Push, Pull, Go - Carolina Curriculum

7 downloads 15 Views 2MB Size Report
Lesson 2: Push, Pull, Swing ............................................................................................... ........ 17. Lesson 3: Push, Pull, Tumble. ... Lesson 5: Push, Pull, Invent .

Push, Pull, Go

®

Push, Pull, Go Teacher’s Guide

©2011 Carolina Biological Supply Company. All rights reserved. ISBN 978-1-4350-0834-2 Published by Carolina Biological Supply Company, 2700 York Road, Burlington, NC 27215-3398. Call toll free 800.334.5551. All reproducible sheets in this Teacher’s Guide may be copied as necessary for educational purposes only. Teachers may also make an overhead transparency of a specific page or item in this book for classroom use only. Otherwise, no part of this Teacher’s Guide may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or photographic, or in the form of an audio recording, or otherwise copied for public or private use without prior written permission from the copyright owners. CCPBB10021601

Acknowledgements Development Team Cindy Morgan Director, Product and Development Carolina Curriculum, a Division of Carolina Biological Supply Company Marsha W. Jones Development Specialist Carolina Curriculum, a Division of Carolina Biological Supply Company Samara Lotz Gann Developer Carolina Curriculum, a Division of Carolina Biological Supply Company Cynthia S. Ludwig Publications Manager Carolina Curriculum, a Division of Carolina Biological Supply Company Lauren Goldsmith Eggiman Editor Carolina Curriculum, a Division of Carolina Biological Supply Company Charles Thacker Graphic Designer Carolina Curriculum, a Division of Carolina Biological Supply Company Trey Foster Graphic Designer Carolina Curriculum, a Division of Carolina Biological Supply Company Amanda Moon Graphic Designer Carolina Curriculum, a Division of Carolina Biological Supply Company Greg R. Willette Graphic Designer Carolina Curriculum, a Division of Carolina Biological Supply Company Jennifer Manske Graphic Designer

PUSH, PULL, GO

iii

Contents Introduction Preface .................................................................................................................................. v Science Process Skills .......................................................................................................... v Small-Group Instruction ........................................................................................................vi Vocabulary Development .......................................................................................................vi Strategies for English Language Learners ...........................................................................vii Making Predictions .............................................................................................................. viii Learning Cycle .................................................................................................................... viii Science Notebooks in the Kindergarten Classroom ............................................................ viii Family Science .....................................................................................................................ix Using a Hand Lens as a Science Tool ..................................................................................ix Assessment .......................................................................................................................... x Safety .................................................................................................................................... x Navigating the Teacher’s Guide ............................................................................................xii Unit Overview Materials List .......................................................................................................................xiv Lesson Summaries ..............................................................................................................xv Lesson Overview Charts .....................................................................................................xvi Unit Overview .................................................................................................................... xxiv Content Standards ............................................................................................................ xxiv Lesson 1: Push, Pull, Roll ............................................................................................................. 1 Lesson 2: Push, Pull, Swing ....................................................................................................... 17 Lesson 3: Push, Pull, Tumble ...................................................................................................... 27 Lesson 4: Push, Pull, Spin .......................................................................................................... 35 Lesson 5: Push, Pull, Invent ....................................................................................................... 45 Appendix A: Glossary ................................................................................................................. 57 Appendix B: Safety ..................................................................................................................... 59 Safety Contract Appendix C: Family Letters ........................................................................................................ 61 Learning Cycle Letter Family Science General Letter Appendix D: General Rubric ....................................................................................................... 64 General Rubric

iv

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

Preface The Building Blocks of Science® units were developed by Carolina Biological Supply Company to help teachers and students establish a solid foundation in elementary science. These units can fill gaps in content areas or serve as additional activities for classes already using a hands-on, inquiry-based curriculum, or they can provide some hands-on experience for classes that primarily use textbooks. Through a series of lessons, students learn important science content and investigative skills. The unit design fosters cooperative learning and critical thinking as students work in teams and actively discuss their findings, record data, and assess their understanding. Each Building Blocks of Science® unit includes a Teacher’s Guide and enough materials for a class of 24 students to complete the activities. The Teacher’s Guide includes objectives and standards, materials preparation steps and class time requirements, background, vocabulary, procedures, assessments, ideas for cross-curricular extensions, and blackline masters for assessment, student procedures, and data sheets.

Science Process Skills Building Blocks of Science® units integrate process skills as defined by the National Science Education Standards and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Observing Using the senses to collect qualitative information about an object or event. Measuring Using nonstandard measurement to collect information about an object or event. Classifying Grouping or ordering objects or events on the basis of similarities or differences in characteristics or defined criteria. Inferring Formulating interpretations or explanations of observations. Communicating Using written words or other visual representations to transmit information or ideas to others. Using Number Relationships Interpreting numbers and mathematical relationships in making decisions.

Making and Interpreting Models Constructing mental, verbal, or physical representations of objects, events, and ideas in order to explain or demonstrate. Designing Experiments Identifying materials and a step-wise procedure for testing a prediction. Collecting Data Gathering both qualitative and quantitative data. Organizing Data Formatting data in a systematic way, as in tables or graphs. Interpreting Data Analyzing data and its explanation of an experiment. Also, identifying experimental error, evaluating predictions, and generating conclusions and questions for further experimentation.

Making Predictions Forming a guess of the outcome of future events on the basis of events or objects observed in the past, expressed using the phrase I think _____________ because__________________________________. PUSH, PULL, GO

v

Small-Group Instruction The lesson activities in each unit are designed, for the most part, as teacher-guided inquiry for the whole class. Because elementary classrooms require flexibility, Building Blocks of Science® activities can easily be adapted to small-group instruction. Materials lists at the start of each lesson show the quantities needed to lead pairs or small groups through the activity. These lists apply whether breaking an entire classroom into small groups or placing small teams in small-group situations. Because the procedure in the Teacher’s Guide includes step-by-step directions, guiding questions, and anticipated responses, activities can easily be led by teachers and teacher assistants. The lessons include Learning Center Opportunities, which generally provide opportunities to extend a lesson activity by offering suggestions for further investigation, concept building, and skill practice. Small-group experiences with the unit activities can function as Learning Center Opportunities and may replace whole-group instruction, depending on the needs and resources of your classroom.

Vocabulary Development Students need a rich vocabulary to describe (verbally and/or with written words/drawings) their investigations accurately. “It may seem that students need some concepts and vocabulary to begin, but investigations can be designed and carried out without knowing all the specific terms and definitions involved. In fact, the observations, data collection, and analysis involved in an investigation generally provide the context for developing operational definitions, science concepts, inquiry abilities, and an understanding of scientific inquiry, which can later be associated with names or ‘vocabulary’” (National Science Education Standards, 1996). Building Blocks of Science® recognizes the power of science as a vehicle for students to develop vocabulary, reading, writing, and comprehension skills. To help students build these skills, BBS embeds vocabulary development opportunities, both general and topic-specific, within each lesson as students make predictions, ask questions, engage in active science explorations, record observations and data, demonstrate conceptual understanding, and build on what they have learned. Lesson vocabulary is divided into two lists: Describing Science and Science Words. These lists separate unitspecific science vocabulary from more general vocabulary that students may use to communicate what they see and do as they investigate. Specific science vocabulary is, of course, an integral part of each lesson. However, it is often inappropriate to expect students at this level to read, write, and use all the science terms that may be applicable. It is important that students are able to demonstrate an understanding of a science concept. To facilitate student-generated explanations of the lesson concepts, teachers are provided with Describing Science words. This “starter list” anticipates words or phrases students may need to complete student activity sheets, make entries in their science notebooks, participate in class discussions, and begin building explanations of their observations. The idea is to further the development of general vocabulary in addition to the use of “science” words on scientific drawings, notebook entries, or in class discussions. A glossary of unit-specific science vocabulary is provided at the end of each unit for the teacher’s use. It is not expected that students learn or use the definitions provided in the glossary. Both lists, Describing Science and Science Words, can be useful tools in today’s busy classrooms to help teachers and students link science literacy with conceptual understanding. These two lists are intended to be used in conjunction with one another to develop a solid understanding of science while simultaneously building vocabulary and literacy skills that can be applied across the curriculum.

vi

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

Strategies for English Language Learners Researchers have documented the benefits of using inquiry-based curriculum with English language learners (Amaral, Garrison and Klentschy 2002; Valadez 2002; Gibbons 2003). Inquiry-based instruction provides common experiences for students through hands-on activities that link to prior knowledge yet offer multiple opportunities to read, discuss, and write about those experiences. It is the common experiences, shared between English language speakers and English language learners, that help to develop language skills for the English language learner. As an inquiry-based science curriculum, Building Blocks of Science® inherently supports the needs of English language learners. The program incorporates teaching strategies acknowledged to help English language learners succeed in today’s classrooms. Building Blocks of Science® Units Support ELL Students and their Teachers Through: • Common experiences/investigations using age-appropriate, interactive, hands-on materials • Assessment of prior knowledge using class charts, science notebooks, and small- and large-group discussions • Teacher’s Guide with guiding questions for use with group discussions, informal teacher-student talks, and assessment of student progress (Anticipated student responses are included where applicable.) • Opportunities for students to work in teams of two, small groups, and/or learning centers • Active use of science notebooks, class charts, topic-related books, web links, and informational texts linking science to reading, writing, and math (e.g., recording events and observations and analyzing data presents opportunities for students to use what they have learned to further understand informational text and other literacy components) • Where applicable, student activity sheets support ELL with graphic organizers (Venn diagrams, concept maps, etc.), data-table set-up, and step-by-step guided instruction where applicable Additional Strategies for Vocabulary Development • Word Wall Strategy One strategy for helping students understand, write, and record what they do, observe, and measure is to create a Word Wall in the classroom where students can post and label the equipment they will be using during a unit. This helps students make the connection between a vocabulary term (for example, “spring scale” or “measuring cube”) and the physical item they will use in a lesson. The Word Wall can be used by students throughout the unit as they incorporate vocabulary into their writing and discussion. To facilitate this strategy, BBS provides reproducible labels for each equipment item in each kit of materials. • Say-Then-Write Strategy Prior to notebooking, small-group or large-group discussion offer students the opportunity to share verbally what they have learned during the lesson, and to practice using vocabulary from the Word Wall. This dual-communication opportunity enables students to use the academic vocabulary of science in both oral and written forms.

PUSH, PULL, GO

vii

Making Predictions Kindergarten students are just beginning to build an understanding of predictions. You may want to include making predictions as part of the lesson. If so, encourage students to express their ideas and then why they think the way they do (e.g., I think ______ because ______.). You might start with a few examples of happenings they are likely to be able to predict (e.g., I think we will have birthday cake for dinner because it is my sister’s birthday; I think mom will let me wear my red boots to school because it is raining, etc.). Throughout the day, integrate “making predictions” into those quick little learning moments that pop up.

Learning Cycle Building Blocks of Science® uses a constructivist approach similar to the 5 E model. Our learning cycle encourages students to think (access prior knowledge), predict (I think ________ because _________), explore (active, hands-on, science experiences that include setting up experiments and recording and collecting data), and magnify (build understanding of unit-specific concepts and apply what is learned to new learning experiences in and out of the classroom). A reproducible letter that further explains our learning cycle model is included in Appendix C of the Teacher’s Guide. The letter is intended to help parents further understand and appreciate the instructional model used in your classroom.

Science Notebooks in the Kindergarten Classroom In the kindergarten classroom, science notebooks can be individual, small-group, or whole-group endeavors. Class charts work well as giant notebooks and can be the perfect place to record the ideas, questions, and observations of young scientists. Students may also maintain their own personal notebooks as they draw observations, write words, phrases, and/or sentences, answer questions, make predictions, and age-appropriately record their work. Most anything students measure, cut out, glue, or tape together can be added to the pages of their science notebook (e.g., Student Activity Sheets, drawings on 1-inch graph paper, an apple seed [covered over with clear tape], a strip of paper representing the child’s height in measuring cubes [folded accordion style to fit], stickers, pictures from magazines, digital photos, etc.). Science notebook opportunities are highlighted throughout the lessons. Notebook opportunities generally are listed as teacher prompts or reference a reproducible Student Activity Sheet. Teachers always have the option of modifying these prompts for use on a class chart. Class charts provide the opportunity to share ideas and science content as well as emphasize new reader skills (e.g., letters make words, tracking left to right, seeing spoken words in print, etc.). See an example below. • Notebook Prompt: o Draw a place where you can find earth materials. • Modify the notebook prompt to use in a circle-time discussion. o Class Chart Title: Where We Find Earth Materials Generally, students respond to notebook prompts by drawing, writing, and/or dictating responses in individual science notebooks, on a class chart, or a combination of the two. Student Activity Sheets also become a component of the student’s science notebook. Encourage students to date each entry. Consider placing date stamps in a center for kindergarten students. Students work toward being able to write the date themselves, and the novelty of the stamp motivates students to date their work just as scientists do.

viii

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

Student notebooks can take many forms. Spiral notebooks and composition notebooks once thought to be only for older students work quite well as kindergarten notebooks. You might consider binding student work together to make a unit-specific science notebook. Pages can be kept in a folder, stapled between decorative cover sheets, and the like. If you choose to pre-assemble notebooks, include blank sheets of kindergarten-friendly graph paper (1-inch or ½-inch squares), plain paper for writing, and blank sheets to which the student activity sheets that support the lessons may be stapled or taped.

Family Science Family Science Activities are included in each kindergarten unit. These activities reflect the vocabulary and concepts students are practicing and learning in the classroom. All family members (younger and older siblings, grandparents, aunts and uncles, etc.) are encouraged to work, learn, and play together to complete these activities. A reproducible letter explains how Family Science works. Topic-specific activity sheets are sent home with the student. These activity sheets include directions for the parent, simple background information, and a space for the child to draw, write, or dictate their experiences. Students share the activity with classmates during a subsequent science lesson.

Using a Hand Lens as a Science Tool The hand lens is a tool that extends the senses. Often it’s a challenge to know if kindergarten students are indeed seeing more detail of an object when using a hand lens. Practice is key, and it is critical to guide students to effectively use the tool. • Hold the hand lens right up to one eye. If possible, close your other eye. Hold the object you want to view in your other hand, and bring it slowly toward your eye until it comes into focus. • Alternatively, place the object on the desk or table, and move your hand lens towards the object until the part you want to view is in focus. (For large objects, this is the best method. Students will likely prefer this method when observing classroom animals as well.)

PUSH, PULL, GO

ix

Assessment Building Blocks of Science® provides three different ways to assess students as teachers guide the class through a unit. These assessment options correspond to specific lesson objectives as well as to more general science process skills and content as related to kindergarten classrooms. Each kindergarten unit includes a pre-assessment and post-assessment opportunity. Students respond to a preassessment question. Students may respond as a group, recording their responses on chart paper, or they may respond individually in their science notebooks. The charts and notebook entries are dated. Students respond to the same question at the end of the unit. A comparison of the two responses provides the teacher with an opportunity to evaluate student growth and progress. Assessment Observation Sheets provide the teacher with guidelines for evaluating student progress and understanding (formative assessment) throughout the unit. The guidelines, questions, and considerations included on each sheet reflect the specific objectives listed at the beginning of the lesson to which it corresponds. The reproducible sheets provide space for informal note taking as the teachers interact with individual students in smallgroup activities and class discussions. The unit also includes a general rubric. This rubric is intended to provide a progression of process skills and building an understanding of science content; teachers can use these guidelines to assess students as they explore science, develop descriptive vocabulary, practice science vocabulary, build science concepts, and record observations in their science notebooks.

Safety An important part of science instruction at any level includes instructing, modeling, and reinforcing safe practices within a lab setting, whether the science lab instruction takes place in the regular classroom or a designated science lab. Safe laboratory practices include proper use of equipment as well as appropriate behavior while using the equipment. The Building Blocks of Science® materials and activities have been chosen and designed with the safety of both students and teachers in mind. As applicable to each activity, you will find safety tips embedded within the lesson procedure. BBS encourages generating a “Safety Rules for the Science Lab” chart and/or science notebook entry with your students and displaying it in your classroom throughout the year. To help your students better understand and remember these rules, you may want to conduct a lab safety-rule poster contest with your class. Have students create an illustration or advertisement depicting one of the rules. Display the posters in your classroom and encourage parents, other school staff members, or other classes to view the posters and vote for their favorite. Finally, to help ensure an understanding of safe lab expectations during science class, you may want to develop a safety contract that students and their parents must sign before students can engage in science classroom activities. A sample contract has been included.

x

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

Safety Rules for the Science Lab Using a class-discussion format, guide students to generate a list of safety rules for science class (science lab). Record student responses on a class chart. Post the chart where students can be reminded of the rules. Older students may generate a list of rules in their science notebooks. Safety rules may include: • • • • • • •

Tie back long hair Tuck in loose clothing Wear safety goggles when directed by teacher Listen for instructions before beginning an experiment Ask for teacher approval before doing an experiment on your own Keep hands away from your mouth and eyes Use science tools carefully

PUSH, PULL, GO

xi

Navigating the Teacher’s Guide

L esson esson 1 You Have to See It to Believe It!

MATERIALS Student 1 science notebook* 1 Student Activity Sheet 1: Big and Small 1 3 x 5" sticky note* 1 Learning Cycle letter Team of two students 1 bucket of materials 1 piece of sponge 1 ping-pong® ball 1 styrene ball 2 Unifix® cubes 1 cork 1 cotton glove 1 wooden spool 1 acrylic cylinder 3 cookie cutters 4 foam end caps (be sure to include at least 1 red or orange end cap in each bucket) 1 reptile from the reptile set Assorted markers or crayons* 1 hand lens 1 foam shape combination 1 triangular prism

LESSON OVERVIEW

VOCABULARY

Students use scientific inquiry to build an understanding of the sense of sight through exploration, discussion, and the use of simple tools. Students are introduced to the sense of sight by sorting objects by student-generated rules. Songs and movement combine to enrich key vocabulary and spiral vocabulary throughout the activities. Working in pairs, students make observations of the eye, integrate graphing, and explore the concept of how things change over time. Finally, students use hand lenses to explore magnification as a way to enlarge objects and make them seem closer.

Describing Science • Color words • Eyes • Shapes (flat and 3-D shapes) • Size words (bigger, smaller)

LESSON OBJECTIVES Begin building an age-appropriate understanding of the five senses and how eyes are used for sight through observing, classifying, and manipulating common objects and materials in the environment. Develop skills such as how to observe and measure using simple tools. Begin developing the ability to communicate and analyze one’s own work and the work of others using oral communication or written text.

Teacher Chart paper* Markers*

Investigate objects using description, classification, and experimentation.

1 balloon* (teacher demonstration only)

Reflect on similarities and differences among objects using data to construct and support reasonable explanations.

1 Anatomy of the Eye poster 1 Teacher Sheet, Eyes and Your Senses

Observe that objects have many observable properties that can be used to separate or sort a group of objects or materials, including but not limited to size, shape, color, temperature, and material (e.g., wood, paper, metal).

Assessment Observation Sheet: Lesson 1 1 mirror (optional)* General Rubric (Appendix D)

Vocabulary

Science Words • Observe • Properties/rules • Senses • Sight • Sort

Time Considerations

TIME CONSIDERATIONS Teacher acher Preparation rt A.......................10 Part A.......................10 minutes rt B.. Part B.......................5 minutes Part minutes rt C ......................5 . rt D ......................5 . Part minutes sson Lesson Part A.......................1 class session rt A.. rt B.. Part B.......................1 class session rt C ......................1 . Part class session rt D ......................1 . Part class session

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS TEACHER PREPARATION TEAC

Teacher Tips

Part A 1.. Title a sheet of chart paper What I Know About the Senses. 2.. Cut each spongeSorting into thirds. with

the Senses

3.. Pre Prepare a bucket of materials for each pair air of students. Be sure each bucket contains ontai either one red rectangular Facilitate prism, a class discussion about the senses. Use some or all of the following ne orange or one rectangular prism, OR two questions to help students share what they already know. Record their lue cu blue cubes from the foam responses shape set, and on the class chart What I Know About the Senses. be e sure sur that each team also gets at least Teacher-guided questions, an example: one All buckets ne red re or orange end cap. hould contain one purple triangular should What do we use to observe objects around us? (Sight, hearing, smell, taste, rism. prism. touch: our senses)

*These materials are needed but not supplied.

7HDFKHU7L 7HDFKHU7LS U 7LLS 7HDFKHU7LS Add to this chart throughout the unit. Use different color markers to record responses to show students how their ideas develop and change throughout the unit.

What do our observations tell us about the world around us? LESSON 1

YOU HAVE TO SEE IT TO BELIE BELIEVE IT!

1

What parts of our bodies do we use to make observations? (Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, hands, feet, etc.) What part of your body do you use to see ee obje objects in your environment? (Our eyes.)

2

Hold a class discussion about rules. Encourage to share what they age students s know about rules. If someone told you that you had to follow w the rules, what does that mean? (To listen, to do work, etc.) Science Notebook Opportunity Where do we have rules? (Home, school, ol, city city, everywhere, etc.) Notebook Prompt: Why do we have rules? (So we don’t gett hurt, so we don’t doHave something students use drawings to record the objects they sorted. Ask students wrong, etc.) to record the rule they used. Be aware that students’ notebook entries will become more Who makes sure the rules are followed? ? (Poli (Police Officer, Teacher, Mom, Dad,detailed and descriptive as the unit progresses.

3

etc.)

My rule for sorting was ___________________________________________.

o students stu After talking about rules in general, explain to that rules can also be Learning Opportunity ne bucket bu used to sort things into groups. Distribute one of materials to eachCenter pair pa to explore of students. Allow an ample amount of time for pairs anda sort items Place bucket of materials in a learning center. The students can sort the objects stud ude according to their own rules. Explain to the students that they notorneed to bydo one two rules explaining what they noticed about the properties of the so use all of the materials in one sort. Student sorts could reflect some or all of objects. They record their sorting rules using pictures and words. If they are ll or s the following rules: size, shape, ability to roll stack, texture, color, sound, ready, students can use simple sentences to describe their sorting developmentally flexibility, what they are made up of, etc. rules. Some students might be ready to look at one object within the bucket and record as many descriptors as they can about the object (e.g., round, hard, white, small, light, solid, etc.).

LESSON 1

YOU OU HAVE HA TO SEE IT TO BELIEVE IT!

3

Eyes Are Used for Sight Hang the poster Anatomy of the Eye for students to observe, and discuss what a human eye looks like. Use some or all of the following questions to facilitate a discussion about the eyes. Teacher-guided questions, for example: What do we use our eyes for? (To see things) What observations can you make from this picture? (Color, shape)

Science Notebook Opportunities

Do you see any shapes in this picture? (Circles) Look around. How are our eyes the same? How are they different? Why do we have sight? What if you could not see? How would you know what objects looked like? (You could feel them.) What properties describe the eye? (Color, size, texture, shape, etc.) What objects have eyes? (Dogs, cats, animals, teddy bears, toys, people, etc.)

LESSON 1

xii

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

YOU HAVE TO SEE IT TO BELIEVE IT!

5

Icons Extensions

EXTENSIONS 3-D Movie Experience

Graphing Glasses

Explain that 3-D movies require special glasses to make the objects seem three dimensional. Ask students how many of them have ever seen a 3-D movie or looked through 3-D glasses. You might organize a field trip to see a 3-D movie. Ask students how 3-D glasses are different from glasses people wear to help them see better.

Make a class graph (pictograph or bar graph) measuring how many children in class wear glasses and how many do not.

Magnification in Reverse e Have a collection of old magazines s avai available. at hav Ask students to identify objects that have been magnified. Have students predict what tthe object is, and explain how they made theirr pred prediction. y know about They should use what they already d reas sight to inform their predictions and reasoning.

Tools for Observation Discuss with the class how scientists sts us use other e tool tools to see objects up close. Some tools to ssible bring in discuss include the following. If possible, examples of these tools.

Binoculars are used to see up cclose Glasses are used to read

Why do some people need glasses? glas

12

MY SENSES

Music

Language Arts

Movement Education

Science

Notebooking Prompts

Technology

Engineering and Design Safety

Family Science

Ask students to write or dictate a simple sentence to describe their ink blot. Students can also write or tell a story about their ink blot and a special power that it has.

Family Science Activities

Have students present their interpretations of their ink blot design to the rest of the class during circle time. Through class discussion the students will explore how new information can change their existing perceptions of the world around them.

Family, Notebook Opportunity DearScience Student Activity Sheet 1: Big and Small

tists Scientists question everything. Once a are natural scientists. children Prompt: YoungNotebook Useanswers the following to help students move without blinking to the next question. hey they question oneprompts scientist describe theirlike ink blots. anyone in your house? sound Does that

/@LD %[email protected]GDQD

My ink blot looks like a _____________________ unit. Inquiry science is all about sci Our class is beginning an inquiryy science Ask a local eye doctor to come and d talk to the writing, and recording what you see and rawi ions they would questions, class. Have students think of questions active explorations, drawing, ________________________________________ e pres like to ask an eye doctor before the presentation. to build an understanding of science. ence Some questions for the doctor might include: ht inc I think this because ________________________ What does an eye doctor do? o? rt of our program because it’s one way we can Family Science is an exciting part

What is an eye exam? How w does doe it help doctors?

Geography

Invite students to use finger paint to create an ink blot. Students should apply wet tempera paint to the center of a white piece of paper, then fold the paper in half. When the paper is opened, students will see a symmetrical design. Allow the ink blots to dry completely.

Interview an Eye Doctorr

How does this occupation relate to the sense of sight?

Art

Ink Blot Interpretation

Telescopes are used to observe serve the night sky Microscopes are used to enlarge nlarg or magnify small objects

Math

%@SD do

Student Activity Sheets

With everyone working together, we can magnify better connect home and school.. Wit ________________________________________ s how Family Science works. the science in every child. Here’s activity related to the science unit we are A letter is sent home explaining an a gned so that everyone in the household—younger studying. The activities are designed about science together. arn a and older siblings alike—can learn plain the science ideas that are a part of the A section of the activity letter explains ideas are not new to your child. A Family Science d ide activity. These science words and nd is sent home as an opportunity for families to activity follows a class lesson and om. reinforce learning in the classroom.

AHF

equi any special equipment, and are completed The activities are simple, don’t require in about 20 minutes. Often there is a section of the assignment that your child ache Your child will have the opportunity to share completes and returns to the teacher. ence with classmates. his or her family science experiences

%[email protected]GDQD

quick, informal, and fun. Enjoy! The activities are intended to be quic

Additional Features • Background Science Information • Guiding Questions for Class Discussion (with anticipated responses)

[email protected] Lesson 1

You Have to See It to Believe It!

©2011 Carolina Biological Supply Company

• Family Letters • Lesson Overview Charts • Teacher Preparation

PUSH, PULL, GO

xiii

Materials List Needed from the kit

Provided by the teacher

®

1 class set, Kid K’NEX building pieces

Chart paper

96 dominos

Crayons

12 foam balls

Markers

36 Kid K’NEX® Instruction Cards

Masking tape

12 plastic buckets 1 Teacher’s Guide

Provided by the student

120 Unifix® cubes, blue

1 science notebook

120 Unifix® cubes, red

LESSON NOTES

xiv

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

Lesson Summaries Lesson 1: Push, Pull, Roll In Lesson 1, students explore force and motion using student-built toys made with Kid K’NEX® building pieces. Students observe the motion and path of a ball rolling down a ramp and record the distance using nonstandard measurement. Students complete three Student Activity Sheets during this lesson. Student Activity Sheet 1A: Sort and Count helps familiarize students with the building pieces. Student Activity Sheet 1B: What I Built allows students to document what they create, and Student Activity Sheet 1C: How Far? helps students record data as they explore measuring distance.

Lesson 2: Push, Pull, Swing In Lesson 2, students build a toy swing set that moves, and use it to explore patterns of movement related to force. Student Activity Sheet 2: Push, Pull, Swing helps students describe the swing set and its motion.

Lesson 3: Push, Pull, Tumble Students use dominos in Lesson 3 to explore the result of force transferred from one object to another. Student Activity Sheet 3: Dominos and a Push provides students with another opportunity to describe their setup and the motion of the system they build.

Lesson 4: Push, Pull, Spin In Lesson 4, students explore force further as they build a toy top that spins and use the top to investigate spinning motion. Student Activity Sheet 4: Spinning Tops helps students record their ideas about the motion of spinning and how the top moves.

Lesson 5: Push, Pull, Invent In Lesson 5, students have access to all the materials used in previous lessons to construct a model (an invention, Rube Goldberg–style) that is set in motion with a push or a pull. Students complete Student Activity Sheet 5A: My Invention, which documents the order of the steps they followed to design and build their invention. Student Activity Sheet 5B: Forces and Motion allows students to link a specific motion with one of the objects that they built during the unit. Both sheets are helpful assessment tools in this concluding lesson.

PUSH, PULL, GO

xv

Lesson Overview Charts

Lesson 1: Push, Pull, Roll Lesson and Time Considerations Time Requirements: Lesson Part A: 1 class session Part B: 0.5 class session Part C: 0.5 class session Part D: 1.5 class sessions Part E: 1 class session Sessions for kindergarten units are based on 20-minute time increments. Additional time may be required for students to complete Student Activity Sheets and/or science notebook entries. Adjust accordingly to meet the needs of your class.

Lesson Objectives • Begin building an age-appropriate understanding of force and motion. • Observe, measure, and record the change in the position of an object over time. • Explore the movement of a rolling ball and begin to build an understanding that motion is predictable; the ball travels in a straight line until a force stops it or changes its direction.

Systems: Students begin building an understanding of how the building pieces in the ramp are part of a system. Order, Organization: Students order the distance the ball travels off the ramp (e.g., longest, shortest, middle). Evidence, Explanation: Students roll the ball off the ramp many times to begin building an explanation of how the ball moves and the pattern of movement (e.g., in a straight line until another force acts on it). Models: Students build a ramp to explore the motion of a ball rolling off a ramp. Constancy, Change: Students explore change in position and movement as a push or pull is applied to a ball. Measurement: Students record the distance a ball travels using nonstandard measurement. Students compare distances the ball traveled (e.g., farthest, shortest, longest).

Teacher Preparation Part A : 20 minutes Part B: 5 minutes or less Part C: 5 minutes Part D: 5 minutes Part E: 5 minutes

xvi

Science Process Skills and Unifying Concepts

Science Tools: Measuring cubes

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

Vocabulary

Unit Resources

Describing Science • Ball • Bounce • Color words • Fast • Move • Ramp • Roll • Round • Shape words • Slow

Suggested Reading • Forces Make Things Move (Let's-Read-andFind-Out Science 2) by Kimberly Brubaker Bradley • Milo Educational Books and Resources: Wheels and Engines (Science Topic: Systems) Guided Reading Level – C Lesson Resources • Learning Cycle Letter

Cross-Curricular Extensions Curriculum Area

Number of Activities

Science Notebooks

3

Language Arts

1

Math

8

Science

1

Technology Art/Music

Science Words • Force • Measure • Motion • Pull • Push

Movement Education

1

LESSON NOTES

PUSH, PULL, GO

xvii

Lesson 2: Push, Pull, Swing Lesson and Time Considerations Time Requirements: Lesson

Lesson Objectives • Explore changes in position and motion by pushing and pulling.

Part A: 1 class session

• Demonstrate that the greater the force (push or pull), the greater the change in motion.

Teacher Preparation

• Begin to collect evidence about the invisible force of gravity.

Part A: 5 minutes

Science Process Skills and Unifying Concepts Systems: Students continue building an understanding of systems using the swing set. Students continue to gather evidence to build an age-appropriate working explanation of systems. Evidence, Explanation: Students look for evidence that gravity is a push or a pull that we can’t see. Models: Students build a model of a swing set to explore force, motion, and patterns of movement. Constancy, Change: Students explore change in position and movement as a push or pull is applied to the swing set (e.g., a greater force makes the swing move faster, higher, etc.).

Lesson 3: Push, Pull, Tumble Lesson and Time Considerations

Lesson Objectives

Time Requirements:

• Demonstrate that a force is any push or pull.

Lesson Part A: 1 class session Part B: 1 class session

• Investigate and demonstrate that force causes an object to start moving, stop moving, and/or change direction.

Teacher Preparation

• Predict and explore what happens if a component of a system set in motion is missing or not working properly.

Part A : 10 minutes Part B: No preparation

• Build on the understanding that position and motion can be changed by pushing and pulling objects. • Gather evidence that it takes energy (understood in terms of forces—pushes or pulls) to change the motion of objects. • Build an understanding that objects move in different patterns (e.g., straight line, zigzag, curved line, etc.).

xviii

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

Science Process Skills and Unifying Concepts Systems: Students explore change in a system as pieces are taken away or not working properly. Order, Organization: Students arrange/organize the dominos into a line and name the order of the position in line (e.g., first, second, third, behind, in front of, etc.). Evidence, Explanation: Students record evidence that force, a push or a pull, can move through a system in a predictable pattern. Constancy, Change: Students explore change in position and movement as a push (force) is applied to several dominos set in a line.

Vocabulary Describing Science • Back • Forward • Swing • Up

Unit Resources Family Science Activity • Family Science General Letter • Family Science Activity A: Finding Things That Move

Science Words • Force • Motion

Cross-Curricular Extensions Curriculum Area

Number of Activities

Science Notebooks

2

Language Arts

1

Math

1

Science Technology Art/Music Movement Education

Vocabulary Describing Science • Directional words (in front of, behind, beside, etc.) • Domino words (four sides, long side, short side, etc.) • Motion pattern words (zigzag, circle, snake, etc.) • Ordinal words (first, last, etc.) • Shape words (rectangle, square, circle, dot, etc.)

Unit Resources Internet Resource • Domino rally video: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=OEJdeOdY0Lo&NR=1

1

Cross-Curricular Extensions Curriculum Area

Number of Activities

Science Notebooks

4

Language Arts Math

1

Science

1

Technology

2

Art/Music Movement Education

Science Words • Force • Gravity • Motion

PUSH, PULL, GO

xix

Lesson 4: Push, Pull, Spin Lesson and Time Considerations Time Requirements: Lesson Part A: 0.5 class session Part B: 1 class session Part C: 0.5 class session

Teacher Preparation Part A : 10 minutes Part B: No preparation Part C: 5 minutes

Lesson Objectives • Build on the concept that the greater the force applied to an object, the greater the change in the object’s motion. • Describe motion over time by exploring the motion—the slowing and the stopping—of a spinning top. • Continue to compare patterns of movement such as sliding, rolling, and spinning. • Begin building an understanding that it takes energy to change the motion of objects and that energy change is understood in terms of forces—pushes or pulls.

Science Process Skills and Unifying Concepts Systems: Students observe and recognize that the building pieces needed to build the toy top are part of the system and the student applying the force to start the motion is part of the system too. Order, Organization: After many times of setting the top in motion and watching it stop, students predict the pattern of motion and the predictable order of events as the top stops spinning (e.g., spins, balances, slows, wobbles, topples, and stops). Evidence, Explanation: Students continue to gather evidence that builds an understanding of objects in motion and the patterns of their movement. Form and Function: In looking at the parts of this system, students begin building an awareness of how the shape and position of the pieces of this toy enable the toy to spin (e.g., the top rod sticks up to give the student a surface to twist to set the toy in motion, the top is spinning on a small, flat surface, and the body of the top is flat to balance and spin easily). Constancy, Change: Students explore change in position and movement as the top spins, slows, and topples over.

xx

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

Vocabulary

Unit Resources

Describing Science • Balance • Change • Dizzy • Tilt • Twirl • Twist • Wobble

Family Science Activity • Push, Pull, Go—Activity B: Finding Pushes and Pulls

Science Vocabulary • Force • Gravity • Spin

Suggested Reading • Milo Educational Books and Resources Wheels and Engines by E. Cardenas and P. Saavedra (Science Topic: Systems (Guided Reading Level C)

Cross-Curricular Extensions Curriculum Area

Number of Activities

Science Notebooks

7

Language Arts

1

Math 1

Science Technology Art/Music Movement Education

LESSON NOTES

PUSH, PULL, GO

xxi

Lesson 5: Push, Pull, Invent Lesson and Time Considerations Time Requirements: Lesson Part A : 1 class session Part B: 1 class session Part C: 1 class session Part D: 1 class session

Lesson Objectives • Apply concepts explored in Lessons 1–4 to build a motion invention (model) that works. • Describe how force and motion work together in the model. • Demonstrate the effect of missing or nonworking parts of a system.

Science Process Skills and Unifying Concepts Systems: Students build an invention using their understanding of how the parts of systems work together. Order, Organization: Students predict how patterns of motion affect the system they are building. Students organize moving parts and complete a task. Evidence, Explanation: Students continue to gather evidence that builds an understanding of objects in motion and the patterns of their movement.

Teacher Preparation Part A: 10 minutes Part B: 5 minutes Part C: 5 minutes Part D: 5 minutes

Form and Function: In building a working motion invention, students build on a growing awareness of how the shape and position of parts within the system allow the system to function. Constancy, Change: Students explore change in position and trace the motion of moving parts as they explore how and where to place the components so that the invention moves and works.

xxii

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

Vocabulary Describing Science • First, second, third • Next, then • Plan • Try

Unit Resources

Cross-Curricular Extensions Curriculum Area

Number of Activities

Science Notebooks

8

Language Arts Math

Science Words • Invention

Science

1

Technology

1

Art/Music

1

Movement Education

1

LESSON NOTES

PUSH, PULL, GO

xxiii

Push, Pull, Go Unit Overview The Building Blocks of Science® unit Push, Pull, Go explores motion and the forces that make things move. Students build toys that move and investigate the forces that move them. Student-constructed toys are utilized to explore systems, how parts of a system interact, and how missing parts change a system. Students track the path of a moving ball and measure distance traveled with nonstandard measurement. Lessons link the invisible force of gravity to moving objects.

Content Standards National Science Education Standards • The position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object or the background. • An object’s motion can be described by tracing and measuring its position over time. • The position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The size of the change is related to the strength of the push or pull. AAAS Benchmarks The Physical Setting—Motion • Things move in many different ways, such as straight, zigzag, round and round, back and forth, and fast and slow. • The way to change how something is moving is to give it a push or a pull. Systems • Most things are made of parts. • Something may not work if some of its parts are missing. • When parts are put together, they can do things that they couldn’t do by themselves.

Lessons Push, Pull, Roll ..................................................................................... 1 Push, Pull, Swing................................................................................ 17 Push, Pull, Tumble .............................................................................. 27 Push, Pull, Spin .................................................................................. 35 Push, Pull, Invent ................................................................................ 45

xxiv

BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENCE

Models • Many toys are like real things in some ways but not others. • They may not be the same size, are missing many details, or are not able to do all of the same things. • A model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to learn something about the real thing. • One way to describe something is to say how it is and isn’t like something else. Constancy and Change • People can keep track of some things, seeing where they come from and where they go.

®

Building Blocks of Science® was developed to help teachers and students establish a solid foundation in elementary science, integrating process skills as defined by the National Science Education Standards and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Building Blocks of Science® units foster cooperative learning and critical thinking as students work collaboratively through inquiry-based activities and explore science concepts and phenomena firsthand through direct observation and experimentation. Building Blocks of Science® Teacher’s Guides support the teacher with ongoing embedded professional development, classroom management tips, and preparation and planning suggestions. Carolina™ Curriculum is committed to providing relevant educational resources to teachers committed to providing their students with good science.

I SBN

978-1-4350-0834- 2

90000

9

781435

008342