arXiv:0907.0760v2 [gr-qc] 12 Jun 2010
Peter K. F. Kuhfittig ∗, Farook Rahaman†and Ashis Ghosh †
Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202-3109, USA ‡
Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata - 700032, India
June 15, 2010
that much of our Universe is pervaded by a dynamic dark energy that causes the Uni.. verse to accelerate [2, 3]: a is positive in the .. Friedmann equation a/a = − 4πG (ρ + 3p). 3 In the equation of state (EoS) p = ωρ, a value of ω < −1/3 is required for an accelerated expansion. The range of values −1 < ω < −1/3 is usually referred to as quintessence and the range ω < −1 as phantom energy. In the latter case we get ρ + p < 0, in violation of the weak energy condition, considered to be a primary prerequisite for the existence of wormholes [4, 5, 6]. The special case ω = −1 corresponds to Einstein’s cosmological constant. This value is sometimes called the cosmological constant barrier or the phantom divide.
The combination of quintessence and phantom energy in a joint model is referred to as quintom dark energy. This paper discusses traversable wormholes supported by such quintom matter. Two particular solutions are explored, a constant redshift function and a specific shape function. Both isotropic and anisotropic pressures are considered.
The quintessence and phantom energy models taken together as a joint model and dubbed quintom for short  suggests a single EoS, p = ωρ, to cover all cases. It is shown in Ref. , however, that ω cannot cross the phantom divide, that is, in the traditional scalar field model, the EoS cannot cross the cosmological constant barrier. (For further discussion, see Refs. [9, 10, 11, 12, 13].) The simplest quintom model involves two scalar fields, φ and ψ, one quintessence-like and one phantom-like
A stationary spherically symmetric wormhole may be defined as a handle or tunnel in a multiply-connected spacetime joining widely separated regions of the same spacetime or of different spacetimes . Interest in wormholes was renewed by the realization ∗
farook [email protected]
‡ ashis [email protected]
[14, 15]: ds2 = −eν(r) dt2 + eλ(r) dr 2 + r 2 (dθ2 + sin2 θdφ2 ), (1)
1 1 L = ∂µ φ∂ µ φ − ∂µ ψ∂ µ ψ 2 2 − V (φ) − W (ψ).
where ν(r) and λ(r) are functions of the radial coordinate r.
So instead of ω in the EoS, we will use ωq and ωph , respectively.
Let us now consider a quintom model, which, as noted earlier, contains a quintessence-like field and a phantomlike field. So we assume that the Einstein field equations can be written as
One reason for studying quintom dark energy is the bouncing universe [14, 16, 17], which provides a possible solution to the Big-Bang singularity. An extension to the braneworld scenario is discussed in Ref. .
Gµν = 8πG(Tµν + τµν ),
The purpose of this paper is to study various wormhole spacetimes that are supported by quintom dark energy. We discuss the structure of such wormholes by means of an embedding diagram, as well as the junction to an external Schwarzschild spacetime. Both isotropic and anisotropic pressures are considered. It is shown that in the isotropic models, the phantom-energy condition ωph < −1 implies that ωq < −1, while in the anisotropic case, ωq < −1/3.
where τµν is the energy-momentum tensor of the quintessence-like field and is characterized by a free parameter ωq , which is ordinarily restricted by the condition ωq < − 31 . (Recall that this condition is required for an accelerated expansion.) According to Kiselev , the components of this tensor need to satisfy the conditions of additivity and linearity. Taking into account the different signatures used in the line elements, the components can be stated as follows:
As a final comment, since quintessence satτtt = τrr = −ρq , (3) isfies the weak and null energy conditions, it is not feasible to model a wormhole using 1 (4) τθθ = τφφ = (3ωq + 1)ρq . the quintessence field. So when considered 2 as separate fields, only phantom energy can The energy-momentum tensor compatible support a wormhole structure. with spherically symmetry is Tνµ = (ρ+pt )uµ uν −pt gνµ +(pr −pt )η µ ην . (5)
As already noted, a phantom-like field is characterized by the equation of state
Construction of quintom wormholes
pr = ωph ρ,
In the present study the metric for a static where pr is the radial pressure and ωph < spherically symmetric wormhole spacetime −1. In the discussion below, pt is the lateral is taken as pressure. 2
The Einstein field equations in the orthonor- Multiplying Eq. (8) by (3ωq + 1)/2 and adding to Eq. (9) leads to mal frame are stated next: ′ λ 1 1 A1 e−λ A1 e−λ − 2 + 2 = 8πG(ρ + ρq ), (7) (e−λ )′ + = , (12) r r r r r where 1 ν′ 1 − + = 8πG(p − ρ ), (8) e r q (3ωq + 1)(ωph + 1) r2 r r2 . (13) A1 = (ωph + 1) + 3ωph (ωq + 1) 1 −λ 1 ′ 2 1 1 e (ν ) + ν ′′ − λ′ ν ′ + (ν ′ − λ′ ) 2 2 2 r The above equation yields (3ωq + 1) ρq . = 8πG pt + D 2 e−λ = 1 − A1 , (14) r (9) where D > 0 is an integration constant. We rewrite the metric in the Morris-Thorne canonical form , eλ = 1/[1 − b(r)/r], 3 Model 1: A constant where the shape function is given by −λ
D r A1 −1
For our first model we assume a constant Using Eqs. (7) and (8), one gets the followredshift function, ing forms for ρ and ρq : ν(r) ≡ νo = constant,
8πGρ = −
DA1 (1 + ωph )r A1 +2
referred to as the zero-tidal-force solution in Ref. . The absence of tidal forces auto- and matically satisfies a key traversability criteD(−A1 + 1 + A1 /(1 + ωph )) 8πGρq = . rion. r A1 +2 (17)
Observe that ρ > 0, since 1 + ωph < 0, while ρq > 0 implies that A1 < (1 + ωph )/ωph . It follows that A1 < 1.
Our first assumption in the present model is an isotropic pressure: The assumption ν(r) ≡ ν0 implies the absence of a horizon. Also, we would like the p = pr = pt . wormhole spacetime to be asymptotically flat, that is, b(r)/r → 0 as r → ∞. To Adding Eqs. (7) and (8) and using Eqs. (6) this end, we require that A > 0. From Eq. 1 and (10), we get (13) we deduce that ′ −4ωph − 1 −λ λ ωq < . = 8πG(ωph + 1)ρ. (11) e 3ωph r 3
Since ωph < −1, it now follows that ωq < −1, thereby having crossed the phantom divide. This result is hardly surprising, given the nature of phantom wormholes. On the other hand, the quintessence condition ωq < −1/3 is still going to occur, namely in the anisotropic case, discussed next.
which is the condition for quintessence. In other words, in the anisotropic model, ωq does not have to cross the phantom divide. Remark: The parameter α could be negative. For example, if α < −1, we return to ωq < −1.
In the case of an anisotropic pressure, the radial and lateral pressures are no longer equal. In an earlier paper on phantomenergy wormholes, Zaslavskii  proposed the form pt = αρ, α > 0, for the lateral pressure. In this manner we obtain simple linear relationships between pressure and energydensity, but with pr not equal to pt .
In this section we let A = Ai , i = 1, 2. Returning to the shape function b(r) = D/r A−1, to meet the condition b(r0 ) = r0 , we must have D = r0A . So the radius of the throat is r0 = D 1/A and r A 0 b(r) = r . r Since A > 0, it now follows that b′ (r0 ) < 1, Observe first that Eq. (11) remains the thereby satisfying the flare-out condition. same. After multiplying Eq. (8) by (3ωq + From Ref. , we therefore obtain the “ex1)/2 and adding to Eq. (9), we get, analo- oticity condition” gously, A b(r0 ) − r0 b′ (r0 ) > 0, = −λ A2 e A2 2[b(r0 )]2 2r02 −λ ′ (e ) + = , (18) r r which shows that the weak energy condition has been violated. We already checked where the asymptotic flatness, so that our solution (3ωq + 1)(ωph + 1) . (19) describes a static traversable wormhole supA2 = (ωph + 1) + 2α + ωph (3ωq + 1) ported by quintom dark energy. Otherwise Eqs. (14)-(17) retain their form.
As discussed in Ref. , one can picture As before, we want A2 > 0. So from Eq. the spacial shape of a wormhole by rotating the profile curve z = z(r) about the z−axis. (19), we have This curve is defined by ωph + 1 + 2α + ωph (3ωq + 1) > 0 dz 1 1 = ±p . = ±p A dr r/b(r) − 1 r /D − 1 and −2ωph − 1 − 2α (21) ωq < . (20) 3ωph For example, choosing A = 21 , we find that q√ Since α > 0 and ωph < −1, it follows that √ 1 √ 3/2 z = 4 D ( r − D) + D ( r − D) . 3 1 ωq < − , (22) 3 4
The profile curve is shown in Figure 1 and the embedding diagram in Figure 2. The proper distance l(r) from the throat to a point outside is given by D=4 30
17 18 distance r
K20 K30 Figure 1: hole.
The profile curve of the worm-
l(r) = ± For A = 21 ,
1 − b(r)/r
Figure 2: The embedding diagram generated by rotating the profile curve (fig 1) about the z−axis.
5D 1/4 l(r) = r 1/4 ( r−D)3/2 + r ( r−D)1/2 2 √ 3 2 r 1/4 + ( r − D)1/2 √ + D ln . (24) 2 D
12 10 8
(See Figure 3.)
It is customary to join the interior solution of a wormhole to an exterior Schwarzschild solution at some r = a. To do so, we demand that gtt and grr be continuous at r = a: gtt (int) (a) = gtt (ext) (a)
Figure 3: The graph of the radial proper distance l(r).
grr (int) (a) = grr (ext) (a); gθθ and gφφ are already continuous . So eν0 = 1 − 2GM and 1 − b(a) = 1 − 2GM . a a a 5
This, in turn, implies that D/aA−1 = 2GM. and Hence, the matching occurs at A1 e−λ A1 1/(A−1) f (r) = (e−λ )′ + − . (30) D r r a= . (25) 2GM As in Eq. (13), The interior metric (r0 < r ≤ a) is given by (3ωq + 1)(ωph + 1) A1 = . (31) (ωph + 1) + 3ωph (ωq + 1) D dr 2 2 ds = − 1 − A dt2 + a 1 − D/r A Now we choose the shape function b(r) in 2 2 2 2 + r (dθ + sin θdφ ) (26) such a way that the right-hand side of Eq. (28) is zero. For this specific choice, one gets the following solution: and the exterior metric (a < r < ∞) by D 1 = 1 − A1 , (32) e−λ = 1 − b(r)/r r dr 2 D 2 where D > 0 is an integration constant. ds = − 1 − A−1 dt2 + a r 1 − D/aA−1 r Fortunately, this form is the same as in + r 2 (dθ2 + sin2 θdφ2 ). (27) Model 1. So the physical characteristics, such as the profile curve, the embedding diagram, and the proper radial distance, rethe same. But the redshift function 5 Model 2: A specific main and stress-energy components are different.
By making the proper substitutions, one gets from Eq. (28) Returning to the isotropic case p = pr = pt , A1 D ν′ (ν ′ )2 let us eliminate ρ and ρq in Eqs. (7) - (9) to ′′ ν + + L1 = − , (33) obtain the following master equation: r 2(r A1 − D) 2 where 1 ′ 2 1 ′′ (ν ) + ν + ν ′ g(r) 4 2 λ e (ωph + 1) + 3ωph (ωq + 1) =− f (r), (28) 2r ωph + 1
L1 = (3ωq + 2) −
Solving this equation, we get #2 " r D ν = ln EDA1 + 1 − A1 , r
where g(r) = −
3ωph (ωq + 1) . (ωph + 1)
1 3ωq + 1 λ′ where E is an integration constant. We have + + 4 2r 2r used the condition L1 = A1 + 1. Start3ωph (ωq + 1) − (29) ing with L1 − 1 = A1 and simplifying, one 2(ωph + 1)r can readily deduce that ωq = ωph ; so once 6
again, ωq < −1, thereby having crossed the here A2 is defined in Eq. (19). In Eq. (33), phantom divide. This is consistent with A1 is replaced by A2 and L1 by the isotropic case discussed in Subsection 3.1. (There is a similar consistency with the L2 = 1 + (3ωq + 1) anisotropic case, as shown at the end of the ωph (3ωq + 1) + 2α . (41) − present section.) ω +1 ph
Finally, we get the following forms for ρ and From the condition L2 − 1 = A2 , we deduce ρq : that ωph + 2α ωq = . 3 Since ωph < −1 and α > 0, we obtain, once DA1 again, 8πGρ = − × (1 + ωph )r A1 +2 1 " # ωq < − . 3 A1 DEr A1 /2 p (36) (r A1 −D ) + A1 DEr A1/2
D(−A1 + 1) + 8πGρq = r A1 +2 # The combination of quintessence and phan" A1 DEr A1 /2 DA1 p . tom energy in a joint model is referred to (1 + ωph )r A1 +2 (r A1 −D ) + A1 DEr A1 /2 as quintom dark energy. The quintessencelike field is characterized by a free param(37) eter ωq with the restriction ωq < −1/3. For the corresponding free parameter ωph In the anisotropic case pt = αρ, α > 0, elim- in the phantom-like field, the condition is ωph < −1. inating ρ and ρq in Eqs. (7)-(9) yields 1 ′ 2 1 ′′ (ν ) + ν + ν ′ g(r) = 4 2 e−λ (ωph + 1) + 2α + ωph (3ωq + 1) f (r), − 2r ωph + 1 (38)
We have proposed in this paper that traversable wormholes may be supported by quintom dark energy. Two models were considered. The first model, a constant redshift function, leads to the determination of the shape function b = b(r), which meets the flare-out conditions. The resulting spacewhere time is asymptotically flat. This was fol1 ′ 1 3ωq + 1 lowed by a brief discussion of the wormg(r) = − λ + + 4 2r 2r hole structure, including an embedding diaωph (3ωq + 1) + 2α − (39) gram, proper distance, and a junction to an 2(ωph + 1)r external Schwarzschild spacetime. For the second, more general model, it is possible and to use the same shape function but with a −λ different redshift function and stress-energy A2 A2 e −λ ′ − ; (40) components. f (r) = (e ) + r r 7
 J.-Q. Xia, Y.-F. Cai, T.-T. Qiu, G.B. Zhao, and X.-M. Zhang, arXiv: astro-ph/0703202.
In each of these models, both isotropic and anisotropic pressures were considered. In the isotropic case, the phantom-energy condition ωph < −1 implies that ωq < −1, and in the anisotropic case, ωph < −1 implies that ωq < −1/3.
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