R. K. Malik, R. K. Gupta, Ashok Yadav, P. K. Sardana and C. M. Singh

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Research and Secretary, DARE, for valuable assistance in the form of NATP project, ... co-operation extended by Director, Irrigated Agro-ecosystem for ...

R. K. Malik, R. K. Gupta, Ashok Yadav, P. K. Sardana and C. M. Singh

ZERO TILLAGE –THE VOICE OF FARMERS

R. K. Malik, R. K. Gupta, Ashok Yadav, P. K. Sardana and C. M. Singh

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Directorate of Extension Education CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India 1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Project Scientists express their gratitude to the Director General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research and Secretary, DARE, for valuable assistance in the form of NATP project, Rice-WheatConsortium for helping the Principal Investigator in initiating and formulating the project, and Heads of the participatory institutions for providing necessary facilities. We would also like to thank the co-operation extended by Director, Irrigated Agro-ecosystem for implementing the project. We are also thankful to each and every scientist and Krishi Vigyan Kendras staff at each centre for their sincere efforts to work at farmers’ field, machine manufacturers for supplying adequate number of machines as per demand, service providers for completing field operations based on custom hire services, and finance managers at all institutes to help finalizing the statement of expenditure reports. We are grateful to thousands of farmers in Indo-gangetic Plains (IGP) who worked with scientists for making the project a successful venture, the members of SAP in NATP unit for inspiring us to publish the project outputs and finish the project in time. Finally the support extended by the Vice-Chancellor, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar is gratefully acknowledged.

(R. K. Malik) Principal lnvestigator

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FOREWORD Accelerated growth of food output is necessary to bring reduction in poverty as it happened in India since the beginning of Green Revolution in late 1960s. While the growth in yield of rice-wheat cropping system has slowed down since late 1980s, only few projects have focused attention on natural resource conservation and cost reduction to improve the total factor productivity of ricewheat cropping system. The implementation of project “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies for Farm Level Impact on Sustainability of Rice-Wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains” has realized benefits in three key areas including operation efficiency through farmers participatory approach, increased profitability to farmers and large participation of scientists from IARS, NARS and extension agencies from both public and private sector. In this project, research and extension were simultaneously conceptualized and organized around farmers. Eleven centres including CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (lead centre); Rice-Wheat Consortium for Indo-Gangetic Plains, CIMMYT, India; Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana; G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar; Narendra Dev University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad; Project Directorate for Cropping System Research (ICAR), Modipuram; ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna; Directorate of Wheat Research (ICAR), Karnal; Directorate of Maize Research, ICAR, New Delhi; Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Modipuram and Rajendra Agricultural University, Patna participated. The project has realized benefits in four key areas i.e. less cost of production, less drudgery, more productive and profitable. Long-term sites created in Haryana have also shown that this technology is sustainable in the long run. The area expansion to over 1.0 million ha shows that the technology has responded to rice-wheat ecology, farmers’ needs and huge opportunities for resource conservation. The Voice of Farmers represented in this bulletin shows that we should use zero tillage technology to yield the kind of improvement needed for sustaining the productivity of rice-wheat cropping system and environmental protection. My heartiest congratulations to all partners in the project.

(MANGALA RAI) Secretary, Department of Agricultural Research & Education and Director General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi-110 001, India.

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CONTENTS The Socio-economic Impact of Zero-tillage in Rice-wheat Cropping System of Indo-Gangetic Plains — R. K. Malik, R. K. Gupta, Ashok Yadav, P. K. Sardana, S. S. Punia, R. S. Malik, Samar Singh and Sher Singh

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Socio-economic Impact of Zero Till Technology in Indo-Gangetic Plains of Eastern Uttar Pradesh — C. M. Singh and R. V. Pandey

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Impact Assessment and Farmers' Views Based on Survey — A. K. Singh

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Studies on Role and Accessibility of Different Agencies in Disseminating Zero-till Technology for Rice-wheat Cropping System — A. K. Singh, Surendar Kumar and S. K. Sharma

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Studies on Role of Knowledge and Attitude for the Transfer of Zero Tillage Technology under the Punjab Conditions — Avtar Singh, Harpreet Kaur Virk and S. S. Brar

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Studies on Source of Information and Constraints for the Adoption of Zero Tillage Technology among the Adopters and Non-adopters under the Punjab Conditions — Avtar Singh, Harpreet Kaur Virk and S. S. Brar

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Multidimensional Impact Assessment of Zero Tillage Technology — Randhir Singh and Sunil Kumar

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Socio-economic Audit of ZT Wheat in Bihar — Ujjwal Kumar, U. S. Gautam, S. S. Singh and Kartikey Singh

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Impact Assessment of Zero Tillage in Wheat — R. K. Sinha and A. K. Singh

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Farmer's opinion about zero-tillage in Haryana

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Farmer's opinion about zero-tillage in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

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The Socio-economic Impact of Zero-tillage in Rice-wheat Cropping System of IndoGangetic Plains R. K. Malik, R. K. Gupta 1 , Ashok Yadav 2 , P. K. Sardana 3 , S. S. Punia 2 , R. S. Malik 2 , Samar Singh 1 and Sher Singh 2 Directorate of Extension Education CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 ABSTRACT Zero tillage research which was at the dead end in 1996 was taken up using farmer’s participatory approach. Farmers have had historical sensitivities from their perception that frequent tillage is must for high yields. The consensus on zero tillage was always harder than usual to reach. The farmer ’s participatory approach adopted under NATP proved to be an accurate guide to its subsequent adoption by farmers within different districts not only in Haryana but also in other states like Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Bihar. The technology has now evolved into something with far broader appeal including cost, convenience, profitability and security. First phase of reforms in Haryana was possible through participation of Rice-Wheat Consortium, New Delhi; CIMMYT, Mexico; ACIAR, Australia and Indian Council of Agricultural Research, the surge in this innovation will require even stronger participation of International Agricultural Research System (IARS), International groups on conservation agriculture, donors and groups within National Agricultural Research System (NARS). The analysis based on three years’ farmers’ survey indicates that conventional tillage has no rational economic and social advantage. A profit-driven advantage of zero tillage technology has allowed small and medium farmers to gain confidence in this technology. The teaming up with all kinds of stakeholders offered much better prospects for acceleration of this technology in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Therefore, in addition to accelerated adoption of zero tillage, other reform championed by this project has been an effort to successfully experiment farmer’s participatory process. With the acceleration still taking place through NARS and IARS efforts, it will not be surprising to hear that it is a second green revolution after the green revolution of 1966. INTRODUCTION Rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) is the most important cropping system supporting more than 600 million people of the region. Under this system, farmers grow rice in the monsoon summer followed by wheat in the dry winter season. Farmers use this system on approximately 12 million ha in South Asia and 10 million ha in China. The NARS and IARS have been pursuing aggressive strategy to maintain the momentum of yield growth in this cropping system. Accelerated growth of food output is necessary to reduction in mass poverty as happened in the developed countries before 1900 and in the developing countries since 1950. As part of green revolution, the evolution of varieties of wheat and rice, which were more responsive to external inputs like fertilizer and irrigation, led to this accelerated growth in food output. The most ultimate impressive gain was witnessed in terms of decline in food prices thus benefiting the poorest of the poor. In the absence of such development, we would have needed two times more additional land to produce same quantity of wheat (Paroda, 2004). Despite continuing scientific advances, the yield growth in cereals has fallen since 1980s. Similarly, the investment in agriculture for scientific development has tumbled (Lipton, 2004). If green revolution was a turning point for progress of Indian agriculture, sustaining it would need radical reforms in management of natural resources and the way we conduct research and extension. Rice-Wheat Consortium, CIMMYT India, New Delhi. Department of Agronomy, CCSHAU, Hisar. 3 Department of Agricultural Economics, CCSHAU, Hisar. 1 2

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The management practices employed in one crop will have bearing on the performance of other crop in rotation. RWCS has distinct identity and the respective successes of rice and wheat are deeply interdependent. Both crops are so interdependent that commodity approach for research in these crops is meaningless. Since each crop exercises its influence on other crop, we need to take into account the management options available for both rice and wheat. In the initial phases, when the performance of wheat was out of step due to herbicide resistance, evolution of zero tillage and then its subsequent acceleration through NATP has led the technology everywhere at project sites in firmly expansionary mode. Sustainability issues in RWCS have been much on the mind of World Bank team during farmers field visit organized by Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) in June 2000. Interaction with farmers during this visit proved to be useful guide to formulate a special project entitled “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies for Farm Level Impact on Sustainability of Rice-Wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains”. Implementation of the project at each site went smoothly enough and therefore farmers in Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Bihar tossed away the past practice of frequent tillage and adopted the new concept in the form of zero tillage. Area Expansion The project scientists in their meeting at N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad in 2001 developed a strategy, which was focused on two things : deciding where we wanted to go in accelerating the resource conservation technologies and how to do it. The strategy also meant deciding how much area can be brought under which technology. The project, therefore, had three components : farmers to help set strategy by inviting suggestions based on large scale field demonstrations of most viable technologies, gaining new perspective through organizing travel seminars at different sites and horizontal networking by bringing together project scientists, farmers, machine manufacturers, extension agencies representing each level of support and then focusing on problems. The project implementation was, therefore, based on the fact that we offered the most simple and profitable technologies which had no if or buts. As project scientists hoped, zero tillage technology accelerated through farmer’s opinion which they kept passing on to their fellow farmers. The steep upward curve of area under zero tillage is almost exactly matched by cost effectiveness and high profitability of this technology. The area under zero tillage is expected to grow rapidly and this technology is set to become big thing after green revolution varieties. Without doubt, much of increase in the area under zero tillage across the breadth of country does reflect an underlying rise in demand for the technology throughout the rice-wheat belt of India (Fig. 1). The area expansion is based on number of zero-tillage drills 1400000 1200000

Area (ha)

1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2K 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

Year Fig. 1. Growth of area under zero-tillage wheat in India.

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operating in IGP. Approximately 25,000 drills are available. Study conducted at Faizabad has shown that each drill covers 53 ha area. The area covered through other organizations including NGO’s has not been included in the area expansion. This area expansion does not include surface seeding which has significant area coverage in Bihar (Singh et al., 2005e). Productivity The green revolution has slowed sharply, as has yield growth, since 1980s (Lipton, 1999; IFAD, 2001). Farmers use labour, capital and land. To calculate real earnings, wages for labour, interest on capital and rent of land are included. Direct increase in the cost of natural resources through increased taxes may improve their efficient use but for small farmers it will be more rational to evolve technologies that need less of such resources. The technology, which can help poor farmers, must raise both output per labour-hour and output per hectare (Lipton, 2004). Any technology that does not help to raise output does nothing to make it attractive for farmers. The survey shows that this technology can help small farmers to turn their small resources into more output (Fig. 2). Data from three years’ survey (Fig. 2) and eight years long-term sites (Fig. 3) reveal that grain yield of wheat under zero-tillage stayed more than the conventional tillage. The grain yield during all years under report remained almost similar or more both under favourable years (1999-2000 and 2000-01) and also under unfavourable years (2001-02 to 2004-05). The average yield under zerotillage was 200 kg ha -1 more than conventional tillage in Uttaranchal and Bihar (Thakur, 2005; Singh et al., 2005e) and in eastern Uttar Pradesh, the gains in wheat yield ranged from 279-297 kg ha -1 (Singh et al., 2005c). Sustainability Zero-tillage

Conventional tillage

Expanding the area is one thing but to sustain it is quite another. In addition, farmers and top 5000 officials may frequently ask questions as to how long the zero-tillage should continue. Fears and 4000 various causes of concern have not evaporated. To understand the strategy, it is important to 3000 know how physical and chemical properties of 2000 soil are changing (Kumar, 2004), how the soil micro-flora is responding (Singh, 2003) and what 1000 will happen to the pests (Jaipal, 2005; Singh et al., 2005d). These studies have shown that zero0 tillage improves soil health and there is no cause 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 Overall of concern even if farmers keep practising zeroYear tillage for long time. The uncertainty of long-term Fig. 2. Comparative grain yield in Zero tillage and conven- effects is unlikely to vanish until its long-term tional tillage over time. The data are based on virtues are demonstrated on large size plots at survey of 398 farmers spread over three years. The difference in yield between 0-till and conventional farmer ’s fields. Scientists at CCS Haryana tillage was found to be statistically significant in the A g r i c u l t u r a l U n i v e r s i t y, H i s a r h a v e b e e n years 2000-01 (t cal=6.08), 2001-02 (tcal=6.79), 2002- advancing this rationale by maintaining long03 (tcal=4.53) and overall (tcal=10.15). term sites under ACIAR project and now under NATP project of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). As it has happened in other countries, circumstances seem likely to prove favourable. Studies conducted so far have shown that after eight years, the grain yield of wheat at permanent sites has been more than the conventional tillage. In fact, there could be fewer better illustrations of sustainability than this (Fig. 3). Data indicate that the average yield of wheat with its peak in 1999-2000 (most favourable weather) depended more on weather conditions that prevailed during eight years. These data suggest that substantial further increase in the yield is possible by planting the crop as early as possible. The Kg/ha

6000

7

7000

Zero-tillage

Conventional tillage

Grain yield (kg/ha)

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1997-98

1998-99

1999-2K

2000-01

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

Years Fig. 3. Sustainability of zero-tillage based on average of six sites at farmers' fields where farmers had been practising zero-tillage continuously for eight years in Haryana. Sites were in village Pirthla (Fatehabad), Teek (Kaithal), Ferozpur (Kaithal) and Uchana.(Karnal).

average yield declined after 2000 is not because of fertilizer or irrigation but because of length of time the crop could grow and reproduce. The maintenance of relatively higher yield under zerotillage in the favourable (1999-2000 and 2000-01) and abberent weather (2001-04), is quite enough for us to anticipate that this technology has all virtues of sustainability. These long-term sites must be maintained even in future because critics of zero-tillage will continue finding faults without even visiting such sites. Another proof of sustainability of this technology has also been illustrated in contrasting situation where one unreplicated long term trial was established at experimental farms of Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar under pearlmillet-wheat situation (Table 1). The effect of weather is not reflected in the experiment conducted at research farm. This is because the time of sowing was not same during the course of eight years. Consistently higher yield obtained in contrasting situations like this does indicate that there exists a promise of future opportunity of zero-tillage in cropping systems other than rice-wheat. Certainly, we cannot pretend that zero-tillage will have no adverse effect on soil health or pest spectrum. These speculations need to be put into perspective by monitoring such changes by maintaining such sites for even much longer periods. Table 1. Grain yield of wheat under permament ZT trials (8th year) at Research Farm of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Yadav et al., 2005b) Tillage treatment Pearlmillet

Wheat

Grain yield of wheat (kg ha-1) 1997-98

1998-99

1999-2K

2000-01

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

Mean

ZT

ZT

4980

5272

5420

5550

5280

5480

4070

4940

5124

MB*

ZT



5076

5350

5430

5330

5420

3780

4802

5027

CT

CT**



5140

5290

5480

4940

5396

4020

4851

5017

ZT–Zero-tillage, MB–Mould Board plough, CT–Conventional tillage. *Mould board plough was replaced by CT in pearlmillet in kharif 2003 onward. **The field was under CT and ZT in 1997-98 for growing pearlmillet and wheat, respectively.

This technology seems to solve old problems without posing any new problem. The switch to zerotillage is a logical long-term step to sustain productivity of RWCS. It is better to evolve varieties 8

which can emerge and grow at slightly higher temperature so that sowings can be done in the second half of October in north-west and in November in the east. Grain yield is function of time (Malik et al., 2002; Singh et al., 2005c) for which the crop remains in the field. Longer the time crop remains in the field for its growth and development, the higher the grain yield. The profit that zero tillage can extract from advanced sowing is a non-cash input. It serves as an effective signal for a new avenue for research investment in management of rice fallows in places like Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. This type of measure for early sowing (a non-cash input) through the use of zerotillage technology will invariably serve the public good and will benefit all farmers. Development process had some independent trials in places like DWR and at Pantnagar. The conclusion from all such trials was ambivalent to the extent that the technology was thought not to work (DWR, 1995, 1996). Now the question regarding zero-tillage is not why it is successful in larger part of IGP, but how it stays successful for long. Profitability Every private enterprise including a farmer maximizes the difference between total revenues and total costs, that is, its profits. Rational action, however, occurs within particular institutional context (Subroto, 1984). When a person changes his long held beliefs, there must be some evidence to change that perception. The experience of farmers recorded during last three years shows that zero-tillage promotes not only better yields (Fig. 2) but also better profitability (Fig. 4) compared to conventional tillage. Pick up in the profitability of the cropping system will be responsible for large chunk of increased demand for this technology by all categories of farmers. A significant increase in the profitability (Fig. 4) from zero-tillage (Rs. 2636 ha -1 more than conventional tillage) has been responsible for large scale adoption of this technology (Fig. 1). Center of International Economics, Australia carried an impact assessment report on success story of zero-tillage in 2002. This report calculated a gain to the Indian economy of around 1800 million AU$ in the net present value terms over the next 30 years from 2001 (Vincent and Quirke, 2002). Gill and Ahmed (2004) calculated gains from no-tillage technology to the extent of US$ 23.98 million from 0.189 m ha. This gain to the Indian economy is based on estimated area of 0.92 million ha from 2006 to 2030. The area under zero-tillage has already crossed one million ha and will have significant increase in the coming years. Therefore, the gains to the Indian economy will be much larger than what has been estimated in this report. This breakthrough is considered to be scale neutral and will lead to a much greater benefit to small farmers with scarce resources at the time of sowing. Zero-tillage

14000

Conventional tillage

12000

Rs/ha

10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2000-01

2001-02

2002-03

Overall

Year

Fig. 4. Comparative net profit in zero-tillage vis-a-vis conventional tillage over time. The difference in net profit between 0-till and conventional tillage was found to be statistically significant in the years 2000-01 (t cal=14.42), 2001-02 (t cal =11.57), 200203 (t cal=8.87) and overall (t cal=19.66).

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For Indian farmers where land holding per person is less than 0.14 ha, profitability of a technology is a guide to the value it has created for the society. The profitability for farmers is an indicator of value creation by a technology. It is also a signal that may help poor farmers to invest in useful purposes like education of children. Unlike business houses, here the profit goes to individual farmers. The value that farmers have attached to the adoption of this technology is shown by their willingness to buy new zero-till drills (approx. 25,000 upto 2004-05). It also shows other farmers’ willingness to adopt this technology on custom hire basis. If that output exceeds the cost (Fig. 5), society has gained and an individual farmer has earned profit. The per hectare profitability in places like eastern Uttar

Zero-tillage

Conventional tillage

16

30000

14 12

time (hr)

25000

Rs/ha

20000 15000

10 8 6 4

10000

2 0

5000

Zero-tillage

0

Conventional tillage

Method of sowing 2000-01

2001-02

2002-03

Overall

Year

Fig. 5. Comparative cost of cultivation in Zero-tillage and conventional tillage over time. The difference in cost of cultivation between 0-till and conventional tillage was found to be statistically significant in the years 2000-01 (t cal=15.21), 2001-02 (t cal=17.33), 2002-03 (t cal=17.19) and overall (t cal=26.72).

Fig. 6. Comparative time taken in first post-sowing irrigation in zero and conventional tillage.

Pradesh has been found to range from Rs. 3800 in the Vindhyachal zone to Rs. 5200 in east plain zone (Singh et al., 2005c). This kind of profit seeking in the self interest of an individual farmer is also rational in the sense that it advances the cause of public good like saving in water, improving soil health and reducing the possibility of herbicide resistance due to reduction in the population of Phalaris minor; a dreaded weed of wheat in rice-wheat cropping system. Rice-wheat cropping system consumes much more natural resources than other cropping systems. Impending shortage of natural resources is not good for sustainable development. That means yield growth in these crops could be halted at some point of time in future (Hobbs and Gupta, 2004). Pattern of consumption of such natural resources can be sustained because zero tillage will lead to less use of water (Fig. 6) and improved productivity (Fig. 2) and biology of soil (Singh, 2003). That means the existing supply of natural resources will be used more efficiently and economically. Moreover, the impending largescale adoption of this technology warrants huge volume and large scale saving of resources; which is a social good. Zero-tillage provides higher profitability to the farmers mainly due to saving in cost of tillage operations. The saving in cost of tillage operations was observed mainly in cost of ploughing and planking and diesel. It was further observed that the difference in profitability between ZT and CT was statistically significant at 5% level of probability (Fig. 7). Overall increase in net profitability was observed to be Rs. 2636/ha in ZT compared to CT. It was Rs. 2717, 2691 and 2715 on small, medium and large farms, respectively. ZT gave 1.53, 1.45, 1.67 and 1.53 q/ha higher yield on small, medium, large and overall farms, respectively. However, an impact of increased yield in ZT was also observed in the study area. Cultivation Time The impact of zero-tillage was also seen in saving cultivation time and number of days needed for sowing wheat crop after rice harvesting. Gill and Ahmed (2004) while working in Pakistan have shown that conventional tillage needs 15 h more than zero-tillage. Zero-tillage would mean less time pressure on farmer during the rice harvesting season. This will help farmers to be able to plant the crop at optimum time. The reduction in tractor passes also reduces wear and tear on equipment. The technology itself helps in optimising the use of tractors. 10

Zero-tillage

12000

Conventional tillage

Rs/ha

10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Small

Medium

Large

Overall

Farm category Fig. 7. Profitability of zero vis-à-vis conventional tillage on different farm sizes. The difference in net profit between 0-till and conventional tillage was found to be statistically significant on small (tcal=4.32), medium (t cal=12.38), large (t cal=15.31) and overall (tcal=19.66) farms. The similar trend was observed in case of cost of cultivation of wheat on these farms.

Environmental Protection The technology also has the promise to give something back to the society in the form of environmental protection due to a significant reduction in the fuel consumption (Singh et al., 2005a). Since the concept of sustainability of RWCS requires proper care of natural resources, the success of zero-tillage can effectively advance the cause of proper environmental action. Accelerated adoption of zero-tillage technology by the farmers of Indo-Gangetic plains has successfully weighed the trade-off between individual profits, social benefits and environmental protection. In conventional tillage, frequent passes of tractor across vast land area burn diesel and pollute the environment. Within agriculture this is major source of environmental degradation. The amount of diesel used in the intensively cultivated rice-wheat cropping system especially in the lead areas is more and hence it generates excessive more pollution. It can be significantly reduced with the adoption of zerotillage. Data in Fig. 4 show that conventional tillage generates a waste of capital, labour and the environment because there is no evidence that frequent tillage adds to profits and productivity. Vincent and Quirke (2002) have concluded in their report that in addition to the yield dividend likely from a reversal of the slow degradation of soils under conventional, zero-tillage is also likely to deliver several other environmental benefits. The reduction in diesel consumption of 60 to 80 l ha 1 represents a reduction of 0.25 t of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. There may also be gains through less carbon oxidation during cultivation and perhaps some carbon sequestration through retention of residue into the soil, though these gains have not yet been quantified. A reduction in atmosphere carbon dioxide emissions may have long-term environmental benefits. It may also be commercially valuable in the event that a carbon tax or emissions trading system is implemented on a global scale. But at this stage of global greenhouse gas policy development, it has zero commercial value. Another potential environmental and commercial benefit comes from the saving in water use under zero-tillage at the first irrigation; this saving could be as high as 5% per year. The existing practices like straw burning (Table 2) lead to pollution, which is spread, from smoke of burnt straw. Farmers do not bear the cost of such pollution, which is publicly unacceptable. Zero tillage can effectively serve as an opportunity to evolve residue management technologies because management of surface residue is easier than incorporation. RWC has already started developing second generation machinery for residue management. 11

Table 2. Different practices adopted by the farmers for straw management under different categories of land holding (% farmers) Parameters

Small

Medium

Large

Total

Burning in the field

28.57 (10) 68.57 (24) -

87.93 (51) 6.90 (04) 1.72 (01) 1.72 (01) 1.72 (01) 100.00 (58)

95.92 (64) -

78.13 (125) 17.50 (28) 0.63 (01) 1.88 (03) 1.88 (03) 100.00 (160)

Feeding to cattle Selling Composting/manuring Cooking Total

2.98 (01) 100.00 (35)

2.99 (02) 1.49 (01) 100 (67)

Figures in parentheses indicate the number of farmers. Source : Sheoran (2003).

Out of 334 farmers who adopted zero-tillage, 143 farmers did not burn their residue. The response of 40% farmers who are not burning the straw gives a strong message of its own importance because before the adoption of zero-tillage, the burning straw was very common. The data given in Table 2 indicate that 78% farmers used to burn their straw (Sheoran, 2003). Zero-tillage, therefore, can help facilitating residue retention as better option compared to residue burning. Therefore, it will permit management of soil without much loss in the organic matter as there will be accelerated oxidation due to frequent tillage operations. This process will also lead to improved soil quality and overall resource enhancement. Zero Tillage – An Efficient Incentive More profits will bring about demand for better living and means to bring about such changes. The policy makers have embarked on initiatives like introduction of alternate cropping systems to conserve natural resources. Efforts to diversify the cropping system in favour of crops other than rice and wheat seem not to have worked. When the outcome of diversification programme for Punjab was reviewed, the answer was virtually nothing (Rangi, 2004). Farmers are unlikely to meet the diversification targets of reducing rice or wheat area in favour of alternate crops (Singh and Sidhu, 2004). This is because after adoption of RWCS in states like Haryana, living standards and the quality of life of farmers have risen at a pace, and to a level, that it has not been possible in other cropping systems. Stability and consistency in income in this cropping system has been the driving force behind this economic and social progress. Therefore, anticipating less profits and more risk farmers have not accepted this alternative. Pingali (2004) also concluded that risk aversion is a significant impediment to what would seem to be a rational diversification on the basis of average profitability of alternative crops. Behaviour in the face of risk aversion is affected by attitude of farmers and the nature of technology. Correcting this may still take some time. In the meantime, on account of more profits and social benefits, accelerated adoption of zero-tillage best fits the thesis of resource conservation for sustainability of RWCS. Zero-tillage, therefore, is the rational risk avoiding strategy with tremendous potential to conserve natural resources. The survey referred in this paper shows that zero-tillage qualifies the requirement of positive attitude of the farmers. Technologies such as zero tillage may turn the lessons learnt from diversification programme to its advantage. The trouble shooting for natural resource management through diversification cannot 12

be more positive than zero tillage because it has the potential for huge area coverage and, therefore, better volume of natural resource conservation. Other Social Benefits Although farmers are the ultimate stakeholders for whatever we do in our research, ignoring the legitimate interest of others (consumers) is not correct. The cost cutting through zero tillage will be shared equitably because that may ultimately lead to price reduction and a benefit to the consumers and the society. In India, 60% of the workforce was engaged in agriculture in 2000 as against 74% in 1970. Households whose main income source was agriculture were 33% of this workforce. Most farm labour gets significant income from their own farming. The agricultural production, therefore, remains family managed. There may be more farmers than farm labours. This type of family farm management continues with less labour-time and more capital per hectare. Moreover, farmers with more secondary and tertiary education will tend to rise. With increasing importance of education especially with children, any technology that requires less labour-time is a public good. Poverty reduction almost always starts with large increases in profitably produced farm output (Lipton, 2004). The concern that the poor farmers would be unable to afford the purchase of zero-tillage drill does not hold good in the case of such technologies. The best way of ensuring the availability of drills is the custom hire service. This will then raise their income. The technology will increase efficiency because of reduction in the cost of producing a given level of yield. Today we frequently see bankers chasing farmers to lend them money to buy goods like a tractor. Small farmers in such cases may stuck with huge losses. The social cost of such activity can be reduced once the small farmers understand the virtues of such technologies and using the mechanism of custom hire services to plant their crops directly in the soil without any frequent use of tractor. The resources used for the purchase of items like tractor can be utilized elsewhere. In retrospect, zero tillage can generate social benefits through rationalizing farm operation that need less investment. The analysis based on three years’ farmers’ survey indicates that conventional tillage has no rational economic and social advantage. A profit-driven advantage of zero tillage technology has allowed small and medium farmers to gain confidence in this technology. The teaming up with all kinds of stakeholders offered much better prospects for acceleration of this technology in the IGP. Therefore, in addition to accelerated adoption of zero-tillage, other reform championed by this project has been an effort to successfully experiment farmer’s participatory process. The green revolution was aimed at higher food availability but for new science to help poor farmers and poor food consumers, it must cut food prices and must raise total factor productivity of small farms a lot faster (Lipton, 2004). The study conducted by Vincent and Quirke (2002) has stated that about 36% of Indian population lives below the official poverty line. The production response to the reduction in unit cost and the yield increases will result in more wheat produced and higher profits for farmers adopting zero-tillage. Some of the benefits could be expected to flow through Indian wheat consumers as lower prices for wheat. This study further states that the average per capita income of approximately US$ 550 for Haryana compared to the all India average of US$ 400 can be balanced by additional family income through technologies like zero-tillage. Some areas in Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh have much lower productivity of RWCS. These areas are called agriculturally backward because they were neglected by applied science (Fan et al., 2000a, b). Such backward areas now offer more growth and poverty reduction incentives through zero-tillage. 13

Level of Spread at Individual Farm Level A survey was conducted on 398 randomly selected farmers of Haryana, where zero-tillage technology has been spread. This report highlights the socio-economic and resource profile of respondents, their sources of information about zero-tillage and key determinants of adoption of zero-tillage. Respondents were classified according to their extent of adoption of zero-tillage. The extent of adoption of zero-tillage was determined using the following formula : Extent of adoption (%)=(Area under wheat cultivated using zero tillage/total area under wheat) x 100 The percentage of respondents in each category according to their extent of adoption of zerotillage is given in Fig. 8. The data were collected on a pre-designed interview schedule. The results of the survey are discussed next. Non adopter

Upto 50%

51-75%

Above 75% Non adopter, 64, 16%

Above 75%, 168, 42%

Upto 50%, 100, 25%

51-75%, 66, 17%

Fig. 8. Number of respondents according to extent of adoption of zero tillage.

Contextual Matrix of Respondents The present section describes socio-economic profile of the respondents (Table 3). It is evident from the data that among different socio-economic factors, number of adults and children in family, caste, education, major occupation and type of family of respondents has significant impact on the level of adoption of zero-tillage technology in the study area. The average number of adults in nonadopters families was significantly less than that in the families having upto 50% of area under wheat cultivated using zero tillage. Though same was observed to be true in case of farmers having more than 50% of area under wheat cultivated with same technology but no significant difference in age was observed among adopters of the technology. Almost similar trend was observed in case of number of children in adopter and non-adopter families. Earner to dependents ratio, however, did not exhibit any significant difference among adopters and non-adopters of zero-tillage. It is further clear from Table 3 that among different caste groups, agricultural caste and dominant caste in the study area exhibited the highest level of adoption of zero technology in the study area. Similarly the respondents having education upto high school level were observed to be keen adopters of the technology. Even those farmers who could read and write only, were observed to be keen adopters of the technology. The respondents having more than highschool education, however, did not exhibit any distinct variation in adoption of zero-tillage technology. This may be due to the fact that their proportion in the overall sample was less as compared to the others. It implies that for using zero technology, one does not require a high level of education but the level of education required for having awareness about new farming techniques is sufficient enough for adoption of this technology. Socio-economic Profile of Respondents The occupation of most of the respondents was observed to be agriculture. While among those having major occupation as agriculture, 84% were the adopters, 82.6% of those having occupation 14

other than agriculture, were adopters. Furthermore, statistically significant value of chi-square (11.98) indicated a strong association between occupation of respondents and their level of adoption of zero tillage technology. It is further clear from Table 3 that while almost equal proportion of nonadopters belonged to nuclear and joint families each, a higher proportion of adopters belonged to nuclear families. It implies that the farmers coming from the nuclear families are more keen adopters of zero tillage as compared to those belonging to joint families. A significant value of chi-square (9.20) further substantiates this finding. It can be concluded from the above results that while age and earner to dependents ratio in a farmers’ family do not affect his level of adoption of zero-tillage, caste, education, major occupation and type of family have a statistically significant bearing on it. Table 3. Socio-economic profile of respondents Nonadopter

Upto 50%

64

100

66

168

398

Age

44.10

41.87

41.61

40.80

41.72

NS

Adults

4.36b

5.09ab

4.28a

3.68a

4.25

0.01

Children

2.78a

3.42b

2.83a

2.73a

2.93

0.05

1.90

1.87

1.92

1.74

1.83

NS

N

Earner to dependent

Adopter 50-75%

Total Significance Above 75%

ratio Caste

Chi-square=25.58

Scheduled caste Artisan

0.01 3 (100.0)

3 (100.0)

8 (66.7)

1 (8.3)

3 (25.0)

12 (100.0

Agricultural

47 (26.3)

45 (25.1)

22 (12.3)

65 (36.3)

179 (100.0)

Dominant

15 (15.3)

22 (22.4)

14 (14.3)

47 (48.0)

98 (100.0)

2 (33.3)

1 (16.7)

2 (33.3)

1 (16.7)

6 (100.0)

Prestigious Education Illiterate

Chi-square=50.52 5 (20.8)

10 (41.7)

6 (25.0)

24 (100.0)

24 (49.0)

10 (20.4)

15 (30.6)

49 (100.0)

Can read and write 16 (15.7)

21 (20.6)

14 (13.7)

51 (50.0)

102 (100.0)

1 (7.7)

5 (38.5)

1 (7.7)

6 (46.2)

13 (100.0)

10 (22.2)

13 (28.9)

6 (13.3)

16 (35.6)

45 (100.0)

High School

6 (11.3)

13 (24.5)

11 (20.8)

23 (43.4)

53 (100.0)

Graduate

1 (11.1)

4 (44.4)

3 (33.3)

1 (11.1)

9 (100.0)

Post-graduate

1 (33.3)

1 (33.3)

1 (33.3)

3 (100.0)

Can read only Primary Middle

Major occupation Non-agriculture Agriculture

3 (12.5)

0.01

Chi-square=11.98 4 (17.4)

12 (52.2)

60 (16.0)

88 (23.5)

Type of family

66 (17.6)

0.01 7 (30.4)

23 (100.0)

161 (42.9)

375 (100.0)

Chi-square=9.20

0.03

Nuclear

34 (14.5)

49 (20.9)

40 (17.0)

112 (47.7)

235 (100.0)

Joint

30 (18.4)

51 (31.3)

26 (16.0)

56 (34.4)

163 (100.0)

*Data given in parentheses are in per cent. NS–Not significant. 15

Farmers who were educated upto middle or high school level, most of them belonging to agricultural caste, are more inclined to adopt this technology. Similarly, farmers belonging to nuclear family are better adopters than farmers belonging to joint family. The adoption of zero-tillage will further help such farmers because : (i)

Children are more likely to go to school and stay there for better livelihood in the future.

(ii)

Farmers in the nuclear families have more chance of sending their children for education and keeping the women farmer away from field operation for concentrating their activities like animal rearing etc. Women in the family are busy in various household activities. They have more chance of improving family income from time saved and extra income generated through technologies such as zero-tillage.

(iii)

The decision of nuclear families to adopt zero-tillage is based on the level of satisfaction (profits) and other factors mentioned in equation of discriminant analysis.

Resource Profile of the Respondents The owning of tractor, trolley, thrasher, zero-tillage drill, seed drill, land owned, given/taken on contract basis and total operational holding of a farmer has statistically significant bearing on adoption of zero-tillage technology (Table 4). The average land holding size owned by sample respondents was observed to be 12.7 acres. It is further clear from Table 4 that the proportion of farmers having tractor, trolley, thrasher, seed drill and zero-tillage drill was higher among adopters of zero-tillage as compared to non-adopters. These farmers on an average hold about one each of tractor, trolley, thrasher, seed drill and zero-tillage drill. The average land holding owned by a farmer in the study area was observed to be 12.66 acres and that taken and given on contract basis were observed to be 3.50 and 0.29 acres, respectively. The total operational holding in the study area was observed to be 15.37 acres. The operational land holding was observed to be significantly higher as compared to that of non-adopters. Table 4. Resource profile of respondents Nonadopter N 64 Tractor with 35 HP 20.3 Tractor with >35 HP 9.4 Trolley (s) 23.4 Thrasher 20.3 Seed drill 12.5 Zero-tillage drill 1.6 Combine 0 Own land holding (acres) 7.48a Land taken on contract basis (acres) 4.25ab Land given on contract basis (acres) 1.04b Total operational land holding 9.60a

Upto 50%

Adopter 50-75% Above 75%

100 20.0 30.0 48.0 20.0 18.0 13.0 1.0 14.26b 5.21a 0.39ab 18.28b

66 19.7 30.3 45.5 25.8 13.6 30.3 0 15.91b 2.83ab 0.19a 18.24b

168 7.7 22.0 29.2 15.5 6.0 25.6 2.4 12.40b 2.47a 0.11a 13.97b

Total 398 14.8 23.4 35.7 19.1 11.3 19.3 1.3 12.66 3.50 0.29 15.37

Significance

0.01 0.01 0.01 NS 0.02 0.01 NS 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.01

Sources of Information Profile of Respondents Three types of sources of information exist for farmer respondents. These are mass media (Table 5), Institutional (Table 6) and Non-institutional (Table 7). It is evident from Table 5 that among different mass media as source of information, none exhibited a significant bearing on adoption of zero-tillage by the farmers. It is further clear from this table that all the mass media sources viz., 16

Radio, TV, Educational film shows, Farm Publications, Pamphlets, Exhibitions, News Papers, Kisan Mela/Farm Darshan and Field Days served as occasional sources of information for both adopters and non-adopters of zero-tillage. Table 5. Source of information (Mass media) profile of respondents Source of information 1 Radio Chi-square=NS

2

Never Sometimes Often Most Often Total T. V. Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total Educational film show Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total Farm publications Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total Pamphlets Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total Exhibition Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total News paper Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total Kisan Mela/ Never Farm Darshan Sometimes Chi-square=NS Often Most Often Total Field days Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total

Nonadopter

Upto 50%

Adopter 50-75%

Above 75%

3

4

5

6

26 (40.6) 25 (39.1) 11 (17.2) 2(3.1) 64 (100.0) 30 (46.9) 20 (31.3) 9 (14.1) 5 (7.8) 64 (100.0) 61 (95.3) 3 (4.7)

43 (43.0) 32 (32.0) 17 (17.0) 8 (8.0) 100 (100.0) 31 (31.0) 44 (44.0) 17 (17.0) 8 (8.0) 100 (100.0) 92 (92.0) 5 (5.0)

176 (44.2) 146 (36.7) 55 (13.8) 21 (5.3) 398 (100.0) 142 (35.7) 176 (44.2) 50 (12.6) 30 (7.5) 398 (100.0) 375 (94.2) 16 (4.0) 7 (1.8) 398 (100.0) 351(88.2) 31 (7.8) 8 (2.0) 8 (2.0) 398 (100.0) 343 (86.2) 42 (10.6) 9 (2.3) 4 (1.0) 398 (100.0) 362 (91.0) 28 (7.0) 3 (0.8) 5 (1.3) 398 (100.0) 249 (62.6) 97 (24.4) 30 (7.5) 22 (5.5) 398 (100.0) 177(44.5) 166 (41.7) 32 (8.0) 23 (5.8) 242 (60.8) 86 (21.6) 55 (13.8) 15 (3.8) 398 (100.0)

64 (100.0) 38 (59.4) 22 (34.4) 1 (1.6) 3 (4.7) 64 (100.0) 30 (46.99) 27 (42.2) 5 (7.8) 2 (3.1)

2 (2.0) 100 (100.0) 61 (61.0) 22 (22.0) 9 (9.0) 8 (8.0) 100 (100.0) 49 (49.0) 37 (37.0) 5 (5.0) 9 (9.0)

1 (1.5) 66 (100.0) 39 (59.1) 21 (31.8) 3 (4.5) 3 (4.5) 66 (100.0) 30 (45.5) 24 (36.4) 10 (15.2) 2 (3.0)

45 (70.3) 16 (25.0) 1 (1.6) 2 (3.1) 64 (100.0)

65 (65.0) 19 (19.0) 10 (10.0) 6(6.0) 100 (100.0)

39 (59.1) 16 (24.2) 10 (15.2) 1 (1.5) 66 (100.0)

93 (55.4) 35 (20.8) 34 (20.2) 6 (3.6) 168 (100.0)

64 (100.0) 61 (95.3) 2 (3.1) 1 (1.6)

*Data given in parenthses are in per cent.

17

66 (100.0) 58 (87.9) 7 (10.6) 1 (1.5) 66 (100.0) 56 (84.8) 9 (13.6) 1 (1.5) 66 (100.0) 58 (87.9) 7 (10.6)

7

78 (46.4) 64 (38.1) 19 (11.3) 7 (4.2) 168 (100.0) 56 (33.3) 84 (50.0) 18 (10.7) 10 (6.0) 168 (100.0) 159 (94.6) 5 (3.0) 4 (2.4) 168 (100.0) 150 (89.3) 11 (6.5) 3 (1.8) 4 (2.4) 168 (100.0) 144 (85.7) 18 (10.7) 4 (2.4) 2 (1.2) 168 (100.0) 154 (91.7) 10 (6.0) 2 (1.2) 2 (1.2) 168 (100.0) 111 (66.1) 32 (19.0) 17 (10.1) 8 (4.8) 168 (100.0) 68 (40.5) 78 (46.5) 12 (7.1) 10 (6.0)

64 (100.0) 57 (89.1) 5 (7.8) 1 (1.6) 1 (1.6) 64 (100.0) 58 (90.6) 5 (7.8) 1 (1.6)

3 (3.0) 100 (100.0) 86 (86.0) 8 (8.0) 4 (4.0) 2 (2.0) 100 (100.0) 85 (85.0) 10 (10.0) 3 (3.0) 2 (2.0) 100 (100.0) 89 (89.0) 9 (9.0)

29 (43.9) 25 (37.9) 8 (12.1) 4 (6.1) 66 (100.0) 25 (37.9) 28 (42.4) 6 (9.1) 7 (10.6) 66 (100.0) 63 (95.5) 3 (4.5)

Total

Among institutional sources of information, however, Agriculture Development Officers and University Scientists exhibited statistically significant association with level of adoption of zero-tillage technology by the farmers in the study area (Table 6). Among the above two also, the university scientists who served as major source of information of zero-tillage technology for the farmers. It is further clear from Table 6 that other institutional sources of information, viz. Extension Workers, Panchayat Personnels, NGOs and Private Organizations, however, did not have any significant impact on adoption of zero-tillage among farmers. The visits of University Scientists ranged from most often to sometimes in the study area. Almost similar trend was observed in case of Agriculture Development Officers also. Table 6. Source of information (institutionals) of respondents Source of information 1 ADO Chi-square=23.05 *

2

Never Sometimes Often Most Often Total University Scientists Never Chi-square =35.12 * Sometimes Often Most Often Total Extension workers Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total Panchyat personnels Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total NGOs Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total Private organizations Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total

Nonadopter

Upto 50%

Adopter 50-75%

Above 75%

3

4

5

6

54 (84.4) 7 (10.9) 1 (1.6) 2 (3.1) 64 (100.0) 23 (35.9) 12 (18.8) 17 (26.6) 12 (18.8) 64 (100.0) 54 (84.4) 6 (9.4) 2 (3.1) 2 (3.1) 64 (100.0) 59 (92.2) 4 (6.3) 1 (1.6) 64 (100.0) 59 (92.2) 4 (6.3) 1 (1.6) 64 (100.0) 35 (54.7) 22 (34.4) 4 (6.3) 3 (4.7) 64 (100.0)

65 (65.0) 16 (16.0) 11 (11.0) 8 (8.0) 100 (100.0) 30 (30.0) 15 (15.0) 18 (18.0) 37 (37.0) 100 (100.0) 90 (90.0) 6 (6.0) 1 (1.0) 3 (3.0) 100 (100.0) 87 (87.0) 9 (9.0) 2 (2.0) 2 (2.0) 100 (100.0) 87 (87.0) 8 (8.0) 21 (1.0) 4 (4.0) 100 (100.0) 73 (73.0) 14 (14.0) 9 (9.0) 4 (4.0) 100 (100.0)

44 (66.7) 18 (27.3) 3 (4.5) 1 (1.5) 66 (100.0) 10 (15.2) 12 (18.2) 11 (16.7) 33 (50.0) 66 (100.0) 61 (92.4) 3 (3.4) 2 (3.0) 66 (100.0) 60 (90.9) 4 (6.1) 1 (1.5) 1 (1.5) 66 (100.0) 57 (86.4) 8 (12.1) 1 (1.5) 66 (100.0) 42 (63.6) 20 (30.3) 3 (4.5) 1 (.5) 66 (100.0)

Total

131 (78.0) 23 (13.7) 5 (3.0) 9 (5.3) 168 (100.0) 38 (22.6) 19 (11.3) 25 (14.9) 86 (51.2) 168 (100.0) 157 (93.5) 3 (1.8) 5 (3.0) 3 (1.8) 168 (100.0) 155 (92.3) 8 (4.8) 4 (2.4) 1 (0.6) 168 (100.0) 157 (93.5) 7 (4.2) 1 (0.6) 3 (1.8) 168 (100.0) 130 (77.4) 26 (15.5) 5 (3.0) 7 (4.2) 168 (100.0)

7 294 (73.9) 64 (16.1) 20 (5.0) 20 (5.0) 398 (100.0) 101 (25.4) 58 (14.6) 71 (17.8) 168 (42.3) 398 (100.0) 362 (91.0) 18 (4.5) 10 (2.5) 8 (2.0) 398 (100.0) 361 (90.7) 25 (6.3) 7 (1.8) 5 (1.3) 398 (100.0) 360 (90.5) 27 (6.8) 2 (0.5) 9 (2.3) 398 (100.0) 280 (70.4) 82 (20.6) 21 (5.3) 15 (3.8) 398 (100.0)

*Significant at 1% level of probability. Data given in parenthses are in per cent.

The non-institutional sources of information, viz. family members, relatives, friends and neighbours and village/opinion leaders were observed to have a significant impact on level of adoption of zero tillage by the farmers in the study area (Table 7, significant chi-square values). It is further clear from the table that these sources of information mostly served as an occasional source of information to the adopters in the study area. 18

Table 7. Source of information (Non-Institutional) profile of respondents Source of

Non-

information 1

Never Sometimes Often Most Often Total Relatives Never Chi-square=48.53 * Sometimes Often Most Often Total Friends & neighbours Never Chi-square=38.75 * Sometimes Often Most Often Total Village/opinion leadersNever Chi-square=31.74 * Sometimes Often Most Often Total Chopal meetings Never Chi-square=NS Sometimes Often Most Often Total

Total

adopter

Upto 50%

50-75%

Above 75%

3

4

5

6

2

Family member Chi-square=24.32 *

Adopter

23 (35.9) 22 (34.4) 11 (17.2) 8 (12.5) 64 (100.0) 19 (29.7) 22 (34.4) 15 (23.4) 8 (12.5) 64 (100.0) 13 (20.3) 25 (39.1) 9 (14.1) 17 (26.6) 64 (100.0) 47 (73.4) 15 (23.4) 2 (3.1) 64 (100.0) 50 (78.1) 12 (18.8) 2 (3.1) 64 (100.0)

21 (21.0) 39 (39.0) 22 (22.0) 18 (18.0) 100 (100.0) 8 (8.0) 49 (49.0) 28 (28.0) 15 (15.0) 100 (100.0) 4 (4.0) 46 (46.0) 30 (30.0) 20 (20.) 100 (100.0) 78 (78.0) 17 (17.0) 2 (2.0) 3 (3.0) 100 (100.0) 81 (81.0) 15 (15.0) 3 (3.0) 1 (1.0) 100 (100.0)

10 (15.2) 39 (59.1) 8 (12.1) 9 (13.6) 66 (100.0) 2 (3.0) 45 (68.2) 8 (12.1) 11 (16.7) 66 (100.0) 41 (62.1) 9 (13.6) 16 (24.2) 66 (100.0) 52 (78.8) 11 (16.7) 2 (3.0) 1 (1.5) 66 (100.0) 55 (83.3) 9 (13.6) 2 (3.0) 66 (100.0)

49 (29.2) 65 (38.7) 16 (9.5) 38 (22.6) 168 (100.0) 10 (6.0) 95 (56.5) 28 (16.7) 35 (20.8) 168 (100.0) 9 (5.4) 85 (50.6) 27 (16.1) 47 (28.0) 168 (100.0) 138 (82.1) 21 (12.5) 5 (3.0) 4 (2.4) 168 (100.0) 150 (89.3) 11 (6.5) 5 (3.0) 2 (1.2) 168 (100.0)

7 103 (25.9) 165 (41.5) 57 (14.3) 73 (18.3) 398 (100.0) 39 (9.8) 211 (53.0) 79 (19.8) 69 (17.3) 398 (100.0) 26 (6.5) 197 (49.5) 75 (18.8) 100 (25.1) 398 (100.0) 315 (79.1) 64 (16.1) 11 (2.8) 8 (2.0) 398 (100.0) 336 (84.4) 47 (11.8) 12 (3.0) 3 (0.8) 398 (100.0)

Data given in parenthses are in per cent.

Knowledge of ZT Technology Placement of phosphorus at right depth was perceived as big advantage by the farmers in the study area (Fig. 9). This can, at least in theory, lead to much better nutrient use efficient as evident from the response of farmers regarding health of crop after first post-sowing irrigation. Most of the farmers agreed that under ZT the crop does not turn yellow after first irrigation (Fig. 10) and population of Phalaris minor is less in ZT as compared to CT (Fig. 11). When compared with CT, some 280 farmers out of 398 strongly agreed that under zero tillage the wheat crop does not turn yellow after post-sowing irrigation. The lodging of crop nearing maturity has been a serious problem. Most farmers (93.7%) have reported that the lodging (Fig. 12) is significantly reduced due to zero-tillage. Such factors together with other factors explained in this paragraph have made farmers readier to accept the concept of zero-tillage than they were in the past. Traditionally followed conventional tillage often leads to heavy population of Phalaris minor as was evident from the history of the evolution of zero-tillage in Haryana (Malik et al., 2002, 2005). Zero-tillage first intended to solve part of herbicide resistance problem has now been authenticated by Yadav and Malik (2005) where authors have explained how a farmer has escaped the use of herbicide in one out of two or three years. The reduction in population of Phalaris minor due to zero-tillage has also been reported from Punjab (Singh et al., 2005b), western Uttar Pradesh (Singh et al., 2005a), Bihar (Singh et al., 2005e), Uttaranchal (Thakur et al., 2005) and eastern Uttar Pradesh (Singh et al., 2005c). The four year 19

100 90

100

80 70

80 70

90 %age of farmers

%age of farmers

plan of NATP project on acceleration of RCTs has established the improved efficiency of external inputs due to improved productivity of wheat crop. The knowledge of farmers presented here shows that ambivalence towards zero-tillage has been clarified as the farmers now understand such factors which helped them to adopt zero-tillage. The survey indicates that mindset of farmers of IGP is now changing in favour of zero-tillage.

60 50 40 30 20

50 40 30 20 10

10 0

0

Strongly agree

Agree

Undecided Disagree

Strongly agree

Strongly disagree

Fig. 9. D o f a r m e r s a g r e e t h a t z e r o t i l l a g e a l l o w s placement of phosphorus at right depth?

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Fig. 10. Do farmers agree that in zero tillage crop does not turn yellow after first irrigation?

80

100

70

90 80

60

70

%age of farmers

%age of farmers

60

60 50 40 30

50 40 30

20

20

10

10

0 Strongly agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

0

Strongly disagree

Strongly agree

Fig. 11. Do farmers agree that the population of Phalaris minor is less in zero tillage compared to conventional tillage?

Fig. 12

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Do farmers agree that lodging is not a problem in Zero-tillage?

Other Important Factors Where Farmers Need to Enrich Their Knowledge Include : Early Sowings Zero-tillage technology has provided a chance to plant wheat at least 7-10 days early. This allows more time for crop maturity and thus a yield premium of 1-2% per day depending on the region. Farmers are not only spending less on tillage but they are planting their crop much early. In the event of drought like situations where spending on rice cultivation has increased, farmers have the best option to save money in wheat sowing and take the advantage of early sowings. 20

Fuel Savings Zero-tillage technology has the benefit of 22-31 per cent less energy use. Survey of farmers by CCSHAU and Pantnagar has shown that this technology can save at least 60-70 litre diesel ha -1. The less use of diesel will have combined effect by making both farmers and environment better off. The technology will therefore, provide a clearly discernible return with favourable impact on environment. Causes of Concern Nematodes The perception and reality about long-term consequences have narrowed down because so far there has been no cause of concern as far as pest spectrum is concerned. The zero-tillage technology is likely to prove long lasting. However, to ensure that zero-tillage technology serves long-term interest of farmers and environment, it is important to establish long-term studies by maintaining permanent sites at farmer’s field. Some of the studies from permanent sites at farmer ’s field in Haryana have shown that no definite trend in nematode population has emerged after five years of adoption of zero-tillage (Singh et al., 2005d). Insect Spectrum The effects of modified tillage practices of wheat sowing on composition of insects in Haryana state, north-west India, were studied by Jaipal et al. (2002) for three years. The 24 on-farm sites sampled every two weeks during the regular growing season of rice recorded 61 species of insects and spiders. The number was considerably less in wheat crop. The spectrum of insect fauna particularly in or around the no-till wheat field at all the sites appeared substantially rich in beneficial fauna, the rice stubble providing cover to a variety of the spiders, ants, earwigs, lady beetles and bugs. These beneficial fauna were also noticed to take refuge in grasses and other weeds growing on the bunds of wheat fields or nearby wastelands. Albeit their number generally declined under low temperature, it increased gradually over the seasons. The no-till sites with rice stubble shaved off or burnt in situ harboured lower number of natural enemies than those with stubble intact. This fauna in wheat fields sown with conventional or raised-bed methods was, however, almost absent. The yellow stem borer of rice (Scirpophaga incertulas) and pink borer (Sesamia inferens) were the main hibernating pests in soil stubble. In situations of in situ burning or decaying gradually the population of yellow and pink stem borer reduced to negligible in the months of Jan. and Feb. Pathogens Work done in Haryana by Singh et al. (2002) indicated that the population of soil fungi was more in conventional than zero-till fields at CRI and dough stage of wheat, while no uniform trend was observed in paddy. Fusarium species, D. rostrata and Penicillium species were predominant fungi in rhizosphere of wheat and rice. The population of F. moniliforme was more in conventionally sown wheat fields than zero, while it was more or less same in paddy. F. moniliforme, F. pallidoroseum, D. oryzae and D. rostrata were found pathogenic on paddy and A. triticina and B. sorokiniana on wheat. There was no significant difference in the incidence and severity of major diseases of ricewheat sequence in the state. Attitude Towards ZT Technology The mean attitude scores of adopters and non-adopters of different categories of farmers are given in Fig.13. It is evident from Fig. 13 that the attitude of adopters was higher than that of non-adopters on all the farm size categories. However, the difference in attitude scores of adopters and nonadopters was observed to be statistically non-significant. It may be due to the reason that the attitude 21

Adopters

Score attained

100

Non-adopters

80 60 40 20 0 Small

Medium

Large

Overall

Farm category Fig. 13. Mean attitude score of respondents towards zero tillage (Maximum attainable score = 95).

level of both adopters and non-adopters is quite high and the non-adopters are also on the verge of adoption of this technology. Determinants of Adoption of ZT Technology Step-wise discriminant analysis was undertaken to examine the characters of farmers which have significant bearing on adoption of ZT. The equation is given below : ZT (adoption) = 0.685 WPstrength + 0.426 CP – 0.603 TOATS + 0.686 TOKNS - 0.862 TOSATS + 0.311 TOCONS Where, WPstrength=Strength of working population in a family; CP = Change Proneness of farmer; TOATS=Total score on attitude towards zero-tillage; TOKNS=Total score on knowledge regarding zero-tillage; TOSATS=Total score on level of satisfaction of farmer on adoption of zero-tillage; and TOCONS=Total score on constraints in adoption of zero-tillage. These determinants have been discussed below in order of their ranking. 1.

Total Satisfaction Level

The level of satisfaction due to zero-tillage was ascertained among adopters and non-adopters on the basis of a set of 19 questions asked from both of these groups. The maximum attainable score on level of satisfaction was 95 and the average score of adopters (81.95) was significantly higher than that of non-adopters (65.20). The standard deviations were 4.84 and 12.60 for these respective groups. It is clear from the discriminant equation presented above that since the coefficient of total satisfaction level was the highest (0.862), the level of satisfaction had the highest impact on adoption of zero-tillage by the farmers in the study area. The data do reflect the value that farmers are firm towards satisfaction they derive from a technology. The satisfaction level generally reflects the fact that farmers will accept the technology if the economic costs are always positive. Saving in tillage 22

operations will be one thing and satisfaction from improved productivity will be another thing. It is therefore important to keep demonstrating the technology on-farm, so that farmers can relate to and adapt technology in a practical manner (Cummins, 2002). 2.

Total Knowledge Regarding Zero-tillage

The knowledge level of adopters and non-adopters regarding zero tillage was ascertained based on a set of 23 questions asked from both of these groups. The adopters scored 101.91 on an average, while non-adopters scored 95.2 out of maximum attainable score of 115. The standard deviations were 6.23 and 8.14 for these respective groups and the difference between the two groups was observed to be statistically significant at 5% level of probability. It is clear from the discriminant equation presented above that since the coefficient of total knowledge score (0.686) regarding zero tillage was lower than the coefficient of total satisfaction score, the knowledge level exhibited next best impact on level of adoption. In addition to factors mentioned above, risk management will remain a key element influencing the acceleration of this technology. Surely, the impact of withdrawl of technical support in terms of new projects would be vast if farmers are not provided with relevant answers of questions related with soil health and the causes of concerns regarding the insect, pest, disease and weed spectrum. Long-term studies that have been established in Haryana have shown that so far zero tillage technology has maintained a positive balance and is not likely to pose any problem in the long-run (Kumar, 2004; Jaipal et al., 2005; Singh et. al., 2005d; Yadav et al., 2005a; Kumar et al., 2005). The long-term data from these studies affirmed the value of long-term trials for a risk management study for long-term success of this technology. It implies that the answers of skeptics of this technology need to be given through long-term studies and constant knowledge enhancement of farmers is a must. Yield benefits and improved profitability were easier to identify but long-term consequences that have been established positively in Haryana must be continued in Haryana and elsewhere. The overall improvement in the knowledge of farmers will help reaping the enormous economic and environmental benefits in the long-run. 3.

Working Population in Household

The strength of adult males and females (total working population) in a household was observed to be next important factor of adoption of zero tillage in the study area. Average working population in an adopter family was observed to be 2.7, while that of a non-adopter was slightly lower (2.3). The strength of working population in adopter and non-adopter families also differed significantly. The proportion of working members in the nuclear family is more as compared to that in joint family. Well motivated family workers per hectare whose main source is ‘self-employment in agriculture’ seem to influence the adoption process of new technology. In addition to more capital gain, less labour time per hectare may be an important criterion for larger agreement on adoption of zerotillage. 4.

Attitude Towards Zero-tillage

The attitude of respondents was ascertained based upon their response towards a set of 19 questions. Here also the response was taken on a 5-point scale ranging from ‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’. The maximum attainable score was 95. Adopters obtained a higher score (91.07) than the non-adopters (78.60) and these differed significantly at 5% level of probability. The coefficient of attitude (0.603) was observed to be next in ranking to number of males in the family thus indicating its importance in level of adoption of zero-tillage. The positive attitude has been found to be a driving force of change from conventional tillage to zero-tillage. Much of this success 23

has been associated with high rates of return from the technology that was demonstrated at farmers’ field. These data indicate a greater return on the investment made in the project over the last four years. Investment in agricultural research and exyenstion has been documented as beneficial to farmers and consumers. Much of this success has been associates with plant breeding (Maredia et al., 2000; Brennan et al., 2003) but not around natural resource management because attributable success in this area is more difficult to demonstrate (Krall, 2003). This has happened with diversification programme which has remained under pressure to deliver impacts. However, the 0zero-tillage technology has clearly shown that the positive attitude was a significant indicator of virtues of this technology. The strategic plan elaborated by CSIRO has stated that it is not enough just to have great idea; we must have impact, solve problems and make a difference (CSIRO, 2003, quoted by Carberry, 2004). This study clearly demonstrates successful implementation of the participatory action for acceleration of resource conservation technologies. 5.

Change Proneness

Change proneness refers to an individual’s ability to adapt to the new technology. This was ascertained based on the response of adopters and non-adopters towards a set of nine questions received on a two-point scale of yes/no. The average change proneness of adopters was observed to be significantly high as compared to that of non-adopters with regard to only one aspect. Those who usually want to see the results of their neighbours before adopting a new practice were observed to be key player in adoption of this particular technology. Its coefficient next in ranking to coefficient of attitude towards zero-tillage as evident in the discriminant equation, further supports the above findings. Characteristics associated with the technology (simple vs complex), the personal and situational factors associated with target groups (within village or cluster of villages) and actual environment (physical, economic and social) in which the demonstrations have been laid out are key challenges faced by any organization involved in the development and promotion of any technology. That is why the farmers participatory process was an important paradigm shift for acceleration of this technology not only in Haryana but also in other states. That is also the reason why scientists failed to evolve zero-tillage when most work was at research farm but not at farmers’ field (DWR, 1995, 96). We must, therefore, consider that farmers have genuine reasons for adoption or non-adoption of a technology. Farmers’ inability to accept new technologies sometime is the result of technologies whose development takes place outside of local farm situation. The relative confidence of the individual farmer to adopt new technology will influence the adoption rate. Therefore, when farmers actively experience the true development of the technology, the learning process is faster and adoption is faster. Conclusively, the farmers participatory approach that incorporated an open participatory process to technology development provided the greatest potential to accelerate the adoption of this technology throughout the IGP. 6.

Constraints in Zero-tillage

Constraints in adoption of zero-tillage were observed to be least important factor in adoption of zero-tillage. The coefficient of constraints in adoption was observed to be the lowest (0.311) and therefore, for adopters this was found to play a significant role. Although the provision of subsidy has played an important role in the spread of new zero-tillage machines in whole of IGP but this is not an overriding factor for adoption. As part of long-term exit policy, the subsidy may not be as important as the level of satisfaction that farmers drive from this technology. For stimulating further expansion in the area, the custom hire services may be encouraged and subsidy may be associated with the possible environmental gains that technology may deliver in the long-run. 24

The impact assessment studies made on zero-tillage have incorporated a strong monitoring and evaluation mechanism which has been difficult to quantify. Earlier, most efforts were directed towards impacts of breeding. However, the accelerated adoption that has been seen for zero-tillage will enhance the attraction for the process of farmers’ participatory approach that was followed in this project. The impact presented in this study calls for continued investment in this type of strategic research and development. The adoption of no-till by South Asian farmers can be considered as revolution because it is a part of significant paradigm shift in the way wheat production is managed in RWCS (Malik et al., 2004). Carberry (2004) stated that we must demonstrate successful implementation of participatory action research, its impacts and contribution to innovative science. During the process of implementation of the project on Acceleration of Resource Conservation Technologies, the project scientists were given a mandate to develop a questionnaire and report the impacts. A study of economic benefits of zero-tillage was first published by the Center of International Economics in Australia (Vincent and Quirke, 2002). This study apparently underlines the case for further acceleration of zero-tillage in at least 50% of area under rice-wheat cropping system of IGP. Before the implementation of project, just getting the policy makers around the table was hard enough. The study finds that balance of economic and environmental benefits will keep reassuring policy makers to continuously support the process of acceleration of this technology. Around IGP, an advance sowing by 10-20 days as reported from different centres will have much larger impact on improving the wheat productivity. It is worth noting that these estimates on rates of returns presented in this paper are based on a scenario where the advantages of advanced sowings are less than eastern Uttar Pradesh (Singh et al., 2005c) and Bihar (Singh et al., 2005e). In these states, the technology is likely to further improve the estimates of net profit. Where we stand? Any technology which needs less investment through savings in cost of cultivation and improves yield due to advanced sowing or better efficiency of external inputs, clearly the two together, will be more profitable. Changing to a zero-tillage system on one hectare of land would lead to a gain of Rs. 2600 per ha and a saving of 50 litres/ha of diesel. During last four years, the zero-tillage technology has provided a cumulative wealth of Rs. 6088 million with contributions of Rs. 260, 572, 1954 and 3302 millions from individual years of 2001-02 to 2004-05. The cumulative saving in diesel was to the tune of 117 million litres (Table 8). These benefits will increase dramatically if the accelerated adoption is further extended across 50% area of RWCS of 12 m ha. Table 8. Area covered, saving in fuel and total net saving due to zero-tillage wheat during NATP project Year

Area (ha)

Net gain (Million Rs.) @ Rs. 2600 ha -1

Fuel saving (Million litres) @ 50 l ha -1

2001-02

100000

260

5.0

2002-03

220000

572

11.0

2003-04

750000

1954

37.5

2004-05

1270000

3302

63.5

Total

2340000

6088

117.0

25

REFERENCES Brennan, J. P., A. Aw-Hassan and T. L. Nordblom, 2003. Influence of spillovers to Australia on impacts of the International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. Food Policy, 28 : 471-485. Carberry, S. Petr, 2004. Crop scientists as change agents. 4th International Crop Science Congress held in Brisbane, Australia from September 26 to October 1. pp. 1-16. Cummins, Jay, 2002. On-farm participatory research and development : Enhancing adoption of zero-tillage through active farmer participation. International Workshop Proc. on “Herbicide Resistance Management and ZeroTillage in Rice-wheat Cropping System, March 4-6 at CCSHAU, Hisar”. pp. 77-82. DWR, 1995. Annual Report. Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal. DWR, 1996. Annual Report. Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal. Fan, S., P. Hazell and S. Thorat, 2000b. Targeting Public Investments by Agroecological Zone to Achieve Growth and Poverty Alleviation Goals in Rural India. Food Policy, 25 : 411-428. Fan, S., Z. Linxiu and X. Zhang, 2000a. Growth and poverty in rural China : The role of public investments (International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC). Gill, M. A. and M. Ahmed, 2004. The Role of South Asian Conservation Agriculture Network (SACAN) in No-till Farming in Pakistan. In : Sustainable Agriculture and the International Rice-wheat System, Lal, Rattan, Hobbs, Peter, R., Uphoff, Norman and Hansen, David, O. (eds.). pp. 479-494. Hobbs, Peter R. and Raj Gupta, 2004. Problems and Challenges of No-till Farming for the Rice-wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains in South Asia. In : Sustainable Agriculture and the International Rice-wheat System. Lal, Rattan, Hobbs, Peter, R., Uphoff, Norman and Hansen, David O. (eds.). pp. 101-120. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 2001. Rural Poverty Report 2001 : The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty. Oxford University Press, New York. Jaipal, Saroj, R. K. Malik, Ashok Yadav and Raj Gupta, 2005. IPM Issues in Zero-Tillage System in Rice-Wheat Cropping Sequence. Technical Bulletin (8). CCS Haryana Agricultural Univeristy, Hisar, India. pp. 32. Jaipal, Saroj, Samar Singh, Ashok Yadav, R. K. Malik and Peter Hobbs, 2002. Species Diversity and Population Density of Macro fauna of Rice-Wheat Cropping Habitat in Semi-Arid Subtropical North-West India in Relation to Modified Tillage Practices on Wheat Sowing. International Workshop Proc. on “Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero-Tillage in Rice-wheat Cropping System, March 4-6 at CCSHAU, Hisar”. pp. 166170. Krall, S., 2003. Epilogue- Impact assessment and evaluation in agricultural research for development. Agricultural Systems 78 : 329-336. Kumar, Anil. 2004. Impact of zero-tillage in wheat on physical properties of soils, and growth and yield of wheat under rice-wheat cropping system. M. Sc. thesis, Department of Soil Science, CCSHAU, Hisar. Kumar, Surender, K. Kukreja, S. Suneja, B. S. Kundu and R. K. Malik, 2005. Tillage effect on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosphere microbiol cummunities and their activity. Project Workshop Proc. on “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains” held on June 1-2, 2005 at Hisar (Haryana), India. pp. 54-60. Lipton, M., 1999. Reviving global poverty reduction : what role for genetically modified plants? Sir John Memorial Lecture (CGIAR, Washington, DC). Lipton, Michael, 2004. Crop science, poverty and the family farm in a globalising world. 4th International Crop Science Congress held in Brisbane, Australia from September 26 to October 1. pp. 49.

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Malik, R. K., A. Yadav, S. Singh, P. K. Sardana, Peter R. Hobbs and Raj Gupta, 2004. No-tillage Farming in the Rice-wheat Cropping Systems in India. In : Sustainable Agriculture and the International Rice-wheat System. Lal, Rattan, Hobbs, Peter, R., Uphoff, Norman and Hansen, David, O. (eds.). pp. 133-146. Malik, R. K., Ashok Yadav, R. K. Gupta, Samar Singh, P. R. Hobbs and R. Bellinder, 2005. Introduction and success of zero-tillage in wheat under rice-wheat cropping system in Haryana, India – related stories. Project Workshop Proc. on “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains” held on June 1-2, 2005 at Hisar (Haryana), India. pp. 1-17. Malik, R. K., Ashok Yadav, Samar Singh, R. S. Malik, R. S., R. S. Balyan, Saroj Jaipal, Peter R. Hobbs, Girjeet Gill, Samunder Singh, R. K. Gupta and R. Bellinder, 2002. Herbicide Resistance Management and Evolution of Zero-Tillage–A Success Story. Research Bulletin-2002, CCSHAU, Hisar. pp. 1-43. Maredia, M. K., D. Byerlee and P. Pee, 2000. impacts of food crop improvement research : evidence from subSaharan Africa. Food Policy 25 : 531-559. Paroda, Raj, 2004. Scaling-up how to reach a billion resource-poor farmers in developing countries. Proc. 4th International Crop Science Congress held in Brisbane, Australia from September 26 to October 1. pp. 54. Pingali, Prabhu. 2004. Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems : Implications for research and policy. Proc. 4th International Crop Science Congress held in Brisbane, Australia from September 26 to October 1. Rangi, P. S. 2004. Crop diversification vis-à-vis development of market infrastructure in Punjab, Dilawari, V. K., Brar, L. S. and Jalota, S. K. (eds.). Proc. Workshop on Sustainable Agriculture Problems & Prospects, November 9-11, organized by Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana in collaboration with Technology Information, Forecasting & Assessment Council and Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi. pp. 143-147. Sheoran, Parvender, 2003. Nitrogen management and its impact assessment at farmers’ field in rice in rice-wheat cropping system. Ph. D. thesis, Department of Agronomy, CCSHAU, Hisar. Singh, A. K., G. C. Sharma and Saurabh Sharma, 2005a. Productivity and economics of wheat cultivation as affected by tillage systems. Project Workshop Proc. on “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-Wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains” held on June 1-2, 2005 at Hisar (Haryana), India. pp. 202-207. Singh, Avtar, A. S. Virk, G. K. Virk and H. K. Virk, 2005b. Effect of zero-tillage and conventional tillage on the yield potential of wheat. Project Workshop Proc. on “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains” held on June 1-2, 2005 at Hisar (Haryana), India. pp. 216-218. Singh, C. M., R. V. Pandey and Janmejai Singh, 2005c. Accelerating of zero-tillage technology in Indo-Gangetic plains of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Project Workshop Proc. on “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains” held on June 1-2, 2005 at Hisar (Haryana), India. pp. 148-153. Singh, Joginder and R. S. Sindhu, 2004. Trends and possibilities of crop diversification in high potential rice-wheat belt of Punjab, Dilawari, V. K., Brar, L. S. and Jalota, S. K. (eds). Proc. Workshop on Sustainable Agriculture Problems & Prospects, November 9-11, organized by Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana in collaboration with Technology Information, Forecasting & Assessment Council and Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi. pp. 132-142. Singh, Ram, R. K. Malik, S. Singh and Ashok Yadav, 2005d. Effect of tillage practices on diseases of rice-wheat system. Project Workshop Proc. on “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains” held on June 1-2, 2005 at Hisar (Haryana), India. pp. 69-73.

27

Singh, Ram, R. K. Malik, Samar Singh, Ashok Yadav and E. Duveiller, 2002. Influence of Zero-Tillage in Wheat on Population Dynamics of Soil Fungi and Diseases of Rice-Wheat System. International Workshop Proc. on "Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero-Tillage in Rice-wheat Cropping System, March 4-6 at CCSHAU, Hisar". pp. 177-181. Singh, S. S., R. K. Malik, Raj Gupta, Samar Singh, 2005e. Weed problems associated with the new technologies in rice-wheat cropping system of Bihar. Project Workshop Proc. on “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains” held on June 1-2, 2005 at Hisar (Haryana), India. pp. 252-260. Subroto Roy, 1984. Pricing, Planning and Policies – A study of economic distortions in India. Occasional Paper 69. The Institute of Economic Affairs, 2 Lord North Street, Westminster, London SWIP 3LB. pp. 70. Surinder, Singh, 2003. Influence of tillage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on microbial population and their activity. M. Sc. thesis, Department of Microbiology, CCS HAU, Hisar. Thakur, T. C., 2005. Zero-tillage in wheat after rice in the state of Uttaranchal. Project Workshop Proc. on “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-wheat Systems of the IndoGangetic Plains” held on June 1-2, 2005 at Hisar (Haryana), India. pp. 160-164. Vincent, David and Derek Quirke, 2002. Controlling Phalaris minor in the Indian Rice-Wheat Belt. ACIAR Impact Assessment Series No. 18, Australia. pp. 35. Yadav, A. and R. K. Malik, 2005. Herbicide Resistant Phalaris minor in Wheat – A Sustainability Issue. Resource Book. Department of Agronomy and Directorate of Extension Education, CCSHAU, Hisar, India. pp. 152. Yadav, Ashok, R. K. Malik, S. S. Punia, R.S. Malik and Sher Singh, 2005b. Studies on the impact of long-term zerotillage in pearlmillet cropping sequence. Project Workshop Proc. on “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains” held on June 1-2, 2005 at Hisar (Haryana), India. pp. 23-31. Yadav, Ashok, R. K. Malik, Saroj Jaipal, Samar Singh, Samar, Ram Singh, Kali Ram and Sher Singh, 2005a. Sustainability of long-term zero-tillage in wheat and its impact on the productivity of rice. Project Workshop Proc. on “Accelerating the Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Rice-wheat Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains” held on June 1-2, 2005 at Hisar (Haryana), India. pp. 18-22.

28

Socio-economic Impact of Zero Till Technology in Indo-Gangetic Plains of Eastern Uttar Pradesh C. M. Singh 1 and R. V. Pandey 2 N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229 ABSTRACT The zero till technology in seeding of wheat has significant impact in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh where sowing of wheat invariably delayed by 15 to 30 days resulting in reduction of yield @ one per cent per day. In the past three years, the success of technology indicates geometric progression in area expansion from 550 ha (200102) to 9510 ha (2003-04) due to implementation of National Agricultural Technology Project of ICAR on acceleration of Resource Conservation Technologies (RCTs) by the scientists in farmers’ participatory mode. The survey of 100 randomly selected zero tillage adopters and non-adopters has clearly established socio-cultural, psychological and economic gains by reflecting 10 per cent improvement in wheat productivity and crucial incentive for resource poor farmers. Further, the scanning of socio-economic data indicated that ZT technology had sense of achievement, merit for promotion, technical feasibility, stress reduction and opportunity for custom hiring services.

INTRODUCTION The zero till technology in wheat after harvesting of rice was introduced first time during rabi 200102 by NDUAT, Kumarganj, Faizabad on massive scale in Eastern Uttar Pradesh by covering 550 ha area of 290 farmers belonging to 17 districts. After getting encouraging results, the area further expanded by 1430 ha (2002-03) and 9510 ha (2003-04) due to adoption of technology by 835 and 3822 farmers, respectively. It is obvious that rice-what is the most important cropping system of the region by occupying 2.7 m ha area under the rotation. Enhancement in cost of cultivation has been considered as major constraint. Besides, stagnation in yield over last one and half decades despite of favourable monsoon and increasing irrigation potential has also struck the minds of managers and planners. After introduction of zero till technology on farmers’ fields, several if and but questions frequently were raised by the non-adopters and even by field functionaries about the success and merit of technology. Accordingly, socio-economic impact of ZT technology among adopters and non-adopters was studied in those clusters where farmers had adopted this innovative technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS The zero till technology in wheat after harvesting of rice is being demonstrated by the Directorate of Extension, NDUAT, Kumarganj, Faizabad in 23 districts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh since rabi 200102. For the purpose drills were arranged by DASP through CIMMYT and CIAE, Bhopal under collaborative approach of NDUAT. During the year 2003-04, an area of 9510 ha was sown in different agro-ecosystems. As per mandate, it was decided to conduct survey on socio-economic impact of zero tillage in various districts of eastern part of state. For this purpose, a schedule was developed and data were collected from 50 sample farmers who have actually adopted this technology. Similarly, 50 other neighbouring farmers were also surveyed who have seen the impact of zero till technology but not adopted yet due to non-availability of machine and some other reasons. Thus, survey was done in 16 villages of 10 districts. The details are given in Table 1.

1

Director Extension, 2Addl. Director Extension.

29

Table 1. Number of respondents under various districts/villages for socio-economic impact study S.

District

Villages

Respondents

No.

Adopters

Non-adopters

43

34

334

333

44

44

3

4

21

21

4

3

22 3

32 3

1.

Bahraich

Fatna Fakarpur

2.

Basti

Vishnupurva Paddiya Kinauna Kurthia

3.

Siddharthnagar

Sikta Bhanwapur

4.

Mahrajganj

Varwa Dwarika

5.

Gorakhpur

Malur Khadraich

6.

Mau

Gulauri

7. 8.

Ballia Varanasi

Sohaon Narahi Matuka

9.

Mirzapur

Hauna Kaithi

4

3

10.

Faizabad

Madhupur

4

5

Total

16

50

50

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Socio-economic Profile The data recorded in Table 2 indicate that out of 100 per cent farmers, the highest number of 30 farmers (60%) belonged to large size of holding followed by 32 and 8% farmers belonged to medium and small categories, respectively, who adopted the technology. Marginal farmers whose holdings were less than one hectare did not adopt the technology during last three years due to lack of machine, small size of holding and less risk bearing capacity. Table 2. Operational size of holdings Category & size of holdings

Adopters (%) Non-adopters (%)

Marginal (< 1 ha) Small (1-2 ha) Medium (2-5 ha) Large (> 5 ha) Total

– 8 32 60 100

– 20 40 40 100

The age-wise distribution of sample farmers showed that maximum adopters were in age group of 40-50 years in all three categories i.e. large, medium and small followed by 30-40 years of age group (Table 3). Above 60 years of age, no farmers adopted ZT technology, which reflects that mature and younger farmers of the society are fast adopter and better decision makers in favour of innovative technology. Most of them belong to nuclear families (70%) (Table 4) and have education level of high school or intermediate (Table 5). The higher percentage is of nuclear families in respect to zero tillage adoption because of few persons intervention in taking quick decision in comparison to a large number of persons in a joint family system. Higher score on institutional membership like bank and cooperative revealed that zero tillage technology had been adopted by farmers respective to their status in the society (Table 6). 30

Table 3. Age of respondents Age groups

Adopters (%)

(year)

Small

20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 > 60 Total

2 2 4 8

Non-adopters (%)

Medium Large 4 8 16 4 32

4 16 36 4 60

Small

Medium

4 4 8 4 20

2 12 12 14 40

Large 4 8 20 4 4 40

Table 4. Type of family Type

Adopters (%) Small

Joint Nuclear Total

2 6 8

Non-adopters (%)

Medium Large 8 24 32

20 40 60

Small

Medium

8 12 20

14 26 40

Large 12 28 40

Table 5. Education Education 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Adopters (%)

Non-adopters (%)

4 12 8 10 30 20 10 6 100

16 14 6 10 28 10 8 8 100

Illiterate Can read & write Primary Middle High school Intermediate Graduate Post-graduate Total

Table 6. Affiliation to social organizations Membership

Adopters (%) Small

Panchayat Cooperative Bank None Total

2 – – 6 8

Medium Large – 8* 8* 16 32

4 16 ** 40 ** – 60

*6% adopters are members of cooperative society & bank both. **12% adopters are members of cooperative society & bank both. + 8% adopters are members of cooperative society & bank both. ++ 10% adopters are members of cooperative society & bank both. 31

Non-adopters (%) Small – 2 2 16 20

Medium 2 10 + 12 + 16 40

Large – 14 ++ 22 ++ 4 40

Table 7. Farm implements Implements

Adopters (%) Small

Non-adopters (%)

Medium Large

Small

Medium Large

1.

Tractor



8

38



10

18

2.

Trolley



8

38



8

18

3.

Thresher

2

14

48



18

28

4.

Seed drill



4

6



8

10

5.

ZT drill



6

14







6.

Bed planter





2







7.

Reaper



2









8.

Combine













9.

Electric tube-well/pump

4

30

60

4

28

40

Table 8. Materials possession Implements

Adopters (%) Small

Non-adopters (%)

Medium Large

Small

Medium Large

1.

Transistor

6

10

4

10

16

10

2.

Tape recorder

4

4

8

12

12

10

3.

T.V./VCD



2

14

2

8

12

4.

Refrigerator





2





2

5.

Telephone/Mobile





4





2

6.

Cycle

8

32

40

16

18

22

7.

MC/Scooter



6

10



4

18

8.

Car/Jeep





2





2

Economic Characteristics The adopters are not economically so rich as their farm implements possession score is below 50 per cent. Of course large farmers who are economically somewhat sound they adopted technology fast and in higher percentage when compared to medium assets owner. In case of small category, adopters are almost negligible. It is evident from Table 7 that 46% farmers were having their own tractors and 54% farmers used tractor power on hire-purchase basis among the adopters of ZT technology. It may further be pointed out that only 20% farmers were ZT drill owners and rest arranged their sowing either on custom hire basis or used the machine provided by university for demonstration purpose. Among adopters, 60% large farmers had own irrigation facilities like electric tube-well and pump set. Material possession by different category farmers has been given in Table 8. 32

Psychological Parameters It is evident from the data recorded in Table 9 about change in proneness that adopters in higher percentage are keen to keep themselves updated with innovative technology like zero tillage, their knowledge and attitude towards zero tillage in quite high despite of poor information flow of technology. The university scientists are the major source through whom farmers could get skilloriented information either through training or demonstrations. Family member intervention and chaupal meetings were major vehicles in observing the information (Table 10). Farmers were seen highly satisfied (Table 11) with zero tillage technology as it has sense of achievement, merit for promotion, technical feasibility, stress reduction, opportunity for custom hiring services, saving in cost of cultivation, time and energy alongwith improvement in yield (Tables 12 and 13). A perusal of data pertaining to constraints (Table 14) revealed that most of the farmers did not feel any technical conditions in adoption of ZT technology. However, 90% farmers faced most serious problem about non-availability of drills due to lack of local manufacture. Besides, extension constraints like lack of adequate man power from state extension agencies, poor attention of mass media and financial constraints, viz. lack of money to buy new machine are the major bottlenecks.

Table 9. Change proneness (%) S. No.

Statements

Adopters (%)

Non-adopters (%)

Yes

No

Yes

No

1. (a) I try to keep myself updated with information on new farming practices, but that does not mean that I try out all the new methods.

76

24

60

40

(b) I feel restless till I try out a new farming practice I have heard about.

80

20

50

50

(c) They talk of many new practices these days but who knows

40

60

64

36

70

30

40

60

(b) After all, our forefathers were right in their practices and I do not see any reason for changing these old methods.

10

90

80

20

(c) Often new practices are not successful, however, if they are promising, I would surely adopt them.

90

10

40

60

60

40

52

48

64

36

60

40

(c) Sometimes, I believe that traditional ways of doing agriculture are the best. 62

38

70

30

50

50

60

40

50

50

70

30

if they are better than old ones. 2. (a) I am cautious about trying a new farming practice.

3. (a) From time to time I have heard about several new farming technologies/ practices and I have tried most of them in the last few years. (b) I usually want see the results of my neighbours obtained before I try out new practices. 4. (a) Have you applied for loan from any Bank of Govt. organization? (b) If yes, did you get loan? 33

Table 10. Source of information on zero tillage technology (%) Particulars Small A.

B.

C.

Mass media Radio TV Film shows Farm publications Pamphlets Exhibition News paper Kisan Mela Field days Institutional ADO University Scientists Extension workers Panchayat Personnel NGOs Private organization Non-institutional Family members Relatives Friends & Neighbours Village/Opinion leaders Chaupal meetings

Adopters Medium Large

Non-adopters Small Medium Large

– – – – – – – – –

10 10 – 40 40 80 50 60 60

– 90 100 60 60 20 50 40 40

– – – – – – – 30 30

4 10 – – – 40 30 30 30

96 90 100 100 100 60 70 40 40

– 90 – – – – – –

– 10 – – – – – –

– – – 100 – – – –

– 10 – – – – – –

– 40 – – – – – –

– 50 – 100 – – – –

90 – – – 80

10 40 40 50 20

– 60 60 50 –

– – – – –

10 – 10 50 90

90 100 90 80 50

Table 11. Level of satisfaction by adoption of zero tillage technology S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Statements HS Achievement Merit for promotion Technical feasibility Stress reduction Custom hiring Neighbour appreciation Time saving Energy saving Opportunities other than R–W Cost saving Yield improvement Advancement scope Timely sowing

90 92 60 70 60 78 96 100 14 100 70 87 92

HS–Highly satisfied, S–Satisfied, D–Dissatisfied. 34

Per cent of parameters S

D

10 8 40 30 40 22 4 – 26 – 24 14 8

– – – – – – – – 60 – 6 – –

35

ZT technology is a risky proposition.

ZT will never be successful in our area.

I feel all the farmers should adopt ZT tech.

6.

7.

8.

ZT technology is very simple and does not require any special skill.

13.

90

90

100





84







90



6 –

SA

10

10







6







10



90 –

A











10











– –

UD

Adopters

SA–Strongly agreed, A–Agreed, UD–Undecided, D–Disagreed, SD–Strongly disagreed.

ZT saves water from first to subsequent irrigation.

The crop does not turn yellow after first irrigation in ZT.

11.

12.

ZT does not save diesel it is just myth.

Govt. is simply wasting money on popularizing ZT.

5.

ZT does not save money it is just myth.

I saved good amount of money due to adoption of ZT.

4.

9.

ZT does not increase the wheat yield at all.

3.

10.

ZT is highly profitable technology. I would not advise anyone to adopt ZT.

1. 2.

Statements

Table 12. Attitude towards ZT technology (%)















40





6

– 4

D







100

100



100

60

100



94

– 96

SD



92

96

















– –

SA

100

8

4





12









4

60 –

A











18

16



100



12

32 8

UD

32





6

4 6

D









90

70

16

Non-adopters







100

10



68

68





78

4 86

SD

36

10

9. Use of post-emergence herbicides is necessary in ZT.

The water does not remain stagnant in ZT after first irrigation.

The diesel saving is in the range of 15-20 litres/acre.

Zero-tillage is successful only in heavy soils.

Zero-tillage is also successful in relative light soil.

The lodging is not a problem in ZT.

Insect population specially yellow stem borer does not increase in rice after wheat using ZT.

The population of rats does not increase if we use ZT.

The population of termite does not increase in ZT.

The yield in ZT field is more than in CT.

The yield in ZT field is the same as in CT.

The yield in ZT is less than in CT.

There is definitely saving in labour if one uses ZT.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

100





4







40

6



90



10















20

14



10



80

10

35

70

10

80



10



10

80

A









20

24

100

40

80

10



10

10



10

10

10







10



20

UD

Adopters

SA–Strongly agreed, A–Agreed, UD–Undecided, D–Disagreed, SD–Strongly disagreed.

The crop does not remain yellow after first irrigation.

11.

90

20

8. Phalaris population is less in ZT than in CT.

The saving of at least Rs. 1000 per acre is possible by using ZT.

80

7. The crop vigour is better than CT.

10.

20

100

5. Phosphorus is placed at right depth in the soil with ZT drill.

6. The seed is placed in the most fertile zone of the soil.

90



90



SA

4. Emergence of wheat under ZT is 1 or 2 days earlier than CT.

3. Standing (anchored) stubbles of rice upto 15" is not a problem.

normally comes under working condition.

2. Soil moisture condition for sowing with ZT a day before field

1. ZT technology means a new machine that will increase the yield.

Statements

Table 13. Knowledge of ZT technology (%)



26

76



20

76







14



72





10











20





D



74

14

72

60









76



18





35











80





SD

90





8







30

10



70



20



30

40

60

15

90









SA

4





20

15

100



30

12



30

60

70

80

30

30

20

75

10

70





60

A

6







15



92

40

78

20



30

10

20

40

30

20

10



30

15

100

40

UD



30

50



70



8





20



10

















25





D

Non-adopters



70

50

96











60





















60





SD

Table 14. Constraints in adoption of ZT technology S.

Particulars

Per cent of constraints

No.

MS

VS

S

NSS

NS

90

6

4





A.

Technical constraints

1.

Non-availability of quality drill

2.

Lack of appropriate loose straw management





90

10



3.

High cost of drill





90

10



4.

Lack of local manufacturer

100









5.

Standing (anchord) stubble









100

6.

Appropriate moisture at the time of sowing

1-

90







7.

More weeds problem at the time of drilling

80

20







8.

Hardening of upper layer of soil

30

7







9.

Late harvesting of rice







20

100

10.

Too early harvesting of rice









80

11.

Straw burning

60

30

10





B.

Extension constraints

1.

Lack of adequate man power from state extension agencies

80

20







2.

Lack of extension literature

20

70

10





3.

Lack of attention of mass media

70

20

10





4.

Lack of fellow farmers

20

10

70





5.

Lack of fellow farmers



70

20

10



C.

Financial constraints

1.

No subsidy on machine





100





2.

Lack of credit facilities





10

60

30

3.

Lack of money to buy new machine

60

26

14





MS–Most serious, VS–Very serious, S–Serious, NSS–Not so serious, NS–Not serious.

37

Impact Assessment and Farmers' Views Based on Survey A. K. Singh Project Directorate for Cropping Systems Research, Modipuram, Meerut-250 110 INTRODUCTION The study was conducted in randomly selected villages of Meerut, Baghpat and Saharanpur districts of Western Uttar Pradesh during 2002 (at the initial stage of on-farm demonstration of zero tillage technique) and two years later in 2004. Personal interview technique on the basis of the set of questionnaires was used for the collection of data. Besides such phased data, questioning on different components of wheat cultivation, socio-economic, cultural and technological background of the respondents was also taken into account. The response of farmers (respondents) with respect to attitude, knowledge and constraints (technological, extension and financial) obtained on a five-point attributes, viz. ‘Strongly agree’, ‘agree’ ‘undecided’, ‘disagree’, and ‘strongly disagree’ with the weightage of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1, respectively for concerned statement. The total attitude and knowledge score for each respondent w a s c a l c u l a t e d a n d c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , viz . l e s s k n o w l e d g e a b l e ( 3 3 - 5 5 % ) , knowledgeable (56-77%) and most knowledgeable (>77%) for knowledge level and less favourable (33-55%), favourable (56-77%) and most favourable (>77%) in case of attitude level. With the help of farmers, researchers, extension agencies and other allied agencies all possible constraints in adoption were listed. These constraints were classified into three categories, viz. technical, extension and financial. Response related to the constraints was obtained on a five points continuum, viz. “Most serious”, “Very serious”, “Serious”, “Not so serious” and “Not serious” with corresponding weightage of 5, 4,3, 2 and 1, respectively. Based on the responses of farmers, total score of each constraint was calculated and each constraint, in turn, was ranked on the total scored range. Attitude of the Farmers Attitude of the farmers towards zero tillage technique was favourable at the beginning also as 92 per cent of the farmers have shown positive attitude. Farmers were in agreement that adoption of this technology could reduce the cost of cultivation considerably, which in turn may help in getting higher monetary return. Few farmers have shown less favourable attitude as they were of the opinion that wheat cannot be grown without tillage (land preparation). They were also of the view that zero tillage-sown wheat has poor germination. Now after two years, cent per cent of the respondent farmers have positive attitude and also very much convinced that poor germination was not because of the zero tillage technology but due to insufficient moisture at the time of sowing and improper placement of seeds due to improper adjustment of machine. Favourable attitude of higher proportion of farmers was mainly due to lesser operational cost (35.4%), use of lower seed rate (6.8%), less weed infestation (20.2%), early sowing (9.6%) and seed emergence (about 3 days). Farmers did not believe the reason as explained above earlier. It indicated a sea change in the mind-set of farmers. Data presented in Table 1 also indicate that none of the farmers has negative attitude about this technology.

38

Table 1.

Farmer’s attitude and knowledge towards zero tillage in western Uttar Pradesh Farmers (%)

Attitude Most favourable Favourable Less favourable Knowledge High knowledge Medium knowledge Less knowledge

2002

2004

75.0 16.7 8.3

51.85 48.15 0.0

29.2 41.6 29.2

77.8 21.0 1.2

Knowledge of the Farmers With respect to level of knowledge about ZTT amongst the farmers, about 77.8 per cent of the farmers possessed very good knowledge on different aspects, viz. machine operation, maintenance, residue management, weed control, sowing time and field condition as against 29.2 per cent when surveyed earlier during 2002. Very few farmers (1.2) have less knowledge about ZTT as on today in comparison to 29.2 per cent in 2002. Generally, marginal and small farmers were found to have less knowledge about the zero tillage technology as they got the information about zero tillage by fellow farmers only and they did not experience this technology at their own. Study on the acceptability of zero tillage technology in western Uttar Pradesh during the last three years indicated that the area under zero tillage had been rapidly increasing. In Sharanpur and Yamuna Khadar area of Baghpat districts (which are the traditional area of rice-wheat system) it is very successful resource (labour, energy, fuel, water, seed, soil texture and structure) conservation technology for sustained productivity of wheat crop under rice-wheat system. A gradual increase in area under zero tillage since 2001-02 has been noticed. Not only large and medium farmers but also small and marginal farmers are now realizing the benefits of this technology and adopting it. Rate of adoption is comparatively higher in resource rich than that in resource poor farmers. Study also indicated that zero tillage technology is among very few technologies, which is acceptable to both resource rich and poor farmers. So, it can be termed as a resource neutral technology. It was also observed that the comparatively young (30-45 years) farmers performed the role of innovator and early adopter. The rate of adoption and extent of using this technology was correlated with level of education and it was found that educated farmers adopted technology fastly and eagerly. The farmers of sugarcane-wheat system have also shown their interest to know the possibilities of introducing zero tillage in wheat after sugarcane. It may be taken as next step, that how to use zero tillage in wheat following sugarcane as the western U.P is dominated by sugarcane cultivation. Constraints in Adoption of Zero-tillage At the start of the field demonstration on zero tillage technology in wheat during 2002, paucity of local manufacturer was the number one technical constraint followed by non-availability of quality drill. However, after successful demonstrations of the zero tillage technology, local manufacturers slipped down to constraint number three, indicating that local manufacturers have shown their interest 39

and started providing machines at locally. But high cost and quality seed drill are now the constraint number one and two (Table 2), respectively. With regard to extension constraints, lack of extension literature and inadequate trained manpower from state extension agencies and poor knowledge to extension agencies were the three top most constraints in descending order. But now lack of extension literature has come down to constraint number three indicating that sufficient literatures on zero tillage technology are available among the farming community. On the other hand, inadequate trained manpower from extension agencies and their knowledge about zero tillage technology are the number one and two extension constraints. Table 2.

Technical, extension and financial constraints in adoption of zero tillage technique in wheat %

Technical constraints Non-availability of quality drill Lack of appropriate management for loose straw High cost of drill Lack of local manufactures Standing (anchored) stubbles Inappropriate moisture at sowing More population of weeds at the time of drilling Increased problem of yellow stem borers Hardening of upper soil Late harvesting Too early harvesting of rice Straw burning Extension constraints Lack of adequate trained manpower from state extension agencies Lack of extension literature Lack of attention of mass media Lack of knowledge of extension agencies Inadequate extension facility at the disposal of input agencies Lack of fellow farmers' co-operation Financial constraints No subsidy on machine Lack of credit facilities Lack of money to buy new machine Lack of money to buy other allied inputs

Rank

2002

2004

2002

2004

83.64 43.64 70.91 85.45 62.73 63.64 47.27 42.73 54.55 60.91 45.45 41.82

79.75 56.54 72.10 71.11 46.91 52.84 45.43 36.30 39.26 39.01 41.73 34.32

II X III I V IV VIII XI VII VI IX XII

I IV II III VI V VII XI IX X VIII XII

67.27

69.88

II

I

68.18 64.55 66.36 60.00

65.68 63.70 66.67 61.23

I IV III VI

III IV II V

62.73

46.17

V

VI

78.02 71.60 70.62 67.41

78.02 71.60 70.62 67.41

I II III IV

I II III IV

No significant change in the constraints related to finance has been noticed. Lack of subsidy on farm machineries was the number one financial constraint and still it occupies the same place. 40

Studies on Role and Accessibility of Different Agencies in Disseminating Zero-till Technology for Rice-wheat Cropping System A. K. Singh, Surendar Kumar and S. K. Sharma Project Directorate for Cropping Systems Research, Modipuram, Meerut-250 110

ABSTRACT A study was undertaken to find out the role of different agencies in dissemination of zero tillage in wheat after rice. A sample of 100 farmers, 50 each of programme and non-programme farmers were selected randomly as respondents in Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Saharanpur and Baghpat districts of western U. P. On-farm trials were found to be the most appropriate way for disseminating the zero tillage in wheat amongst the programme farmers. However, input agencies were more effective in case of non-programme farmers. Reciprocal colleagues were identified as the next most important source of technology dissemination.

INTRODUCTION Rice-wheat is the major cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic plains. These two component crops are grown in rotation in about 10 million hectares of land. Though the productivity of rice and wheat are increasing but pressure on resources specially land and water is also increasing day by day. There is great concern about reduction in soil fertility, declining water table, increasing salinity and pollution due to use of harmful chemicals. In order to mitigate these problems, it is essential to adopt technically feasible and economically viable and ecologically permissible technology, which ameliorates late planting, reduces weed problem and improves fertilizer and water use efficiency. Resource conservation technologies particularly zero tillage technology (ZT) in rice-wheat system is an emerging technique to this endeavour. Many government and non-government agencies are engaged in popularizing the zero-till technology through different extension methods like mass media, training, on-farm trials, etc. In India, despite the fact that a broad network of government and non-government organizations and agencies are entrusted with transfer of technology programme, there exists a significant adoption gap at field level, which results in notable yield gap at the farm level. As far as the role of different agencies involved in technology dissemination is concerned, their credibility, acceptability and accessibility influence extent of adoption. Present investigation has been taken up in order to study the role and acceptability of various sources involved in technologies dissemination. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Baghpat and Saharanpur districts of Western U. P. comprising two categories of farmers who follow the rice-wheat system. A sample of 100 farmers practising rice-wheat system (50 from each category i.e. Programme and Non-Programme) were selected at random, as respondents for the study. The respondents were asked to indicate the sources (different agencies) involved in technology dissemination they preferred and / or available to them for getting technical information and advice about improved practices including zero tillage in wheat under rice-wheat cropping system. Five technological components related to zero tillage technique, namely, MO–Machine operation, TS–Time of sowing, CWC–Chemical weed control, RM– Residue management and AM–Availability of machine were taken. The information sources were divided into six groups such as : (1) Government agencies (different government extension personnel), (2) input dealers, (3) reciprocal colleagues (neighbours, friends, relatives and other fellow farmers), (4) on-farm trial, (5) training and (6) mass media (radio and television). 41

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Experimental results presented in Tables 1 and 2 indicate that on-farm trials played an important role in disseminating the zero tillage technology amongst the programme farmers, while on-farm trials failed to show such impact among non-programme farmers. These findings are in close conformity with findings of Wasnik et al. (2003). Input dealers played much more significant role in disseminating the zero tillage technology amongst the non-programme farmers in comparison to pragramme farmers. Table 1. Role of information source in dissemination of ZT technology in wheat (programme farmers) S. No.

Agencies/technological components

MO (%)

TS (%)

CWC (%)

RM (%)

AM (%)

Average Ranks (%)

1.

Government agencies

10

6

12

-

12

8

IV

2.

Input dealers/agencies

32

5

36

9

18

20

II

3.

Reciprocal colleagues

14

17

4

7

8

10

III

4.

On-farm trial

3

68

42

72

62

55.2

I

5.

Training

7

4

6

5

-

4.4

V

6.

Mass media

5

-

-

7

-

2.4

VI

Table 2. Role of information sources in dissemination of zero tillage technology (nonprogramme farmers) S. No.

Agencies/technological components

MO (%)

TS (%)

CWC (%)

RM (%)

AM (%)

Average Ranks (%)

1.

Government agencies

10

6

12

-

12

8

IV

1.

Government agencies

13

11

7

6

8

9

IV

2.

Agriculture Input dealers/agencies

51

14

43

6

42

31.2

I

3.

Reciprocal colleagues

9

8

6

11

41

15

III

4.

On-farm trial

6

42

29

24

9

22

II

5.

Training

5

7

-

9

-

4.2

V

6.

Mass media

4

-

3

4

-

2.1

VI

MO–Machine operation, TS–Time of sowing, CWC–Chemical weed control, RM–Residue management, AM– Availability of machine.

The results also revealed that the reciprocal colleagues and relatives also played some definite role in technology dissemination. Other sources, viz. mass media, training, etc. also had same role to play in dissemination of zero tillage. Kamalakannan (2003) reported that mass media was more effective for dissemination of technology. The findings of the study are quite interesting and meaningful in relation to dissemination of technology at farmer’s level. The results further revealed that the on-farm trials/demonstrations were very effective in technology dissemination when there 42

was a government-supported scheme backed by financial help, input supply and technological assistance. Besides, when the government agencies are specific and target-oriented as in case of the programme farmers, their communication ability proves to be more effective. Whereas the private and non-government agencies like the input dealers are more accessible and acceptable to the farmers belonging to non-programme category. Input dealers are more interactive and friendly with the farmers. Naturally their advices are greatly accepted by the farmers. Their credibility and acceptability are remarkable because of their non-formal, non-bureaucratic attitude towards the farmers. For speedy and all round development of agricultural sector, an appropriate, effective and efficient system is urgently required to disseminate various improved technologies in shortest possible time. Keeping the importance of speedy technology dissemination the planners, extensionists should consider the farmers’ preferences as well as their perception about credibility of different sources of technology dissemination. To achieve this the government agencies need to plan, conduct onfarm trails on problem specific technologies in farmer’s field with farmer’s participation. They may act in term of a more friendly with the largest group as the input agencies do. This will improve their acceptability, credibility and accessibility as well as the rate of technology adoption among the farmers. REFERENCES Kamalakannan, T., H. Phillip, R. Netaji Seetharaman, 2003. Content analysis of selected mass media in dissemination of farm technology. National Seminar of Responding to Changes and Challenges – New Roles of Agriculture Extension, Feb. 7-9 : 113, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, Maharashtra. pp. 1-14. Wasnik, S.M., H. L. Gajhiye, C. D. Mayee and R. T. Koatole, 2003. Analysis of influence of cotton front line demonstration in dissemination of cotton production technology. National Seminar of Responding to Changes and Challenges – New Roles of Agriculture Extension, Feb. 7-9 : 113, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, Maharashtra.

43

Studies on Role of Knowledge and Attitude for the Transfer of Zero Tillage Technology under the Punjab Conditions Avtar Singh, Harpreet Kaur Virk and S. S. Brar Department of Agronomy and Agrometeorology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 ABSTRACT Studies were conducted to find out the role of knowledge and attitude for the dissemination of zero tillage technology under the Punjab conditions. Results revealed that response of adopters and non-adopters was different towards many questions, but about the advantages of zero tillage such as high profitability, money, water and fuel saving and crop does not turn yellow after first irrigation in zero tillage were recognized by the adopters, whereas the nonadopters only recognized the advantages in money and fuel saving. The majority of the respondents among the adopters were agreed that the yield in zero tillage field was higher than in conventional tillage. Most of the adopters were agreed that the zero till drill increased the yield. Under zero tillage wheat was sown one day before the conventional tillage. Standing stubbles of 1.5' are not a problem, earlier germination (1 or 2 days) under zero tillage, phosphorus application at right depth with zero till drill, placement of seed in most fertile zone with zero till drill, better vigour under zero tillage, reduced Phalaris minor population under zero tillage and about the other benefits of the zero tillage, there was general consensus. This study proved that it was the only technology, which was acceptable to all categories of the farmers i.e. small, medium and large farmers.

INTRODUCTION Rice-wheat is one of the pre-dominant and economical cropping systems of northern India as well as South Asia. In this system, wheat is planted with traditional method by giving 4-6 tillage operations for the preparation of fine seed-bed. The tillage operations are only raising the cost of production but they have no benefits for increasing the grain yield of wheat. From the last four years, the farmers are adopting the zero tillage for planting wheat being a technology for reducing the cost of production (Dhaliwal, 2003), tillage operations, saving fuel (Yaduraju and Mishra, 2002), water, energy, time reduce the weed population i.e. Phalaris minor, timely planting of crop (Sen et al., 2002) and reduces the wear and tear of tractor (Yadav et al., 2002). However, knowledge and attitude play significant role for the rapid transfer of any technology after its introduction Keeping in view the importance of the above factors, the present investigation was undertaken to see the knowledge and attitude of the adopters and non-adopters towards zero tillage technology under the Punjab conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in randomly selected villages of all the districts of Punjab during 2003. The data were collected from the 54 adopters and 17 non-adopters of zero tillage on the basis of the set of questionnaires through the Personal Interview Technique. The questionnaire comprised the questions related to wheat cultivation, socio-economic, cultural and technological background of the respondents for this study. The response of respondents in relation to knowledge and attitude was observed on a five points scale, viz. strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree with the concerned statements. The attitude and knowledge of the adopters and nonadopters of zero tillage were calculated in percentage of respondents with respect to each statement on the basis of strongly agree and agree points.

44

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Attitude The responses of adopters and non-adopters on the questions related to attitude are summarized in Table 1. It is evident from the table that the response of adopters and non-adopters was different towards many questions, but about the advantages of zero tillage such as high profitability, money, water and fuel saving and crop do not turn yellow after first irrigation in zero tillage were recognized by the adopters, whereas the non-adopters only recognized the advantages in money and fuel saving. The adopters about 96% were agreed to higher profitability in zero tillage. However, nonTable 1. Attitude of adopters and non-adopters regarding zero tillage S. No.

Statements

Adopters (%) (SA+A)

Non-adopters (%) (SA+A)

96.3

47.0





3. Zero tillage increases yield from wheat .

64.8

23.5

4. Zero tillage does not increase yield from wheat at all.

18.5

5.9

5. I earned a lot of money for myself and my family due to adoption of zero tillage.

83.5

5.9





1.9



94.4

47.0

1.9



85.1

29.4

100.0

64.7

57.4

64.7

1. Zero tillage is a highly profitable technology. 2. I would not advise anyone to adopt zero tillage.

6. Govt. is simply wasting money on popularizing zero technology. 7. Zero tillage technology is a risky proposition. 8. I would suggest that Govt. should strongly promote zero tillage. 9. Zero tillage will never be successful in our state. 10. I feel all the farmers should adopt zero tillage technology. 11. Zero tillage saves diesel. 12. Zero tillage does not save diesel–it is just a myth.

100.0

64.7

14. Zero tillage does not saves money–it is just a myth.

13. Zero tillage saves money.

57.4

64.7

15. Zero tillage saves water in first irrigation.

94.4

41.2

16. Zero tillage saves water in the subsequent irrigation.

44.5

5.9

100.0

64.7

18. The crop does not turn yellow after irrigation in zero tillage.

96.3

31.3

19. Zero tillage technology is very simple and does not require any special skill.

94.5

29.4

17. The crop turns yellow after first irrigation in conventional tillage.

SA–Strongly agree; A–Agree.

Table 1a. Attitude of adopters and non-adopters towards zero tillage Small

Medium

Large

Overall

Adopters

63.7

67.4

66.9

66.3

Non-adopters

60.1

62.1

65.0

61.6

t-value

1.99

2.27

0.45

3.22

45

adopters about 47% were agreed to this advantage of the zero tillage technology. All the adopters were agreed for saving of money and diesel due to zero tillage. However, non-adopters 64.7% were agreed for these important merits of this technology. The adopters and non-adopters were agreed with the increase in yield, earned money for himself and family, govt. should promote the zero tillage, farmers should adopt zero tillage, saving water in first irrigation, yellowing after first irrigation and technology is very simple and easy to handle which were agreed 64.8, 83.5, 94.4, 85.1, 94.4, 96.3 & 94.5 and 23.5, 5.9, 47.0, 29.4, 41.2, 31.3 and 29.4 per cent, respectively. Majority of the respondents agreed that all the farmers should adopt this technology and government should invest more in popularizing zero tillage. The similar results were reported by Singh et al. (2002). The mean attitude scores of adopters and non-adopters presented in Table 1a revealed that attitude of respondents in the study area was also the same of the adopters and non-adopters. It was 61.6 and 66.3 in case of non-adopters and adopters, respectively. Among different farm size categories, it ranged from 60.1 to 65.0 among non-adopters and 63.7 to 66.9 among adopters. This study indicated that attitude of the small farmers towards zero tillage was similar as medium and large farmers. It is further evident from the Table 1a that adopters had significantly higher attitude towards zero tillage as compared to non-adopters. Knowledge It is evident from Table 2 that the adopters have more knowledge of beneficial effects of zero tillage. The respondents 66.7% among the adopters were agreed that the yield in zero tillage field was higher than in conventional tillage. However, the non-adopters only 5.9% were agreed with the beneficial attribute of zero tillage. Most of the adopters were agreed that the zero till drill increased the yield, under zero tillage wheat was sown one day before the conventional tillage. Standing stubbles of 1.5' are not a problem, earlier germination (1 or 2 days) under zero tillage, phosphorus application at right depth with zero till drill, placement of seed in most fertile zone with zero till drill, better vigour under zero tillage, reduced Phalaris minor population under zero tillage and about the other benefits of the zero tillage are mentioned in Table 2. The data in Table 2a reveal the average knowledge of sources on the different farm sizes of adopters and non-adopters. Results revealed that adopters of zero tillage attained the higher score of knowledge (88.6) than the non-adopters of zero tillage (75.2). The differences in the attainable score of the adopters and no-adopters were observed significant at 0.05% level of probability. The different categories of farm size, small, medium and large farmers almost have the same level of knowledge among the adopters and non-adopters of zero tillage technology. It is evident that all the categories of farm size, small, medium and large farmers are equally realizing the benefits and adopting it as same as medium and large farmers. This indicated that an area (5 lakhs acre) under this technology during 2003-04, has been increased five times more than the area of 2002-03 (1 lakhs acre) probably due to the adoption of the technology by all types of farmers in Punjab. This study also proved that it was the only technology, which was acceptable to all categories of the farmers i.e. small, medium and large farmers.

46

Table 2.

Knowledge of adopters and non-adopters regarding zero tillage

S. No.

Statements

Adopters (%) (SA+A)

Non-adopters (%) (SA+A)

1. Zero tillage technology means a new machine that will increase the yield.

81.5

17.6

2. Ideal moisture condition for sowing with zero tillage is a day before field normally comes under working condition.

96.3

47.1

3. Standing (anchored ) stubbles of rice upto 1.5’ is not a problem.

79.7

23.5

4. Emergence of wheat under zero tillage is 1 or 2 days earlier than conventional tillage.

72.3

17.6

5. The phosphorus is placed at right depth in the soil with zero tillage drill.

72.2

29.4

6. The seed is placed in the most fertile zone of the soil.

79.6

29.4

7. The crop vigour is better than conventional tillage.

92.6

41.2

8. Phalaris population is less in zero tillage than in CT.

87.0

41.2

9. Use of post-emergence herbicides is necessary in ZT.

100.0

47.1

10. The saving of at least Rs. 1000 is possible by using ZT.

98.1

52.9

11. The crop does not remain yellow after first irrigation.

98.2

41.2

12. The water does not remain stagnant in zero tillage after first irrigation.

100.0

29.4

13. The diesel saving is in the range of 20-25 l/acre.

100.0

64.7

14. Zero tillage is successful only in heavy soils.

37.0

5.9

15. Zero tillage is also successful in relative light soils.

53.7

11.8

16. The lodging is not a problem in zero tillage.

75.9

47.1

17. Insect population specially yellow stem borer does not increase in rice after wheat using zero tillage technology.

61.1

23.5

18. The population of rats does not increase if we use zero tillage.

64.8

23.5

19. The population of termite does not increase if we use zero tillage.

70.4

23.5

20. The yield in zero tillage field is more than in conventional tillage.

66.7

5.9

21. The yield in zero tillage field is the same as in CT.

25.9

11.8

22. The yield in zero tillage field is less than that in CT. 23. There is definitely saving in labour if one uses zero tillage technology.

1.9

-

98.2

47.1

SA–Strongly agree; A–Agree.

Table 2a. Knowledge of adopters and non-adopters regarding zero tillage Small

Medium

Large

Overall

Adopters

86.6

89.4

89.4

88.6

Non-adopters

73.0

76.3

79.0

75.2

t-value

1.75

3.94

1.44

5.75

47

REFERENCES Dhaliwal, H. S., 2003. Research report on socio-economic impact of zero tillage in Punjab state. Department of Economics and Sociology, PAU, Ludhaina. Sen Avijit, S. N. Sharma, R. K. Singh and M. D. Pandey, 2002. Effect of different tillage systems on the performance of wheat. Proceedings of International Workshop on Herbicides Resistance Management and Zero Tillage in Rice-Wheat Cropping System held on 4-6 March, 2002 at CCSHAU, Hisar, pp. 115-116. Singh, A. K., S. K. Sharma, S. P. S. Yadav and Saurab Sharma, 2002. Zero tillage technology for wheat cultivation. Extension Bulletin 1, PDCSR, Modipuram 1-8. Yadav, D. S., Achal Ram Sushant and Birendra Kumar, 2002. Performance of wheat under zero tillage in rice-wheat cropping system under Eastern U. P. conditions. Proceedings of International Workshop on Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero-Tillage in Rice-Wheat Cropping System held on 4-6 March at CCSHAU, Hisar. pp. 23-26. Yaduraju, N. T. and J. S. Mishra, 2002. Zero tillage in rice-wheat cropping system on vertisols in Madhya Pradesh – Prospects and problems. Proceedings of International Workshop on Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero-Tillage in Rice-Wheat Cropping System held on 4-6 March at CCSHAU, Hisar. pp. 117-119.

48

Studies on Source of Information and Constraints for the Adoption of Zero Tillage Technology among the Adopters and Non-adopters under the Punjab Conditions Avtar Singh, Harpreet Kaur Virk and S. S. Brar Department of Agronomy and Agrometeorology Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004 ABSTRACT The studies were conducted on source of information and constraints for the adoption of zero tillage technology. Results revealed that under the mass media, the television, newspaper, kisan melas and field days while among the non-institutional sources such as family members, relatives, friends and neighbours are the most preferred sources of information to the adopters and non-adopters. However, among the institutional sources, the maximum information regarding the zero tillage to the adopters provided by the University scientists followed by extension workers, whereas the non-adopters are getting the maximum information from the ADO(s) followed by the University scientists. However, the adopters faced the few technical constraints such as lack of appropriate loose straw management, inappropriate moisture at sowing, straw burning and non-availability of quality drill. Financial constraint as no subsidy on machine was considered more by the adopters than the non-adopters. The extension constraints such as lack of adequate manpower from extension agencies and inadequate extension facility at the disposal of input agencies were felt more by the adopters as compared to non-adopters.

INTRODUCTION Rice-wheat cropping system becomes less profitable probably due to the increase in cost of production, by decreasing soil fertility, depletion of underground water and high input prices. The research and on-farm trials conducted on zero tillage technology were found successful for planting of wheat to reduce the cost of production, saving of fuel (Yaduraju and Mishra, 2003), water, energy, time, facilitating the timely planting to obtain the higher yield or sustain the yield (Brar et al., 2002; Sen et al., 2002). The adoption of any technology, source of information, economic condition of farmers, availability of infrastructure are the important factors. Therefore, keeping in view the significance of aforesaid factors, the present investigation was undertaken to assess the role of mass media, institution and non-institution for the adoption of zero tillage technology for the planting of wheat under the Punjab conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in randomly selected villages of all the districts of Punjab during 2003. The data were collected from the 54 adopters and 17 non-adopters of zero tillage on the basis of the set of questionnaires through the Personal Interview Technique. The questionnaire consisted of the questions regarding mass media, institutions and non-institutions to provide the information to the respondents. The response of respondents in relation to mass media, institutions and noninstitutions was recorded on a four points scale, viz. most often, often, sometimes and never with the concerned statements. The response with respect to constraints of the adopters and non-adopters was observed on five points scale, viz. Most serious, very serious, serious, not so serious and not serious. The response of the farmers to source of information and constraints was calculated in percentage of respondents with respect to each statement on the basis of most often, often and most serious, very serious and serious, respectively. 49

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Source of Information Studied the role of source of information like mass media, institutions and non-institutions and found that these sources played significant role in the adoption of zero tillage technology in Punjab. Table 1 envisages the sources of information and their usage by adopters and non-adopters. It is evident from the table that mass media, institutions and non-institutions play an important role in adoption of zero tillage technology under the Punjab conditions. Under the mass media, the television, newspaper, kisan melas and field days while among the non-institutional sources such as family members, relatives, friends and neighbours are the most preferred sources of information to the adopters and non-adopters. However, among the institutional sources, the maximum information regarding the zero tillage to the adopters provided by the University scientists followed by extension workers, whereas the non-adopters are getting the maximum information from the ADO(s) followed by the University scientists. NGOs and private organizations among the institutional sources were provided the least information to the adopters about the zero tillage but these sources did not provide any information to the Table 1. Sources of information and their usage by adopters and non-adopters of zero tillage Adopters (%) Non-adopters (%) (MO+O) (MO+O) A. Mass media Radio Television Educational film show Farm publications Pamphlets Exhibition News papers Kisan mela/Farm darshan Field days B. Institutions ADO University scientists Extension workers Panchayat personnel NGOs Private organizations C. Non-institutions Family members Relatives Friends and neighbours Village/Opinion leader Chaupal meetings MO–Most often, O–Often.

50

18.5 62.9 3.8 31.5 16.7 20.4 56.4 55.6 44.5

41.1 88.2 5.9 5.9 5.9 17.7 70.6 35.3 29.4

40.8 79.6 51.9 24.1 5.6 20.4

58.9 47.1 35.3 5.9 0.0 0.0

51.9 42.6 48.1 29.6 26.0

82.4 82.4 82.4 76.5 76.5

Table 2. Constraint analysis of zero tillage Technical constraints

Adopters (%) (MS+VS+S)

Technical constraints 1. Non availability of quality drill 2. Lack of appropriate loose straw management 3. High cost of drill 4. Lack of local manufacturer facility 5. Standing (anchored) stubbles 6. Appropriate moisture at sowing 7. More population of weeds at the time of drilling 8. Increased problem of yellow stem borers 9. Hardening of upper soil 10. Late harvesting of rice 11. Too early harvesting of rice 12. Straw burning Extension constraints 1. Lack of adequate manpower from state extension agencies 2. Lack of extension literature 3. Lack of attention of mass media 4. Lack of knowledge of extension agencies 5. Inadequate extension facility at the disposal of input agencies 6. Lack of fellow farmers co-operation Financial constraints 1. No subsidy on machine 2. Lack of credit facilities 3. Lack of money to buy new machines 4. Lack of money to buy other inputs

Non-adopters (%) (MS+VS+S)

66.7 92.6 27.8 31.6 24.1 92.6 11.1 9.3 7.4 – 1.9 88.9

88.2 100.0 64.8 70.6 58.9 88.2 – – – – 17.6 94.1

42.6 31.5 18.5 24.1 38.9 26.0

29.4 29.4 29.4 29.4 29.4 23.5

61.2 22.2 16.7 14.4

76.4 29.4 17.6 5.9

MS–Most serious, VS–Very serious, S–Serious.

Table 2a. Constraint analysis of zero tillage

Technical constraints Adopters Non-adopters t-value Extension constraints Adopters Non-adopters t-value Financial constraints Adopters Non-adopters t-value

Small

Medium

Large

Overall

27.4 25.6 0.72

23.3 28.0 0.31

23.9 22.0 0.52

24.6 26.3 0.97

12.0 9.1 0.38

8.9 9.1 0.08

10.1 6.0 1.2

10.2 9.4 0.57

9.9 9.0 0.18

7.6 6.8 0.48

6.2 4.0 1.00

7.6 7.4 0.23

51

adopters. It is observed that non-adopters are more dependent upon non-institutional sources to get the information especially from family members, relatives and friends and neighbours. Constraint Analysis The data presented in Table 2 reveal about the technical, extension and financial constraints observed by both adopters and non-adopters during the study area. It is clear from the table that the technical constraints in adoption of zero tillage were observed more important by the nonadopters. However, the adopters faced the few technical constraints such as lack of appropriate loose straw management (92.6), appropriate moisture at sowing (92.6), straw burning (88.9) and non-availability of quality drill (66.7). Financial constraint as no subsidy on machine was considered more by the adopters (76.4) than the non-adopters (61.2). The extension constraints such as lack of adequate manpower from extension agencies and inadequate extension facility at the disposal of input agencies were felt more by the adopters as compared to non-adopters. Non-adopters considered the technical constraints more important like lack of appropriate loose straw management (100), straw burning (94.1), non-availability of quality drill (88.2), appropriate moisture at sowing (88.2), high cost of drill (64.8) and standing (anchored) stubbles (58.9), etc. Both the categories felt the constraints about the absence of subsidy on zero till drill but the farmers always want subsidy as an incentive for the adoption of zero tillage technology. The data constraint analysis of zero tillage have been presented in Table 2a. The results revealed that adopters and non-adopters differed statistically in respect to technical constraints. All the categories of farm size had significant differences for technical, extension and financial constraints. However, the medium category of farmers among the adopters faced significantly less constrained by the technical and extension factors than the non-adopters. Whereas small and large size farmers among the adopters considered significantly higher constrained by the technical, extension factors but all the categories of farm size among the adopters observed significantly more constrained with financial factor as compared to non-adopters. REFERENCES Brar, S. S., Sanjeev Kumar, D. S. Kler and Rajinder Pal, 2002. No tillage research and its adoption in Punjab. Extended Summaries Vol. 2. 2nd International Agronomy Congress, Nov. 26-30, New Delhi, India. Sen, Avijit, S. N. Sharma, R. K. Singh and M. D. Pandey, 2002. Effect of different tillage systems on the performance of wheat. Proceedings of International Workshop on Herbicides Resistance Management and Zero Tillage in Rice-Wheat Cropping System held on 4-6 March, 2002 at CCSHAU, Hisar. pp. 115-116. Yaduraju, N. T. and J. S. Mishra, 2002. Zero tillage in rice-wheat cropping system on vertisols in Madhya Pradesh– Prospects and Problems. Proceedings of International Workshop on Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero-tillage in Rice-Wheat Cropping System held on 4-6 March at CCSHAU, Hisar. pp. 117-119.

52

Multidimensional Impact Assessment of Zero Tillage Technology Randhir Singh and Sunil Kumar Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal INTRODUCTION Wheat is the dominant grain of world commerce. It is a dietary mainstay of millions of people. The global significance of wheat could simply be realized in the way that more foods are made with wheat than any other cereal. Wheat contributes between 10-20 per cent of the daily calorie intake in people over 60 countries (Gautam 2003). Presently, India is the second largest wheat producing country in the world after China contributing 12 per cent of the total global wheat. One of the most productive agricultural regions of the world is the IGP of the sub-continent. This is the home of the rice-wheat systems that occupies 24 million ha of cultivated land in the Asian sub-tropics. In South Asia, these systems occupy 13.5 million ha (10 million ha in India, 2.2 million ha in Pakistan, 0.8 million ha in Bangladesh and 0.5 ha in Nepal) (Ladha et al., 2000). The country is producing more than seven million tonnes of wheat in about 27 million ha area with productivity of about 2.7 tonnes per ha. By the year 2020 AD population of India will be around 1.3 billion. Assuming a 20% more per capita availability of food grain than that of today, due to better standard of living and increased demand by processing industries, wheat production has to be around 109 million tonnes by 2020 (Vision 2020 DWR). Therefore, current production needs to be increased to about 3.5 million tonnes by the year 2020 through increased productivity because there is little possibility of further increase in the area under wheat production. Though there is sufficient wheat in the reserve, there is need to reduce the cost of wheat production. In this changing scenario, the agricultural scientists have developed new resource conservation technologies for wheat production. Awareness about these technologies has been continuously increasing. By adopting these technologies, the cost of production can be reduced leading to increased income of the farmers and make Indian wheat more competitive in the global market. To increase wheat production, integration of improved wheat varieties and resource conservation technologies, particularly zero tillage is a must. One of the transformations that is taking place in the cultivation of wheat in rice wheat cropping system is the evolution of zero tillage technology and there is a paradigm shift from conventional to zero tillage (Malik et al., 2000). The adoption of zero tillage has spread from 120 ha (1997) to 1200 ha (1998) to 12,000 ha (1999) (Hobbs et al., 2000) to one million ha in 2004. Traditionally, just 10 years ago, the tillage practice for wheat showed that there were over six plowings with the country plow behind the bullock and over 12 laddering (plankings to level the soil) (Saunders, 1990; Meisner, 1992, 1996, 1999, 2001). By definition, zero tillage seeding is a one pass operation which places seed and fertilizer into an undisturbed seed-bed, packs the furrow and retains adequate surface residues to prevent soil erosion. In Latin America, the Development Cooperation has achieved impressive results as a method combating soil degradation introducing zero tillage management, especially direct planting. The potential benefit of zero tillage is in terms of gains in yield, fuel saving and labour saving has also been reported by Mehla et al. (2000). The additional benefits from adopting ZT are earlier planting, 53

greater efficiency and less maintenance costs of machinery, more time for management decisions and technical upgrading, less dusty and muddy work environment, more time for family, less stress and greater satisfaction derived from caring for the environment. Gentil (1995) reported reductions in diesel fuel of 50 to 70% or more and proportional reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Zero tillage per se has a major impact in reducing carbon dioxide emissions when compared to conventional tillage, by immobilizing carbon in incremental soil organic matter and surface residues (Derpsch, 1998). Zero tillage seeding offers the benefits of surface residues and reduces soil water losses, improves soil condition over time, availability of organic nitrogen is higher in long term zero tillage seeded fields, protects young seedlings from heat and wind stress during early growth stages. Standing stubble residues wind speed at ground level and reflect rather than absorb heat (Thomas et al., 1996).The potential benefits of this technology may be attractive, but unless the farmers can obtain a suitable priced drill, the benefits will remain hypothetical (Aslam et al., 1993). The intensity of Phalaris minor was less by 30-40% in zero tillage as compared to conventional tillage, whereas the intensity of broad leaf weeds increased due to zero tillage practice. The crop yield was 4.9% higher in zero tillage compared to conventional sowing (Singh et al., 2002). No definite trend of broad leaf weeds, Malwa parviflora and Rumex retroflex were found to increase in the rice-wheat system in general and particularly under ZT at one location (Yadav et al., 2002). Experiments conducted at research farms at Punjab and Haryana failed to show any advantage of zero tillage (Sur and Parihar, 1989; Gajri et al., 1992; Faroda, 1992). During the first two years (1996 and 1997) almost everyone was scary of zero tillage, however, the further refinement in machinery led to better results and the collective efforts made by the State Department of Agriculture, SAUs and ICAR institutes made it a success story in all parts of the country. METHODOLOGY The field survey was conducted to evaluate the impact of zero tillage technology on yield and other parameters. The survey was undertaken only on zero tillage as other technologies either in wheat or paddy are yet to be adopted by the farmers as revealed in the preliminary survey. 100 farmers from Gonder, Bhaini Khurd, Kacchwa, Pundrak, Jundla, Sultanpur, Gorgarh, Bastali, Brass, Dabri, Pakhana, Shonkra, Manjura, Janeshro, Hathlana, Northa, Jalmana villages of Karnal district were selected for the purpose. The responses were recorded in a pre-designed interview schedule. The impact was also assessed in the adopted sites in all the four villages, namely, Darar, Kurali, Newal and Barota in Karnal district. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Most of the farmers were middle aged (60%) with almost an equal percentage in the young and middle age in the adopter category. Whereas in non-adopter category, half of the farmers were middle aged followed by old (28%) and young (12%). The findings have shown that literacy level among both the categories of the farmers was high, however, in-depth analysis of the adopter category has indicated that most of them were educated upto high school; there were 18 per cent who had education upto graduation level or above. In the non-adopter category, the level of education was low compared to the adopter category as 90% of them had their education upto matric or primary. From an extensionist’s point of view, the level of literacy was satisfactory and the farmers could follow the semi-technical language, therefore, the print material can be used to make the farmers aware of latest technologies. About 90 per cent of the farmers in both the categories belonged to general caste category followed by backward caste. There was only one scheduled 54

caste farmer in the adopter category. All the farmers had agriculture as their main occupation in both the categories. There were a few who had labour (11%), service (7%) and business (2%) as their secondary occupation in the adopter category, whereas in the non-adopter category, there were 13 per cent labourers. A trend was observed that those who had comparatively small holdings were having other subsidiary occupations to support their family. Majority of the farmers were having more than 10 years experience in agriculture and it was the main occupation of both the categories. The average experience in agriculture was more than 22 years in both the categories. In the adopter category, a little more than half (54%) of the farmers had joint families, while the rest were living in nuclear family; however, the non-adopters were equally distributed in the nuclear and joint families. The nuclear family trend prevalent in urban areas is picking up in the rural areas too because the young generation is more inclined towards independent living. Interaction with Fellow Farmers, Scientists, Agriculture Officials, Input Agencies and NGOs The interaction level was measured at six point continuum, assigned scores of 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1, respectively. Interaction of farmers with farmers of their own village, agricultural scientists and input agencies/private organizations/NGOs has indicated low level of interaction and desired more in both the categories. There was comparatively good interaction with functionaries of the state Department of Agriculture in the adopter category. Perhaps it was the main reason for zero tillage being adopted in almost all parts of Haryana. The interaction on non-adopters was low. They attended a few trainings, field days, farmers’ days, demonstrations and occasionally made office calls to input agencies/private organizations or NGOs. Attitude towards ZT Technology The adopters had favourable attitude towards zero tillage technology (Table 1) as compared to their non-adopter counterparts. Even the non-adopters are convinced that the ZT technology is Table 1.

Attitude towards ZT technology

Statements

Mean

ZT is a highly profitable technology. I would not advise anyone to adopt ZT. ZT does not increase yield from wheat at all. I earned a lot of money for myself and my family due to adoption of ZT. Govt. is simply wasting money on popularizing ZT. ZT technology is a risky proposition. I would suggest that Govt. should strongly promote ZT. ZT will never be successful in our state. I feel all the farmers should adopt ZT technology. ZT does not save diesel – it is just myth. ZT saves money. ZT saves water in first irrigation. ZT saves water in the subsequent irrigations. The crop does not turn yellow after first irrigation in ZT. ZT technology is very simple and does not require any special skill. 55

Adopters

Non-Adopters

4.26 3.97 3.97 4.36 3.98 4.03 4.27 3.96 4.37 4.02 4.56 4.26 4.02 4.22 4.36

2.52 1.45 2.40 0.00 1.20 1.25 1.35 2.01 1.36 2.12 2.32 1.54 2.15 3.30 3.25

profitable, no special skill required to adopt and the crop doesn’t turn yellow after the first irrigation. The adopters feel like playing an advisor’s role as a disseminator of the technology. The adopters feel that the government should promote Zero Tillage Technology (ZTT) as it saves diesel, money and water not only in first irrigation but subsequent irrigations also. However, studies have shown that there is less saving of water. Knowledge about Zero Tillage Technology The farmers had fairly good knowledge about zero tillage technology in the adopter category but poor in the non-adopter category (Table 2). The adopters were aware of ideal moisture condition required for zero tillage sowing, height of stubbles, utility in different kinds of soils, emergence of wheat, seed placement, crop vigour, weed infestation, input saving, etc. Even the non- adopters also knew that the crop vigour was better, less Phalaris minor and labour and fuel saving in zero tillage compared to conventional. Still more efforts are needed to correct their misconceptions and the development officials can play an important role in it. Table 2. Knowledge about ZT technology Statements

Mean Adopters Non-Adopters

Ideal moisture condition for sowing with ZT is a day before field normally comes under working condition.

0.84

0.65

Standing (Anchored) stubbles of rice upto 1.5 inches is not a problem.

0.89

0.34

Emergence of wheat under ZT is 1 to 2 days earlier than CT.

0.87

0.35

The seed is placed in the most fertile zone of the soil.

0.89

0.25

The crop vigour is better than CT.

0.88

0.80

Phalaris minor population less in ZT than in CT.

0.83

0.65

Use of post-emergence herbicides is necessary in ZT.

0.42

0.46

The saving of at least Rs. 1000 is possible by using ZT.

0.85

0.21

The crop does not remain yellow after first irrigation.

0.83

0.75

The diesel saving is the range of 20-25 litres/acre.

0.84

0.62

Zero-tillage is successful only in heavy soils.

0.80

0.12

Zero-tillage is also successful in relative light soil.

0.85

0.23

The lodging is not a problem in ZT.

0.60

0.45

Insect population specially yellow stem borer does not increase in rice after wheat using ZT.

0.59

0.51

The population of rats does not increase if we use ZT.

0.60

0.39

The yield in ZT field is more than in CT.

0.66

0.34

There is definitely saving in labour if one uses ZT.

0.83

0.69

Constraints in Adoption of Zero Tillage Technology The constraints (Table 3) were measured on a five point continuum, viz. most serious, very serious, serious, not so serious and not serious having 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 scores, respectively. No technical constraints were viewed seriously by the farmers in the adopter category, however, there were few extension constraints like lack of adequate manpower with the state Department of Agriculture and 56

input agencies. The farmers also mentioned lack of money to purchase new machines and inputs. Lack of appropriate loose straw management, high cost of drill, lack of money to buy machines and inputs, inadequate extension facilities were the serious constraints perceived by the non-adopters. Table 3.

Constraints in adoption of ZT technology Mean Adopters

Non-Adopters

Ideal moisture condition for sowing with ZT is a day before

0.84

0.65

Non availability of quality drill

2.03

2.35

Lack of appropriate loose straw management

1.80

2.45

High cost of drill

2.32

2.59

Lack of local manufacturer facility

1.89

1.58

Standing (anchored) stubbles

1.54

2.31

Appropriate moisture at sowing

1.52

1.24

More population of weeds at the time of drilling

1.52

1.54

Increased problem of yellow stem borers

1.66

1.65

Hardening of upper soil

1.46

1.65

Late harvesting of rice

1.32

1.42

Too early harvesting of rice

1.48

1.45

Straw burning

1.34

1.56

Lack of adequate manpower from state extension agencies

2.93

2.51

Lack of extension literature

2.50

2.35

Lack of attention of mass media

2.16

2.10

Lack of knowledge of extension agencies

2.04

2.20

Inadequate extension facility at the disposal of input agencies

2.96

2.65

Lack of fellow farmers co-operation

2.10

1.95

Lack of credit facilities

2.09

2.29

Lack of money to buy new machine

3.21

3.85

Lack of money to buy other inputs

3.21

3.01

Technical constraints

Extension constraints

Financial constraints

Satisfaction with Zero Tillage Technology The level of satisfaction (Table 4) was measured on a five point continuum, viz. highly satisfied, satisfied, not satisfied, dissatisfied and highly dissatisfied and assigned scores of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1, respectively, for positive and reverse for negative statements. 57

Table 4.

Level of satisfaction after adoption of ZT technology

Statements

Mean

Achievement attained through zero-tillage Scope to prove merit for promotion of technology Technical feasibility of technology Ability to reduce stress of hard labour Appreciation by neighbour Saving in time Saving in energy Advantage of technology to women Status and prestige you enjoy from adoption of this technology Role of Institute/SAU in introduction of Zero-Tillage Role of State Department in transfer of zero-tillage technology Role of NGOs in transfer of zero-tillage technology Opportunities of using zero-tillage in wheat in the areas other than rice-wheat technology Cost saving you get Improvement in yield Interest of family women in adoption of zero-tillage Scope of advancement technology in the whole village Timeliness of sowing through zero-tillage Guidance from other villagers

3.71 4.26 4.38 4.48 4.21 4.64 4.66 3.49 3.54 2.87 3.45 2.25 3.86 4.26 3.84 3.42 4.14 4.30 4.00

The farmers exhibited satisfaction due to adoption of zero tillage technology. They were satisfied with saving in time, money, advantage of technology to women, status enjoyed, timeliness of sowing and yield, about role of institutes and SAUs in transferring of technology. They had little satisfaction about role of NGOs in technology transfer. Change Proneness The adopters were more prone to change compared to the non-adopters (Table 5). Both the categories, however, wanted to see the results of their neighbour before trying out a new practice. The non-adopters had faith in the traditional ways of doing agriculture but it can be altered through persuasive and educational means. Decision Making on Farm Operations In most of the farm operations like land preparation, seed sowing, fertilizer, irrigation, hoeing, weeding, plant protection, harvesting and threshing, marketing, purchase, borrowing, livestock purchase and care, it was the husband who enjoyed decision making power, however, there was some joint decision making of the couple in hoeing, harvesting, threshing, livestock care and purchase in both the categories. Involvement of School Children in Farm Operations Seldom the children help their parents in land preparation, sowing, ridging, fertilizer application, irrigation, hoeing/weeding, plant protection, harvesting, threshing and marketing in both the adopter categories. 58

100

Area (acre)

Area (acre)

120

70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0

80 60 40 20

2000-01

2001-02

2002-03

0

2003-04

2000-01

2003-04

70

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

60

Area (acre)

Area (acre)

2002-03

Fig. 2. Zero-tillage area in Darar.

Fig. 1. Zero-tillage area in Karnal.

50 40 30 20 10 0 2000- 01

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Fig. 3. Zero-tillage area in Kurali.

Area (acre)

2001-02

2 0 0 1- 0 2

2002- 03

2003- 04

Fig. 4. Zero-tillage area in Barota.

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

1500 1000 500 0 2000-01

2001-02

2002-03

2001-02

2003-04

Fig. 5. Zero-tillage area in Newal.

2002-03

2003-04

Fig. 6. Farmers covered to popularize technology.

Area (Figs. 1 to 5) and farmers covered (Fig. 6) under zero-tillage wheat increased significantly from 2000-01 to 2003-04 at various sites in district Karnal (Haryana). Impact in the Adopted Villages The findings have shown that area under the zero tillage technology has increased in all the adopted villages. Increasing trend in area was also noticed in Karnal district indicating that the farmers have liking for the technology. 59

Table 5.

Change proneness

Change proneness

Yes Frequency Adopters

Non-Adopters

I try to keep myself updated with information on new farming practices, but that does not mean that I try out all the new methods.

94

98

I feel restless till I try out a new farming practice I have heard about.

20

1

They talk of many new practices these days but who knows if they are better than old ones.

80

99

I am cautious about trying a new farming practice.

70

90

After all, our forefathers were right in their practices and I do not see any reason for changing these old methods.

25

98

Often new practices are not successful, however, if they are promising, I would surely adopt them.

90

65

From time to time I have heard about several new farming technologies/ practices and I have tried most of them in the last few years.

28

12

I usually want to see the results my neighbours obtained before I try out new practice.

91

98

Sometimes I believe that traditional ways of doing agriculture are the best.

10

70

CONCLUSION The farmers have favourable attitude towards zero tillage technology, even the non-adopters are convinced about the advantages. They have fairly good knowledge about zero tillage and are satisfied with its performance. They had low level of interaction with other agencies which need to be increased particularly the input agencies. The farmers are ready for a change but needs persuasive strategy. REFERENCES Aslam, M., A. Majid, N. I. Hashmi and P. R. Hobbs, 1993. Improving wheat yield in the rice wheat cropping system of the Punjab through zero tillage. Pakistan J. Agric. Res. 14 : 8-11. Derpsch, R., 1998. Historical Review of No Tillage Cultivation of Crops. JIRCAS Working Report No. 13. pp.1-18. Faroda, A. S., 1992. A decade of agronomic research in rce wheat ropping system in Haryana. Proc. Workshop on Rice Wheat Cropping System,15-16 Oct, 1992, Modipuram. pp. 233-238. Gentil, L. V., 1995. Aspectos Economicos do Plantio Directo. In : I Seminario Internacional do Sistema Plantio Directo. Resumos. EMBRAPA-CNPT, Ponta Grossa, RS. Agosto. pp. 9-12. Gajri, P. R., V. K. Arora and S. S. Prihar, 1992. Tillage management for efficient water and nitrogen management in wheat following rice. Soil Tillage Res. 24 : 167-182. Gautam, P. L., 2003. Wheat historical perspective. Souvenir 42nd All India Wheat and Barley Workers’ Meet, G. B. Pant Univ. of Agri. & Technology. Hobbs, P. R., R. K. Gupta, J. K. Ladha and V. Balasubramanian, 2000. Crop establishment and management : new opportunities for enhancing rice-wheat systems productivity. Rice Wheat Consortium Paper Series 14 : 112-125.

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Ladha, J. K., K. S. Fischer, M. Hossain, P. R. Hobbs and B. Hardy, 2000. Progress towards improving the productivity and sustainability of rice wheat systems : a contribution by the consortium members. IRRI Discussion Paper No. 40. Malik, R. K., R. S. Mehla and B. K. Singh, 2000. Conservation tillage technologies and farmers participatory research, extension approaches in Haryana – A case study. Rice Wheat Consortium Paper Series 14 : 112-125. Mehla, R. S., J. K. Verma, R. K. Gupta and P. R. Hobbs, 2000. Stagnation in the productivity of wheat in the Indo Gangetic plains : zero till seed-cum-fertilizer drill as an integrated solution. Rice Wheat Consortium Paper Series 8. Meisner, C. A., 1992. Report of on-farm survey of the Mymensingh region and Tangail : Wheat growers’ practices, perceptions and their implications. Monograph No. 9, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute. Wheat Research Centre, Nashipur Dinajpur, September 1992. Meisner, C. A., 1996. Report of on-farm survey of the Greater Comilla Region : Wheat growers’ practices, perceptions and their implications. Monograph No. 13, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute. Wheat Research Centre, Nashipur Dinajpur, June 1996. Meisner, C. A., 1999. Report of on-farm survey of the Greater Faridpur Region : Wheat growers’ practices, perceptions and their implications. Monograph No. 14, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute. Wheat Research Centre, Nashipur Dinajpur, June 1999. Meisner, C. A., 2001. Report of on-farm survey of the Greater Sylhet Region : Wheat growers’ practices, perceptions and their implications. Monograph No. 16, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute. Wheat Research Centre, Nashipur Dinajpur, July 2001. Saunders, D. A., 1990. Crop management reseach summary of results. Wheat Research Center Monograph 5, Nashirpur, Bangladesh, WRC. Singh, Samar, A. Yadav, R. K. Malik and H. Singh, 2002. Long term effect of zero tillage sowing technique on weed flora and productivity of wheat in rice-wheat cropping zones of Indo Gangetic plains. In : Proceedings of International Workshop “Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero Tillage in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” held at CCSHAU, Hisar. Sur, H. S. and S. S. Prihar, 1989. Soil management in rice based cropping system in Punjab. In : Agrophysics Monograph 1 : 37-44. Thomas, G. A., G. B. Wildermuth, J. P. Thompson, J. Standley and F. P. C. Blamey, 1996. Factors limiting wheat yields under zero tillage in southern Queensland. In : Proceedings of 8th Australian Agronomy Conference, Toowoomba. Yadav, A., R. K. Malik, R. S. Banga, Samar Singh, B. S. Chauhan, D. B. Yadav, Ram Murti and R. S. Malik, 2002. Long term effects of zero tillage on wheat in rice-wheat cropping system. In : Proceedings of International Workshop “Herbicide Resistance Management and Zero Tillage in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” held at CCSHAU, Hisar.

61

Socio-economic Audit of ZT Wheat in Bihar Ujjwal Kumar, U. S. Gautam, S. S. Singh and Kartikey Singh ICAR Research Complex for ER, Patna Rice-wheat is the main cropping system of Bihar. Out of total cropped area of Bihar (80.26 lakh ha), area under rice and wheat in Bihar is 5.07 and 2.13 m ha, respectively. The average yield of rice in Bihar is 14.27 q/ha. Similarly, the yield of wheat is 21.68 q/ha. Late transplanting of rice and late sowing of wheat result in poor yield of both the crops. Most of the times farmers have to wait to plough the land after rice harvest when soil moisture becomes ideal. Sometime low soil moisture does not allow tilling of the hard lands. In both the situations wheat sowing is delayed. Zero tillage is a very good option under such condition. Study was conducted in villages of Patna district during 2004-05. Responses were obtained from 71 farmers who have been doing ZT wheat for more than two seasons. Table 1 depicts about sources of information of farmer. Responses were collected on the frequency of use of media in four categories (often, frequently, sometime and never) weightage of 3, 2, 1 and 0 were given for often, frequently, sometime and never, respectively. Among mass media, newspaper ranked first followed by Radio and TV. Among institutional sources, scientists are the major source of information for the farmers. Friends and neighbours are the major sources of information among individual institutional sources. Table 1. Sources of information of the farmers Media

Score & rank

Media

Score & rank

Mass media Radio

93

Film

II

TV

86

41

Magazine

65

Pamphlet

35

Newspaper

97

Exhibition

25

Kisan mela

42

Kisan diwas

27

III I

Institutional Agri. Officer

46

II

Scientist

88

Ext. personnel

45

III

Panchayat staff

04

NGOs

11

I

Others/individuals Family

55

II

Relative

51

Friend & Neighbour

58

I

Local leader

05

Gosthi

27

III

Constraints in Adopting ZT With the help of farmers, scientists, extension agencies and other agencies all possible constraints were listed and these constraints were classified into three categories, viz. Technical, Extension 62

and Financial. Response related to the constraints was obtained on a five points continuum, viz. “Most serious”, “Very serious”, “Serious”, “Not so serious” and “Not serious” with corresponding weightage of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1. Based on the responses of 39 farmers, total score of each constraint was calculated. Based on the total score, rank was given for each constraint. Perusal of the data pertaining to each constraint presented in Table 2 reveals that lack of extension literature was top most constraint. Similarly, lack of adequate extension staff, inadequate extension facilities at the disposal of input agencies and non-availability of good quality machine and lack of adequate extension staff ranked 2nd, 3rd, 3rd and 4th top most constraints, respectively. Satisfaction Level of Farmers after Adoption of ZT Wheat in Patna District of Bihar After adoption of ZT, to know the satisfaction level of the farmer, responses were obtained in five categories, viz. highly satisfying, satisfying, neither satisfying nor dissatisfying, dissatisfying and highly dissatisfying, with w e i g h ta g e o f 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 a n d 1 , r e s p e c t i v e l y. To ta l satisfaction score for each respondent was calculated and based on the score obtained the respondents were categorized into three categories, highly satisfied, satisfied and less satisfied taking mean and half standard deviation. Total 90% farmers were satisfied with the ZT and only 10% were less satisfied (Table 3 and Fig. 1). Fig. 1. Satisfaction level of farmers who opted ZT.

Attitude A summated rating scale was used and scale was tested for the reliability and validity. Standardised scale consisting of 19 items (7 negative and 12 positive) was administered to know the attitude of farmers. The responses were obtained on a five point continuum, viz. “Strongly agree”, “Agree”, “Undecided”, “Disagree” and “Strongly disagree” with the weightage of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 for positive statement, and reverse scoring for negative statement. The total attitude score for each respondent was calculated. The possible total score of the scale ranged from 19 to 95. Based on the score obtained, the respondents were categorized into three categories (Most favourable, favourable and least favourable) taking mean and standard deviation as a measurement of check. Total 87 per cent farmers were found with positive attitude including most favourable (17) to favourable (70) towards ZT in wheat. Only 13% farmers had least favourable attitude (Table 4). Favourable attitude of higher proportion of farmers was mainly due to early sowing, lesser operational cost, less weed incidence, and higher yield of wheat. Less favourable attitude was due to poor germination owing to less moisture or improper seed placement. In eastern U. P. farmers were found initially reluctant but after observing the performance most were favourable towards ZT in wheat. Growers response in relation to increase in the grain yield of wheat under ZT has been summarised in Fig. 2 and Table 5. Analysation of attitude of farmers, extension personnel and scientists towards privatization of agricultural extension service reported various values of attitudes from respondents.

63

Table 2. Distribution of constraints S.No.

Constraints

Total score

Rank

Extension constraints 1.

Lack of adequate extension staff

280

II

2.

Lack of extension literature

285

I

3.

Ignorance by mass media

254

VI

4.

Lack of knowledge of extension agencies

217

XIII

5.

Inadequate extension facilities at the disposal

273

III

230

XII

of input agencies 6.

Lack of fellow farmers co-operation Technical constraints

7.

Non-availability of good quality machine

271

IV

8.

Loose straw management

212

XIV

9.

High machine cost

239

IX

10.

Lack of local manufacturing facility

269

V

11.

Standing stable

175

XIX

12.

Appropriate moisture level at sowing

208

XVI

13.

Weed population at the time of sowing

233

X

14.

Increased problem of yellow stem borers

209

XV

15.

Hardening of upper soil

200

XVII

16.

Late harvesting of rice

199

XVIII

17.

Early harvesting of rice

130

XXI

18.

Straw burning

133

XX

Financial constraints 19.

No subsidy on machines

232

XI

20.

Lack of credit facility

254

VI

21.

Lack of money to buy new machines

246

VII

22.

Lack of money to buy other inputs

244

VIII

Table 3. Satisfaction level of farmers after adoption of ZT technology in wheat in Patna, Bihar (2004) Satisfaction level

Score

Highly satisfied

%age of farmers Standard deviation

>91.50

10

71.24 to 91.79

80

Less satisfied

89.21 74.65 to 89.21

17 70

Less favourable

12.5 acres) category, whereas small and marginal farmers were 8 and 3%, respectively. This shows zero-tillage technology is popular between medium and large farmers as they have largest plot sizes and they are capable of taking risk in the early phase of this technology. Sources of Information Among the mass media, daily newspaper is often source of information (67%), whereas sometimes radio and television play an important role for the information about ZT technology. Among the institutional sources, university scientists were often (80%) the source of information. Among noninstitutional sources, only freinds and relatives played some role as a source of information for the respondents. Change Proneness Change proneness is the indicator of the adoption of new technology by the respondents. Perusal of the data collected in respect of change proneness indicated that respondents had moderate level of change proneness. About 82% farmers agreed with the statement that they try to keep themselves with information on new technology, but that does not mean that they try out all the new methods. It also indicates that 87% of the respondents are very cautious about trying new practices. Majority of the respondents (78%) has doubt about the success of new practices but at the same time they feel that if the technologies are promising they would surely adopt them. Attitude Towards Zero Tillage Technology The respondents had a positive attitude towards zero tillage technology. Nearly 78% respondent’s strongly agreed that zero tillage yields from wheat, it saves diesel (97%) and saves money (90%). About 93% of the respondents were also strongly agreed with the statement that government should promote zero tillage technology. 61% of the farmers were agreed that this is a profitable technology, it saves water in the first irrigation (80%). 83% of the respondents were agreed with the fact that zero tillage technology is a very simple and it does not require any specific skill. Savings in ZT wheat (Tables 2 and 3) clearly go in favour of this technology.

68

Table 2. Average saving (Rs./ha) with ZT of wheat over CT at farmers field S. No. 1. 2. 3.

Resource

Saving over CT (Rs./ha) Zero tillage

Field preparation & seeding Seeds Irrigations

885 275 960

Table 3. Averages cost reduction and net profit with ZT over CT at farmer’s field

Crop establishment method

Av. cost of cultivation (Rs./ha)

Av. cost reduction over CT (Rs,/ha)

Av. increase in yields over CT (kg/ha)

Av. net profit over CT (Rs./ha)

Zero tillage

12805

2120

+288

4236

Conventional

14925

Market rate of wheat grain=Rs. 650/q and Bhusa=Rs. 75/q. Knowledge about Zero Tillage Respondents have fair knowledge about zero tillage. The respondents are strongly agreed with the fact that phosphorus is placed at right depth with zero till drill (78%), there is a definitely saving in labour (92%). About 68% of the respondents are agreed with the fact that zero tillage is a new technology which will increase yield. The emergence of wheat under zero tillage is 1 or 2 days earlier than conventional tillage. Nearly 70% farmers feel that seeds are placed in the most fertile zone of the soil. Farmers also feel that the crop vigour is better in ZT than CT. About 73% of respondents agreed that zero tillage technology increases the yield and it is better than CT. The importance of post-emergence herbicides is necessary in ZT was felt by 70% of the respondents. The practising farmers also realized that use of zero till drill saved money of at least of Rs. 1000. The statement “Diesel saving in the range of 20-25 litres/acre is also agreed by 63% of the respondents. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The respondents were satisfied with the achievement attained through zero-tillage, scope to prove merit for promotion of zero tillage, technical feasibility of ZT and ability of reduced stress of hard labour. It is also due to saving in energy, saving in time, cost saving and timeliness of sowing which proved to be higly satisfying to the respondents. The respondents were also satisfied with the improvement in yield. Economical Gains with Zero Tillage over Conventional Tillage 1. Tractor use : Economic survey of zero till practising farmers revealed that average tractor hours per hectare required upto sowing was 2.3 h in case of ZT as compared to 11.5 h in CT. Thus, about 9.0 h tractor time was saved by adoption of zero tillage technology (Fig. 1). 2. To ta l t r a c t o r c h a r g e s pa i d o r f u e l u s e d : O n a n a v e r a g e a b o u t 11 . 0 l/ha diesel was required for sowing of wheat in zero tillage and about 54.6 l/ha diesel was required for sowing under CT system including field preparation and sowing. Thus, 43.6 l/ha diesel can be saved by adoption of ZT technology (Fig. 2).

69

12

Tractor hours use

10

8

6

4

2

0 ZT (2.3)

CT (11.5)

Tillage system Fig. 1. Time saving with tractor. 60

50

Diesel consumed litre/ha

40

30

20

10

0 ZT(11.0)

CT(54.6)

Tillage system Fig. 2. Fuel consumption under ZT and CT.

Sowing of wheat upto hired tractor required the average charges of about Rs. 725/ha in ZT and Rs. 1550/ha in CT. Thus, saving of Rs. 825 per hectare was realized by the farmers who adopted zero-tillage technology as compared to conventional tillage. 3. Time taken in first irrigation (h/ha) : Average time taken in first irrigation was recorded to be 14.2 h per hectare in ZT as compared to 19.4 h per hectare in CT. Thus, around 5.2 h per hectare was saved in first irrigation by the adoption of zero tillage as compared to conventional tillage (Fig. 3). 70

20 18

First irrigation (hour/ha)

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Z T (14.2)

CT (19.4)

Tillage system Fig. 3. Time taken in first rrigation.

1000

(Rs/ha)

800 Fieldpreparation&seeding

600

Seeds

400

Irrigation

200 0 ZT Fig. 4. Average saving with ZT.

4. Seeds : Zero tillage practising farmers generally used a seed rate ranging from125 to 150 kg/ha. However, in the conventional method a high seed rate ranging from 150 to 175 kg/ha was used. Thus, there was an average saving of 25 kg/ha seed in ZT as compared to CT. Saving in Field Preparation, Seeds and Irrigation Water The average saving of Rs. 2120/ha was recorded with ZT over CT in field preparation (including seeding), seed and irrigation water. Here an average saving of one labour was realized in field preparation and three labours in three irrigations with ZT over CT (Table 3 and Fig. 4). Cost Reduction and Net Profit The average cost reduction with ZT over CT was recorded Rs. 2120. The average net profit with ZT was Rs. 4236/ha as compared to CT at farmers' field (Table 3 and Fig. 5). 71

Cost reduction and net profitwith ZT over CT 4500 4000 3500

Rs/ha

3000 2500 2000

Avg. cost reduction

1500

Net profit

1000 500 0

ZT Establishment method Fig. 5. Cost reduction and net profit with ZT over CT.

Project Impact The project has made significant impact on farmers of Bihar. The farmers are positive in their attitude about the zero tillage technology. The conservation of fuel during land preparation, saving in seeds and its seeding, irrigation water, labour and the overall profitability gains of Rs. 4236 per hectare have shown positive change in attitude of farmers towards this technology. The yield advantage in zero-tillage over conventional tillage system has created interest among the farmers to adopt the new tillage technologies. Considering the above advantages, farmers have started adopting this technologies and adoption has been widespread in the state of Bihar. The feedback from farmers clearly indicates that they are going to adopt at large scale.

72

FARMER’S OPINION ABOUT ZERO TILLAGE IN HARYANA Gurnam Singh S/o Sh. Ajmer Singh izFke o"kZ esa eSaus N% ,dM+ xsgw¡ thjks fVyst fof/k ls cks;kA vc eSa lkjs [ksr dh ¼28 ,dM+½ bZlh fof/k ls cqokbZ djrk gw¡A esjs ikl viuh e'khu gSA blls esjh 1000&1100 #0 izfr ,dM+ cpr gksrh gS] le; ij fctkbZ gks tkrh gS] VªSDVj de VwVrk gS] Qly fxjrh ugha gSA eaMwlh dk izdksi Hkh de gS] iSnkokj cjkcj gSA eSa bl rduhd ls dkQh [kq'k gw¡ A

Vill. Mansur, Distt. Yamunanagar In first year I adopted Zero tillage technique only on six acres but now whole farm is sown with zero tillage. It saves Rs. 1000-1100/acre. Saving in time, machinery & implements and diesel. Lodging is less, weed infestation also less and yield is equal to conventional sowing. I am satisfied with this technology. I purchased my own machine.

Kiranpal S/o Sh. Gyan Chand le; dh cpr gksrh gS A [kpZ Hkh 800&900 #0 izfr ,dM+ de vkrk gS A cht dh cpr gksrh gS ijUrq esjh iSnkokj de gS] Qly dh teokj o QqVko de gksrk gSA fglkc cjkcj cSBrk gS A

Vill. Antawa, Yamunanagar Saving in time, diesel, seed and money. It saves Rs. 900/acre. Yield is somewhat less but this technique is profitable. Anyhow it is a good technology because expenditure is less.

Mahipal S/o Sh. Siptar Singh igyh ckj 4 ,dM+ fctkbZ dhA ,slk yx jgk Fkk fd teokj ugha gksxh ij cgqr vPNh Qly gqbZA cht rks FkksM+k T;knk Mkyrk gw¡] cgqr vPNh teokj gksrh gSA Qly ihyh ugha gksrh vkSj fxjrh Hkh ugha gSA ikyd dh f'kdk;r gSA ,d ,dM+ dh fctkbZ ij 600&700 #0 cpr gksrh gSA le; ij fctkbZ gks tkrh gS] dksbZ fljnnhZ ughaA vPNh iSnkokj gksrh gSA eSa fdlku Hkkb;ksa ls vihy d:axk dh ,d ckj t:j cqokbZ djds ns[ksaA

Vill. Antawa, Yamunanagar Germination is very good, crop under zero tillage does not show yellowish colour after 1st irrigation. Lodging problem is also less. At the time of sowing saving of Rs. 600-700/acre is there. Sowing of wheat is on time, therefore, no tension. Yield is also higher than conventional tillage. I am happy with this technique and suggests other farmers to adopt it.

Shyam Lal S/o Sh. Narain Dass eSa lu~ 2002 ls thjks fMªy ls fctkbZ dj jgk gw¡] cht de yxrk gS] le; dh cpr] 900&1000 #0 izfr ,dM+ dh cpr gks tkrh gSA u Qly fxjrh gS u ihykiu vkrk gSA de [kjirokj mxrs gSaA iSnkokj cjkcj gksrh gSA dkQh lUrq"V gw¡A

Vill. Antawa, Yamunanagar I have been using zero tillage tech since 2002. There is saving in time as well as seed. Zero till sowing saves about Rs.900-1000/acre. In this technique weed germination is less and crop lodging is also less. I am satisfied with this technique.

Hans Raj S/o Sh. Vasudev 2001 esa ds-oh-ds-] ;equkuxj ls irk pyk A igys 2 ,dM+ esa fctkbZ djkbZ rks xkao okyksa us dgk fd bl ckj vkids [ksr esa dqN iSnk ugha gksxk A ckn esa vPNh teokj gqbZ A vc eSa lkjs xsgw¡ thjks ls chtrk gw¡] 1000&1200 izfr ,dM+ fctkbZ ds le; cp tkrs gSaA fctkbZ 7&8 fnu igys gks tkrh gS A èkku ds Qkus xyus ds ckn [kkn dk dke djrs gSa vkSj izfr ,dM+ 2 fDoaVy rd dh iSnkokj vf/kd gksrh gS A eSa oSKkfudksa dk 'kqfØ;k vnk djrk gw¡ A eq>s rks bl rduhd ls cgqr Qk;nk gks jgk gS A

Vill. Antawa, Yamunanagar I got the information about this technique from Yamunanagar KVK in 2001. Germination is very good. Sowing of crop is done 7-8 days earlier than conventional sowing. It saves Rs.1000-1200/acre at the time of sowing. The rice crop residue left in field increases soil fertility, gives yield 2 q/acre more than conventional tillage. I am satisfied with zero-tillage technology and thankful to the scientists for giving a very profitable and less time consuming technology.

Charanjeet Singh S/o Sh. Pradhan Singh

bl fof/k ls iSnkokj vPNh gS] [kpkZ de gksrk gS vkSj Vkbe dh cpr gksrh gSA VSªDVj dh f?klkbZ de gksrh gS] 700&800 #Ik;s izfr ,dM+ dh cpr gksrh gS] cht Hkh de yxrk gSA xsgw¡ dh teokj Hkh Hkjiwj gSA Qly ckfj'k o rst gok ls fxjrh ugha gSA iSnkokj ijEijkxr fof/k ds cjkcj vkrh gSA eSa bl rduhd ls dkQh lUrq"V gw¡A

Village Sakraon, Ambala So many benefits : more yield, saving in time, reduced repair cost of tractor, saving of Rs. 7008000/acre. Germination of wheat is good and no lodging in strong winds. Better yield. I am satisfied with this technology.

Arjun Singh S/o Sh. Kartar Singh bl fof/k ls vPNh teokj o vPNh iSnkokj ds lkFk&lkFk VªSDVj dh Hkh de f?klkbZ gksrh gSA Mhty Hkh de yxrk gS o ftjks fVyst ls chth gqbZ xsgw¡ ij ckfj'k dk uqdlku ugha gksrkA [kkn de Mkyrk gw¡ vkSj rhljs lky ,d ckj tqrkbZ djds fctkbZ djrs gSaA blls pkSM+h iRrh okys [kjirokj ugha vkrsA bl fof/k ls izfr ,dM+ 1000&1100 #0 dh cpr gksrh gSA

Village Thol, Kurukshetra In zero tillage, germination is good and yield is higher than conventional sowing. It saves time and diesel cost. No harmful effect of rain on crop is there and fertilizers requirement is also less. By adopting this technology we save Rs. 10001100/acre.

Hazara Singh S/o Sh. Chajju Singh bl fof/k ds rks Qk;ns gh Qk;ns gSaA Qly de fxjrh gS rFkk [kpkZ Hkh de yxrk gS] 15&20 gtkj #i;s dh cpr Hkh gks tkrh gSA teokj Hkh vPNh gksrh gSA xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ ,d lIrkg igys gks tkrh gSA nwljs fdlku bl rduhd dks t:j viuk,aA

Village Thol, Kurukshetra There are benefits and benefits in zero tillage sowing. Yield increases, no lodging problem and less expenditure. Better germination. Sowing is completed one week before.

Raj Kumar S/o Sh. Sajjan Singh le; dh cpr ds lkFk&lkFk #i;ksa dh cpr gksrh gSA ;g fof/k iwjh rjg ls dke;kc gqbZA ge lksp jgs Fks fd ;g dSlh gksxhA bl fof/k okys xsgw¡ esa QqVko de gksrk gSA blfy, iSnkokj ijEijkxr fof/k ds eqdkcys de gS ij fctkbZ ds le; 900&1000 #0 izfr ,dM+ dh cpr gks tkrh gS vkSj esgur Hkh dkQh de gksrh gSA blfy, ckr cjkcj iM+rh gSA

Village Thol, Kurukshetra Saving of time as well as money. This technology fully successful. Saving of Rs. 9001000/ acre and labour requirement is also less.

Darshan Singh S/o Sh. Sarupa Singh thjks fVy ls le; rFkk [kpsZ dh cpr gksus ds lkFk&lkFk Qly dh iSnkokj Hkh vPNh gksrh gSA Qly de fxjrh gS rFkk eaMwlh 20 izfr'kr rd ?kV tkrh gSA xk¡o esa e'khu dh vf/kd ekax ijUrq de miyC/krk ds dkj.k dbZ fdlku thjks fMªy ls xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ ls oafpr jg tkrs gSaA vr% d`f"k foHkkx dks bldh miyC/krk lLrs nkeksa ij lqfuf'pr djuh pkfg, rkfd vf/kd ls vf/kd fdlku bl rduhd dk ykHk mBk ldsaA

Village Samain, Fatehabad Zero tillage leads to a considerable saving in time and money on one land and leads to a good crop stand ontheotherduetolesslodgingofthecropandreduction in the population of Phalaris minor (upto 20%). However, due to high demand & comparatively lesser availability of zero-till drill in the village, many farmers remain deprived of wheat sowing by this technique. Hence, the Agriculture Department should ensure its availability on affordable prices so that more number of farmers be benefited from the technique.

Naseeb Singh S/o Sh. Jodha Ramji thjks fVyst xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ dh ,d mRre rduhd gSA le; dh cpr gksrh gS rFkk [kpkZ 600 #Ik;s izfr ,dM+ de gks tkrk gSA xsgw¡ dh Hkjiwj teokj gksrh gS rFkk eaMwlh dh deA tM+ksa dh etcwr idM+ ds dkj.k flapkbZ ds ckn gok pyus ij Qly de fxjrh gSA nwljs fdlkuksa dks Hkh ;g rduhdh viukus dh lykg nw¡xkA

Village Samain, Fatehabad Zero tillage is the best technique for the sowing of wheat as it results in saving of time and also cost is reduced to the tune of Rs. 600 per acre. It results in good crop stand and reduction in the Phalaris population. There is also less lodging of the crop after irrigation as the roots hold the soil firmly after using zero tillage. I will recommend this technique to other farmers also.

Bhagwan Dass S/o Sh. Shankar Dass igys lky ,d ,dM+ esa fctkbZ djk jgk Fkk vPNk jgkA viuh e'khu [kjhn yh vius cht ysrk gw¡] 150&160 ,dM+ esa chtrk gw¡A vius [ksr esa Mhty dh cpr gksrh gS] 50&60 gtkj xkao esa fctkbZ ls cpk ysrk gw¡] de cht Mkyrk gw¡] 7&8 fnu igys fctkbZ gks tkrh gSA fctkbZ ds rqjUr ckn LVkEi dk Lizs djrk gw¡A [kjirokj dk iw.kZ fu;U=.k gksrk gS mlds ckn dksbZ Lizs ughaA fctkbZ ds rqjUr ckn ckfj'k ls teokj ij dksbZ izHkko ugha iM+rk] Qly fxjrh ughaA iSnkokj 1&2 fDoaVy T;knk gksrh gSA cgqr etk vk x;kA

Vill. Antawa, Yamunanagar I have purchased my own drill. I sowed 150-160 acre with zero tillage drill and for that I earn Rs. 5060 thousand. It is a very good source of income. I also sown my own field with this drill. Sowing is completed 7-8 days earlier. Saving of diesel and seed. We spray stomp before sowing by which seeds are completely under control and no spray after that. No effect of rain if received just after sowing on crop, no lodging. Yield is increased by 12 q/acre as compared to conventional sowing.

Rameshwar Dass S/o Sh. Bihari Dass le; dh cpr] cht dh cpr] 1100&1200 #0 dh izfr ,dM+ cpr] vPNk teokj gksrk gS] ihykiu ugha vkrk] Qly de fxjrh gS] QqVko de gksrk gS A esjh iSnkokj 1&2 eu izfr ,dM+ de gqbZ A tehu de gS blfy, bl lky ugha dh A cjkcj jgrk gS A

Vill. Antawa, Yamunanagar Zero tillage technology saves time, crop neither becomes yellow nor lodges. It saves ploughing cost worth Rs. 1100-1200/acre. Yield is little bit but less lint. This is a good technology.

Rampal S/o Sh. Kehar Singh o"kZ 2001 esa iM+kSlh dh e'khu ns[kh Fkh vc vius lkjs xsgw¡ thjks fVyst ls fdjk, ij fctkbZ djkrk gw¡] 10 fdyks cht de Mkyrk gw¡] 600&700 #0 izfr ,dM+ de [kpZ] vPNh teokj iSnkokj 2&2-5 fDoaVy T;knk gksrh gS A nwljs fdlkuksa dks bl rduhd dks t:j viukus dh lykg nsrk gw¡ A

Vill. Antawa, Yamunanagar I saw zero tillage machine in 2001 for the first time in the field of my neighbouring farmer. After that I also adopted this technique on my whole farm. In this technique 10 kg/acre less seed is used. Rs. 600-700/acre less expenditure. Good germination and other benefits. Yield is also 2-2.5 q/acre higher than conventional sowing. I suggest other farmers for adopting this technology.

Yashpal S/o Sh. Jeevan Dass thjks fVyst ls xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ ds cgqr Qk;ns gSa A de cht] de le;] 700&800 izfr ,dM+ de [kpZ vPNh teokj] Qly fxjrh ugha vkSj iSnkokj 6&7 eu izfr ,dM+ T;knk A

Vill. Antawa, Yamunanagar Zero tillage sowing of wheat has lot of advantages. Saves time, saving of Rs. 700800/acre, less expenditure, good germination and crop yield, etc. Lodging problem is very less. Above all it increases yield to the extent of 6-7 mann per acre.

Sureshpal S/o Sh. Mehar Singh viuh e'khu gS A Mhty dh cgqr cpr gksrh gS A fctkbZ Hkh FkksM+s le; esa gks tkrh gS A [kkn 50 fdyksxzke de Mkyrk gw¡ A FkksM+h ikyd T;knk vkrh gSA teokj vPNh gksrh gS A iSnkokj 1&1-5 fDoaVy T;knk gksrh gS A

Vill. Bhagu Majra, Yamunanagar I have my own zero-drill. It saves time, diesel and 50 kg urea/acre, full germination and yield is 11.5 q/acre higher than conventional tillage. Problem of Phalaris is very less but brood leaf weeds are a little bit more.

Harbans Singh S/o Sh. Hardyal Singh eSaus loZizFke gfj;k.kk d`f"k fo'ofo|ky;] fglkj ds oSKkfudksa ls thjks fVy e'khu ds ckjs esa 2002 esa lqukA esjs ikl viuh thjks fVyst e'khu gS] mlls 8 ,dM+ viuh chtrk gw¡ vkSj 30&40 ,dM+ xkao dh fctkbZ djrk gw¡A blls esjk 40&45 yhVj Mhty izfr ,dM+ cprk gSA cfs bl fof/k ds ckjs esa le>k;k rks eq>s ml ij fo'okl ugha gqvkA ysfdu fQj Hkh eSa bl fof/k ls cqokbZ dj nhA Qly Bhd gh te xbZA tc igyk ikuh fn;k rks Qly ihyh ugha iM+h vkSj rst gok ls Qly fxjh Hkh ugha blls 700 #0 dh cpr gksrh gS vkSj iSnkokj Hkh cjkcj gksrh gSA eSa bl fof/k ls cgqr larq"V gw¡A

Village Sultanpur, Karnal In 1999, my neighbouring farmer told me about this technique but I could hardly believe him. I did sowing and there were satisfactory returns. After 1st irrigation, there was no yellowing and lodging was also less. It saves upto Rs.700 and gives good production. I am satisfied with this technique.

Malkhan Singh S/o Sh. Amar Singh ijEijkxr fof/k ls tqrkbZ djus ds fy, pkj ckj tqrkbZ djuh iM+rh gSA ysfdu vc dsoy fctkbZ djuh iM+h gSA thjks fVyst ls cqokbZ djus ls cht de yxrk gSA le; dh cpr gksrh gS rFkk xsgw¡ dh Hkjiwj teokj gksrh gSA igyh flapkbZ ds ckn Qly ihyh ugha iM+rhA eaMwlh de mxrh gSA

Village Bhaini Khurd, Karnal Four ploughings are required for sowing with conventional method but sowing is done in only one operation. Quantity of seed is required in zero tillage method. It saves time and there is good germination of wheat. No yellowing of wheat crop after first irrigation and less germination of Phalaris has been observed.

Kuldeep Singh S/o Sh. Jaswant Singh bl fof/k ls cqokbZ djus ls 9&10 fnu igys xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ laHko gksrh gSA xsgw¡ dh teokj vPNh gksrh gSA fxjrh ugha gSA eaMwlh Hkh de gksrh gSA iSnkokj ,d fDoaVy izfr gSDVs;j vf/kd gksrh gSA eSa bl fof/k ls larq"V gw¡ vkSj bl fof/k ds ykHk nwljs fdlkuksa dks crkrk gw¡A

Village Rambha, Karnal Early sowing by 9-10 days is possible by this method. Good germination. No lodging. Less occurrence of Phalaris. The yield increases by one quintal per hectare. I am satisfied with this method and the benefits of this method are told to other farmers.

Sultan Singh S/o Sh. Ishwar Singh iM+kslh fdlku /keZohj us 2000 esa xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ thjks fVyst ls djus dh lykg nhA eSaus vkB ,dM+ dh cqokbZ dh] blls le; dh cpr gksrh gSA xsgw¡ dh Hkjiwj teokj gksrh gSA igyh flapkbZ ds ckn ihykiu ugha gksrkA ijEijkxr fof/k ds eqdkcys Qly fxjrh ughaA eaMwlh dk izdksi Hkh de gksrk gSA bl fof/k ls 2 fDoaVy izfr gSDVs;j iSnkokj vf/kd gksrh gSA eSa bl fof/k ls larq"V gw¡A

Village Bhaini Khurd, Karnal My neighbouring farmer Dharamvir suggested me in 2000 to sow wheat by zero tillage. I sowed eight acres and it also saves time. Germination of wheat is good. The crop does not turn yellow after first irrigation. The lodging of crop is less as compared to conventional technique. Also there is less occurrence of Phalaris minor. The yield is increased by about 2 q/ha using this technique. I am satisfied with this technique.

Darshan Singh S/o Sh. Lal Singh ;G ,d cgqr gh Qk;ns okyh rduhd gSA eSa vius lkjs xsgw¡ blh rduhd ls chtrk gw¡A bl fof/k ls cht dh cpr] rsy dh cpr vkSj fctkbZ djhc ,d lIrkg igys gks tkrh gSA tehu cgqr tYnh ikuh ih tkrh gSA blls xsgw¡ ihys ugha gksrs vkSj fxjrs Hkh ughaA dudh dk teokj fNM+ds okyh ds eqdkcys de gksrk gSA iSnkokj cjkcj vkrh gSA ijUrq de [kpZ o de dke ds dkj.k ;g cgqr Qk;ns dk dke gSA

Village Humaunpur, Ambala It saves diesel and time. Sowing is completed almost one week early. Infiltration rate is higher than conventional tillage. It saves crop from harmfull effects of stagnant water. Because of this crop does not turn yellow and does not lodge. Germination of Phalaris minor is less as compared to broadcasting. Less expenditure and less labour are the other advantages of this technology.

Sher Singh S/o Sh. Munshi Singh Thjks fVy e'khu dkQh mi;ksxh ,oa lLrh fof/k gSA [kpZ 600&700 #0 izfr ,dM+ de] lkFk esa le; dh cpr] Qly dh idM+ etcwr gksrh gS] fxjrh ugha tcfd tqrkbZ okyh xsgw¡ flapkbZ ds ckn gok pyus ls fxj tkrh gS vkSj iSnkokj de vkrh gSA dudh de vkrh gS iSnkokj tqrkbZ okyh ds cjkcj gksrh gSA eSa bl rduhd ls dkQh lUrq"V gw¡ vkSj esjs ikl viuh e'khu gSA

Village Humaunpur, Ambala Zero tillage is more useful and cheap technology. Expenditure Rs. 600-700/acre less, saving of time, better root growth, no lodging, less Phalaris minor infastation. We are highly satisfied with this system and purchased own zero tillage machine.

Harbans Singh S/o Sh. Surjeet Singh lu~ 2001 esa eSaus bl rduhd dks FkksM+s ,fj;k esa ij[k dj ns[kkA blds ckn e'khu yhA eSa bl rduhd ls gj lky 85 ,dM+ xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ djrk gw¡A igys 10&12 tqrkbZ djuh iM+rh Fkh rsy Hkh cgqr yxrk Fkk] le; Hkh cgqr yxrk Fkk vkSj fctkbZ nsj ls gksrh FkhA VSªDVj fnu&jkr pyrk FkkA nks lky esa batu ca/kokuk iM+rk Fkk vkSj fQj Hkh fNaVs fof/k ls fctkbZ gksrh Fkh ij tc ls thjks fVyst e'khu vkbZ] Qk;nk gh Qk;nk gSA blesa 10 fdyks cht izfr ,dM+ de yxrk gSA rsy Hkh ,d pkSFkkbZ yxrk gSA VªSDVj dbZ lky pyrk gS vkSj ,d vkneh 10&15 fnu esa lkjk [ksr cht nsrk gSA Qly u ihyh iM+rh gS u fxjus dh ijs'kkuh] u dudh dh ijs'kkuh vkSj iSnkokj cjkcjA igyk ikuh FkksM+k tYnh nsuk iM+rk gSA ;g rduhd fdlku ds fy, ojnku lkfcr gqbZ gSA

Village Matehri Shekhan, Ambala In first year I adopted zero tillage on small scale. Now we use this technique on larger scale. Before adoption of this technology, 10-12 ploughings were required to prepare the field. Diesel consumption was very high and sowing was always delayed. Repair cost of tractor was also very high, but after adoption of zero tillage whole field is sown only in 10-15 days. Saving of 10 kg/acre seed and diesel consumption reduces up to one third. Crop neither lodges nor turn yellow. Phalaris minor problem is also solved. It has proved a blessing for the farmers.

Gurmej Singh S/o Sh. Gurdev Singh thjks fVyst rduhd ds ckjs esa ds-oh-ds- ls irk pyk vkSj ns[kkA blds ckn e'khu ekax dj xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ djrk gw¡A Mhty de yxrk gS] thjks fVy e'khu ls fctkbZ djus ij 15 fnu igys fctkbZ gks tkrh gSA cht de yxrk gSA Mkdj tehu esa ;g rduhd cgqr dke;kc gSA ijEijkxr fof/k ds eqdkcys tehu ikuh tYnh ih tkrh gSA Qly fxjrh Hkh ughaA Mkdj tehu ds fy, cgqr gh mi;ksxh gS] iSnkokj vf/kd] [kpZ deA nwljs fdlkuksa dks lykg nsuk pkgw¡xk fd Mkdj tehu ij thjks fVy dk iz;ksx gh djsaA

Village Naddyali, Ambala Saving of diesel cost, 15 days early sowing. In heavy soil, this technology is very much effective. Water absorption in soil is more as compared to conventional tillage. Higher yield, less expenditure and no lodging are main advantages. I advise farmers that they must use zero tillage in heavy soils.

Kulwant Singh S/o Sh. Ram Chander igyh ckj iM+kslh xkao esa thjks fVy dh fctkbZ ns[khA QqVko cgqr vPNk Fkk] iSnkokj Hkh vPNh gqbZA bl fof/k ls 20&25 yhVj Mhty de yxrk gSA bl rduhd ls le; dh cpr rks gksrh gh gS] lkFk gh iSnkokj Hkh cs 10 izfr'kr cht o 75 izfr'kr rsy dh cpr gksrh gSA Hkjiwj teokj gksrk gS] tM+sa xgjh tkrh gSa rFkk bl fof/k ls cqokbZ djus ij gok rFkk o"kkZ ds dkj.k ikS/ks fxjrs ugha gSaA eaMwlh dk cht uhps j[kus ds dkj.k eaMwlh dk teokj cgqr de gksrk gSA flapkbZ esa le; Hkh de yxrk gS vkSj ikuh dh Hkh cpr gksrh gS] iSnkokj iqjkuh fof/k ds cjkcj gksrh gS] bl fof/k ls gesa izfr ,dM+ 1000&1200 #0 dh cpr gksrh gSA bl o"kZ gekjs bykds esa fcuk tqrkbZ xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ cgqr vf/kd gSA

Village Humaunpur, Ambala I have been practising zero tillage technique in 50 acres for last 5-6 years. It saves 10 per cent seed and 75 per cent diesel. Crop stand is good and roots are deep in this technique. In strong winds and heavy rains crop does not lodge. Phalaris minor infestation is also less. Sowing in time of irrigation and quantity of water. Overall from this technique we save Rs. 1000-1200/acre. In my areas almost whole wheat sowing is done by zero tillage.

Darshan Singh S/o Sh. Chattar Singh thjks fVyst e'khu ds ckjs esa g0 d`0 fo0] fglkj ds oSKkfudksa }kjk feyh tkudkjh ,oa izksRlkgu ds dkj.k lu~ 2000&01 esa bl rduhd dks viuk;kA izFke o"kZ esa dsoy ,d ,dM+ esa bl rduhd dk iz;ksx fd;k rFkk blds vk'p;Ztud ifj.kkeksa ds Ik'pkr~ vkxkeh o"kksZa esa djhc 30 ,dM+ esa bldk bLrseky fd;kA ;gh ugha xkao ds vU; fdlkuksa ds ;gka Hkh izfr o"kZ 25&30 ,dM+ xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ dhA /ku] le;] flapkbZ ds ikuh ,oa e'khujh dh cpr gksrh gSA [kjirokj dh leL;k ?kVrh gS rFkk mRiknu izfr ,dM+ 2 fDoa0 rd cs bl rduhd dh tkudkjh g0 d`0 fo0] fglkj ds oSKkfudksa ls feyhA bl rduhd }kjk fdlku de ykxr esa vf/kd iSnkokj ys ldrk gSA igys ijEijkxr fof/k ds nkSjku de ls de 6 ckj [ksr dh xgkbZ djuh iM+rh Fkh ftlls le; ,oa Mhty dh vf/kd [kir gksrh FkhA thjks fVy ls tgka bu lalk/kuksa dh cpr gksrh gS] ogha iSnkokj Hkh izfr ,dM+ 2 fDoa0 rd cs blds ckjs esa lwpuk feyhA

Village Landa, Ambala Fifteen days are saved at the time of sowing. Less infestation of Phalaris minor is there. Alongwith time, diesel is also saved and yield is also more than conventional tillage. I am thankful to HAU, Hisar from where I came to know about this technique.

Navneet Singh S/o Sh. Prem Singh blls le; dh cpr gksrh gS] Mhty dh cpr gksrh gS] [kjirokj de mxrk gSA Mh-,-ih- iwjk dke djrk gSA 1500 #0 izfr ,dM+ dh cpr gksrh gSA cht iwjk mxrk gS] iSnkokj cs thjks fVyst ds ckjs esa lu~ 2003 esa tkudkjh gqbZ mlds ckn ls eSa yxkrkj bl fof/k ls [ksrh djrk vk jgk gw¡A thjks fVyst ls cqokbZ djus ij 300 #0 izfr ,dM+ [kpkZ vkrk gS tcfd ijEijkxr [kpZ ls cqokbZ djus ij ;g [kpkZ 1100 #Ik;s ls T;knk vkrk gS D;ksafd 700 #0 rks cqokbZ ls igys gksus okyh tqrkbZ ij [kpZ gks tkrs gSaA thjks fVyst ls [kkn cht ds ikl iM+rh gSA Qly de fxjrh gSA [kjirokj Hkh de gksrh gSA eSa bl fof/k ls larq"V gw¡A

Village Dubli, Ambala I came to know about zero tillage in 2003 and since then I have been using it. Sowing with zero tillage costs about Rs. 300 per acre while by conventional method it amounts to more than Rs.1100 per acre.

Prem Singh S/o Sh. Gurdyal Singh eq>s iM+kslh fdlku ls lu~ 1997 esa thjks fVyst ls fctkbZ djus dh fof/k dk irk pyk rc ls yxkrkj eSa bl fof/k ls 8 ,dM+ esa iM+kslh dh e'khu ekax dj fctkbZ djrk gw¡A fctkbZ ls igys gksus okyh tqrkbZ ij 600 #0 izfr ,dM+ tks [kpkZ gksrk gS mldh cpr gks tkrh gSA thjks fVyst ls cht dh cpr] le; dh cpr gksrh gSA igyh flapkbZ ij ihykiu ugha gksrk rFkk xsgw¡ dh Hkjiwj teokj gksrh gSA [kjirokj esa 50 izfr'kr dh deh vkrh gS D;ksafd tehu iwjh rjg [kqyrh ugha gSA ikuh dh cpr rFkk [kkn dh cpr gksrh gSA bl rduhd ls eSa larq"V gw¡A eSa dylh] 'kkgckn dh fMªy e'khu iz;ksx djrk gw¡A vxj bldk Qkyk etcwr gks rks ;g ,d cfs nwjn'kZu ds dk;ZØe ls bl fof/k dh tkudkjh feyhA 'kq# esa yxk fd teko vPNk ugha gksxk vkSj cs thjks fVyst dh tkudkjh gqbZ rks 'kq#vkr esa 5 ,dM+ o 27 ,dM+ esa thjks fVyst djrk gw¡ ftlls yxHkx 1000 #0 dh lh/kh cpr rks 'kq# esa nh gSA thjks fVyst ls le; dh cpr gksrh gS o iSnkokj Hkh T;knk gSA blls e'khujh dk [kpZ Hkh de gqvk gSA Mkdj tehu gksus dh otg ls [ksrh dh rS;kjh esa dksbZ dfBukbZ ugha gksrhA le; o e'khujh dh cpr ds lkFk&lkFk xsgw¡ ds mRiknu esa dksbZ deh ugha vkrhA

Village Khudda Kalan, Ambala I used to do sowing through conventional method six years ago, then profit was not much. But in 1997 I came to know about zero tillage and in the beginning took five acres and now 27 acres of land is under zero tillage from which a direct saving of Rs. 1000/acre is achieved. Initially zero tillage saves time and gives more yield. Alongwith saving of time and machinery, substantially good wheat seed is obtained.

Nayab Singh S/o Sh. Preetam Singh vkt ls pkj o"kZ iwoZ esjs iM+kslh fdlku us eq>s thjks fVyst ls fctkbZ djds ns[kus dh lykg nhA vkt eSa 15 ,dM+ esa bl fof/k ls Qly cks jgk gw¡A bl fof/k ls ijEijkxr fctkbZ fof/k ds eqdkcys tgk¡ /ku o le; dh cpr gksrh gSA ogha xsgw¡ dh Hkjiwj iSnkokj o Qly fxjus dh leL;k ls futkr feyrh gSA eSa vU; fdlku Hkkb;ksa dks lykg nwaxk fd os ,d ckj pkgs ikap ,dM+ esa gh thjks fVyst ls fctkbZ djds ns[ksa o viuh /ku o le; dh cpr dk Qk;nk lkeus gksrs ns[ksaA

Village Bulana, Ambala. Four years ago, my neighbouring farmer suggested me to go for wheat sowing with zero till drill. Now I am sowing 15 acres of crops with this technique. In comparison to conventional tillage, with this technique there is a saving of money and time. Also there is an increase in yield of wheat and no problem of crop lodging. I suggest other farmers that they should start zero tillage in some area and see the saving of money and time through their own eyes.

Sube Singh S/o Sh. Baru Ram thjks fVyst rduhd fdlkuksa ds fy, cgqr ykHknk;d fl) gqbZ gSA ijEijkxr fNM+dko fof/k ds eqdkcys 10 fdyks izfr ,dM+ cht dh cpr gksrh gSA le; dh yxHkx 50 izfr'kr rd cpr gksrh gSA tM+as etcwr gksus ds dkj.k Qly de fxjrh gSa rFkk flapkbZ ds ikuh ,oa le; esa cpr gksrh gSA thjks fVyst fMªy o ubZ [kjirokj nokvksa ds laxe ls [kjirokj [kkldj eaMwlh dh leL;k cgqr de gks xbZ gSA Mhty ,oa e'khujh dk cpko gksrk gSA izfr ,dM+ 500 #0 dk vkfFkZd ykHk gksrk gSA thjks fVy ls fctkbZ djrs le; [ksr lery gksuk pkfg, o ueh mi;qDr ek=k esa gksuh pkfg,A

Village Bharot, Kaithal Zero tillage technique has proved to be a very beneficial to the farmers. As compared to conventional tillage, about 10 kg seed per acre is saved. Time is saved up to 50%. Crop lodging is less due to strong roots. There is a saving in irrigation water and time. The combination of zero tillage drill and herbicides has lowered down the problem of weeds particularly Phalaris minor. An economic benefit of Rs .500/acre is there. At the time of sowing with zero tillage, the field should be levelled and there should be proper moisture in the field.

Ram Kumar S/o Sh. Gadeen Singh thjks fVy rduhd NksVs fdlkuksa ds fy, ojnku fl) gqbZ gSA eSa fiNys 6 o"kksZa ls 4 ,dM+ Hkwfe ij yxkrkj bldk mi;ksx dj jgk gw¡A xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ dk [kpkZ djhc 1000 #0 izfr ,dM+ rd ?kV x;k gSA iSnokj Hkh izfr ,dM+ 5&6 eu T;knk fudyrh gSA le; dh dkQh cpr gksrh gS ftls fdlku vU; mi;ksxh dk;ksZa esa bLrseky dj ldrs gSaA

Village Dhons , Kaithal Zero tillage technique has proved a blessing for small farmers. I have been using this technique in four acres of land for the last six years. Expenditure of wheat sowing has been lowered down by about Rs. 1000/acre, yield increases to 22.25 q/acre. A lot of time is saved which can be used for other works.

Kanwarpal S/o Sh. Ram Saroop thjks fVy e'khu ds ckjs esa iM+kslh xkao ls irk yxk rFkk loZizFke lu~ 1000&01 esa bldk iz;ksx fd;kA ijEijkxr fof/k ds eqdkcys izfr ,dM+ djhc 1200 #0 dk ykHk gksrk gSA ;gh ugha] bl rduhd ls le;] esgur ,oa VSªDVj e'khu vkfn dh Hkh cpr gksrh gSA Mhty dh de [kir gksrh gSA blls xsgw¡ dh teokj cgqr cfs bl rduhd ds ckjs esa crk;kA bl rduhd ls eaMwlh ij fu;U=.k gksrk gSA teko Hkh vPNk gksrk gS rFkk cht dh cpr gksrh gSA Mhty dk [kpZ Hkh de gks tkrk gSA bruh lHkh cprksa ds ckotwn izfr ,dM+ yxHkx 2 fDoaVy vf/kd iSnkokj gksrh gSA eSa nwljs fdlkuksa dks Hkh ;g rduhd viukus dh lykg nsrk gw¡A

Village Bhaini Kalan, Karnal I was told about this technique by Dr. Samar Singh of HAU. This technique controls Phalaris minor. Germination is good. Saving of seed and diesel is there. Two q per acre more yield is obtained. I advise other farmers to adopt this technique of zero tillage.

Ramphal S/o Sh. Kali Ram eq>s bl rduhd dh tkudkjh 1996 esa gfj;k.kk d`f"k fo'ofo|ky; ds oSKkfud MkW0 v'kksd ;kno ls feyhA esjh viuh thjks fVy e'khu gSA bl rduhd ls cht vkSj le; dh cpr ds lkFk&lkFk xsgw¡ dh Hkjiwj teokj gksrh gS rFkk Qly esa ihykiu Hkh ugha vkrk D;ksafd thjks fVy tehu tYnh ikuh ih ysrh gSA cht Åij u vkus ds dkj.k eaMwlh dk izdksi de gksrk gSA ,d ikuh T;knk yxrk gS fdUrq izfr flapkbZ ikuh yxkus esa de le; yxrk gSA izfr ,dM+ 2 fDoaVy iSnkokj vf/kd gksrh gS rFkk 500 #0 izfr ,dM+ dh cpr Hkh gksrh gSA eSa bl rduhd ls larq"V gw¡A

Village Teak, Kaithal Dr. Ashok Yadav from Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar told me about this technique. This technique saves seed and time. Germination is very good. No yellowness occurs. Phalaris minor infestation is less. Per acre 2 q more yield is obtained. Saving of Rs. 500 is there. I am satisfied with this technique.

Ramesh Chand S/o Sh. Ronak Ram lu~ 1995 esa g0 d`0 fo0 ds oSKkfud MkW0 /keZohj ;kno ls gesa bl rduhd dk irk pykA lu~ 1997 esa 12 ,dM+ ij thjks fVy ls fctkbZ dh Fkh ysfdu fiNys nks lky ls 40 ,dM+ ij bl fof/k ls fctkbZ dj jgk gw¡A nl fdyksxzke izfr ,dM+ cht dh cpr gqbZ vkSj 25 izfr'kr le; dh Hkh cpr gqbZA xsgw¡ dk Hkjiwj teko gksrk gSA eaMwlh de mxrh gS] 550 #0 izfr ,dM+ dh cpr gksrh gS rFkk iSnkokj 1&2 fDoaVy T;knk gh gksrh gSA eSa bl rduhd ls larq"V gw¡ rFkk nwljksa dks Hkh viukus dh lykg nsrk gw¡ ysfdu thjks fVy rduhd ls igys eSa dVj iz;ksx djrk FkkA

Village Teak, Kaithal I started using this technique in 1997. Per acre 10 kg seed is saved. Time saving is also there. Germination is good. Germination of Phalaris minor is less. Rs. 550 per acre are saved. Yield is 1-2 q more. I am satisfied with this technique and advise other farmers to adopt it.

Rakam Singh S/o Sh. Baru Ram MkW0 /keZohj ;kno ds-oh-ds- dSFky ls 1997 esa eq>s bl rduhd dk irk pyk FkkA eSa viuh e'khu ls 100 ,dM+ esa bl rduhd ls fctkbZ djrk gw¡A bl rduhd ls le; vkSj cht dh cpr rks gksrh gS fdUrq teokj dqN de gksrk gSA Qly esa uk rks ihykiu vkrk gS vkSj uk gh fxjus dk Mj gksrk gSA eaMwlh dk izdksi de gksrk gSA teokj de gksus ds dkj.k iSnkokj dqN de gqbZA ysfdu eSa bl rduhd ls lUrq"V gw¡ vkSj nwljs fdlkuksa dks lykg nsrk gw¡ fd bl rduhd dks t:j viuk,aA

Village Teak, Kaithal I use this technique in 100 acre with my machine. It saves time and seed. There is neither yellowness nor lodging in crop. Infestation of Phalaris minor is less. This is a very good technique and other farmers must adopt it.

Nakli Ram S/o Sh. Singh Ram eq>s bl rduhd dh tkudkjh 1996 esa gfj;k.kk d`f"k fo'ofo|ky; ds oSKkfud MkW0 v'kksd o MkW0 vkj- ds- efyd ls feyhA ikap fdyksxzke izfr ,dM+ cht dh cpr gksrh gSA bl rduhd ls le; cprk gS Hkjiwj teokj gksrk gSA cht xgjk fxjrk gS vkSj tehu l[r jgrh gS blfy, Qly ds fxjus dh lEHkkouk de jgrh gSA l[r tehu eaMwlh ds cht dks mxus ugha nsrhA ikuh dh cpr ds lkFk&lkFk 550 #0 izfr ,dM+ dh cpr gksrh gh gSA iSnkokj Hkh 2 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ T;knk gksrh gSA cklerh /kku ;k dEckbZu ls dVkbZ okyh tehu esa] /kku dh ijkyh e'khu esa Qalus ls fiNys ifg, tke gks tkrs gSa rFkk cht ugha fxjrkA bl leL;k dk lek/kku fd;k tkuk pkfg,A

Village Teak, Kaithal I was told about this technique in 1996 by HAU scientists. 5 kg seed per acre is saved. It saves time. Germination is quite good. No lodging is observed. Hard soil does not allow Phalaris minor to germinate. Alongwith saving of water, Rs. 550 are also saved per acre. 2 q more yield is obtained.

Singhram S/o Sh. Chajju Ram eSa lu~ 2000 ls xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ bl rduhd ls djrk vk jgk gw¡A ijEijkxr fof/k ds eqdkcys 1300 #0 izfr ,dM+ dh cpr ds lkFk&lkFk igyk ikuh de yxrk gSA fctkbZ vxsrh o VkbZe ij gks tkrh gSA blls iSnkokj cgqr cs thjks fVyst ds ckjs esa tkudkjh ,p-,-;w- ds oSKkfudksa ls 1997 esa feyhA bl fof/k ls Qly fxjrh Hkh ugha gSA flapkbZ ds ikuh dh cpr ds lkFk&lkFk 1000 #0 dh cpr gksrh gS rFkk 1&2 fDoaVy iSnkokj vf/kd gksrh gSA vPNh DokfyVh dh e'khu ugha feyrh gSA iatkc ls ykbZ xbZ e'khu vPNh gSA

Village Faral, Kaithal I got information about zero tillage technology from HAU scientists in 1997. It saves both irrigation water, as well as Rs. 1000/acre on cost of sowing. Yield increases upto 1-2 q per acre as compared to conventional tillage. Apart from this lodging problem in wheat is reduced considerably.

Pradeep S/o Sh. Preetam Singh eq>s bl rduhd ds ckjs es tkudkjh iM+kslh ls 1999 esa feyh FkhA blls le; dh cpr gksrh gS rFkk xsgw¡ Hkjiwj terk gS rFkk igyh flapkbZ ds ckn Qly ihyh ugha iM+rh gS] u gh fxjrh gSA [kjirokj dk izdksi Hkh de gksrk gSA xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ ds fy, ;g rduhd cgqr Qk;ns okyh gSA esgur Hkh cgqr cprh gSA [kpZ de] iSnkokj 2&3 fDoaVy T;knk] vkSj D;k pkfg, \

Village Faral, Kaithal I heard about this technology from my neighbour in 1999. It saves time and expenditure. Crop does not turn yellow after first irrigation and there is no lodging problem. Weed infestation is also very less. This technology is very useful for sowing of wheat. Less labour, less expenditure, yield 2-3 q/acre higher, what more is needed?

Satish Kumar S/o Sh. Raj Kumar 1998 esa ,p-,-;w- ds oSKkfudksa us thjks fVyst ds ckjs esa tkudkjh nh FkhA bl fof/k ls le; dh cpr gksrh gSA xsgw¡ dh teokj vPNh gS rFkk xsgw¡ igyh flapkbZ ds ckn ihyk ugha gksrk gSA dud ijEijkxr fof/k ds eqdkcys fxjrh ugha gSA eaMwlh dk izdksi de gksrk gSA bl fof/k ls 800 #0 de [kpZ gksrk gSA eSa nwljs fdlkuksa dks bl fof/k dks viukus dh lykg t:j nwaxkA

Village Faral, Kaithal Haryana Agricultural University scientists told me about this technology. It saves time and Rs. 800/acre on diesel cost. Germination is very good. Crop neither lodges nor turns yellow. Phalaris minor infestation is less. I am satisfied with this technique and suggest other farmers to adopt it.

Sukhvinder Singh S/o Sh. Takht Singh eSa foxr lu~ 2000 ls thjks fVyst e'khu ls xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ dj jgk gw¡A xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ le; ij gks tkrh gSA cht dh ek=k fNM+dk fof/k ds eqdkcys 10 fdyksxzke de iM+rh gSA flapkbZ ds ikuh dh cpr Hkh gksrh gSA cjlkr dk ikuh Hkh tehu tYnh ih tkrh gS ftlds dkj.k ikS/kk ihyk ugha iM+rkA cjlkr ds ckn rst gok ls Hkh Qly ds fxjus dh laHkkouk de gksrh gSA izfr ,dM+ 15&16 yhVj Mhty dh cpr gksrh gS vkSj iSnkokj Hkh 2&3 fDoaVy vf/kd gksrh gSA eSa bl rduhd ls cgqr larq"V gw¡A

Village Durana, Jind I have been using this technique since 2000. In this technique 10 kg/acre less seed is used as compared to broadcasting. Saving of irrigation water and 15-16 litre/acre diesel. Infiltration rate is higher than conventional tillage so crop is not harmed by water stagnation. There is no lodging and 2-3 q/acre higher yield is obtained. I am fully satisfied with this technology.

Shakti Singh S/o Sh. Rishal Singh d`f"k foKku dsUnz] jksgrd ds oSKkfudksa ls tkudkjh feyh fd ,d ,slh e'khu vkbZ gS ftlls fcuk tqrkbZ fd;s xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ dh tk ldrh gSA xsgw¡ ds ikS/kksa dk QqVko rks FkksM+k de gksrk gS blfy, 10 fdyksxzke T;knk cht Mkyrk gw¡A teokj cgqr vPNk gksrk gSA Qly ds ihyk iM+us o fxjus dh leL;k de ns[kus esa vkbZ gSA ;wfj;k 25 fdyksxzke izfr ,dM+ T;knk Mkyuh iM+rh gSA iSnkokj 2&3 fDoaVy vf/kd feyrh gSA eSa bl rduhd ls larq"V gw¡A

Village Kharak, Rohtak Scientists from KVK, Rohtak told us about zero tillage machine. We use 10 kg/acre more seed and 25 kg/acre more fertilizer. Germination is better. No lodging and yellowing of crop is there and yield increases upto 3 q/acre. I am well satisfied with this technology.

Hawa Singh S/o Sh. Abhay Ram eSa lu~ 1999 ls thjks fVyst fof/k ds }kjk xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ dj jgk gw¡A igys rks fo'okl ugha gqvk ysfdu fj'rsnkj fdlku dh bl fof/k ls cksbZ gqbZ Qly ns[kh vkSj 1999 ls 60&70 ,dM+ tehu ij bl rduhd dks bLrseky dj jgk gw¡A esjh viuh e'khu gS ftlls viuh tehu esa fctkbZ ds vfrfjDr izfr o"kZ fdjk, ij Hkh 30&40 ,dM+ dh fctkbZ djrk gw¡A bl fof/k ls fctkbZ djus ij xsgw¡ dh teokj Hkjiwj gksrh gSA blds vfrfjDr Qly ds fxjus vkSj ihyk iM+us tSlh leL;k Hkh de gksrh gSA eSa [kkn dqN T;knk Mkyrk gw¡ ij iSnkokj Hkh 2&3 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ vf/kd izkIr djrk gw¡A esjs fy, lcls cM+h ckr 60&70 ,dM+ tehu esa xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ le; ij dj ysuk gSA

Village Dhadrath, Jind I am oractising zero-tillage wheat sowing since 1999. First of all I did not believe but when I saw the crop sown with this technique at the field of a relative, I started sowing of 60-70 acres in 1999 with this technique. I have my own machine for sowing my fields. I also sow 30-40 acres on custom hire basis every year. Wheat germination is very good in this technique. There is no problem of yellowing and lodging in crop. I also apply more fertilizers but yield is also more by 2-3 q/acre. Main advantage to me is to complete sowing of 60-70 acres at time.

Lakhpat Ram S/o Sh. Dharey Ram esjh mez 35 o"kZ gSA eSa fiNys 5 o"kksZa ls thjks fVyst e'khu }kjk xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ 10&15 ,dM+ esa dj jgk gw¡A iqjkuh fof/k dh vis{kk cksvkbZ 8&10 fnu igys gks tkrh gSA eaMwlh cgqr de mxrh gS D;ksafd tgk¡ xsgw¡ dk cht iM+rk gS ogha feV~Vh fgyrh gS ckdh txg ughaA blds vykok tehu ikuh tYnh lks[k ysrh gS ftlls cjlkr dk ikuh [kM+k ugha gksrk tSlk ijEijkxr fof/k esa ns[kk x;k gS ] blls Qly dks uqdlku de gksrk gSA thjks fVyst viukus ls izfr ,dM+ yxHkx 2 fDoaVy iSnkokj vf/kd gksrh gSA eSa bl rduhd ls dkQh larq"V gw¡A

Village Dhadrath, Jind I am 35 years old. I have been sowing wheat in 10-15 acre land with zero tillage machine for last five years. Sowing is 8-10 days earlier than conventional tillage. Germination of Phalaris minor is less due to less exposer of seed to light. Moreover, soil absorbs water quickly and rain water does not stagnate. Crop is not harmed by heavy rains. The yield can be increased by 2 q/acre after adopting this technology. I am fully satisfied with this technology.

Balkar Singh S/o Sh. Kasail Singh riM+ esa fctkbZ ds Qk;ns gh Qk;ns gSaA esjk lkjk xkao riM+ esa fctkbZ djrk gSA ge 1999 ls riM+ esa fctkbZ djrs gSaA le; dh cpr] Mhty dh cprA dudh tgk¡ e'khu pyrh gS ogha mxrh gSA nkus xgjs iM+us ds dkj.k rst gok esa Hkh dud ugha fxjrh vkSj iSnkokj cs lu~ 1997 esa bl thjks fVy rduhd dk irk pyk FkkA eSa fdjk;s dh e'khu ls fctkbZ djrk gw¡A thjks fVy e'khu ls izfr ,dM+ 300 #0 fdjk;k nsuk iM+rk gSA bl rduhd ls le; dh cpr gksrh gSA teokj Hkh Hkjiwj gksrh gS vkSj Qly esa ihykiu Hkh ugha gksrkA ijEijkxr fof/k ds eqdkcys Qly ds fxjus dh lEHkkouk de jgrh gSA ns[kus esa vk;k gS fd eaMwlh dk izdksi rks de gksrk gS ij taxyh ikyd T;knk gksrh gSA izfr ,dM+ yxHkx 1000 dh cpr gksrh gS rFkk iSnkokj izk;% 2 fDoaVy T;knk gksrh gSA eSa bl rduhd ls iw.kZr% [kq'k gw¡A

I came to know about this technique in 1997. It saves time. Germination is quite good. Yellowness in crop is not noticed. Chances of lodging are less as compared to conventional tillage. Infestation of Phalaris minor is less but jangli palak is more. Per acre saving of Rs. 1000 is there. Yield is 2 q more. I am quite satisfied with this technique.

Rajender Singh S/o Sh. Soran Singh Village Teak, Kaithal

bl thjks fVy rduhd ds ckjs esa 1996 ls tkurk gw¡A 1997 esa eSaus ,d ,dM+ dh fctkbZ thjks fVy ls dh FkhA fQj 1998 esa 2 ,dM+ vkSj mlds ckn ls vc rd 10 ,dM+ ij bl fof/k ls fctkbZ dj jgk gw¡A izfr ,dM+ 300 #0 fdjk;k nsdj fctkbZ djokrk gw¡A cht vkSj le; dh cpr gksrh gSA Qly ihyh ugha iM+rhA eaMwlh de mxrh gSA flapkbZ ds ikuh dh cpr rks gksrh gS ysfdu [kkn dh ek=k ijEijkxr fof/k ds cjkcj j[krs gSaA izfr ,dM+ 1000 #0 dh cpr gksrh gSA eSa bl rduhd ls larq"V gw¡A

I have been using this technique since 1997. This technique saves seed and time. Yellowness does not occur. Germination of Phalaris minor is less. Irrigation water is saved but we use equal amount of fertilizers. Per acre saving of Rs. 1000 is there. This is a very good technique.

Harnek Singh S/o Sh. Jernail Singh iM+kslh fdlku ls eq>s bl rduhd dh tkudkjh feyhA eSa fdjk;s dh e'khu ls fctkbZ djrk gw¡A bldks viukus ls dkQh le; cp tkrk gSA [kpZ Hkh de gksrk gSA izfr ,dM+ 800&900 #0 dh cpr gksrh gSA Hkjiwj teko ds lkFk&lkFk Qly esa ihykiu Hkh ugha vkrkA Qly fxjus dh lEHkkouk de gSA eaMwlh dk izdksi de gksrk gSA bl rduhd ls ijEijkxr fof/k ds eqdkcys vf/kd iSnkokj gksrh gSA vr% fdlku thjks fVy rduhd dks t:j viuk,aA

Village Bhaini Kalan, Karnal My neighbour told me about this technique. Lot of time is saved by using this technique. Expenditure is also less. There is saving of Rs. 800-900 per acre. Germination is good. No yellowness is observed. No lodging is there. Infestation of Phalaris minor is less. As compared to conventional tillage, this technique gives more yields. So, other farmers must adopt it.

Karam Jeet Singh S/o Sh. Rishpal Singh

iM+ksl ds xk¡o ds fdlkuksa us 1998 esa eq>s bl rduhd ds ckjs esa crk;kA lcls cM+k Qk;nk rks blesa rsy [kir cgqr de gS ftlls izfr ,dM+ 800&1000 #0 cp tkrs gSaA igyh flapkbZ ij ihykiu ugha vkrkA tehu l[r jgus ds dkj.k Qly de fxjrh gSA Lizs u djus ij Hkh eaMwlh dk izdksi de gksrk gSA flapkbZ ds ikuh dh cpr gksrh gSA cklerh /kku o nks /kku dh Qly ysus ds ckn ;g rduhd mi;qDr gSA blesa T;knk ueh dh t:jr iM+rh gSA

Village Kachwa, Karnal In 1998, I started this technique. Diesel saving is there. Rs. 800-1000 are saved per acre. No yellowness. No lodging. Infestation of Phalaris minor is less even without herbicide spray. Irrigation water is saved. This technique is quite suitable after Basmati rice with good soil moisture. So, other farmers must adopt it.

Sunil S/o Sh. Sahab Singh eSa lu~ 2000 ls bl fof/k }kjk fctkbZ dj jgk gw¡A ikap fdyksxzke izfr ,dM+ cht de yxrk gSA teko vPNk jgrk gSA eaMwlh ds izdksi esa dkQh deh vkbZ gSA izfr ,dM+ 1000 #0 dh cpr gksrh gS vkSj iSnkokj Hkh 1&2 fDoaVy rd vf/kd gksrh gSA /kku ds ckn rsy fctkbZ ls cpus ds fy, ;g vPNh rduhd gSA ikuh dh Hkh cpr gksrh gSA eSa bl rduhd ls larq"V gw¡ vkSj vU; fdlkuksa dks Hkh bls viukus dh lykg nsrk gw¡A

Village Fatehpur, Sonepat I have been using this technique since 2000. Five kg seed is saved per acre. Germination is good. Infestation of Phalaris minor is less. There is saving of Rs. 1000/acre and 2 q more yield is obtained. This is a very good technique to avoid late sowing after rice. Water is also saved and I advise others to adopt it.

Bhim Singh S/o Sh. Malkhan Singh eSa 1996 ls yxkrkj thjks fVyst e'khu ls xgw¡ dh fctkbZ dj jgk gw¡A lcls igys 1996 esa gfj;k.kk d`f"k fo'ofo|ky; ds MkW0 vkj-ds-efyd us gekjs [ksr esa bl rduhd ls fctkbZ djus dk izLrko j[kkA rc Qly ds teokj vkSj iSnkokj dks ysdj dkQh 'kadk eu esa FkhA ijUrq muds izksRlkgu vkSj enn ds pyrs eSaus bl rduhd dks viuk;kA fctkbZ le; ls gks tkrh gSA teokj Hkh vPNk gksrk gSA eaMwlh ,d ckj esa te tkrh gS vkSj fQj Lizs ls ej tkrh gSA blls bl [kjirokj dk izdksi de gqvk gSA

Village Teak, Kaithal By adopting this technique 17-18 litre per acre diesel is saved. Germination is very good. Yield is 1-2 q per acre more. No yellowness as water stagnation does not occur. Less infestation of Phalaris minor but more of Jangli Palak. I advise all other farmers to adopt this technique.

Gulzar Singh S/o Sh. Avtar Singh eSa fiNys pkj lky ls thjks fVyst e'khu ls xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ dj jgk gw¡A esjs ikl viuh e'khu gS ftlls eSa fdjk, ij Hkh yxHkx 100 ,dM+ dh fctkbZ dj pqdk gw¡A fctkbZ ds [kpZ esa izfr ,dM+ 400&500 #0 dh deh] le; dh cpr] xsgw¡ dh Hkjiwj teokj ds lkFk&lkFk vPNh iSnkokj ds dkj.k eSa cgqr larq"V gw¡A bl rduhd ls cks;h xbZ Qly gok pyus ij de fxjrh gSA igyh flapkbZ ij ihyh Hkh ugha iM+rh rFkk blesa eaMwlh dk izdksi Hkh de gksrk gSA izns'k ds nwljs fdlku HkkbZ Hkh bl rduhd ls ykHk mBk,aA

Village Durana, Jind I have been using zero tillage technique of sowing for the last four years. I have my own machine with which I have sown about 100 acres of land on hire basis. Due to the benefits like cost saving of Rs. 400-500/acre, time saving, good germination, alongwith better yields, I am fully satisfied with this technique. The zero till sown wheat has no lodging problem, no yellowing at first irrigation and less infestation of Phalaris minor. Other farmers of the state should also adopt this technique.

Narender Singh S/o Sh. Amrik Singh thjks fVy e'khu ,d cgqr mi;ksxh e'khu gSA bl e'khu ls xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ dj de ykxr esa vPNh iSnkokj yh tk ldrh gSA fNM+dk fof/k ds eqdkcys izfr ,dM+ 5 fdyks cht de Mkyuk iM+rk gS vkSj fctkbZ yxHkx 5&7 fnu igys gksrh gSA dEckbZu ls /kku dh dVkbZ okys [ksrksa esa ,d gYdh tqrkbZ ds ckn bl e'khu ls fctkbZ vklku gks tkrh gSA

Village Durana, Jind Zero till drill is a very useful machine. By using this technique, higher yields of wheat can be obtained at less cost, as compared to conventional broadcasting method. This technique saves 4-5 kg seed per acre and sowing can be done 5-7 days earlier. In combine harvested rice fields, shallow cultivation will facilitate the sowing of wheat with zero till drill.

Rakesh Kumar S/o Sh. Chander Singh fiNys o"kZ thjks fVyst e'khu ls xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ 1-5 ,dM+ esa dhA blls xsgw¡ cksus ls ijEijkxr fof/k dh rqyuk esa gesa dbZ Qk;ns utj vk, vkSj bl lky eSaus 8 ,dM+ esa bl e'khu ls fctkbZ dh gSA izfr ,dM+ 5 fdyks cht vkSj 25 fdyks ;wfj;k T;knk Mkyrk gw¡ D;ksafd QqVko FkksM+k de fn[kkbZ fn;k Fkk ijUrq le; ij fctkbZ] Mhty dh cpr ds lkFk&lkFk vPNh iSnkokj ds dkj.k eSa larq"V gw¡A bl o"kZ 80&90 ,dM+ xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ fdjk, ij djds vfrfjDr vkenuh Hkh dh gSA

Village Kharak, Rohtak Last year I tried this machine for sowing 1.5 acre of land. By observing the benefits of zero tillage as compared to conventional sowing. I adopted this technique in eight acres during this year. Though more seed (5 kg/acre) and urea (20 kg/acre) are applied. However, due to timely saving, diesel saving and higher yields, I am satisfied with this technique. I earned about Rs. 30,000 by sowing of 80-90 acres of other farmers.

Rajesh S/o Sh. Mouji Ram eSaus lu~ 2000 esa thjks fVyst e'khu ls 2 ,dM+ Hkwfe ij xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ dh vkSj vc viuh 10 ,dM+ tehu ds vfrfjDr 100 ,dM+ ds djhc tehu fdjk, ij ysdj bl e'khu ls fctkbZ dj jgk gw¡A eq>s vius fj'rsnkj ls bl rduhd ds ckjs esa irk pyk FkkA fctkbZ le; ls gks tkrh gS vkSj fctkbZ ij yxHkx 700&800 #0 izfr ,dM+ [kpZ Hkh de vkrk gSA eSa izfr ,dM+ 2&3 fDoaVy vfrfjDr mit izkIr dj jgk gw¡A ysfdu 50 fdyksxzke ;wfj;k vf/kd Mkyuh iM+rh gSA vktdy cktkj esa vusd dEifu;ksa dh e'khusa vk xbZ gSa ftudh xq.koRrk izekf.kr ugha gS ] bl fo"k; esa /;ku fn;k tkuk pkfg,A

Village Lakhan Majra, Rohtak I used zero tillage first time in 2000 in two acres. Now I have sown 10 acres of wheat with this machine and about 100 acres of other farmers. I came to know about this technique from my relatives. Sowing is completed in time and saving of Rs. 700-800/acre. I apply 50 kg more urea than conventional tillage. My production level increased upto 2-3 q/acre after adoption of this technology. These days in market, there are too many machines of different companies whose quality is not certified, so to take care of quality.

Satpal S/o Sh. Om Parkash bl fof/k ls Qly dh cqokbZ vxsrh o de [kpZ esa gks tkrh gSA cht Hkh de yxrk gS le; Hkh cprk gSA rsy Hkh de yxrk gSA iSnkokj fNM+ds okyh xsgw¡ ds eqdkcys 1&2 fDoaVy T;knk vkrh gSA eSa thjks fVyst dh fctkbZ ls csgn [kq'k gw¡A

Village Mandi, Panipat By this technique sowing of crop can be done early with less cost, seed requirement is less and yield is 1-2 q higher as compared to broadcasting method. I am very happy to use this technology.

Rajender Singh S/o Sh. Bhim Singh bl e'khu ds ckjs esa lu~ 2001 esa dq#{ks= esa ,d fj'rsnkj ds [ksr ij ns[kkA vPNh rduhd gS blesa ge 10 fdyksxzke de cht Mkyrs gSa vkSj [kkn Hkh de Mkyrs gSaA [kkn tM+ksa esa iM+us ds dkj.k teokj o QqVko Hkh vPNk gksrk gSA Qly fxjrh Hkh ugha gSA dudh Hkh de vkrh gSA iSnkokj Hkh 1&2 fDoaVy cs rhu lky igys lu~ 2002 esa thjks fVy fMªy ds ckjs esa xzke lsod ls irk pykA eSaus nwljs fdlkuksa dh bl fof/k ls cksbZ gqbZ Qly ns[kh vkSj vxys lky 20 ,dM+ esa bl rduhd dks viuk;kA esjh viuh fMªy gS ftlls eSa viuh tehu ds lkFk&lkFk izfr o"kZ yxHkx 100 ,dM+ tehu dh fdjk, ij fctkbZ djrk gw¡A bl rduhd ls fctkbZ djus ij izfr ,dM+ 800 #0 [kpZ de vkrk gSA xsgw¡ dh teokj vPNh gksrh gS] tehu ikuh tYnh ih tkrh gS ftlls cjlkr ds dkj.k uqdlku de gksrk gSA Qly fxjrh Hkh de gSA eaMwlh ds izdksi esa cgqr deh vkbZ gS vkSj iSnkokj Hkh 2 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ T;knk gksrh gSA thjks fVy e'khu vk/kqfud d`f"k ;qx esa cgqr mi;ksxh lkfcr gqbZ gSA

Village Dhadrath, Jind I came to know about this technology in the year 2002 from Gram Sewak. I also sowed field of different farmers by this technique. In next year I adopted this technology in 20 acres of land. I have my own drill and sowed wheat in about 20 acres in my own field and about 100 acres of other farmers. It saved Rs. 800/acre. Germination also good. Soil soaks rain water quickly so that crop is not damaged by rain water stagnation. Crop neither lodges nor turns yellow. Phalaris minor infestation also less. Yield increases upto 2 q/acre after adoption of this technology. Zero tillage is best resource conservation technique of present time.

Paramjeet Singh S/o Sh. Kuldeep Singh

ijEijkxr fof/k ls fctkbZ dh vis{kk thjks fVy ls xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ djus ij N% ls lkr fnu tYnh [ksr dh fctkbZ gks tkrh gSA blds vykok fctkbZ djus esa Hkh vklkuh gksrh gSA flapkbZ esa yxHkx 30 izfr'kr de ikuh nsuk iM+rk gSA cjlkr ds ckn rst gok pyus ij Qly de fxjrh gS vkSj tqrkbZ ds [kpZ esa Hkh izfr ,dM+ yxHkx 600 #0 deh vkrh gSA

Village Nidana, Rohtak In zero tillage sowing of wheat is 6-7 days earlier than conventional tillage. Also this is a easy method of sowing. In zero tillage sown crop 30% less water is used for irrigation, lodging is less by fast winds. Ploughing expenditure is also reduced about Rs. 600/acre in zero tillage.

Mahender Singh S/o Sh. Gyane Ram thjks fVy fMªy ls xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ djus ds dbZ ykHk gSaA fctkbZ le; ls gks tkrh gS vkSj [kpZ Hkh yxHkx 600 #0 de gksrk gSA [kjirokj] [kkldj eaMwlh yxHkx 70 izfr'kr de mxrh gSA Qly esa ihysiu vkSj fxjus dh leL;k rks fcYdqy ugha gksrhA eSaus rks izfr ,dM+ 2&3 fDoaVy vf/kd iSnkokj ikbZ gS vkSj bl rduhd ls eSa cgqr larq"V gw¡A

Village Dhadrath, Jind Zero tillage has many advantages. Timely sowing. Saving of Rs. 600/acre. Weed infestation specially Phalaris minor germination reduced upto 70% in zero tillage. No yellowing after first irrigation and lodging problem is completely solved. I have got an increased production by 2-3 q/acre. I am fully satisfied with this technology.

Ramesh S/o Sh. Dhara Singh Lu~ 2002 esa dud dh thjks fVyst ls fctkbZ ds ckjs esa esjs iM+kslh 'kfDr flag us eq>s crk;kA blls 1000 #0 dh cpr gksrh gSA cht Hkh de yxrk gSA ikuh Hkh cprk gSA xsgw¡ terk Hkh vPNk gS vkSj igyh flapkbZ ds ckn ihyh ugha iM+rh gSA rst gok o rwQku ls Qly ugha fxjrh gSA eaMwlh dk izdksi de gksrk gSA iSnkokj vPNh gksrh gSA

Village Khark, Rohtak I got information about sowing of wheat with zero-tillage in 2002 from my neighbour Shakti Singh. It save Rs. 1000. Less seed is required and water is also saved. Wheat germination is also good and crop does not become yellow after first irrigation. There is no crop lodging due to strong winds and storms. Phalaris infestation is reduced and yield is good.

Mahenderpal Singh S/o Sh. Gurbakhs Singh

thjks fVyst ls dud dh fctkbZ ds ckjs esa lu~ 2001 esa ,p-,-;w- ds fdlku esys esa irk pyk blls eSa cgqr izHkkfor gqvkA eSaus lu~ 2002 esa 15 ,dM+ xsgw¡ cks;k Fkk rks iSnkokj vPNh gqbZ rFkk cht o le; dh cpr gSaA xsgw¡ dh teokj vPNh gksrh gSA ets dh ckr rks ;g fd igyh flapkbZ ds ckn Qly ihyh ugha gksrh gSA eaMwlh dk izdksi de gksrk gSA vc rks eSa 70 ,dM+ dh cqokbZ dj jgk gw¡ vkSj vc djuky ls e'khu [kjhn yh gSA eSa rks bl fof/k ls cgqr [kq'k gw¡A

Village Bashi, Rohtak For the first time I got the information about zero tillage wheat sowing in 2001 at HAU Kisan Mela and I am very impressed by this technology. I sowed 15 acres in 2002 and got good yield. It saves time and money. Germination is good. Good thing is that there is no yellowing after first irrigation. Phalaris minor infestation is less. At present I am carrying out sowing in 70 acres. I have purchased machine from Karnal and I am very happy with this technique.

Moti Ram S/o Sh. Azad Singh lu~ 1999 esa esjs iM+kslh us eq>s bl rduhdh ds ckjs esa crk;kA bl fof/k ls cht dh cpr gksrh gSA xsgw¡ terk Hkh Bhd gSA igyh flapkbZ ds ckn Qly ihyh ugha gksrhA Qly fxjrh Hkh ughaA eaMwlh de gksrhA bl fof/k ls lUrq"V gw¡A

Village Lakhan Majra, Rohtak In year 1999, my neighbour told me about this technique. Less seed is required, good germination of crop. No yellowing and lodging of crop. Phalaris germination also less. I am satisfied with this technique.

Tirathdas S/o Sh. Asyrjlal iM+kslh xk¡o y.Mk ds esjs nksLr us eq>s bl fof/k ds ckjs esa crk;k fd fcuk tqrkbZ ds xsgw¡ Dh iSnkokj vPNh gksrh gSA blfy, eSaus 2001 esa 36 ,dM+ dh cqokbZ dhA blls le; dh cpr gksrh gSA xsgw¡ teokj Hkh vPNk gSA Qly fxjrh ugha rFkk 500 #0 dh cpr gksrh gS rFkk iSnkokj 2 fDoaVy T;knk gksrh gSA eSa bl fof/k ls cgqr larq"V gw¡A eq>s rks fo'okl ugha gksrk fd fcuk tqrkbZ ds bruh vPNh Qly dSls gksxh \

Village Chudiavas, Ambala A friend of mine in the neighbouring village of Landa told me that we can take good crop of wheat without ploughing. In year 2001, I did sowing in 36 acres. It saves time and expenditure upto Rs. 500/acre, good germination and lesser lodging of crop, yield increased upto 2 q/acre. I am fully satisfied with this technique. I can't believe that without ploughing how it can give good yield.

Surat Singh S/o Sh. Dhani Ram Fcuk tqrkbZ xsgw¡ dh fctkbZ ds ckjs esa ds-oh-dstxnh'kiqj] lksuhir ds MkWDVjksa ls irk pykA igys 12&15 tqrkbZ djrs Fks vc fcuk tqrkbZ ds xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ djrs gSaA igys rks lc dg jgs Fks lwjr ikxy gS ge Hkh lksp jgs Fks fd vc dh ckj uqdlku gksxk ij igys ikuh ckn ns[kk rks xsgw¡ U;kjs gh Fks cgqr cfs lu~ 1999 esa ds-oh-ds m>k ls tkudkjh feyhA igyh ckj ds-oh-ds- okyksa us gh viuh e'khu ls fctkbZ djokbZA fcuk tqrkbZ ls xsgw¡ chtuk ,d vk'p;Z okyh ckr Fkh lkjk xkao bls ns[kus vk jgk Fkk lc dj jgs Fks fd xsgw¡ ugha gksxh igys ,slk gh yx jgk Fkk ij tc teokj gqvk vkSj Qly cs ns[kus esa feyk fd Hkwfe lrg ij ijEijkxr dh rqyuk esa de yo.k vk jgs gSaA thjks fVy xsgw¡ dh mit ij ijEijkxr dh rqyuk esa 2-4 dqUry izfr gSDVs;j vf/kd izkIr gqvkA

Village : Haldharpur, Block : Ratanpura District : Mau (U. P.) I used zero till for wheat sowing in usar field and got 41% saving in irrigation water and saw less salt deposition on surface in comparison to traditional system. Zero till wheat yield was 2.4 q/ha more as compared to traditional system.

Brijesh Kumar Singh S/o Shri Gulab Singh esjh vk;q 51 o"kZ gSA foxr 3 o"kks± ¼2001½ ls thjks fVyst e'khu }kjk xsgwW¡ dh 4 gSDVs;j cqokbZ djrs gSaA esjs ;gk¡ dh Hkwfe efV;kj gSA /kku dh dVkbZ djus ds ckn i;kZIr ueh gksus ds dkj.k 25 ls 30 uoEcj rd xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ djrk gw¡ tcfd iwoZ esa ;g cqokbZ 15 ls 20 fnlEcj rd djrs FksA 100 fdxzk cht izfr gSDVs;j cqokbZ gsrq iz;ksx fd;kA cht dk teko ykbu esa ,oa leku :i ls gqvkA bl izdkj 30 ls 40 fdxzk cht izfr gSDVs;j dh cpr gqbZA d`f"k Kku dsUnz ds fo'ks"kKksa dh lykg ij 125 fdxzk Mh0,0ih0 dk iz;ksx vxys ckDl esa Mkyk 'ks"k 70 fdxzk ;wfj;k ,oa 65 fdxzk E;wjsV vkQ iksVk'k igyh flapkbZ ds 4 ls 5 fnu ckn VkWiMªsflax ds :i esa fd;kA ckn esa 70 fdxzk ;wfj;k dYys ds le; rFkk 70 fdxzk ;wfj;k ckyh fudyus ds iwoZ [kM+h Qly esa Mkyk FkkA esjs }kjk ih0ch0MCY;w 343 cht cks;k FkkA bl izdkj izfr gSDVs;j 5-50 dq0 vf/kd mit iqjkuh fof/k dh vis{kk izkIr fd;k FkkA

Village : Ramnagar Pokhara, Block : Haidergarh District : Barabanki (U. P.) I am 51 years old and sowing wheat crop (for the last 3 years) by zero till machine since 2001 in a area of 4 ha. The soil is clay in nature and sufficient moisture remains after harvest of rice crop. The sowing by ZT was done between 25th to 30th November, while in conventional method sowing was done between 15th to 20th December, prior to use of zero till machine. The seed rate of 100 kg/ha was used. Thus, a saving of 30 to 40 kg/ha seeds was observed. A dose of 125 kg DAP/ha was applied on the advice of scientists of Krishi Gyan Kendra through the front box (fertilizer chamber) of zero till machine. Remaining 70 kg urea and 65 kg MOP were applied as top dressing after 4 to 5 days of irrigation at tillering stage. Later on 70 kg urea was topdressed at ear initiation stage in standing crop. I have sown wheat variety PBW 343. Thus, an additional yield of 5.5 q/ha was harvested as compared to conventional practice.

Ganga Prasad Verma S/o Shri Bhondu thjks fVyst e'khu ds ckjs esa xks Bh ,oa fdlku esyk esa lquk FkkA o kZ 2002 esa igyh ckj ,d gSDVs;j xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ tksf[ke dh fLFkfr esa dhA /kku ds [ksrksa esa 4 ls 8 bUp Bw¡B Fks ftlesa xsgw¡ cks;k x;k vkSj ckn esa lM+ dj [kkn dk dke fd;kA cht dh cpr 20 ls 30 fdxzk izfr gSDVs;j gqbZA [ksr dh rS;kjh esa yxHkx #0 2000-00 dh cpr izkIr gqbZA lcls cM+h ckr cksus ds ckn [ksr esa ikVk ugha yxk;kA igys iwjs xsgWw dh Qly ds fy, 5 ls 6 flapkbZ djus esa tks O;; gqvk og bl rduhd ls 4 flapkbZ ds cjkcj O;; vk; tks yxHkx 600-00 #0 ls 800-00 #0 dh cpr gqbZA iNqok gok dk izHkko ueh ds dkj.k de iM+rk gS ftlls lQsn ckyh gksus ls Qly cp x;hA bl rduhd ls cqokbZ djus ij eq>s yxHkx #0 5000-00 ijEijkxr fof/k dh rqyuk esa vfrfjDr ykHk feykA

Village : Tahwapur, Block : Trivediganj District : Barabanki (U. P.) Through Kisan Mela and Gosthi, I came to know about zero till machine. Accordingly in 2002 one ha wheat was sown in such field where rice stubbles were 4 to 8 inches height. The stubbles rotten during wheat standing crop season and utilized as manure. Saving in seed @ 20 to 30 kg/ha was observed. Similarly, saving of Rs. 2000.00 per ha was observed in field preparation. No planking was needed after sowing. A saving of Rs. 600.00 to 800.00/ha was recorded in irrigation. Western winds could not adversely affect the yields. This method has provided a gain of Rs. 5000.00/ha as compared to traditional system.

Aditya Tiwari S/o Shri Shiv Sewak Tiwari eSa foxr 2002 ls thjks fVyst e'khu ls xsgw¡@/kku dh cqokbZ djrk vk jgk gw¡A xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ le; ij gks tkrh gSA cht o [kkn dh ek=k 35 izfr'kr de nsuh iM+rh gSA nkuk eksVk gksus ls 5 ls 8 fDoaVy mit ckus ij mUgha dh e'khu ls djk;hA cqokbZ ds le; [ksr ij ipklksa yksx bdB~Bk gks x;s vkSj rjg&rjg ds O;aX; cksyrs jgs fd ;s lfB;k x;s gSaA ;fn xjhc gksrs rks [kkus dks jksVh ugha feyrh] ftl ij eq>s yksxksa dks QVdkj yxkuh iM+hA thjks fVy e'khu ls cqokbZ djus dk lcls cM+k ykHk nks lIrkg igys xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ dk gks tkuk gS rFkk cqokbZ ds le; gh #0 [email protected]& dk izfr ,dM+ cqokbZ [kpZ esa cpr gksuk gS] tks tqrkbZ] cht] flapkbZ] Mhty] etnwj vkfn ls gksrk gSA mRiknu Hkh 1-5 fDoa- izfr ,dM+ vf/kd izkIr gqvkA bl fof/k dh lQyrk dks ns[kdj o kZ 2003&04 esa esjs xk¡o ds xsgw¡ dk 70 izfr'kr thjks fVy e'khu ls cks;k x;k vkSj eSaus Lo;a d`f k foKku dsUnz] cLrh ds ek/;e ls 30 izfr'kr NwV ij d`f k foHkkx ls ,d e 'khu [kjhnhA

Village : Vishunpurva, Block : Saltaua District : Basti (U. P.) During the year 2002-03, I got information about ZT machine. KVK, Basti scientists convinced me for sowing wheat in late harvesting paddy fields without ploughing by zero till machine for the first time. I sowed only 4 acre field as I was not very much sure about its benefit. When I started sowing by ZT machine many villagers gathered and started condemning this method but I was reluctant and completed sowing. When germination started, reflected a healthy crop and tillering was also very good ultimately yield also increased 1.5 q per acre. The sowing of wheat became possible 15 days earlier and saved Rs. 1400 cost of cultivation per acre. The success of sowing with ZT machine was such impressive that during the year 2003-04 about 70% of wheat sowing in my village was done with this machine. I also purchased a zero till machine with the help of KVK, Basti scientists at 30% subsidy from U. P. Agro. Deptt. of Agriculture, Basti.

Dinesh S/o Sh. Ram Milan Chaudhary o kZ 2002&03 eas thjks fVy e'khu }kjk xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ djk;h ftlesa gesa vPNk mRiknu feykA o kZ 2003&04 esa geus vius xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ iqu% 5 ,dM+ thjks fVy rduhd ls djk;h ftlesa izfr ,dM+ 1500 #0 dh ykxr cpr izkIr gqbZ ftlesa [ksr dh tqrkbZ ls #0 [email protected]&] flapkbZ ls #0 [email protected]& o cht ls #0 [email protected]& rFkk etnwjh ls #0 [email protected]& dh cpr gqbZ tks lcls cM+k Qk;nk gSA bl fof/k ls xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ 15 fnu igys gks tkrh gS rFkk [ksr esa xsgw¡ dk ekek dk teko Hkh yxHkx vk/kk gksrk gS rFkk de le; esa cqokbZ djds ge vius le; dh cpr Hkh dj ysrs gSaA gekjs xk¡o esa bl fof/k ls cks;s x;s [ksrksa dks 10 tuin ds fdlkuksa dks ujsUnz nso d`f k fo'ofo|ky;] QStkckn }kjk 30 fdlkuksa dks ykdj fn[kk;k x;k rFkk eSaus Hkh fo'ofo|ky; ds ek/;e ls ,Dlikstj foftV esa tkdj QStkckn] vktexs cht esa yxHkx 30 izfr'kr dh cpr rFkk Mhty esa 25 izfr'kr dh cpr rFkk flapkbZ ds le; esa 50 izfr'kr dh cpr ijEijkxr cqokbZ dh rqyuk esa gqbZA iSnkokj Hkh ijEijkxr cqokbZ dh rqyuk esa dqN vf/kd FkkA xsgw¡ dk ekek Hkh thjks fVyst ls cks;s [ksr esa ijEijkxr cqokbZ dh vis{kk 40 izfr'kr de tek FkkA

Village : Malhwar, Block : Bhawnapur District : Siddharthnagar (U. P.) I am in contact with KVK, Siddharthnagar since last 5-6 years and doing vegetable cultivation on large scale in the guidance of KVK scientists. With the inspiration of KVK scientists I sowed wheat on same field of the farm with zero tillage machine. I saved seed, diesel and irrigation time 30%, 25% and 50%, respectively as compared to conventional method of wheat sowing. I also got same extra yield from the plots sown with the zero tillage machine in comparison to conventional method. The germination of Phalaris minor was found 40% less in zero tillage sown plot.

Vajid Ali Siddqi S/o Mohd. Nasarullah Siddqi

fcuk tqrkbZ xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ dh tkudkjh d`f k Kku dsUnz] dl;k] dq'khuxj %u0ns0d`f k ,oa izkS0fo0fo0] QStkckn% }kjk vk;ksftr fnukad 26-11-2000 ls 28-11-2000 d` kd rduhdh izf'k{k.k dk;Zdze tks fd dsUnz] eq[;ky; ij vk;ksftr Fkk fo k; jch Qlyksa esa viuk;h tkus okyh vkbZ-ih-,e- rduhdh ds rgr Jh eukst dqekj] fo0o0fo0 %ikni j{kk% ds O;k[;ku ls IkzkIr gqbZA blds igys bl rjhds ls xsgw¡ dgha ugha ns[kh] bl fof/k ls izksRlkfgr gksdj d`f k Kku dsUnz dh u;h e'khu tks dh d`f k Kku dsUnz xksj[kiqj ij j[kh Fkh ogka ls ykdj 'kq:vkr esa 3 ,dM+ {ks=Qy eas xsgw¡ dh iztkfr ekyoh; 234 dh cqokbZ dhA bl fof/k dks viukus ls eq>s [ksr dh rS;kjh esa #0 [email protected]& dh cpr gqbZ rFkk flapkbZ ij #0 [email protected]&cpr gqbZ rFkk mit esa 9960 #0 dk ykHk izkIr vkj-lhVh- ;kstuk ds rgr bl tuin ls esjk p;u fd;k rFkk ogk¡ ds d` kdksa dks viuk vuqHko

Village : Arjun Dumari, Block : Hata District : Kushinagar (U. P.) For the first time I got the technical know-how of zero till machine by delivering lecture by the scientists of the KGK, Kushinagar during the session of TOT organized by the centre at centre headquarter on 26.11.02 to 28.11.02 under the topic of IPM in rabi crop. I have never seen the area sown by this method nor I have heard also regarding the technique. In the beginning I sowed 3.0 acres of land of wheat variety Malviya 234 fully convinced and impressed by the above technique. I got net profit of Rs. 9960 in selling of yield including Rs. 1200 and 550 in preparation of land and irrigation, respectively per acre. I was also selected by the centre scientists under RCT scheme and watched this technique in other districts and shared our experience vice-versa returning from RCT visit I sowed about 10 acre area under wheat crop and the other farmers of my village also sowed the area by this technique following me also.

Uma Nath Yadav S/o Shri Ram Kishor Yadav

d`f k Kku dsUnz] tkSuiqj ds lg;ksx ls fcuk tqrkbZ ds thjks fVyst e'khu ls cqokbZ djk;h ftlls gedks 4&5 tqrkbZ dk Mhty yxHkx 20&25 yhVj izfr ,dM+ cpr ds lkFk izfr ,dM+ 32 fdxzk cht yxk ftlls gekjk 8 fdyks cht Hkh cpkA flapkbZ djus ij ,d ,dM+ esa 1-5 ls 2-0 ?kaVk ikuh dh cpr rFkk xsgw¡ dk ekek cgqr de mxkA fNVdokW fof/k ls blds dYys T;knk LOkLFk mxsA eM+kbZ ds ckn ,d ,dM+ eas gekjh mit 18 dqUry IkzkIr gqbZ tcfd fNVdokW fof/k ls mrus [kkn vkSj cht ds lkFk mit ek= 16-5 dqUry gqbZA bl izdkj fNVdokW fof/k esa ,d ,dM+ esa yxHkx 800 ls 1000 T;knk [kpZ djus ds ckotwn mit de feyhA xk¡o okys 'kq: esa grksRlkfgr djrs FksA vc ns[kdj vk'p;Z pfdr gaSA

Village : Salkhapur, Block : Sirkoni District : Jaunpur (U. P.) I have done the sowing of wheat without tillage with zero tillage machine and saved 20-25 l diesel for 4-5 ploughings/acre, 8 kg seed/acre and 1.5-2 h/acre irrigation charge alongwith minimum emergence of Phalaris minor weed. Tillering of the crop was good and healthy against broadcast method. After threshing we got 18 q/acre yield against conventional method yield was only 16.5 q/acre with same inputs. In conventional method we spent about Rs. 800 to 1000/acre more expenditure and raised less yield against zero tillage. Initially the villagers were criticizing me.

Bhim Bahadur S/o Sh. Jang Bahadur Singh

eSa foxr rhu o kks± ls thjsk fVyst dk;ZØe ls tqMk+ gw¡ vkSj yxkrj xsgw¡ dh ,oa /kku dh cqokbZ bl e'khu ls djrk vk jgk gw¡A thjks fVyst rduhd ls uoEcj ds eghus esa /kku dh Qly dVus ij rqjUr 100 fdxzk cht ,oa 128 fdxzk MkbZ veksfu;e QkLQsV dh izfr gSDVs;j t:jr iM+rh gSA ,d gsDVs;j dh cqokbZ nks ?kUVs esa gks tkrh gSA rst gok ,oa cjlkr ls Qly fxjrh ugha gSA Qly 8&10 fnu tYnh id tkrh gSA Qly dh ckyh yEch] nkus eksVs gksrs gSa] iSnkokj 3&5 dqUry izfr gSDVs;j vf/kd gksrh gSA cqokbZ dh xgjkbZ 2&3 lSaeh j[kus ls teko vPNk gksrk gSA

Village : Khemapur, Block : Katehari District : Ambedkar Nagar (U. P.) Since last three years, I have been attached with zero till programme and doing sowing of wheat and rice through zero till machine. For sowing of wheat, in November after harvesting of rice, 100 kg seed and 128 kg DAP per ha are required. One hectare area is sown within two hours. No lodging of crop. Crop matured 8-10 days earlier. This technique increased yield by 3-5 q/ha and produced healthy grain and long ear. Depth of sowing 2-3 cm responded very good germination.

Mahendra Kumar S/o Sh. Chhedi Lal

thjks fVy e'khu }kjk eSaus 4 gSDVs;j ekyoh; 234 xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ 25 uoEcj] 2003 dks dh ftlesa eq>s 2600 #i;s izfr gSDVs;j dh nj ls tqrkbZ esa cpr ,oa cht esa 42 izfr'kr dh cpr gqbZA bl e'khu ls cqokbZ djus ls mit esa 2-5 [email protected];j o`f) feyhA bl fof/k esa izpfyr fof/k ls cks;s x;s mDr iztkfr ls teko 3 fnu iwoZ gks x;kA Qly dh flapkbZ esa 50 izfr'kr ikuh dh cpr ,oa O;kar 12&15 rd feykA Qly gjh&Hkjh ,oa LoLFk FkhA bl e'khu ls Qsyfjl ekbuj 60 izfr'kr fu;af=r gks x;kA

Village : Rema, Block : Niyamtabad District : Chandauli (U. P.) With the help of zero till machine I sowed 4 hectare Malviya 234 wheat on 25th Novemer, 2003 in which I saved Rs. 2600 / ha in ploughing and 24% in seeds. The yield increased 2.5 q/ha. Seeds germinated three days earlier under zero till, compared to traditional method. 50% of water was saved in the irrigation. Numbers of tillers were observed to be 12-15. Crop was found to be in good and healthy condition. The population of Phalaris minor was reduced by 60% by using ZT machine.

Shyam Narain Singh S/o Sh. Dashrath Singh

thjks fVyst e'khu }kjk eSaus 7 gS0 ih-ch-MCY;w- 343 iztkfr 15 uoEcj] 2003 dks cks;k Fkk ftlesa eq>s #0 [email protected]& izfr gSDVs;j dh nj ls tqrkbZ esa cpr ,oa cht esa 45 izfr'kr dh cpr gqbZA Qly gjh Hkjh Fkh ,oa O;kar 20&25 dh la[;k esa gqbZA Qly dh flapkbZ esa 55 izfr'kr ikuh dh cpr gqbZ ,oa bl fof/k ls cqokbZ djus ij 3-5 dqUry izfr gSDVs;j dh vf/kd mit gqbZA [kjirokj 70 izfr'kr de mxs ,oa nok [kpZ esa 50 izfr'kr dh deh vk;hA

Village : Mankapara, Block : Shahabganj District : Chandauli (U. P.) With the help of ZT machine, I sowed 7 ha PBW 343 variety of wheat on 15th November, 2003 in which I have saved Rs. 2500 per hectare in ploughing and 45% in seeds. The crop was found to be in good & healthy condition and number of tillers were observed to be 20-25. About 55% water was saved in the irrigation of crop and yield increased by 3.5 q/ha in this method. The population of weeds was reduced by 70% and expenditure on pesticides was reduced to 50 per cent.

Kapil Deo Singh S/o Sh. Sukhai Singh

thjks fVyst e'khu }kjk eSaus 5 gSDVs;j ekyoh; 234 xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ 18 uoEcj] 2003 dks dh Fkh] ftlesa eq>s #0 [email protected]& izfr gSDVs;j dh nj ls tqrkbZ esa cpr ,oa cht esa 40 izfr'kr dh cpr gqbZA cht dk teko vius vU; [ksr eas izpfyr fof/k ls cks;s x;s mDr iztkfr ls 3 fnu iwoZ gh gks x;kA Qly dh flapkbZ eas 60 izfr'kr ikuh dh cpr gqbZA izfr ikS/kk esa fVyfjax 15 ls 18 rd feykA Qly LoLFk FkhA thjks fVy e'khu esa mDr xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ djus ls mit esa 3 dqUry izfr gSDVs;j dh o`f) gqbZA

Village : Saidupur, Block : Shahabganj District : Chandauli (U. P.) With the help of ZT machine I sowed 5 ha Malviya 234 wheat on 18th November, 2003 in which I saved Rs. 3000 per hectare in ploughing and 40% in seed. Seeds germinated three days before by sowing with the help of ZT machine as compared to traditional method. 60% of water was saved in the irrigation of crop. Number of tillers was observed to be 15-18 per hill. The crop was found to be in good and healthy condition. The yield increased by 3 q/ha on sowing of the same variety of seeds with the help of said machine.

Ram Sudhar Singh S/o Sh. Shiv Das Singh

thjks fVy e'khu ls eSaus 3 gSDVs;j ekyoh; 234 xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ dh ftlds }kjk #0 2500 izfr gSDVs;j tqrkbZ esa cpr gqbZA cht esa cpr 40 izfr'kr gqbZA Qly dh flapkbZ esa 60 izfr'kr Mhty dh cpr gqbZ ,oa 60 izfr'kr ikuh dh cpr gqbZA thjks fVy e'khu ls mDr xsgw¡ dh tks iztkfr cks;h Fkh ml cht dk teko vius vke fof/k dh vis{kk 3 fnu iwoZ gh gks x;k FkkA izfr ikS/ks esa O;kar 14&17 rd gqvkA Qly LoLFk jghA thjks fVy e'khu ls xsgw¡ cqokbZ djus ls eq>s 2-5 [email protected];j mit esa o`f) gqbZA thjks fVy e'khu ls eSaus ftl xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ dh Fkh mlesa xsgw¡ ds ekek dk izHkko 50 izfr'kr de jgkA mDr xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ eSaus thjks fVy e'khu ls 25 uoEcj] 2003 dks dh FkhA

Village : Bhodhanpur, Block : Shahabganj District : Chandauli (U. P.) With the help of ZT machine I sowed 3 ha Malviya 234 wheat in which I saved Rs. 2500 per ha in ploughing. I saved 40% in seeds. I saved 60% in diesel and 60% of water in the irrigation of the crop. Seeds germinated three days before by sowing with the help of ZT machine of the same variety of wheat compared to the traditional method. Number of tillers was observed to be 15-17 her hill. The crop was found to be in good and healthy conditon. The yield increased by 2.5 q/ha, on sowing the seeds with the help of said machine. The Phalaris minor was reduced by 50%. Sowing was done on 25th November, 2003.

Guptnath Maurya S/o Late Sh. G. R. Maurya

eSaus thjks fVy e'khu ls pkj gSDVs;j xsgw¡ ekyoh; 234 dh cqokbZ 30 uoEcj] 2003 dks dh Fkh] ftlds }kjk eq>s #0 [email protected]& izfr gSDVs;j dh tqrkbZ esa cpr gqbZA xsgw¡ ds cht dk teko izpfyr fof/k dh vis{kk 3 fnu igys gqvk] thjks fVy e'khu ls cqokbZ djus ij gesa cht esa 40 izfr'kr dh cpr gqbZA izfr ikS/kk esa fVyfjax 12 ls 15 rd gqvk ,oa Qly gjh Hkjh LoLFk jghA flapkbZ esa 50 izfr'kr dh cpr gqbZA thjks fVy e'khu ls cqokbZ djus ls gekjs [ksr esa foxr o kksaZ dh vis{kk xsgw¡ ds ekek dk teko 60 izfr'kr de jgkA thjks fVy e'khu ls xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ djus ij gesa 3 dqUry izfr gSDVs;j mit vf/kd izkIr gqbZA

Village : Rema, Block : Niyamtabad District : Chandauli (U. P.) With the help of ZT machine I sowed 4 ha Malviya 234 wheat on 30th November, 2003 in which I saved Rs. 2200 per ha in ploughing. Seeds germinated three days before by sowing with the help of ZT machine compared to the traditional method. I saved 40% in seeds. The number of tillers was observed to be 12-15 and crop was found to be in good & healthy condition. 50% of water was saved in irrigation of crop. The germination of Phalaris minor was reduced by 60% by using this machine. The yield increased by 3 q/ha on sowing the seeds with the help of said machine.

Birjoo Prasad S/o Sh. Dwarika Prasad

eSaus thjks fVy e'khu us'kuy ,xzks fMtkbu vkSj ,-,l-,lQkmUMªh fMtkbu nksuksa ls xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ dh vkSj gesa flapkbZ esa 45 izfr'kr cpr feyh] xsgw¡ dk cht de yxk] nkus cM+s rFkk pednkj Fks vkSj ikS/ks etcwr Fks] fxjs ugha rFkk Qly ,d leku:i ls idh] iSnkokj Hkh ,d ,dM+ esa nks dqUry vf/kd feyhA jsTM csM ls Hkh /kku dh cqokbZ dh xbZ FkhA /kku dh thjks fVy ls lh/kh cqokbZ esa ?kkl de teh] iwts vPNs gq;s] iSnkokj vPNh gqbZ iUr 12 /kku cks;k x;k Fkk bl ckj iwjh xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ thjks fVy e'khu ls dh tk;sxhA

Village : Rakhauna, Block : Araji Lines District : Varanasi (U. P.) I have used National Agro and ASS foundry designed zero till machine for wheat sowing and got 45% sowing in irrigation. I found that wheat seed consumption was less, grains were bold as well as shining. Enough strong the plants and no lodging was observed. Uniform crop maturity and two quintals more yield per acre were found under ZT. Paddy crop was also sown by raised bed planter. Direct seeding of paddy by zero till machine resulted in less emergence of weed, hills were vigour and yield was appreciable. Pant-12 variety was used in ZT sowing. This time I plan to use zero till machine for wheat sowing in all of my plots.

Amitabh Singh S/o Late Sh. M. P. Singh

Je] le; vkSj /ku rhuksa dh cpr thjks fVyst esa gSA

Village : Bhikharipur, Raja Talab, Block : Araji Lines District : Varanasi (U. P.) Labour, time and money all three are saved in zero tillage technology.

Arun Kumar Singh S/o Sh. Bansh Gopal Singh 1- thjks fVy xsgw¡ dh mit ijEijkxr dh rqyuk esa 2-6 [email protected] vf/kd feyhA 2- thjks fVy ds iz;ksx ls Mhty dh 36 [email protected] dh cpr gqbZA 3- blesa cht de yxrk gS rFkk 38 [email protected] cht dh cpr gqbZA 4- jsTM csM /kku dh mit ijEijkxr dh raqyuk esa 10 [email protected] vf/kd feyhA

Village : Gulauri, Block : Ratanpura District : Mau (U. P.) 1. Zero till wheat yield was 2.6 q/ha higher in comparison to traditional. 2. By use of zero till machine 36 l/ha saving in diesel was found. 3. By use of zero till machine seed saving was found 38 kg/ha. 4. I got raised bed paddy yield 10 q/ha heigher in comparison to traditional method.

Harendra Singh S/o Shri Ram Surat Singh 1- thjks fVy e'khu }kjk cks;s x;s xsgw¡ dh mit ijEijkxr dh rqyuk esa 2-8 [email protected] vf/kd feyhA 2- thjks fVy dh xsgw¡ Qly dh tM+ksa dh idM+ etcwr Fkh rFkk flapkbZ ds ckn gok pyus ij Qly ugha fxjhA

Village : Haldharpur, Block : Ratanpura District : Mau (U. P.) 1. Zero till machine sown wheat yield was found 2-8 q/ha higher as compared to traditional method (broadcasting system). 2. The zero till wheat roots were firmly supported by soil and crop did not lodge after irrigation inspite of high wind velocity.

Sunil Kumar Singh S/o Sh. Mahendra Singh 1- thjks fVy e'khu dkQh mi;ksxh ,oa lLrh fof/k gSA ;w0ih0,xzks }kjk ek= #0 13]500 esa feyrh gSA 2- bl fof/k esa flapkbZ gsrq 38 izfr'kr ikuh de yxrk gSA 3- cht dk teko cjkcj rFkk tYnh gksrk gSA

Village : Haldharpur, Block : Ratanpur District : Mau (U. P.) 1. Zero till machine is more cheap and easy system. It is available in Rs. 13,500 only in U. P. Agro. 2. By this method 38% lesser irrigation water needed in comparison to traditional system. 3. Seed germination in zero till method is uniform and fast.

Rakesh Singh S/o Sh. Mahendra Singh e'khu xhys [ksr esa Hkh vPNk dke djrh gSA xsgw¡ dk teko Hkh tYnh gksrk gSA

Village : Haldharpur, Block : Ratanpur District : Mau (U. P.) Zero till machine was found suitable for high moisture content field also and germination of wheat was early.

Kanhaia Yadav S/o Shri Sukhi Raj Yadav 1- bl fof/k esa [ksr dh rS;kjh ugha djuh gksrh gSA tcfd ijEijkxr fof/k esa 1800 #[email protected] O;; gksrk gSA 2- ;g e'khu dEckbu ls dVs [ksr esa Hkh dkjxj gqbZA 3- xsgWw¡ dk ekek dk esjs [ksr esa ijEijkxr dh rqyuk esa 36 izfr'kr de teko gqvkA

Village : Haldharpur, Block : Ratanpur District Mau (U. P.) 1. There is no need of field preparation in this method whenever we spend Rs. 1800 in field preparation. 2. Zero till machine is suitable for combine harvested field also. 3. Population of Phalaris minor was found 36% lesser in comparison to traditional.

Prem Shankar Singh S/o Sh. Deo Bhushan Singh 1- Tkhjks fVy e'khu }kjk cht de yxrk gSA 35 [email protected] dh nj ls cht cpr gqbZ FkhA 2- csly moZjd dk Hkjiwj iz;ksx Qly }kjk gksrk gSA 3- Qly dh idM+ etcwr gksrh gS] fxjrh ugha tcfd fNVdoka fof/k esa flapkbZ ds ckn gok pyus ij Qly fxjus dh f'kdk;r jgrh gSA

Village : Haldharpur, Block : Ratanpura District : Mau (U. P.) 1. Less seed (Wheat) is required by zero till machine. 2. Maximum application of basal fertilizer by crop itself. 3. Zero till crop does not fall due to strong (firm) catch.

Shailendra Pratap S/o Sh. Sant Kumar Singh d`f k Kku dsUnz] tkSuiqj ds izHkkjh vf/kdkjh ds funsZ'ku ,oa lg;ksx ls bl o kZ jch esa geus 2 ,dM+ ij xsgw¡ fd cqokbZ fcuk tqrkbZ ds thjks fVy e'khu ls djds 16 dqUry izfr ,dM+ mit izkIr dhA 'kq: esa cqokbZ ds le; tks Hkh ns[kk og esjk etkd mM+k jgk Fkk fd fcuk tksrs D;k gksxk\ ijUrq Qly izkIr dk teko] dYys LokLF; dks ns[kdj dbZ fdlku HkkbZ m/kj ls xqtjrs Fks rks og bl ij tkudkjh ysus ds fy, {k.k Hkj [ksr ij vo'; #d tkrs FksA eSaus vius 'ks k [ksr eas ijEijkxr rjhds ls Hkh xsgw¡ dh Qly mxk;hA ijUrq blesa iSnkokj 12&14 dq0izfr ,dM+ izkIr gqbZ rFkk nkus LoLFk ,oa lqMkSy gq,A eSa pkgw¡xk fd vU; d` kd Hkh mUur'khy ;a= dk iz;ksx dj tqrkbZ vkfn [ksr dh rS;kjh] Mhty dk [kpZ cpkus] de cht] de ikuh ds lkFk moZjd dk lgh mi;ksx ,oa xsgw¡ dk ekek [kjirokj dh deh ls YkkHk izkIr dj ldrs gSaA

Village : Barouna, Block : Sikarasa District : Jaunpur (U. P.) I have produced 16 q/acre yield of wheat sown by zero tillage machine in two acre of land in this year under supervision of OIC and scientists of KGK Jaunpur. Initially the people were fearing about sowing without tillage and taunting me. But after seeing the germination, good tillering, growth & health of plants the passerby farmers were interested to know about zero tillage demonstration performance. I have also sown rest of field by conventional method with same practices produce only 12-14 q/acre with weak grains as compared to healthy and bold grains. I will appeal to other farmers to adopt these techniques which save diesel, seed, irrigation water alongwith proper placement of fertilizer with minimum emergence of Phalaris minor weed.

Ram Bali Singh S/o Sh. Raj Narain Singh

d`f k Kku dsUnz] tkSuiqj ds lg;ksx ls igys eSaus /kku dh cqokbZ dh ftlesa [kjirokj dh leL;k T;knk jgus ds ckotwn ykxr de gksus dh otg ls 'kq) ykHk vPNk feykA iqu% jch esa fcuk tqrkbZ ds xsgw¡ dh cqokbZ dh ftlesa lh/ks rkSj ls 20-25 yhVj izfr ,dM+ Mhty dh cpr] 10&12 fnu [ksr dh rS;kjh esa cpr rFkk 4&5 ?k.Vs izfr gS0 ikuh dh cpr ds lkFk fNVdoka fof/k ls vPNk mRiknu izkIr gqvkA 'kq: esa xk¡o okys etkd mM+krs dgrs Fks fd T;knk tehu gS blesa dqN Eksa ugha gksxk rks Hkh budk py tk;sxk ijUrq igyh flapkbZ ds ckn xsgw¡ esa vk;s dYys xsgw¡ dk jax o cs ykHk ,oa ifj.kke feys os bl izdkj gSa& 1- [ksr dh rS;kjh esa yxus okyk [kpZ #0 [email protected]& % 5 ,dM+ esaA 2- flapkbZ ds ?kaVks esa deh ftlls izfr ,dM+ #0 [email protected]& dh cprA 3- thjks fVy e'khu ls cqokbZ djus ij Qly ds fxjus dh lEHkkouk u ds cjkcjA ftlls iwoZ ds o kksZ ls 10 izfr'kr mRiknu esa o`f)A nkus LoLFk ,oa cfs bl fof/k dh dksbZ tkudkjh u Fkh vkSj u gh dgha ,sls cksrs gq, ns[kk FkkA esjs gh iz{ks= ij d`f k Kku dsUnz] dl;k }kjk ,d MkLi fdlku esyk Hkh yxk;k x;k FkkA ftlesa yXkHkx 125 fdlkuksa us Hkkx fy;k FkkA bl fof/k ls [ksr dh rS;kjh esa yxHkx #0 [email protected]&dh cpr gq;h rFkk flapkbZ esa yxHkx #0 [email protected]&dh cpr gqbZ rFkk mit esa yxHkx #0 [email protected]& dk ykHk gqvkA 'kq: esa eSus bls 3 ,dM+ ls 'kq: fd;k Fkk tcfd bl le; esjs xk¡o esa yxHkx 25 ,dM+ Hkwfe dh cqokbZ bl fof/k ls gks jgh gS RkFkk vkxs Hkh bldk {ks= c