to know about flagship species and the importance to marine ecosystems, to encourage excitement of women group to involve in conservation awareness activities. How will this activity be carried out? Before the competition started, Manta Rays fact sheet and posters will be distributed. The participant should be in group, each 35 people. Maximum 10 groups compete. Project counterpart will work with the wife

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• • • • • • •

of Head of Sub-District Komodo and culinary teacher from Tourism School in Labuan Bajo. The criteria to win the competition are participants’ understanding on KNP marine biodiversity, sustainable fishing practices, and relationship between Manta Rays and health environment. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Women group in target village. Where will this activity take place? Papagaran When will this activity take place? August 2004 Assumptions: That by engaging women in this fun activity, the flagship species will be discussed, more likely to understand the relationship between flagship species and the health of marine ecosystems and is more likely to promote positive actions. Pre-requisites: Announcement for the competition, cake materials, support and/or sponsor from local business sector (hotel or tour operators) for prizes, poster and fact sheet as well as support from culinary teacher. Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Percentage of housewives who have confidence in participating conservation awareness activities. Number of participants. o How (Method and Task): Survey using questionnaire for pre and post test (Cross tab data between occupation and conservation awareness activity involvement).

OBJECTIVE (04): By the end of October 2003, at least one woman conservation group esisted in target communities. FACTOR IN CONCEPTUAL MODEL TARGETED BY THE OBJECTIVE: Lack of conservation awareness. PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS: 1. Providing real and accurate data on marine ecosystems in KNP will lead to significant change of knowledge of those people who got exposed to the messages. UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS: 1. If people understand the importance of marine ecosystems to fisheries resources and benefit for their live, people tend to take action to protect their environment. 2. Women has strong relation with extractive activity to provide food and prepare family need, influencing them will help conservation efforts to strengthen conservation messages. ACTIVITY-1 (A1): SERMON SHEET PRODUCTION Production and distribution of sermon sheet within women religious meeting event to evoke religious aspect in the importance of protecting marine environment from religious perspective and the benefit for local community. The sermon sheet for women group will emphasize on women role in conserving the nature, how to get involve in conservation awareness activities, and how they can help the nature (incorporated with A1-O3-SG1). • •

Why do this activity? In order to educate women community especially housewives to understand the impact of gleaning the reefs and other unsustainable extractive activities to marine environment and fishing results. How will this activity be carried out? Baseline data will be gathered from focus group discussion with specific housewives target group. Hesti will work together with religious leader in the area to design sermon sheet which tailored for women

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• • • • • • •

audiences. The sermon sheet will be distributed in religious events and women group meeting. Five hundreds (500) pieces of sermon will be produced for this activity. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Housewives in 5 target communities. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Production in March 2004, distribute in May, June, October 2004 Assumptions: People tend to have faith in religious aspect and trust the religious leader. Pre-requisites: KNP Biology Monitoring 10 years data result, Boat Data (number of boat operated in KNP), Holy Qur’an verse (CD), support from imam/ustadz in village. Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Production of 500 sermon sheets. o How (Method and Task): Count the number sermon sheets produce

ACTIVITY-2 (A2): WOMEN’S MEETING Facilitating women group meeting to talk and discuss about KNP marine resource, threats to marine environment, and current conservation issues. The meeting will emphasize more on how women group can participate in conservation awareness activities, the benefits and the barriers, and also how to eliminate the barriers to support conservation efforts (Incorporate with A2-O3-SG1). Through this meeting, Project Counterpart-Hesti Widodo will bring the discussion into self motivated women conservation group initiative. • Why do this activity? Women in KNP area are also active player of reef gleaning activity. Meanwhile, they also have ability to influence their family’s decision making process. This activity will let women community to have courage to talk more to their family and deliver conservation messages in daily life. By giving information about how to run conservation activities participatorily in village will help them in forming a conservation group. • How will this activity be carried out? Work with existing women group leader and wives of Head Sub-District and village leader to run the meeting and have discussion on participatory activities. • Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. • Who will this activity target? Women in target area. • Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. • When will this activity take place? May, July, September 2004 • Assumptions: That by hearing about how the Holy Qur’an promotes environmental messages, women will give greater support to protect the environment. • Pre-requisites: Sermon sheets, Coral reef flipchart, Environmental Booklet, Approval from village leader, village representatives (BPD) and head of sub-district to run the meeting in village. • Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Percentage of housewives who participate in the meeting and percentage of housewives who have confidence in participating conservation awareness activities in villages such as attending discussion on meeting series, beach clean-up, and recycle product. o How (Method and Task): Survey using questionnaire for pre and post test (Cross tab data between occupation and conservation awareness activity involvement).

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ACTIVITY-3 (A3): CAKE COMPETITION Manta Rays – shape cake competition. •



• • • • • • •

Why do this activity? To attract more attention from women in the community to know about flagship species and the importance to marine ecosystems, to encourage excitement of women group to involve in conservation awareness activities. Having the women group for cake competition can be as basic step to form women conservation group in target villages. How will this activity be carried out? Before the competition started, Manta Rays fact sheet and posters will be distributed. The participant should be in group, each 35 people. Maximum 10 groups compete. Project counterpart will work with the wife of Head of Sub-District Komodo and culinary teacher from Tourism School in Labuan Bajo. The criteria to win the competition are participants’ understanding on KNP marine biodiversity, sustainable fishing practices, and relationship between Manta Rays and health environment. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Women group in target village. Where will this activity take place? Papagaran When will this activity take place? August 2004 Assumptions: That by engaging women in this fun activity, the flagship species will be discussed, more likely to understand the relationship between flagship species and the health of marine ecosystems and is more likely to promote positive actions. Pre-requisites: Announcement for the competition, cake materials, support and/or sponsor from local business sector (hotel or tour operators) for prizes, poster and fact sheet as well as support from culinary teacher. Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Percentage of housewives who have confidence in participating conservation awareness activities. Number of participants. o How (Method and Task): Survey using questionnaire for pre and post test (Cross tab data between occupation and conservation awareness activity involvement).

Deleted: ¶

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GOAL: To protect the marine biodiversity of Komodo National Park by reducing destructive fishing practices in order to benefit both the Park’s plant and animal life, and the people for now and for future generations. OBJECTIVE (05): By the end of October 2004, 85% of fish traders (up from 66.67%) in target areas will understand the importance of conserving KNP marine ecosystem and its relationship with fisheries resource and 60% of fish traders (up from 33.33%) in target areas will agree that it is important to have punishment of the law protecting KNP marine environment. Refer to Question No.6 and No.25, Question No.6 and No.14. FACTOR IN CONCEPTUAL MODEL TARGETED BY THE OBJECTIVE: Lack of conservation awareness and lack of law awareness. PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS: 1. Survey showed that 20.55% of respondents still unsure about the relationship between the health of marine environment and fisheries resources. 2. Survey result showed that 33.33% of fish traders in target areas are strongly disagree to the punishment of the law protecting KNP marine environment. UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS: 1. Providing real and accurate data on marine ecosystems in KNP will lead to significant change of knowledge of those people who got exposed to the messages. 2. People will support conservation efforts if they understand the benefits for their lives and they feel that the objective will ultimately benefit them. 3. People tend to believe things/results which they can see in reality. 4. Using the different approach of the Pride Methodology, people’s attention can be captured and they will become involved in the project. ACTIVITY-1 (A1): POPULAR SONG Producing and airing Dangdut and Pop songs to strengthen key messages of the importance of conserving marine ecosystems and its relation with benefit for local community, specifically pride as world heritage site. • • • • • • •

Why do this activity? To strengthen key messages and attract more attention from general public to conserve KNP marine ecosystems in fun way. How will this activity be carried out? Work with local artists in composing the lyrics, creating a song, finding local band to create popular campaign song. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo working with local artists, recording studio, and radio stations in Makassar – South Sulawesi (RRI Makassar). Who will this activity target? General public particularly fish traders in five communities and surrounding area. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Produce in February-March 2004 and airing in May-September 2004. Assumptions: People mostly love to hear music; song can influence people thought/mood in under conscious mode. Fish traders have radio in their house and they will listen to the radio. Radio Station in Makassar is willing to support this activity.

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Pre-requisites: recording studio gathered local band, cassette and CD-R, marine fact sheet, support from radio stations.

ACTIVITY-2 (A2): POSTER Production and distribution of catchy-informative posters to raise public interest and awareness on flagship species, habitats, and alternative livelihood. • • • • • • • •

Why do this activity? To educate public about the presence of flagship species in Komodo National Park marine environment, link to habitat, and as ecotourism object. How will this activity be carried out? Work with local artists in drawing flagship picture, 600 posters will be printed and distributed in five communities. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo work with local artists and Don Bason-TNC. Who will this activity target? General public particularly fish traders in five communities. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka (in public areas). When will this activity take place? Production in February 2004 and distribute in April, June, August, and September 2004. Assumptions: Posters will be a good media for delivering conservation messages. Pre-requisites: (local) artists to draw flagship species, printing company.

ACTIVITY-3 (A3): BILLBOARDS Production and placement at least two billboards in target area. Using the picture of flagship with nice-catchy colours and written campaign message, the billboard will attract general public interest. • • • • • • • •

Why do this activity? To reinforce conservation messages to general public. How will this activity be carried out? Work with local artists in drawing billboard, billboard will be placed in two target villages main entrance. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo with support from conservation cadres in target villages. Who will this activity target? General public in four target villages. Where will this activity take place? Komodo and Papagaran if possible also in Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Production in April 2004, place in May 2004. Assumptions: That billboard will reinforce conservation messages. Pre-requisites: (local) artists, key conservation messages, approval from head of village and head of Park, billboard materials and painting.

ACTIVITY-4 (A4): FACT SHEET Production and distribution of KNP biodiversity and flagship species fact sheet to introduce or better known about Manta Rays, its role in marine ecosystems, and strengthen the messages of sustainable fishing practices. • •

Why do this activity? To let people accurately understand about one important marine species which exist in Komodo National Park, World Heritage Site other than only Komodo Dragon, link the Manta Rays role in ecosystem with best practices. How will this activity be carried out? Project counterpart will work with Manta Rays ecologist to get accurate information of biological aspect, status, population, and role in marine ecosystems. One thousand (1,000) fact sheet will be distributed in every outreach activity (discussion and meeting) mainly in campaign activities and postcampaign activities.

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• • • • • •

Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? General public, especially fisher and fish trader. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Produce in February-March 2004 and distribute in April 2004. Assumptions: Through reading the fact sheet, people will get accurate information about KNP and marine species threatened. Pre-requisites: support from manta rays scientist gathered, support from photographers gathered, sponsorship from government or private sector, literatures, Manta Rays picture and painting, printing company.

ACTIVITY-5 (A5): MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL BOOKLET The production and distribution of environmental booklet in two languages (Bahasa and Bajo). This booklet will contain accurate reference of KNP marine resources and best practices relating to KNP resource use. •



• • • • • •

Why do this activity? Marine environmental booklet with concise information and informative pictures will serve as reference with accurate information, and fishermen will have guidance on doing their fishing activities in ways that do not disturb marine ecosystems. How will this activity be carried out? Compile research result of KNP marine biodiversity and regulations, design and print the booklet with catchy and interesting layout for 2000 pieces booklets (each 1000 piece), distribute to fishermen and fish traders community. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Fishermen and fish traders in five communities. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Production in February 2004 and distribute in May, July, and September 2004 Assumptions: That marine environmental booklet will be an attractive media to convey conservation messages. It will be easier to understand about best practice guidelines. Pre-requisites: support from fisheries ecologists, data available, picture and/or photograph available, translator, printing agency.

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GOAL: To protect the marine biodiversity of Komodo National Park by reducing destructive fishing practices in order to benefit both the Park’s plant and animal life, and the people for now and for future generations. SUB GOAL - 2: Through educating school students about marine ecosystems, the relationship between marine ecosystems, and sustainable fishing techniques, after completion of the program, students understand about the link between the health of marine ecosystems and fisheries resources, and can be good conservation messenger to deliver conservation messages in community. OBJECTIVE (01): By the end of October 2004, a 25% considerable♣ increase in elementary students (up from % to be determined) in target areas understand the importance of conserving KNP marine ecosystem and its relationship with fisheries resource and can mention minimum two reasons for doing so. FACTOR IN CONCEPTUAL MODEL TARGETED BY THE OBJECTIVE: Lack of conservation awareness. PROJECT ASSUMPTIONS: 2. Providing real and accurate data on marine ecosystems in KNP will lead to significant change of knowledge of those people who got exposed to the messages. 3. Survey showed that x% of respondents still unsure about the relationship between the health of marine environment and fisheries resources. UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS: 4. People will support conservation efforts if they understand the benefits for their life and they feel that the object is part of their need. 5. People tend to believe things/results which they can see in reality. 6. Different approach should be implemented to attract people’s attention and involvement. 7. Students will be potential care taker of park resources in the future and building foundation of conservation awareness from the early stage of their education is very critical. ACTIVITY-1 (A1): SCHOOL SONG School song can attract student to learn more about the science of conserving KNP biodiversity, deliver conservation message under conscious condition, and reinforce key message to children in community. • • • •

Why do this activity? Students/children love to hear music and learn to sing a song, through conservation song they can learn easier about the relationship between health ecosystem with their live now and future. How will this activity be carried out? Work with local musician to compose school song, test the song to children in community, and finalizing the school song to be taught to student in target community. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo and musicians. Who will this activity target? Elementary students and teacher.



Students will carry out focus questionnaire prior to the school presentation and from here the baseline percentage increase can be determined.

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• • • •

Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Compose the school song in February 2004, test song in beginning of March 2004, finalize in March 2004, and use in school visit start from May 2004. Assumptions: Learning about environment in fun and entertaining way will attract more children’s attention, school holiday will start in the mid of June until mid of July 2004. Pre-requisites: song composer, key conservation messages, and musical device.

ACTIVITY-2 (A2): SCHOOL VISIT School visit to elementary school and speak to as many children as possible in target areas. The talks serve to introduce local children to flagship species, marine ecosystems, and the impact to fisheries resource. • •

• • • • • •

Why do this activity? To let school students understand well about KNP marine biodiversity and relationship with fisheries resource, and to disseminate information to their parents and friends. How will this activity be carried out? Work with authorization from Head of District West Manggarai National Education Department (Dinas Pendidikan Nasional) to visit all elementary school in target areas. Each visit will have 1 hour duration contain 30 minutes presentation, 15 minutes practice song, 15 minutes fun quiz. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Elementary students and teacher. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Running from May – June 2004, August – October 2004. Assumptions: That this activity will help student learn about marine ecosystem and the issues, different style of learning let students to ask and discuss freely. Pre-requisites: visit approval, school/popular song, costume, badges.

ACTIVITY-3 (A3): COSTUME Manta Rays costume production and parade to encourage students to pay more attention to school visit activity • • • • • • •

Why do this activity? To attract more attention from school students and to introduce the flagship species which might be rarely seen by them as well as the key conservation messages. How will this activity be carried out? Project counterpart will design the costume and work together with local tailor to finish the costume making. A volunteers will wear it during the school visit. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Elementary school students in five communities. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Produce in February 2004 and parade in MayJune 2004, August-October 2004. Assumptions: That this activity will attract students to know more about marine species and costume parade will touch children’s feeling to be more conscious to their marine environment.

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Pre-requisites: Seamstress available, fabrics and material for costume gathered, approval from Head of School, volunteers provided.

ACTIVITY-4 (A4): PIN Manta Rays pin production to encourage excitement and curiosity of school students so they can participate actively in school visit. • • • • • • • •

Why do this activity? To encourage student to participate in school visit activity and promote pride (reward tool) to the students. How will this activity be carried out? Project counterpart will work with artist to design the badges, produce 500 pins, and distribute it to students who participate in conservation awareness activities. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Elementary school students in five target communities. Where will this activity take place? Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Produce in February 2004 and distribute in May – June 2004, August - October 2004. Assumptions: Children love to have small gift (reward) which can influence their emotion on conserving the species. Pre-requisites: Good quality of pin design material, match colour and shape of pin design, production done by the time it should be distributed.

ACTIVITY-5 (A5): ENVIRONMENTAL NEWS-SHEETS Production and distribution of two environmental news-sheets to furnish school children with follow up activities. The environmental news sheet can be used as material to send to school children and teachers. • •

• • • • • •

Why do this activity? To let student accurately understand about marine ecosystems and conservation efforts in KNP, the function of marine ecosystems to fisheries resource. How will this activity be carried out? Project counterpart will coordinate, collect and facilitate the printing process of the written articles/story/quotes and/or comic made by teachers or students in the area. Per edition five hundreds (500) newssheets will be produced. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Elementary school students in five target communities. Where will this activity take place? Elementary school in Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Production in April 2004 and July 2004; distribute in May 2004 and August 2004. Assumptions: The more information that children got, the more conscious they will become. People tend to be more interested in locally based conservation experience. Pre-requisites: articles/comics/quotes made by teacher, students, and local villagers; printing agency.

ACTIVITY-6 (A6): ART COMPETITION Art competition for school students as a creative way to express the children understanding and perception toward KNP as world heritage site and its threats. Komodo National Park

69

• •

• • • • • •

Why do this activity? To reinforce key messages to school students, evaluate perception and impression to their environment, and to stimulate spirit to care more to marine and fisheries resource. How will this activity be carried out? (1) Announcement of competition in Village Meeting Room, School Board, and leaflet (2) Teacher will serve as motivator for students in each school and responsible for collecting the artwork of their school, (3) the jury will consist of Head of KNP, teacher, member of local NGO, member of Conservation Cadres, and one person from tourism sector, (4) solicit private sector or government sponsorship for prizes, (5) the winner’s art work will be framed and put in strategic places (Komodo airport and other place). Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Elementary school student. Where will this activity take place? Elementary school in Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Solicit sponsorship in March 2004, announcement July 2004, competition in the beginning of August 2004, mark by Jury end of August and winner announcement September 2004. Assumptions: That people have natural emotion to compete and competition will trigger student to learn/study more about their environment. Pre-requisites: fact sheet, poster, drawing material, prizes.

ACTIVITY-7 (A7): PUPPET SHOW The production of puppet, putting on show of puppet theatre as a means of entertaining presentation for children audiences about the importance of conserving marine ecosystems (mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef) and its relationship with fisheries resource, and how they can help to maintain their environment in balance condition using Manta Rays puppet as puppet star. • •

• • • • • •

Why do this activity? Help the students learn and understand key messages, this can also encourage the students to participate in the campaign activities. How will this activity be carried out? (1) Invite conservation cadres representatives and local teacher representatives from target area for puppet show training, gather idea for puppet script, (2) Developing puppet script together with teachers and cadres, (3) First show will be done by cadres and teachers in target area, second show and the rest will be played by students with help from teachers and cadres. Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. Who will this activity target? Elementary school students and teachers. Where will this activity take place? Elementary school in Komodo, Papagaran, Seraya Besar, Messa, and Warloka. When will this activity take place? Training and puppet theatre preparation will be done in May 2004, puppet on show will be done in June, July, August 2004. Assumptions: Children love puppets/dolls and delivering messages through puppet show will bring under conscious impact to the children. Pre-requisites: fact sheet, puppet materials, costumes, script, backdrops, and the actors.

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GOAL: To protect the marine biodiversity of Komodo National Park by reducing destructive fishing practices in order to benefit both the Park’s plant and animal life, and the people for now and for future generations. SUB-GOAL 3: Through educating Komodo National Park elementary school teachers, they will become aware of KNP biodiversity, best fishing practices, threats to Park’s biodiversity, and gain confidence in supporting conservation efforts in KNP, for then KNP will see a reduction in unsustainable fishing practice. OBJECTIVE (01): By the end of October 2004, a 30% considerable♦ increase in elementary school teachers (up from % to be determined) will know the state of biodiversity in the Park, world heritage sites, at least three best fishing practices, threats to marine environment, the importance of protecting the site and they will be able to deliver these to the students. FACTOR IN CONCEPTUAL MODEL TARGETED BY THE OBJECTIVE: Lack of human resource capacity. PROJECT ASSUMPTION: 1. Result from stakeholder meeting showed that lack of conservation awareness was caused by lack of human resource capacity, related to education facility and infrastructure. Educate elementary school teachers will enhance their ability in delivering conservation messages and finally they will be able to encourage students to actively participate in conservation activities. UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS: 1. Providing real and accurate data on marine ecosystems in KNP will lead to significant change of knowledge of those people who got exposed to the messages. 2. People will support conservation efforts if they understand the benefits for their lives and they feel that the objective will ultimately benefit them. 3. People tend to believe things/results which they can see in reality. 4. Using the different approach of the Pride Methodology, people’s attention can be captured and they will become involved in the project. 5. Teachers play an important role to instill students in understanding of conservation and biodiversity values. ACTIVITY-1 (A1): TEACHING MATERIALS Production and development of teaching materials including fact sheets, activity sheets, and field trip guidelines on KNP biodiversity, world heritage sites, best fishing practices, threats to marine environments will help teachers in delivering conservation and biodiversity values. • Why do this activity? Teacher plays an important role in delivering messages to students, in this term we need teacher to convey conservation message more to the students through daily education activities. To be able to deliver conservation messages, teachers should have confidence for doing so. • How will this activity be carried out? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo, will provide during the meeting with teachers. • Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. ♦

Students will carry out focus questionnaire prior to teacher workshop and from here the baseline percentage can be determined.

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• • • • • •

Who will this activity target? Elementary school teachers in five target communities. Where will this activity take place? Warloka, Seraya Besar, Messa, Papagaran, and Komodo. When will this activity take place? June-July 2004. Assumptions: Currently there is no teaching materials that can be used by teachers to deliver conservation topics to the students. Pre-requisites: a teacher workshop takes place and teachers’ participation. Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Numbers of teachers who receive the teaching materials and know the key conservation messages. o How (Method and Task): Design questionnaire for teacher group that will be given prior to and after the teacher training.

ACTIVITY-2 (A2): TEACHERS WORKSHOP Teacher workshop will serve as forum in which teachers from five target communities will have an opportunity to be exposed to any information regarding KNP marine biodiversity, best practices, world heritage sites as well as tools on how to integrate the concept into class activities. • Why do this activity? Teacher plays an important role in delivering messages to students, in this term we need teacher to convey conservation message more to the students through daily education activities. To be able to deliver conservation messages, teachers should have confidence for doing so. • How will this activity be carried out? This is designed to be a two-day workshop where the first day will include informational materials while the second day will have interactive sessions in order to strengthen teachers’ knowledge and skills. • Who will be responsible for this activity? Project counterpart, Hesti Widiastuti Widodo. • Who will this activity target? Elementary school teachers of five target communities. • Where will this activity take place? Labuan Bajo. • When will this activity take place? July 2004. • Assumptions: Teachers are lacking skills and knowledge on marine conservation aspects. • Pre-requisites: Permission from Regional Office of National Education Department, Education Materials, Guest Speakers. • Monitoring: o What (Indicators): Numbers of teachers who attend this two-day teacher workshop. o How (Method and Task): Using the attendance record.

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Monitoring Plan GOAL: To protect the marine biodiversity of Komodo National Park by reducing destructive fishing practices in order to benefit both the Park’s plant and animal life, and the people for now and for future generations. Monitoring Strategy: Measure changes overtime of Komodo National Park marine biodiversity. What (indicators)

How (Method & Tasks)

When

Who

Where

Comments

Coral Coverage

Survey on 4 types of coral: 1. Hard Coral Live 2. Hard Coral Dead 3. Soft Coral 4. Rubbles Using same standards in 3 different depth (4, 8, 12 metres), 5 transect in every depth, and 4 minutes per transect.

Once within two years

Marine biologist (TNC and KNP staff)

Approximately 185 sites

If KCMI work on ground, this survey could be done in a way with regular monitoring biology activity.

Coral Mortality Index



Once every two years

Marine biologist (TNC and KNP Staff)

185 location

If funding existed.

Twice every month (full moon and new moon)

Marine biologists

12 location inside the Park

If funding existed.

Monitor coral coverage and count the percentage of dead coral and live coral. Compare result with previous survey result.



Fish Abundance

Survey on fish species and number, aggregation type, and monitor spawning aggregation sites (SPAGs)

SUB-GOAL 1: Through educating fishermen, housewives and fish traders in four villages inside and surrounding the Park which are Komodo, Papagaran, Pasir Putih, and Warloka, fishermen will be more conscious about allowable and sustainable fishing techniques, law/regulation, and the importance of conserving marine ecosystems in Komodo National Park as World Heritage Site. After completion of the program in October 2004, the fishing community will actively participate in various activities reducing threat to marine ecosystems. Monitoring Strategy: Measure changes overtime of resource use in the Park including fishing gear and catch. What (indicators)

How (Method & Tasks)

Percentage of fisher operates in sustainable manner

Monitor resource use in the Park through surveillance program

Every month

KNP Staffs

All patrol route

Surveillance program work on ground. Resource use map available.

Coral Mortality Index



Once every two years

Marine biologist (TNC and KNP

185 location

If funding existed.

Monitor coral coverage and

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When

Who

Where

Comments

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Fish Abundance

count the percentage of dead coral and live coral. Compare result with previous survey result.

Survey on fish species and number, aggregation type, and monitor spawning aggregation sites (SPAGs)

Staff)

Twice every month (full moon and new moon)

Marine biologists

12 location inside the Park

If funding existed.

OBJECTIVE (01): By the end of October 2004, 35% (up from 14%) of fisherman in 5 communities will have knowledge on condition of KNP Marine environment and be able to state at least two relationships between the health of marine ecosystems and fisheries resources. Monitoring strategy: Measure changes overtime of fishermen knowledge. What (indicators)

How (Method & Tasks)

Percentage of fisherman who demonstrate understanding on KNP marine environment condition and able to state at least two relationships between marine ecosystems and fisheries resource.

Survey: • Preparation • Administer questionnair e to fisher community • Analyze the survey result and compare with initial survey. Refer to question no.6 with 20. • Ability to state relationship will be measured from every discussion with fishermen before and after meeting, and from environmen tal quiz activity.

When October 2004 October 2004

Who Hesti Widodo Hesti Widodo and Enumerators

Where

Comments

Office Five target communities and one control village.

October 2004 Office Hesti Widodo

Activities: 1. Village visit 2. Marine Environmental Booklet 3. Environmental Quiz 4. Bumper Stickers

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OBJECTIVE (02): By the end of October 2004, at least one fishermen conservation group existed in target communities. Monitoring Strategy: Count the number of fishermen conservation group formed in target communities. What (indicators) Number of fishermen participating in group and number of group formed

How (Method & Tasks) List of attendance per activity and count group number

When End of October 2004

Who Hesti Widodo

Where

Comments

Target communities

Activities: 1. Village visit 2. Marine Environmental Booklet OBJECTIVE (03): By the end of October 2004, 25% (up from 6.38%) housewives in 5 communities will have knowledge on KNP marine environment condition and will be able to participate in at least two conservation activities. Monitoring Strategy: Measure changes overtime of women knowledge and participation. What (indicators)

How (Method & Tasks)

Percentage of housewives who demonstrate understanding on KNP marine environment condition knowledge on key conservation messages and participation in at least two conservation awareness activities.

Survey: • Survey Preparation • Administer questionnair e to fisher community • Analyze survey result and compare with initial survey. Refer to questionnair e survey questions no.6 and 20, and 31.

Number of housewives participating

List of attendance per activity

When

Who

Where

October 2004

Hesti Widodo

Office

October 2004

Hesti Widodo and Enumerators

Five target communities and one control village.

Hesti Widodo

Office

Hesti Widodo

Target communities

October 2004

May and July 2004

Comments

Activities: 1. Sermon Sheet Production 2. Women’s Meeting 3. Cake Competition

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OBJECTIVE (04): By the end of October 2004, at least one women conservation groups existed in target communities. Monitoring Strategy: Count the number of fishermen conservation group formed in target communities. What (indicators) Number of women participating in group and number of group formed

How (Method & Tasks) List of attendance per activity and count group number

When End of October 2004

Who Hesti Widodo

Where

Comments

Target communities

Activities: 1. Sermon Sheet Production 2. Women’s Meeting 3. Cake Competition OBJECTIVE (05): By the end of October 2004, 80% of fish traders (up from 66.67%) in target areas will understand the importance of conserving KNP marine ecosystem and its relationship with fisheries resource and 50% of fish traders (up from 33.33%) in target areas will understand the importance of punishment of the law protecting KNP marine environment. Monitoring Strategy: Measure changes overtime of fish trader knowledge and participation in conservation awareness activities. What (indicators)

How (Method & Tasks)

Percentage of fish trader who demonstrate understanding of the importance of conserving marine ecosystem, and percentage of fish traders who demonstrate understanding on the importance of punishment for breaking law protecting marine environment.

Survey: • Preparation • Administer questionnaire • Compare post survey result with initial survey. Refer to question no. 6 and 25; and question no. 6 and 14. •

When

Who

Where

October 2004

Hesti Widodo

Office

October 2004

Hesti Widodo and enumerators Hesti Widodo

Five target communities and control site Office

October 2004

Comments

Activities: 1. Popular Song 2. Poster 3. Billboards 4. Fact Sheet 5. Marine Environmental Booklet

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SUB-GOAL 2: Through educating school students about marine ecosystems, the relationship between marine ecosystems, and sustainable fishing techniques, after completion of the program, students understand about the link between the health of marine ecosystems and fisheries resources, and can be good conservation messenger to deliver conservation messages in community. Note: Monitoring Strategy for Sub Goal 2 refers to Sub Goal 1. OBJECTIVE (01): By the end of October 2004, a considerable♣ increase of elementary students in target areas understand the importance of conserving KNP marine ecosystem and its relationship with fisheries resource and can mention minimum two reasons for doing so. Monitoring Strategy: Measure changes overtime of elementary school children knowledge. What (indicators)

How (Method & Tasks)

Percentage of students who demonstrate understanding on link between the health of marine ecosystems and fisheries resources, importance of conserving the Park, and able to speak conservation messages to community.

Survey: • Develop pretest questionnaire • Administer questionnaire to elementary school students • Post-test and compare result with pre-test.

When

Who

Where

February 2004

Hesti Widodo Hesti Widodo

Target villages Office

April 2004

Hesti Widodo and Volunteers

Five elementary school in five target communities

October 2004

Hesti Widodo

Comments

Office

Activities: 1. School Song 2. School Visit 3. Costume 4. Pin 5. Environmental News-Sheet 6. Art Competition 7. Puppet Show



Students will carry out focus questionnaire prior to the school presentation and from here the percentage increase can be determine.

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SUB-GOAL 3: Through educating Komodo National Park elementary school teachers in the Park, they will become aware of KNP biodiversity, best fishing practices, threats to Park’s biodiversity, and gain confidence in supporting conservation efforts in KNP, for then KNP will see a reduction in unsustainable fishing practice. Monitoring Strategy: measure changes overtime of resource use monitoring in the park. What (indicators)

How (Method & Tasks)

Percentage of fisher operates in sustainable manner

Monitor resource use in the Park through surveillance program

Every month

KNP Staffs

All patrol route

Surveillance program work on ground. Resource use map available.

Coral Mortality Index



Monitor coral coverage and count the percentage of dead coral and live coral. Compare result with previous survey result.

Once every two years

Marine biologist (TNC and KNP Staff)

185 location

If funding existed.

Survey on fish species and number, aggregation type, and monitor spawning aggregation sites (SPAGs)

Twice every month (full moon and new moon)

Marine biologists

12 location inside the Park

If funding existed.



Fish Abundance

When

Who

Where

Comments

OBJECTIVE (01): By the end of October 2004, a 30% considerable♦ increase in elementary school teachers (up from % to be determined) will know the state of biodiversity in the Park, world heritage sites, at least three best fishing practices, threats to marine environment, the importance of protecting the site and they will be able to deliver these to the students. Monitoring Strategy: measure changes overtime of elementary school teachers’ knowledge. What (indicators) Numbers of teachers who receive the teaching materials and know the key conservation messages.

How (Method & Tasks) Survey: • Develop questionnaire for elementary school teachers • Distribute questionnaire before activities. • Distribute the same questionnaire at the end of activities, and compare the result with initial survey.

When June 2004

Who Hesti Widodo

Where

Comments

Office Labuan Bajo

Hesti Widodo July 2004

Labuan Bajo Hesti Widodo

July 2004

Labuan Bajo

Activities: 1. Teaching Materials Production 4. Teachers Workshop ♦

Students will carry out focus questionnaire prior to teacher workshop and from here the baseline percentage can be determined.

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Project Timeline Activity

PreProject

M-1

M-2

M-3

M-4

M-5

M-6

M-7

M-8

M-9

M-10

M-11

M-12

SepOct’03

Nov’03

Dec’03

Jan’04

Feb’04

Mar’04

Apr’04

May’04

Jun’04

Jul’04

Aug’04

Sep’04

Oct’04

D

D

Project Preparation 1. Literature Search 2. Stakeholder Analysis (Matrix) 3. Stakeholder Meeting I 4. Survey and Analysis 5. Stakeholder Meeting II 6. Complete Project Plan Project Implementation Press Release Village visit (Fishermen) Marine Environmental Booklet Production and Distribution

P

Environmental Quizzes Bumper Stickers

P

Sermon sheet production and distribution

P

Women meeting Cake competition Popular song production and recording Popular song airing Poster production and distribution

P

Fact sheet production and distribution

P

Komodo National Park

D P

D D

D

D

D

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Activity

PreProject

M-1

M-2

M-3

M-4

M-5

M-6

M-7

M-8

M-9

M-10

M-11

M-12

SepOct’03

Nov’03

Dec’03

Jan’04

Feb’04

Mar’04

Apr’04

May’04

Jun’04

Jul’04

Aug’04

Sep’04

Oct’04

C

C

D

D

D

D

D

P

D

Billboard Production and Placement School song School visits Costume

P

Pin Production and Distribution

P

Environmental News-Sheet

P

D

Art Competition (Announcement, Activities, and Winner Announcement)

A

Ac

WA

Puppet production and training Puppet Show Teaching Materials Production Teacher Workshop MONITORING Pre-Community Survey Pre+Post

Teachers Knowledge Survey Student Knowledge Survey

Pre

Post

Post-Community Survey

Note: P D C A

Production Distribution Compose Announcement

Komodo National Park

Ac WA Pre Post

Activities Winner Announcement Pre-Test Post-Test

Implementation Phase Pre-Project

80

References Margoluis R, and Salafsky N (1998). Measures of Success. Designing, Managing and Monitoring Conservation and Development Projects. Island Press Ministry of Forestry, The Nature Conservancy, Manggarai District Authority, Book 1, 2000: 25 Year Master Plan for Management of Komodo National Park. Ministry of Forestry, The Nature Conservancy, Manggarai District Authority, Book 2, 2000: 25 Year Master Plan for Management of Komodo National Park. Ministry of Forestry, The Nature Conservancy, Manggarai District Authority, Book 3, 2000: 25 Year Master Plan for Management of Komodo National Park. Monk, Fretes, Reksodiharjo-Lilley, 1997: The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku, Periplus. PIER & TNC 2001. Komodo Marine Park manta rays: acoustic tagging report (draft). Draft report from the Pfleger Institute of Environmental Research and The Nature Conservancy, Bali, Indonesia. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research website: http://www.elasmo-research.org/index.html Sub-District Komodo Population Report, 2003. UNESCO/UNEP/UNF/RARE/KNP, 2003. Komodo National Park Site Assessment Report.

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