Protocol Programming Protocol Implementation

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Protocol Implementation. ○ Stepwise refinement (transformation). Protocol spec. (such as CFSMs)→ code. ○ Automatic generation of program skeletons.
Protocol Programming Learn how to use UNIX socket interface to set up Inter-Process Communication (IPC) between processes in the network. Learn how to set up datagram and stream sockets. Learn how to fork child process for concurrent server processing. Learn how to set up time-out in UNIX and use select system call to listen to multiple inputs (from users, timer, and network). Learn how to implement a simple protocol -- alternating bit protocol. Introduction to Protocol Programming project: Design and implement a Multimedia Intelligent Network Service (MINS)

z z z z z z

which allows users without the knowledge of others’ whereabouts to communicate in “real-time” with text and graphics! References: “UNIX Network Programming,” by W. Richard Stevens, Prentice Hall, 1990 ISBN 0-13-949876-1. “An Introductory 4.4BSD Interprocess Communication Tutorial” http://wwwusers.cs.umn.edu/~bentlema/unix/ipc/ipctut.html; Advanced IPC tutorial, http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~bentlema/unix/advipc/ipc.html chow

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Protocol Implementation

z z z

Stepwise refinement (transformation) Protocol spec. (such as CFSMs)→ code Automatic generation of program skeletons Implementation choices —modular structure procedures, processes, protocol entities, management functions,... —interface between protocol layers * internal * accessible to “user” or other layers —error handling of peer entity, user, others —buffer management (passing msgs between layers) —use of inter-task communications libraries (e.g., unix domain socket) e.g. Berkeley Socket, system V Transport Layer Interface (TLI) on UNIX. WinSock on Window, ...

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UNIX Workstation Network Interface email FTP

SMTP

21

W3 Server

SNMP

25

161

2001

80

TCP

MINS Server

MINS Client1 Application Layer (4) SAP’s Ports

2003

Transport Layer

UDP

(3)SAP’s IP Network Layer

IP SAP: Service Access Point chow

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Relation to Message Formats of TCP/UDP/IP

data

16 bit TCP source port# 16 bit TCP dest. port#

TCP Header

data

IP TCP Header Header

data

Ethernet IP TCP Header Header Header

data

protocol=TCP Internet 32-bit source addr Internet 32-bit dest. addr frame type=IP Ethernet 48-bit source addr Ethernet 48-bit dest.addr

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Ethernet Trailer

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Berkeley Socket—An Application Program Interface A set of library function calls forms an abstraction called socket to facilitate the programming involving inter-process communication (IPC). Idea → The socket mimics the file I/O operations: sending message—write(socket, msgbuf, strlen(msgbuf)) receiving message—read(socket, msgbuf, Maxmsglength) However the creation of sockets is different, depending on the types of IPC: z For process-to-process communication within a UNIX machine. a path name is used as an address to identify a socket, e.g. /tmp/cs522.chow.UA2Gui The space this type of socket addresses can be in is called UNIX domain. This type of socket is also called UNIX domain socket. z For process-to-process communication between processes at two different machines using internet (TCP/UDP/IP) protocols. The 4-byte internet address of the host and a 2-byte port id is used to identify the socket, e.g., 128.198.162.62 and portId 21 identify the socket to which the FTP process on sanluis listen. See /etc/services for the designated port numbers. The space this type of socket addresses can be in is called Internet domain. This type of socket is also called Internet domain socket. chow

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Socket Creation #include #include int socket(int family, int type, int protocol); // socket function call return fd /* use man to see the description of each of the IPC routines and parameters.*/ Typical calls for Internet Domain sockets are sockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0) for byte stream connection-oriented service, default protocol is TCP. sockfd=socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0) for datagram connectionless service, default protocol is UDP. Typical calls for UNIX Domain sockets are sockfd=socket(AF_UNIX, SOCK_STREAM, 0) for byte stream connection-oriented service, default protocol is UNIX internal protocol. sockfd=socket(AF_UNIX, SOCK_DGRAM, 0) for datagram connectionless service, default protocol is UNIX internal protocol. The return value is a file descriptor for later reference. If socket() fails, return value is negative. chow

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Flow Chart of Datagram Setup Server socket()

Datagram uses UDP protocol. It realizes a connectionless protocol. Client

bind()

socket() bind()

recvfrom() blocks until data received from a client

sendto()

data(request) process request sendto()

recvfrom() blocks until data received from a client data(reply)

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Bind Internet Domain Socket to Address int bind(int sockfd, struct sockaddr *myaddr, int addrlen); //Before the bind() call, specify the proper socket address in struct sockaddr: //For a receiving Internet domain socket, struct sockaddr_in from; int length; from.sin_family = AF_INET; from.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY; /*ask system to accept all nic ip addr.*/ from.sin_port = 0; /* Let system choose the port number */ /* 0< portno.< 1024 are reserved for privilege process */ /* portno. > 50000 reserved for non-privilege server */ /* to find the assigned port no., call getsockname()*/ bind(sockfd, &from, sizeof (from)); length = sizeof(from); getsockname(sockfd, &from, &length) printf(“socket assigned port=%d\n”, ntohs(from.sin_port) chow

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Receiving Internet Datagram Messages int sockfd; struct sockaddr_in from; char frombuf[2048], toBuf[2048]; /* after bind the socket to address */ while (flag) { n = recvfrom(sockfd, fromBuf, sizeof(fromBuf), 0, &from, &length); fromBuf[n] = 0; /* null terminate */ printf(“received msg=%s\n”, fromBuf); /* do some processing according to the request */ /* use the returned sender’s socket address in the from structure to */ /* send the reply message */ sprintf(toBuf, “received message: %s\n”, fromBuf); if (sendto(sockfd, toBuf, strlen(toBuf), 0, &from, sizeof(from)) < 0) perror(“sending datagram message”); } close(sockfd); ~cs522/project/socket contains sample programs, idgr.c (receiver), idgs.c (sender) for I386, Alpha, SPARC machines. chow

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Sending Internet Datagram Messages int sockfd; struct sockaddr_in to; struct hostent *hp, *gethostbyname(); char msgbuf[1024]; sockfd=socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0) toaddr.sin_family = AF_INET; /* hostname and portno of the receiver may be entered from command line */ hp = gethostbyname(receiver_hostname); /* host name of receiver process */ /* bcopy(hp->h_addr, &to.sin_addr, hp->h_length); bcopy() is depreciated*/ memcpy(&to.sin_addr, hp->h_addr, hp->h_length); to.sin_port = htons(toPort_no); /* port number of the receiver process */ strcpy(msgbuf, “how are you?”); if (sendto(sockfd, msgbuf, strlen(msgbuf), 0, &to, sizeof(to)) < 0) perror(“sending datagram message”); chow

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Running idgr and idgs telnet zeppo.uccs.edu using cs522p1 with same password of cs522 on europa zeppo> cd ~cs522p1/project/socket/inetdomain/SPARC zeppo> idgr -d socket has port #55401 login to elvis with cs522 elvis>cd project/socket/inetdomain/ALPHA elvis> idgs -d zeppo 55401 socket has port #2455 sending message: packet 0! The no. of bytes received=10 received msg=packet 0! rcvd from sockaddr_in: Domain=2, Hostname=elvis.uccs.edu, Port=2455, Address=128.198.1.117, number of bytes received=29 received ack msg=received message: packet 0!

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Receiver: Bind UNIX Domain Socket to Address int sockfd; struct sockaddr_un addr, to; char frombuf[2048], toBuf[2048]; addr.sun_family = AF_UNIX; sprintf(addr.sun_path, “/tmp/cs522.%s.server”, getlogin()); unlink(addr.sun_path); /* if previous incarnation of socket still exists, kill it*/ if (bind(sockfd, &addr, sizeof(struct sockaddr_un))) { perror(“binding name to datagram socket”); exit(1); } /* ls -F /tmp you will find a file with the same name there */ /* the socket file has srwxr-xr-x as access right and 0 length */ Why we put the login name in the socket pathname? In what situation this will not uniquely identify the socket?

chow

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Receiver: Waiting/Reply UNIX Domain Datagram to.sun_family = AF_UNIX; sprintf(to.sun_path, “/tmp/cs522.%s.client”, getlogin()); printf(“unix domain datagram client uses sun_path=%s\n”, to.sun_path); /* receive message */ while (flag) { n = recv(sock, fromBuf, sizeof(fromBuf), 0); if (n < 0) perror(“receiving datagram message”); fromBuf[n] = 0; /* null terminate */ printf(“The no. of bytes received=%d\n”, n); printf(“received msg=%s”, fromBuf); /* formulate the response */ sprintf(toBuf, “received message: %s\n”, fromBuf); if (sendto(sock, toBuf, strlen(toBuf), 0, &to, sizeof(to)) < 0) perror(“sending datagram message”); } unlink(addr.sun_path); /* clean up by removing the socket file descriptor */ close(sock); chow

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Sender: Sending UNIX Domain Datagram /* create name structure with wildcard using INADDR_ANY */ addr.sun_family = AF_UNIX; sprintf(addr.sun_path, “/tmp/cs522.%s.client”, getlogin()); unlink(addr.sun_path); if (bind(sock, &addr, sizeof(struct sockaddr_un))) { perror(“binding name to datagram socket”); exit(1); } /*send message */ sprintf(toBuf, “This is packet one!\n”); if (sendto(sock, toBuf, strlen(toBuf), 0, &to, sizeof(to)) < 0) { perror(“sending datagram message”); exit(1);l} n = recv(sock, fromBuf, 1024, 0); if (n < 0) perror(“receiving datagram message”); fromBuf[n] = 0; /* null terminate */ printf(“received ack msg=%s\n”, fromBuf); unlink(addr.sun_path); close(sock); chow

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Flow Chart of Stream Connection Setup Server socket()

Stream uses TCP protocol. It realizes a connection-oriented protocol.

bind() listen()

Client socket()

accept() blocks until connection from a client connection establishment read()

data(request)

connect() write()

process request write()

data(reply) read()

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Stream Connections int sockfd, newsockfd; if ((sockfd=socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0)) < 0) { perror(“socket creation error”); exit(1); } if (bind(sockfd,...) ist2s zeppo 43652 msg for receiver(“$” to exit):dns_query elvis europa> ist2s zeppo 43652 rcvd msg-->dns_query elvis msg for receiver(“$” to exit):dns europa What is your reply (“$” to break connection)?128.198.1.117 reply msg=128.198.1.117 msg for receiver(“$” to exit):dns_query elbert rcvd msg-->dns_query elbert What is your reply (“$” to break connection)?128.198.162.68 reply msg=128.198.162.68 msg for receiver(“$” to exit):$ Ending connection.../* accept next request */ rcvd msg-->dns europa What is your reply (“$” to break connection)?128.198.1.247 reply msg=128.198.1.247 chow

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Running ist2r and two ist2s with fork processing zeppo> ist2r -f turn on fork processing mode. before getsockname socket has port #0 socket has port #43662 elvis> ist2s zeppo 43662 msg for receiver(“$” to exit):dns_query elvis europa> ist2s zeppo 43662 msg for receiver(“$” to exit):dns europa rcvd msg-->dns_query sanluis What is your reply (“$” to break connection)?128.198.1.117 reply msg=128.198.1.117 msg for receiver(“$” to exit):dns_query elbert rcvd msg-->dns europa What is your reply (“$” to break connection)?128.198.162.64 reply msg=128.198.162.64 msg for receiver(“$” to exit):dns_query cs Here europa’s request will be accpeted and processed earlier by a different child process. chow

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Handle multiple inputs and time-out There is a special bit-vector type, fd_set, allowing you to indicate which file descriptors you would like to pay attention to. #include #include FD_ZERO(fd_set *fdset); /* clear all bits in fdset */ FD_SET(int fd, fd_set *fdset); /*turn the bit for fd on in fdset */ FD_CLR(int fd, fd_set *fdset); /* turn the bit for fd off in fdset */ FD_ISSET(int fd, fd_set *fdset); /* test the bit for fd in fdset */ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7... readfds stdin stdout stderr

unix_d_sockfd1 inet_d_sockfd2 inet_d_sockfd1

struct timeval { long tv_sec; /* seconds */ long tv_usec; /* microsecond */ chow

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} int select(int maxfdpl, fd_set *readfds, fd_set *writefds, fd_set *exceptfds, struct timeval * timeout); maxfdpl: the number of file descriptors to be checked. readfds: the input channels (file descriptors) to receive incoming msgs. writedfds: the output channels (file descriptors) to send msgs. exceptfds: the execptional signal channels (file descriptors). timeout: a pointer to data that specify the time-out value. If (timeout == NULL) select() will wait indefinitely until some of the channels have “actions” If (timeout != NULL) select() will return when z some of channels indicates “actions”, returns value of select() will be the number of file descriptors that have “actions”. The fd_set* will be overwritten with the bits set on for those with actions and bits set off for those without.

chow

z

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time expires and time-out event occurs, return value is 0. sanluis

GUI u unix_d_sock1 u

stdin-0

chow

Agent

elbert

IN Server chico

inet_d_sock1

IN Client

inet_d_sock2

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I/O multiplexing using select() fd_set readfds; int unix_d_sockfd, maxfdpl; int inet_d_sockfd; struct timeval timeout; /* assume you have create the above sockets properly */ maxfdpl=(unix_d_sockfd>inet_d_sockfd)?unix_d_sockfd+1: inet_d_sockfd+1; while (quitflag) { FD_ZERO(&readfds); FD_SET(0, &readfds); /* listen to stdin */ FD_SET(unix_d_sockfd, &readfds); /* fd_set need to be reset, why? */ FD_SET(inet_d_sockfd, &readfds); /* because select() overwrites the value*/ timeout.tv_sec = 3; /* need to reset timeout in every select() call*/ timeout.tv_usec= atol(“500000”); /* 500000µseconds, use atol() to convert str*/ if ((i=select(maxfdpl, &readfds, 0, 0, &timeout)) < 0) { perror(“select error”); exit(1); } if (i==0) { printf(“time-out”); /* return value of select() is 0*/ } if (FD_ISSET(0, &readfds)) { scanf(“%s\n”, buf); /* user input */ } if (FD_ISSET(unix_d_sockfd, &readfds)) { /* unix_d_sockfd receives msg */} if (FD_ISSET(inet_d_sockfd, &readfds)) { /* inet_d_sockfd receives msg */} chow

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Mapping CFSM to C-code How to implement the following simple protocol using datagram sockets. Goal: Learn how to use select and time-out. print(A)

1

M

1

+D

N

userinput(D≠q) userinput(q) 2 time-out & retrySPARC/ex2r -t // this sets the receiver to throw away two out of 3 msgs wetterhorn>I386/ex2s 5 0 zeppo 54333 // this sets sender timeout to 5sec. chow

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Sample of C-code implements Machine M int state = 1; int quitflag = 1; int retry = 1; while (quitflag) do { switch (state) { case 1: /* state 1 */ fflush(stdin); scanf(“%s”, buf); if (strcmp(buf, “q”) ==0) { /* userinput(q) */ state=4; } else {/* userinput(D), D¦q */ state=2;} break; case 3: /* state 3 */ /* set time-out value */ /* set fdest */ if ((i=select(sinfd+1, fdset, 0, 0, timeout)) < 0) { perror(“select”); exit(1);} if (i==0) /* timeout */ if (retry == 5) state=4; else {retry++; state=2;} chow

if (FD_ISSET(0, fdset)) { /* handle userinput */} if (FD_ISSET(sinfd, fdset)) { /* handle inet msg */} break; case 4: quitflag = 0; break; ... } /* end of switch(state) */ } /* end of while(quitflag) */ The above while loop implementation of CFSM is straightforward but not efficient. Don’t forget to reset retry after receiving the acknowledgment.

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Sending/Receiving Different Message Types struct PenRecord { unsigned char msgType; unsigned char size; short X; short Y;}; struct ConnRecord { unsigned char msgType; unsigned char size; char name[20]; char originator[20];}; union Record { /* see ~cs522/project/mins/msg.h for detail */ PenRecord pr; ConnRecord nr; ACKRecord ackr; ...} r; r.pr.msgType = PEN; r.pr.X=320, r.pr.Y=600; r.pr.size=4; r.nr.msgType=CONN; strcpy(r.nr.originator, getlogin()); strcpy(r.nr.name, dst_usr) chow

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How to know the type of received msgs? struct sockaddr_un toGui; struct sockaddr_un fromGui; n = recv(sockinet, &(r.pr.msgType), sizeof(r), 0); switch(r.pr.msgType) { case PEN: printf(“receiving pen msg, X=%d, Y=%d\n”, r.pr.X, r.pr.Y); if (sendto(socktoGui, &(r.pr.msgType), sizeof(r), 0, &toGui, sizeof(toGui)) < 0) perror(“sending datagram msg”); /* relay the msg to GUI process */ break; case CONN: printf(“receiving connect msg, originator =%s, dst user=%s\n”, r.nr.originator, r.nr.name); /* update table, and send conn msg to Gui */ break;}

chow

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Run penr and pen to understand Byte Ordering zeppo> cd ~cs522p1/project/socket/byteorder/SPARC zeppo> penr elvis> cd socket has port #55468 elvis> cd project/socket/byteorder/ALPHA elvis> pens -x 3 -s od -i 32 -t 5 -z 1 zeppo 55468 socket has port #2472 sizeof(pen)=24 send pen message: /* receive pen msg */ pen.header.sender = cs522 sizeof(pen)=24 pen.header.sessionID = 1 The no. of bytes received=24 pen.msg_type = 3 receive pen message: pen.size = 8 pen.header.sender = cs522 pen.x = 3 pen.header.sessionID = 16777216 pen.y = 32 pen.msg_type = 3 pen.size = 8 pen.x = 512 pen.y = 8192 1,0,0,0 chow

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Byte Ordering Observation zeppo is big endian machine. elvis is little endian machine. sender fields is character array. Their value is not affected. sessionID is integer. It is affected. value 1 becomes 1*2^24=16777216. since the least significant byte is interpreted by zeppo as most significant byte. msg_type and size are character type (one byte), value not affected. x and y are short integer (two bytes), value are affected. pen.x originally is 2 after swap with other byte, it has weight of 256, and value becomes 2*256=512 pen.y originally is 32, after swap with other byte, it has weight of 256, and value becomes 32*256=8192. You can modify the pens to send pen.x with value 1024. zeppo will print out pen.x as pen.x=4. Why is that? I modified pens to allow changes of these pen fields. elan> pens -s chow -y 1 -z 5 -x 512 -i 256 zeppo 55468 sender set to chow; The y is set to 1; The size is set to 5 The x is set to 512; The sessionID is set to 256 chow

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