Reference values of hematological parameters for ...

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Tripathi NK, Latimer KS and Burnley VV. (2004). Hematologic reference intervals for koi. (Cyprinus carpio), including blood cell morphology, cytochemistry, and.

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 36(4) 2016, 169

ŽŽ›Ž—ŒŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ˜ȱ‘Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ˜›ȱ“žŸŽ—’•ŽȱCyprinus carpio M. Witeska*, K. Lugowska and E. Kondera Department of Animal Physiology, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland

Abstract —Š•¢œ’œȱ˜ȱ‘Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ’œȱœ˜–Ž’–ŽœȱžœŽȱ˜›ȱŠœœŽœœ–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ꜑ȱ‘ŽŠ•‘ȱŠ—ȱ™‘¢œ’˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱœŠžœǰȱ‹˜‘ȱ’—ȱŠšžŠŒž•ž›ŽȱŠ—ȱ›ŽœŽŠ›Œ‘ǯȱ ˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱŽŽ›–’—Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ›ŽŽ›Ž—ŒŽȱ ŸŠ•žŽœȱ’—ȱ꜑ȱ’œȱ–žŒ‘ȱ–˜›Žȱ’ĜŒž•ȱ‘Š—ȱ’—ȱ‘’‘Ž›ȱŸŽ›Ž‹›ŠŽœȱžŽȱ˜ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ™˜’”’•˜‘Ž›–¢ȱŠ—ȱ‘’‘ȱ spatial, temporal and individual variability. In the present paper we summarized the data obtained ’—ȱŘŖŖŜȬŘŖŗŚȱ˜›ȱ›˜ž™œȱ˜ȱ›˜–ȱŚŗȱ˜ȱŗŚŜȱǻ˜›ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œǼȱŒ•’—’ŒŠ••¢ȱ‘ŽŠ•‘¢ȱŒ˜––˜—ȱŒŠ›™ǰȱ śȬŞȱ–˜—‘ȱ˜•ȱ“žŸŽ—’•Žœǰȱ‘Š›ŸŽœŽȱ’—ȱŠžž–—ȱ›˜–ȱ›ŽŠ›’—ȱ™˜—œȱŠ—ȱŠŒŒ•’–ŠŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ•Š‹˜›Š˜›¢ȱ ›ŽŒ’›Œž•Š˜›¢ȱœ¢œŽ–ȱ˜›ȱřȬŚȱ ŽŽ”œȱŠȱŗŜȬŗŞǚǯȱ‘ŽȱşśƖȱŒ˜—ꍮ—ŒŽȱ•ŽŸŽ•œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱœž’Žȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ  Ž›ŽDZȱ ȱŘŚǯŖȬŘśǯśƖǰȱ ‹ȱŜŘǯŚȬŜşǯŜȱȦǰȱȱŗǯřśȬŗǯśŗȱƼȱŗŖ6ȦΐǰȱȱŗŝŞǯŜȬŘŖŖǯŗȱǰȱ ȱŚŝǯřȬśřǯŗȱ ™ǰȱ ȱŘśŜǯŜȬŘŞŚǯşȱȦǰȱ›ŽšžŽ—Œ¢ȱ˜ȱŽ›¢‘›˜‹•ŠœœȱŘǯŗȬŚǯŗƖǰȱȱśŗǯřȬŜŖǯŞȱƼȱŗŖ3Ȧΐǰȱ›ŽšžŽ—Œ¢ȱ ˜DZȱ•¢–™‘˜Œ¢ŽœȱŞŝǯřȬşŗǯŝƖǰȱ—Žž›˜™‘’•œȱśǯŜȬŞǯşƖȱŠ—ȱ–˜—˜Œ¢ŽœȱŖǯŝȬŘǯŖƖǰȱȱŗŚǯŚȬŘśǯŚȱƼȱŗŖ3Ȧΐȱ Š—ȱœ™˜—Š—Ž˜žœȱ˜¡’Š’ŸŽȱ–ŽŠ‹˜•’ŒȱŠŒ’Ÿ’¢ȱ˜ȱ™‘Š˜Œ¢ŽœȱŖǯşŗȬŗǯŗŗȱȦȱ˜ȱ˜›–Š£Š—ǯȱ‘Žȱ›Žœž•œȱ Š•œ˜ȱ›ŽŸŽŠ•Žȱ’쎛Ž—ȱŸŠ›’Š‹’•’¢ȱ˜ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱ‘Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œǰȱœ˜–Žȱ˜ȱ‘Ž–ȱ‹Ž’—ȱœŠ‹•Žȱ ǻŽǯǯȱ›ŽšžŽ—Œ¢ȱ˜ȱ•¢–™‘˜Œ¢ŽœǼǰȱ–˜œȱȮȱ–˜Ž›ŠŽ•¢ȱŸŠ›’Š‹•ŽȱǻŽȱ ‹ǰȱǰȱǰȱ ȱŠ—ȱ Ǽǰȱ  ‘’•Žȱ˜‘Ž›ȱȬȱ‘’‘•¢ȱŸŠ›’Š‹•ŽȱǻŽȱȱŠ—ȱ›ŽšžŽ—Œ¢ȱ˜ȱ™‘Š˜Œ¢ŽœǼǯ

Introduction Hematological analyses including complete ‹•˜˜ȱŒŽ••ȱŒ˜ž—ȱŠ—ȱŽŸŠ•žŠ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‹’˜Œ‘Ž–’ŒŠ•ȱ or immunological parameters are sometimes Š™™•’Žȱ˜›ȱŠœœŽœœ–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ꜑ȱ‘ŽŠ•‘ȱŠ—ȱ™‘¢œ’-

ŽŽ›œȱ˜›ȱ‘ž–Š—ȱ™˜™ž•Š’˜—œȱ–Š¢ȱ‹ŽȱŽę—ŽȱŠœȱ –ŽŠ—ȱƹȱŗǯşŜȱȱ˜›ȱ—˜›–Š••¢ȱ’œ›’‹žŽȱŠŠȱ or values at 2.5 percentile and 97.5 percentile ˜›ȱ—˜—Ȭ—˜›–Š••¢ȱ’œ›’‹žŽȱŠŠǯȱ

˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱœŠžœȱŠ—ȱ–Š¢ȱ‹ŽȱžœŽȱŠœȱ’—’ŒŠ˜›œȱ˜ȱ ’œŽŠœŽœǰȱ—ž›’’˜—Š•ȱŽęŒ’Ž—Œ’Žœȱ˜›ȱœ›ŽœœȱŒŠžœŽȱ ‹¢ȱž—ŠŸ˜›Š‹•ŽȱŽ—Ÿ’›˜—–Ž—Š•ȱŒ˜—’’˜—œǯȱ

˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ’—ȱ꜑ŽœȱŽŽ›–’—Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱ›ŽŽ›Ž—ŒŽȱ


œ›˜—ȱŽ™Ž—Ž—ŒŽȱ˜ȱ™‘¢œ’˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ™›˜ŒŽœœŽœȱ Š—ȱ–ŽŠ‹˜•’Œȱ›ŠŽȱ˜—ȱŽ¡Ž›—Š•ȱŠŒ˜›œȱŠ–˜—ȱ

ŽŽ›–’—ŽȱŠœȱşśƖȱŒ˜—ꍮ—ŒŽȱ’—Ž›ŸŠ•œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ™˜™ž•Š’˜—ǰȱ‹¢ȱŽ¡Œ•ž’—ȱ‘Žȱ˜™ȱŠ—ȱ‹˜Ĵ˜–ȱ

ŸŠ•žŽœȱ’œȱ–žŒ‘ȱ–˜›Žȱ’ĜŒž•ȱ‘Š—ȱ’—ȱ‘’‘Ž›ȱ vertebrates due to their poikilothermy and

which water temperature plays probably the

ŘǯśƖȱ˜ȱœŠ–™•Žœȱ˜›ȱŽŠŒ‘ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›ȱǻŽ”Ž•‘Š›’—ȱ et al., 2010). According to Ambayya et al. (2014),

most important role. According to Leard et al. ǻŗşşŞǼǰȱ˜›ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ‘Šȱ˜ȱ—˜ȱŒ˜—œ’Ž›Š‹•¢ȱ


vary a single baseline range is appropriate,

* Corresponding author’s e-mail: [email protected]

170, Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 36(4) 2016

 ‘’•Žȱ˜›ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ‘Šȱœ‘˜ ȱ’œ’—ŒȱœŽŠœ˜—Š•ȱ ̞ŒžŠ’˜—œȱ’ȱ’œȱ—ŽŒŽœœŠ›¢ȱ˜ȱŽŸŽ•˜™ȱœŽŠœ˜—Š•ȱ˜›ȱ–˜—‘•¢ȱ›ŽŽ›Ž—ŒŽȱ›Š—ŽœǯȱŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ žœ”˜ŸŠȱǻŗşşśǰȱŗşşŝǼǰȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜—ŒŽ™ȱ˜ȱȃ—˜›–Š•Ȅȱ Š—ȱȃ—˜ȱ—˜›–Š•Ȅȱ‘Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ’—ȱ꜑ȱ ’œȱ‘’‘•¢ȱ›Ž•Š’ŸŽȱŠ—ȱ‘Ž›Žȱ’œȱ—˜ȱœ‘Š›™•¢ȱŽę—Žȱ ’쎛Ž—ŒŽȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘Ž–ǯȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ˜ȱ‘Ž–Š-

‘ŽȱŠ’–ȱ˜ȱ™›ŽœŽ—ȱ™Š™Ž›ȱ Šœȱ˜ȱœž––Š›’£Žȱ˜ž›ȱ own data concerning hematological parameters ’—ȱŒ•’—’ŒŠ••¢ȱ‘ŽŠ•‘¢ȱ“žŸŽ—’•ŽȱŒ˜––˜—ȱŒŠ›™ȱ˜ȱ similar size and age, reared in pond and then acclimated to the laboratory environment, col•ŽŒŽȱ˜ŸŽ›ȱŠȱ™Ž›’˜ȱ˜ȱşȱ¢ŽŠ›œǯ

tological parameters may considerably vary

Materials and methods



Š›ŽȱŠěŽŒŽȱ‹¢ȱ‹˜‘ȱ’—›’—œ’ŒȱǻŽȱ ›ž‹ŽŒȱŽȱŠ•ǯǰȱ 2001; Svetina et al., 2002; Bastami et al., 2009)

months old clinically healthy common carp

and environmental (eg Orun and Erdemli, 2002; Morgan et al., 2008; Langer et al., 2013; Gupta et

60.7 g were collected and evaluated. The results ’—Œ•žŽȱŠŠȱ›˜–ȱŚŗȬŗŚŜȱŠ—Š•¢œŽœȱ™Ž›ȱ›˜ž™ȱ ˜ȱ꜑ǰȱ˜‹Š’—Žȱ›˜–ȱŘŖŖŜȱ˜ȱŘŖŗŚȱǻ—˜ȱŠ••ȱ™Š-

Š•ǯǰȱŘŖŗřǼȱŠŒ˜›œǯȱŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱžœ”˜ŸŠȱǻŗşşśǼǰȱ ‘ŽȱŽ›–œDZȱ—˜›–Š•ǰȱ›ŽŽ›Ž—ŒŽȱ˜›ȱœŠ—Š›ȱ’—ȱ’Œ‘thyohematology should be replaced by wider •’–’œȱ˜ȱ—˜›–Š•’¢ȱȮȱŠȱȃ™‘¢œ’˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ›Š—ŽȄǯȱ ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žǰȱ’—ȱ‘Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱœž’Žœȱ˜—ȱ꜑ȱ‘Žȱ ›Žœž•œȱ˜‹Š’—Žȱ˜›ȱŽ¡™Ž›’–Ž—Š•ȱ›˜ž™œȱ–žœȱ

(Cyprinus carpioǼȱ˜ȱ‹˜¢ȱ–Šœœȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱŘŖǯŜȬ

›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ Ž›ŽȱŽŸŠ•žŠŽȱ˜›ȱŠ••ȱ꜑Ǽǯȱ‘Žȱ꜑ȱ  Ž›Žȱ‘Š›ŸŽœŽȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ›’—ȱ™˜—œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ Inland Fisheries Institute in Zabieniec or the Š–˜”•¿œ”’ȱ’œ‘ȱŠ›–ȱ’—ȱ Š–’˜—”Šǰȱ˜•Š—ǰȱ Šȱ‘ŽȱŽ—ȱ˜ȱŽ™Ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜›ȱ’—ȱŒ˜‹Ž›ǰȱŠ—ȱ

be always compared with appropriate with-

›Š—œŽ››Žȱ’—ȱ™˜•¢Ž‘¢•Ž—Žȱ‹ŠœȱꕕŽȱ ’‘ȱ


water and supplied with pure oxygen to the




Š—ȱ ž–Š—’’ŽœǯȱŠ–™•Žœȱ˜ȱ꜑ȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽœŽȱ

help to improve study design, and reduce the

groups were subjected to ichthyopathological


examination including clinical, anatomopatho-

experimental and control groups.

logical, parasitological and bacteriological eval-

Common carp belong to the most popular

žŠ’˜—ȱ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ™Š›–Ž—ȱ˜ȱ’œ‘ȱŠ‘˜•˜¢ȱŠ—ȱ ––ž—˜•˜¢ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ —•Š—ȱ’œ‘Ž›’Žœȱ —œ’žŽȱ

ŠšžŠŒž•ž›Žȱ꜑ȱœ™ŽŒ’Žœȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ ˜›•ȱŠ—ȱ’œȱ

’—ȱŠ‹’Ž—’ŽŒǯȱ‘Žȱ꜑ȱ‘Ž—ȱ Ž›ŽȱŠŒŒ•’–ŠŽȱ

also widely used in pond and laboratory ex™Ž›’–Ž—œǯȱ Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ˜ȱ“žŸŽ—’•Žȱ

˜›ȱřȬŚȱ ŽŽ”œȱ’—ȱŠŽ›ŠŽȱ̘ Ȭ‘›˜ž‘ȱŠ—”œȱ˜ȱ 250 L at water temperature 16-18oC, and were

common carp were evaluated by many authors ǻŠ‹•ŽȱŗǼȱ‹žȱ–˜œȱ˜ȱ‘Ž–ȱ–ŽŠœž›Žȱ˜—•¢ȱœŽ•ŽŒ-

œž‹œŽšžŽ—•¢ȱ‘Š‹’žŠŽȱ˜›ȱŗȱ ŽŽ”ȱ˜ȱŽ¡™Ž›’–Ž—Š•ȱŠšžŠ›’ŠȱǻŗŖȬŗŘȱ꜑ȱ™Ž›ȱŗŖŖȱǼȱ’—ȱ ‘’Œ‘ȱ

Žȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ’—ȱŠȱ•’–’Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱ’—’Ÿ’žŠ•œǯȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ›Ž™˜›Žȱ‘Ž›Žȱ Ž›Žȱ›˜–ȱŒŠ›™ȱ

water was changed daily by siphoning out 75%

used as control groups in their experiments and ’쎛ȱŒ˜—œ’Ž›Š‹•¢ǰȱ™›˜‹Š‹•¢ȱžŽȱ˜ȱŽ—Ž’ŒȱŠ—ȱ Ž—Ÿ’›˜—–Ž—Š•ȱŠŒ˜›œǯ

˜ȱŸ˜•ž–ŽȱŠ—ȱ›Ž™•ŠŒ’—ȱ ’‘ȱ›Žœ‘ȱž—Œ‘•˜›’nated tap water. Water quality parameters in ‘ŽȱŠšžŠ›’Šȱ Ž›Žȱ–ŽŠœž›ŽȱŠ’•¢ȱ‹Ž˜›Žȱ ŠŽ›ȱ renewal. The water temperature in aquaria was similar as in the acclimation tank (16-19oC),

34±1 28±0.5 29±3 44.0±6.0 43.6 43.6±0.18 33.6±3.2 31.8±5.5 22-39 29±3 36±6 26±3 22.0±5.3 29.8±2.7 33.1-34.8 34.7±2.5 27.2 13.7-13.8 31.0±0.5 15.6±1.5 41.5±0.6 29.2±2.7 42.2±0.5 30.9±3.5 22.3±1.4 42.8±4.0

Ht [%]

Hb [g/L]

MCV [fL]

1.27±0.05 91±4 2.00±0.28 55±6 78.3±2.1 2.31±0.16 103.7±0.6 1.81±0.2 69.4±16.0 178.2±31.7 0.90-2.02 37.6-87.6 133.7–248.4 1.64±0.14 86.3±7.6 180.3±15.3 1.68±0.26 98.2±15.4 236.2±24.6 1.05±0.03 68.4±9.2 248.1±36.0 1.51±0.01 70.7±15.2 1.58±0.10 50.0±0.0 189.3±4.2 1.56-1.65 56.5-61.2 202.7-216.7 1.51±0.22 88.6±4.6 190.0±40.0 1.40-1.49 52.2-53.4 186.5-198.0 0.33-0.38 46.3-47.2 367.3-413.7 2.60±0.01 84.0±10.0 1.07±0.09 - 130.9±16.3 2.48±0.20 88.8±10.0 1.63±0.13 74.30±7.35 179.5±13.5 1.80±0.02 112.4±.4.1 234.5±2.0 2.94-2.95 83.8-84.6 1.40±0.09 71.8±13.5 217.2±24.2 2.30±0.2 60 ±3 1.18±0.06 1.37±0.19 94±8 317.9±60.9

RBC [103/μL] 40.2±6.5 36.9–57.8 52.9±4.7 58.8±6.9 65.2±10.0 31.8±2.0 36.1±38.7 54.0±17.2 34.9-39.8 125-139 45.8±4.2 62.5±1.6 51.9±8.2 -

WBC [103/μL] 18 15.5 23±2 22 21.0±1.5 17±1 19.5-19.9 16.5-17.9 27.4±0.4 26.2–27.1 22.5 38.6±0.8 18-26 27.0±1.2 21-24 23±1 23±1 16.8–20.1 20±1 19±2 21.2 25±0.2

يœ˜ ȱŠ—ȱŠ‹›˜ œ”ŠǰȱŗşşŖ Yildiz, 1998 Kopp and Hetesa, 2000 ˜™’Úœ”ŠȱŽȱŠ•ǯǰȱŘŖŖŖ Stosik et al., 2001 Svetina et al., 2002 Harikrishnan et al., 2003 Tripathi et al., 2004 Mikula et al., 2008 Sudova et al., 2009 Velisek et al., 2009 Velisek et al., 2010 Ajani and Akpoilih, 2010 Kumar et al., 2010 Ahmad et al., 2011 Al Ghanim, 2011 Enache et al., 2011 Saravanan et al., 2011 Al-Rudainy and Kadhim, 2012 Gul et al., 2012 Pakravan et al., 2012 Velisek et al., 2012 Gholami-Seyedkolaei et al., 2013 Masud and Singh, 2013 Yonar, 2013 Jagruthi et al., 2014 Jahanbakhshi et al., 2014 Kuhlwein et al., 2014

Age/mass Water Author ˜ȱ꜑ȱǽǾ temp. [°C]

58.8±8.0 62±12 37.8±2.9 26.8±2.9 120±3 36.9±7.9 60-80 20-50 57.3 3.2±0.1 40±10 216±33 24.0±5.6 200 150-320 61.2±7.3 290±20 74.0±28.3 138.3±28.7 257±26 8.2±3.7 15.3±4.6 263±13 85.4±15.5 138.3±28.7 1.4±0.1 19.4±14.1 171±28 143.0±10.0 2-3 171-179 35.5-37.2 55-60 295±13 - Fingerlings 191-196 65-66 293-337 16.8-18.5 8.0±0.4 25.4±0.9 40-50 4.2±4.1 50.9±11.0 2.9±0.8 20±2 255±11 20.5±7.8 297.4±55.6 266±7 22.0±0.1 41.0±0.2 - 18.4-18.5 11.5-19.5 241±31 32.7±3.2 67.5±9.1 - 155.1±2.0 26.3±1.4 9.9±0.2 25 222±33 29.7±7.1 61.9±2.4

MCH MCHC [pg] [g/L]

Table 1.ȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱǻ–ŽŠ—ƹǯǯǼȱ˜ȱ‹Šœ’Œȱ‹•˜˜ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ˜ȱ“žŸŽ—’•ŽȱCyprinus carpio (according to various authors).

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 36(4) 2016, 171

172, Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 36(4) 2016

Thangam et al., 2014 Wang et al., 2014 Yonar et al., 2014 Bojarski et al., 2015 Marin et al., 2015 Saravanan et al., 2015 ‘Š›’£ŠŽ‘ȱŽȱŠ•ǯǰȱŘŖŗś 28-31 17±2 20 14 25.9±0.1 -

ŠŽ›ȱ™ ȱ›Š—Žȱ›˜–ȱŝǯŖȱ˜ȱŝǯŚǯȱ‘Žȱ꜑ȱ Ž›Žȱ ŽȱŠ’•¢ȱǻ’—ȱ‘Žȱ–˜›—’—Ǽȱ••Ž›ȱšžŠȱ•Šœœ’Œȱ ˜›ȱ••Ž›ȱšžŠȱŽ›˜›–ŠȱŽŽȱ˜ȱŚǯśȱ––ȱ›Š—ž•Žȱ ’Š–ŽŽ›ȱŠȱ‘Žȱ›ŠŽȱ˜ȱŗƖȱ˜ȱ‹˜¢ȱ–Šœœǯȱ ‘Žȱ˜›’’—Š˜›ȱ꜑ȱœŽ›ŸŽȱŠœȱŒ˜—›˜•ȱ›˜ž™œȱ’—ȱ various studies, and blood samples yielding ŠŠȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱŒž››Ž—ȱœž¢ȱ ŠœȱŠ”Ž—ȱ›˜–ȱŽŠŒ‘ȱ ꜑ȱ˜—ŒŽȱŠȱ‘Žȱ‹Ž’——’—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡™Ž›’–Ž—œȱ ǻ™›ŽȬ›ŽŠ–Ž—ȱœŠ–™•ŽœǼǯȱ ȱ ŠœȱœŠ–™•Žȱœ ’•¢ȱ by heart puncture with heparinized needles ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘’••Žȱ‘Ž™Š›’—’£Žȱ™™Ž—˜›ȱž‹ŽœǼǯȱ The studies were approved by the III Local ‘’Œœȱ˜––’œœ’˜—ȱ’—ȱŠ›œŠ ǯȱ‹˜žȱŗśŖȱΐȱ ˜ȱ‹•˜˜ȱ ŠœȱŠ”Ž—ȱ›˜–ȱŽŠŒ‘ȱ꜑ǰȱŠ—ȱœŠ–™•’—ȱ™›˜ŒŽž›Žȱ•ŠœŽȱŠ‹˜žȱřŖȱœǯȱŠ–™•Žœȱ˜ȱ blood were subjected to routine hematological analysis (Svobodova et al., 1991, with own –˜’ęŒŠ’˜—œǼǯȱ Ž–Š˜Œ›’ȱǻ Ǽǰȱ‘Ž–˜•˜‹’—ȱ concentration (Hb), erythrocyte count (RBC), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), leukocyte

phagocytes (NBT) were evaluated. Calcula-

0.90-0.98 0.79±0.15 1.49±0.12 1.47±0.20 1.14-1.46 0.76±0.03 0.83±2.35

230.0±37.9 176.6±13.5 236.8-268.8 191.4±11.1 285.8±78.5

hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular

34.1-55.6 114.3±4.4 76.6±7.6 102.5±8.0 56.4-69.0 49.2±2.7 78±22

51.0±7.5 243±29 78.8±10.0 446±44 47.1-49.5 183-200 65.0±3.5 340±20 91±31 -

18.2-20.6 197.3±6.3 36.0±4.4 43.8±6.8 61.2-62.3 30.4±1.3 41.5±5.0

5-6 11.3±0.1 46.3±7.7 80±5 25-45 5.8±0.8 10-15

ǻŘŖȬřŖȱœŽŒǯǼȱ›˜–ȱ•’ŸŽȱ꜑ȱ ’‘˜žȱŠ—Žœ‘Žœ’Šǰȱ

14.0±3.4 34.2±5.7 24±1 30.6-34.6 14.5±0.9 18±9.1

Age/mass Water Author ˜ȱ꜑ȱǽǾ temp. [°C] WBC [103/μL] MCH MCHC [pg] [g/L] MCV [fL] Hb [g/L] RBC [103/μL] Ht [%]

Table 1.ȱ˜—’—žŽǯȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱǻ–ŽŠ—ƹǯǯǼȱ˜ȱ‹Šœ’Œȱ‹•˜˜ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ˜ȱ“žŸŽ—’•ŽȱCyprinus carpio (according to various authors).

Š—ȱ‘Žȱ’œœ˜•ŸŽȱ˜¡¢Ž—ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱ ŠœȱŝǯŖȬşǯŚȱȦǯȱ ˜—ŒŽ—›Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱŠ––˜—’ž–ȱ›Š—Žȱ›˜–ȱŖǯřȱ ˜ȱŗǯŖȱ–ȦǰȱŠ—ȱ˜ȱ—’›’Žȱ›˜–ȱŖǯŖȱ˜ȱŖǯřȱ–Ȧǯȱ

count (WBC), thrombocyte count (PLT) and œ™˜—Š—Ž˜žœȱ˜¡’Š’ŸŽȱ–ŽŠ‹˜•’ŒȱŠŒ’Ÿ’¢ȱ˜ȱ ’˜—œȱ˜ȱŽ›¢‘›˜‹•Šœȱ›ŽšžŽ—Œ¢ǰȱŠ—ȱ’쎛Ž—’Š•ȱ •Žž”˜Œ¢ŽȱŒ˜ž—œȱǻ™Ž›ŒŽ—ŠŽȱ˜ȱ•¢–™‘˜Œ¢Žœǰȱ —Žž›˜™‘’•œȱŠ—ȱ–˜—˜Œ¢ŽœǼȱ Ž›Žȱ™Ž›˜›–Žȱ ›˜–ȱ‹•˜˜ȱœ–ŽŠ›œȱœŠ’—Žȱ ’‘ȱŠ¢ȱ ›ž— Š•ȱ and Giemsa solutions (300 erythrocytes and 100 •Žž”˜Œ¢Žœȱ Ž›ŽȱŸ’Ž ŽȱŠ—ȱ’Ž—’ꮍȱ’—ȱŽŠŒ‘ȱ œ–ŽŠ›Ǽǯȱ Ž—’ęŒŠ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ•Žž”˜Œ¢ŽœȱŠ—ȱ‘›˜–‹˜Œ¢Žœȱ Šœȱ™Ž›˜›–ŽȱŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱŽ‘–Š——ȱ et al. (1994). For Ht evaluation heparinized ŒŠ™’••Š›’Žœȱ ’‘ȱ‹•˜˜ȱ Ž›ŽȱŒŽ—›’žŽȱŠȱŗŘǰŖŖŖȱ

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 36(4) 2016, 173

›™–ȱ˜›ȱśȱ–’—ȱŠ—ȱ‘Ž—ȱ‘Žȱ™Ž›ŒŽ—ŠŽȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ erythrocyte layer in entire blood volume was measured using a Ht reader. Hb was measured

žœ’—ȱŠ’œ’ŒŠȱŗŖȱœ˜ Š›ŽȱǻŠ˜ǰȱǼǯȱ˜›ȱ Š••ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ—˜›–Š•’¢ȱ˜ȱ’œ›’‹ž’˜—ȱ Šœȱ

using spectrophotometric cyanmethemoglobin

and descriptive statistics were calculated:

–Ž‘˜DZȱŗŖȱΐȱ˜ȱ‹•˜˜ȱ Šœȱ–’¡Žȱ ’‘ȱŗȱ–ȱ ˜ȱ›Š‹”’—ȱœ˜•ž’˜—ǰȱŽ¡’—Œ’˜—ȱ Šœȱ›ŽŠȱŠȱśŚŖȱ nm wavelength, and hemoglobin concentration




‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡’—Œ’˜—ȱŠ—ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ—›Š’˜—œȱ˜ȱ

to mean (in percent). For the literature data

standard hemoglobin solutions. For RBC and WBC counts blood was diluted 100 times with

the same parameters were calculated (n is the

Hayem’s solution, and the cells were counted in ž›”Ž›ȱ‘Ž–˜Œ¢˜–ŽŽ›ȱž—Ž›ȱƼŚŖŖȱ–Š—’ęŒŠtion. MCV, MCH, and MCHC were calculated

Œ˜ŽĜŒ’Ž—œȱ Ž›ŽȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱ˜ȱŽŸŠ•žŠŽȱ›Ž•Š’˜—œ‘’™œȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ˜ȱ‘Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ

using Ht, RBC and Hb values according to the



standard deviation, median, minimum and –Š¡’–ž–ǯȱ˜ŽĜŒ’Ž—œȱ˜ȱŸŠ›’Š’˜—ȱ Ž›ŽȱŠ•œ˜ȱ


™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱŠ—ȱ ŠŽ›ȱŽ–™Ž›Šž›ŽȱŠ—ȱ꜑ȱ

˜›–ž•ŠœDZȱƽǻ ƼŗŖǼȦǰȱ ƽ ‹Ȧǰȱ  ƽǻ ‹ƼŗŖŖǼȦ ǯȱ‘›˜–‹˜Œ¢ŽȱŒ˜ž—ȱǻǼȱ  ŠœȱŽœ’–ŠŽȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱ‘›˜–‹˜Œ¢Žœȱ

Results and discussion

per 100 leukocytes in blood smears and WBC

mal distributions and the obtained ranges

values. Spontaneous oxidative metabolic activ-

ǻ–’—Ȭ–Š¡Ǽȱ Ž›Žȱ ’ŽȱŽ—˜’—ȱ‘’‘ȱ꜑Ȭ˜Ȭ

’¢ȱ˜ȱ™‘Š˜Œ¢Žœȱ Šœȱ–ŽŠœž›ŽȱŠŒŒ˜›’—ȱ˜ȱ Siwicki et al. (1985) using the nitrotetrazolium ‹•žŽȱǻǼȱ›ŽžŒ’˜—ȱŽœDZȱśŖȱΐȱ˜ȱ‹•˜˜ȱ Šœȱ –ŽŠœž›Žȱ ’‘ȱŠ—ȱŽšžŠ•ȱŠ–˜ž—ȱ˜ȱŖǯŘƖȱȱ œ˜•ž’˜—ȱŠ—ȱ’—Œž‹ŠŽȱ˜›ȱŗȱ‘˜ž›ȱŠȱŘŞǚȱǻ–’¡Žȱ

꜑ȱŸŠ›’Š‹’•’¢ȱǻŠ‹•Žȱ؊Ǽǯȱ‘Žȱ˜‹Š’—Žȱ–ŽŠ—ȱ ŸŠ•žŽœȱ˜ȱ›Žȱ‹•˜˜ȱŒŽ••ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱǻ ǰȱǰȱ Hb, MCV and MCH) were slightly lower, while


authors (Table 2b), which might have resulted

mide (DMF) was added to kill the cells and the

˜ȱȱ›ŽžŒ’˜—Ǽǯȱ¡’—Œ’˜—ȱ Šœȱ›ŽŠȱŠȱśŚŜȱ

›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŠŒȱ‘ŠȱŠ••ȱ˜ž›ȱ꜑ȱ Ž›Žȱ‘Š›ŸŽœŽȱ ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ™˜—œȱ’—ȱŠžž–—ȱ ‘Ž—ȱ‘Ž¢ȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱ œŠ›Žȱ˜ȱ›ŽžŒŽȱ‘Ž’›ȱŽŽ’—ȱŠ—ȱ–ŽŠ‹˜•’Œȱ ŠŒ’Ÿ’¢ǯȱŽŠ—ȱŸŠ•žŽȱ˜ȱȱŠ—ȱ›ŽšžŽ—Œ¢ȱ˜ȱ

nm wavelength using the spectrophotometer,

lymphocytes in our own studies were higher,

Š—ȱ˜›–Š£Š—ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ—›Š’˜—ȱ ŠœȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱ

 ‘’•Žȱ‘Žȱ™Ž›ŒŽ—ŠŽȱ˜ȱ™‘Š˜Œ¢Žœȱ Šœȱ•˜ Ž›ȱ

›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŽšžŠ’˜—ȱ˜ȱ›Ž•Š’˜—œ‘’™ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘Žȱ œŠ–™•ŽȱŠ—ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ—›Š’˜—œȱ˜ȱœŠ—Š›ȱ˜›-

Œ˜–™Š›Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ–ŽŠ—ȱŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱ›˜–ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ studies. However, some authors reported ex-

mazan solutions.

tremely low WBC values (below 103ȦΐǼǯȱ ’‘ȱ

œŠ–™•Žœȱ Ž›Žȱœ‘Š”Ž—ȱ˜›ȱśȱ–’—ȱ˜ȱ’œ›ž™ȱŒŽ••ȱ –Ž–‹›Š—ŽœȱŠ—ȱ•’‹Ž›ŠŽȱ˜›–Š£Š—ȱǻ‘Žȱ™›˜žŒȱ

‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ˜ȱ–˜œȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱœ‘˜ Žȱ—˜—Ȭ—˜›-

MCHC was slightly higher compared to those ŒŠ•Œž•ŠŽȱ›˜–ȱ‘ŽȱŠŠȱ˜‹Š’—Žȱ‹¢ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ

’쎛Ž—ŒŽœȱ’—ȱȱ–’‘ȱ‘ŠŸŽȱ›Žœž•Žȱ›˜–ȱ ˜›ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ‘Žȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ˜ȱ›˜ž™œȱ


Œ˜—›’‹ž’—ȱŠŠȱǻ—Ǽȱ Ž›Žȱ’쎛Ž—DZȱ›˜–ȱŚŗȱ ˜›ȱŽ›¢‘›˜‹•Šœȱ›ŽšžŽ—Œ¢ȱ˜ȱŗŚŜȱ˜›ȱǯȱ‘Žȱ

’•žŽ—œȱžœŽȱ‹¢ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱŠž‘˜›œǯȱ—Š•¢œ’œȱ˜ȱ ’—˜›–Š’˜—ȱŒ˜—ŒŽ›—’—ȱ’•žŽ—œȱžœŽȱ˜›ȱȱ

results were subjected to statistical analysis

Œ˜ž—ȱǻśŖȱ™Š™Ž›œǼȱœ‘˜ Žȱ‘ŠȱřŚƖȱ˜ȱŠž‘˜›œȱ

174, Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 36(4) 2016

’ȱ—˜ȱ–Ž—’˜—ȱ ‘Šȱ”’—ȱ˜ȱœ˜•ž’˜—ȱ‘Ž¢ȱ žœŽǰȱŘŖƖȱŠ™™•’ŽȱŠĴȬ Ž››’Œ”Ȃœȱœ˜•ž’˜—ǰȱŗŚƖȱ

’—ȱŽŠŒ‘ȱ¢ŽŠ›ȱ’––Ž’ŠŽ•¢ȱŠŽ›ȱ‘Š›ŸŽœȱ›ŽŸŽŠ•Žȱ —˜ȱ‹ŠŒŽ›’Š•ȱ˜›ȱŸ’›Š•ȱ’—ŽŒ’˜—œǰȱŠ—ȱ—˜ȱ™Š›Šœ’’Œȱ

Prochazka-Skrobak’s,10% Dacie’s, 8% Turk’s,


4% Rees-Ecker’s or Shaw’s, Marcano’s, Giemsa


or PBS – each used by 2%. One author (2%) used


‘Žȱ’—’›ŽŒȱ–Ž‘˜ȱ˜ȱŒ˜ž—’—ȱ•Žž”˜Œ¢Žœȱ in smear. Two authors (4%) used automated

neutrophils and monocytes reported by other authors were 50.4-95.9%, 0.8- 28.0% and 0.5%

methods, remaining 94% - manual count in

-13.6%, respectively (Table 1).

Burker or Neubauer hemocytometers. Accord’—ȱ˜ȱŠŸŠ›ŽœȬ’ŠœȱŽȱŠ•ǯȱǻŘŖŖŘǼǰȱŠĴȬ Ž››’Œ”Ȃœȱ



phagocytes obtained in the present study was

the WBC value obtained using this diluent was œ’—’ęŒŠ—•¢ȱ•˜ Ž›ȱŒ˜–™Š›Žȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ˜‹-

similar to that reported by Yonar (2013) and Yonar et al. (2014) (1.04±0.10 and 0.98±0.11

tained using indirect methods. Additionally,


the authors pointed out that this solution also

acclimated in a similar way to the laborato-


ry conditions in this study. It was, however,

immature erythrocytes. Our own experiences with Turk’s and Shaw’s solutions revealed that all blood cell nuclei stained which made Œ˜ž—’—ȱ•Žž”˜Œ¢ŽœȱŸŽ›¢ȱ’ĜŒž•ȱžŽȱ˜ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ similarity to erythrocyte nuclei and thrombo-

•˜ Ž›ȱŒ˜–™Š›Žȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ›Žœž•œȱ›Ž™˜›Žȱ˜›ȱ “žŸŽ—’•ŽȱŒŠ›™ȱ‹¢ȱ˜œ’”ȱǻŗşşŜǼȱǻŗǯŜŘƹŖǯŜŖȱȦǼȱ

Œ¢Žœǯȱ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žǰȱ ŽȱžœŽȱ Š¢Ž–Ȃœȱœ˜•ž’˜—ȱ ǻŒ˜—Š’—’—ȱ—˜ȱ¢ŽǼȱ˜›ȱ‹˜‘ȱȱŠ—ȱȱ

without any laboratory acclimation period. The ’쎛Ž—ŒŽȱ’—’ŒŠŽœȱ‘Šȱž—Ž›ȱ•Š‹˜›Š˜›¢ȱŒ˜—-

counts. Leukocytes were clearly visible as small

ditions this parameter may decrease, probably


žŽȱ˜ȱ•˜ ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱ˜ȱ™‘Š˜Œ¢ŽȱŒŽ••œȱ’—ȱ™Ž›’™‘Ž›Š•ȱ

erythrocytes and small oblong thrombocytes.


Tavares-Dias et al. (2002) also compared the

˜ȱ™Š‘˜Ž—œȱž—Ž›ȱ•Š‹˜›Š˜›¢ȱŒ˜—’’˜—œȱŠ—ȱ optimum water quality.

Œ˜ŽĜŒ’Ž—œȱ˜ȱŸŠ›’Š’˜—ȱ˜ȱȱŒ˜ž—œȱ˜‹tained by various authors and revealed that

Š—ȱ’ ’Œ”’ȱŽȱŠ•ǯȱǻŗşŞśǼȱǻŗǯŞŖƹŖǯŘŖȱȦǼǯȱ —ȱ‘Ž’›ȱ studies analyses were carried out immediately ŠŽ›ȱ‘Š›ŸŽœ’—ȱ˜ȱ꜑ȱ›˜–ȱ‘Žȱ›ŽŠ›’—ȱ™˜—ǰȱ

‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ›Š—Žȱ›˜–ȱŞǯŖȱ˜ȱśŖƖǯȱ —ȱ˜ž›ȱœž¢ȱ


this value was 49%, while pooled data obtained



one group with leukocytes due to considerable

showed 104%.

morphological similarity. Our data showed that ‘Ž’›ȱ—ž–‹Ž›ȱ’—ȱ‹•˜˜ȱ˜ȱŒ˜––˜—ȱŒŠ›™ȱ’œȱ‘’‘•¢ȱ


variable. According to other authors mean PLT

(almost exclusively resting cells were observed,


ǻ’ž›ŽȱŗŠǼȱŠ—ȱ•˜ ȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱ˜ȱ—Žž›˜™‘’•œȱǻ’ž›Žȱ


1b) and monocytes (Figure 1c) in our study might have been related to very good health

–˜›™‘˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ˜›–œȱ˜ȱ‘›˜–‹˜Œ¢ŽœDZȱ‘Žȱ–˜œȱ Š‹ž—Š—ȱ™¢”—˜’Œȱ˜›–œȱǻ’ž›ŽȱŗǼǰȱ˜‹•˜—ȱ ǻ’ž›ŽȱŗŠǼǰȱŠ—ȱœ™’—•Žȱ˜›–œȱǻ’ž›ŽȱŗŽǼǯ


Ht [%] RBC [106ȦΐǾ

‹ȱǽȦǾ ȱǽǾ MCH [pg]  ȱǽȦǾ Erythroblasts [%] WBC [103ȦΐǾ Lymphocytes [%] Neutrophils [%] Monocytes [%] ȱǽȦǾ PLT [103ȦΐǾ


140 146 143 119 122 116 41 134 51 51 51 122 50

# of ꜑ 24.8±0.4 1.43±0.04 66.0±1.8 189.4±5.4 50.2±1.5 270.8±7.1 3.1±0.5 56.0±2.4 89.5±1.1 7.2±0.8 1.4±0.3 1.01±0.05 19.9±2.7

Mean ±SEM 4.5 0.47 21.8 59.2 16.1 76.8 3.1 27.7 7.7 6.0 2.4 0.57 19.4



25.0 1.31 65.0 178.7 48.0 278.3 1.0 52.3 92.0 6.0 0.8 0.93 13.2

Median 12.0-36.5 0.61-2.80 22.6-170.0 91.4-379.7 13.7-94.0 80.8-547.9 0.0-9.1 11.0-178.8 58.0-98.3 1.0-34.0 0.0-11.0 0.41-2.50 2.9-115.0


Mean ±SEM

34 29.0±1.5 35 1.49±0.10 34 73.8±3.5 24 227.7±13.6 22 59.8±5.9 23 245.7±15.5 34 42.5±7.6 10 80.2±4.3 10 10.4±3.0 8 3.7±1.6 4 14.2±11.1

# of studies 8.7 0.59 20.5 66.6 27.4 74.2 44.4 13.5 9.5 4.4 22.2



30.2 1.49 73.0 216.9 52.4 243.0 31.6 82.7 9.7 2.0 4.3


13.7-43.6 0.33-2.95 37.6-114.3 130.9-412.7 31.8-139.0 120.0-446.0 1.4-197.3 50.4-95.9 0.4-28.0 0.5-13.6 0.9-47.4


Table 2.ȱ Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ›˜–ȱśȬŞȱ–˜—‘œȱ˜•ȱCyprinus carpioȱ‘Š›ŸŽœŽȱ›˜–ȱ›ŽŠ›’—ȱ™˜—œȱ’—ȱŽ™ǯȬŒǯȱŠ—ȱŠŒŒ•’–ŠŽȱ˜›ȱřȬŚȱ  ŽŽ”œȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•Š‹˜›Š˜›¢ȱŒ˜—’’˜—œȱǻ؊ǰȱ•ŽǼǰȱŒ˜–™Š›Žȱ˜ȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ›Ž™˜›Žȱ˜›ȱ“žŸŽ—’•ŽȱCyprinus carpio by various authors listed in table 1 (2b, right).

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 36(4) 2016, 175

176, Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 36(4) 2016

Figure 1.ȱŽž”˜Œ¢ŽœȱŠ—ȱ‘›˜–‹˜Œ¢Žœȱ˜ȱŒ˜––˜—ȱŒŠ›™ȱ“žŸŽ—’•ŽœȱǻȱȮȱ•¢–™‘˜Œ¢ŽǰȱȱȮȱ–˜—˜Œ¢ŽǰȱȱȮȱ neutrophil, T – thrombocyte).


—˜ȱœ’—’ęŒŠ—ȱ›Ž•Š’˜—œ‘’™œȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ

˜ȱŠŠȱ˜ŸŽ›•Š™™Žǰȱ‹Ž’—ȱ ’Ž›ȱ’—ȱ‘˜œŽȱ›Ž-


ported by other authors (Table 2b), probably

–Šœœȱ˜›ȱ ŠŽ›ȱŽ–™Ž›Šž›ŽǰȱŽ¡ŒŽ™ȱ˜›ȱ ŽŠ”ȱ

›ŽĚŽŒ’—ȱŠȱ ’Ž›ȱ›Š—Žȱ˜ȱ꜑ȱ˜›’’—ǰȱœ’£Žǰȱ •’Žȱ‘’œ˜›¢ǰȱŽŽ’—ǰȱ–Š—ŠŽ–Ž—ȱŠ—ȱ ŠŽ›ȱ

negative relationships between MCV and body –Šœœȱǻ›ƽȬŖǯŚŘǼǰȱŠ—ȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱȱŠ—ȱ ŠŽ›ȱ

šžŠ•’¢ǯȱ‘ŽȱŠŠȱ˜ȱŸŠ›’˜žœȱŠž‘˜›œȱœ‘˜ Žȱ


Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 36(4) 2016, 177

˜›ȱ–˜œȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ˜ȱŸŠ›’Š’˜—ȱŒ˜ŽęŒ’Ž—ȱ Ž›Žȱ–˜Ž›ŠŽȱȮȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱŘśȱŠ—ȱśŖƖȱǻ˜›ȱ

‘ŠȱŠ›Žȱ›Ž•ŽŸŠ—ȱ˜›ȱ꜑ȱ˜ȱœ’–’•Š›ȱŠŽȱŠ—ȱœ’£Žǰȱ reared under similar environmental conditions

ǰȱ ‹ǰȱǰȱ ǰȱ ȱŠ—ȱǼǰȱ˜›ȱ œ˜–Žȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱǻ™Ž›ŒŽ—ŠŽȱ˜ȱŽ›¢‘›˜‹•Šœœǰȱ


neutrophils and monocytes, PLT and NBT)

’—Ž›ŸŠ•œȱ˜‹Š’—Žȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ™›ŽœŽ—ȱœž¢ȱ˜›ȱśȬŞȱ month old juvenile common carp harvested in

they were high – over 50%, while low variation ǻ‹Ž•˜ ȱŘśƖǼȱ Šœȱ˜‹œŽ›ŸŽȱ˜—•¢ȱ’—ȱŒŠœŽȱ˜ȱ ȱŠ—ȱ

Šžž–—ȱ›˜–ȱ›ŽŠ›’—ȱ™˜—œȱŠ—ȱŠŒŒ•’–ŠŽȱ ˜ȱ‘Žȱ•Š‹˜›Š˜›¢ȱŒ˜—’’˜—œȱ˜›ȱřȬŚȱ ŽŽ”œȱŠȱ



ŸŠ›’Š’˜—ȱŒ˜ŽĜŒ’Ž—ȱ Ž›Žȱ˜‹Š’—Žȱ˜›ȱ‘ŽȱŠŠȱ


˜ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱœž’ŽœDZȱ–˜Ž›ŠŽȱȮȱ‹Ž ŽŽ—ȱŘśȱŠ—ȱśŖƖȱ

under similar conditions.

˜›ȱ ǰȱǰȱ ‹ǰȱǰȱ ȱŠ—ȱ ǰȱ‘’‘ȱ ǻ˜ŸŽ›ȱśŖƖǼȱ˜›ȱ›ŽšžŽ—Œ’Žœȱ˜ȱ—Žž›˜™‘’•œȱŠ—ȱ monocytes, WBC and PLT, while low only in the



™›˜Ÿ’Žȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ’Ž•ŒŽȱ—’ŸŽ›œ’¢ȱ˜ȱŠž›Š•ȱ Œ’Ž—ŒŽœȱŠ—ȱ ž–Š—’’Žœǰȱ™›˜“ŽŒȱ˜ȱřŞŝȦŗŚȦǯ

˜ȱŸŠ›’Š’˜—ȱŒ˜ŽĜŒ’Ž—œȱ’—ȱ‹˜‘ȱœŽœȱ˜ȱŠŠȱ›ŽŸŽŠ•Žȱ‘Šȱœ˜–Žȱ‘Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ˜ȱ “žŸŽ—’•ŽȱŒŠ›™ȱŠ›Žȱšž’ŽȱœŠ‹•Žȱǻ ǰȱ›ŽšžŽ—Œ¢ȱ˜ȱ lymphocytes), some moderately variable (RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC), and some are ‘’‘•¢ȱŸŠ›’Š‹•Žȱǻ›ŽšžŽ—Œ¢ȱ˜ȱ—Žž›˜™‘’•œȱŠ—ȱ monocytes and PLT). According to Vosyliene ǻŗşşşǼǰȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ˜ȱ›Žȱ‹•˜˜ȱŒŽ••ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ’—ȱ ꜑ȱŠ›Žȱ›Ž•Š’ŸŽ•¢ȱ—˜—ȬœŽ—œ’’ŸŽȱ˜ȱŽ—Ÿ’›˜—–Ž—Š•ȱŠŒ˜›œȱžŽȱ˜ȱŒ˜—œ’Ž›Š‹•ŽȱŒ˜–™Ž—œŠ˜›¢ȱ ™˜ Ž›ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ˜›Š—’œ–ǯ The obtained results and their comparison with ˜‘Ž›ȱŠŠȱ˜›ȱ“žŸŽ—’•ŽȱŒ˜––˜—ȱŒŠ›™ȱœ‘˜ Žȱ ‘Šȱ ’ȱ ’œȱ ŸŽ›¢ȱ ’ĜŒž•ȱ ˜ȱ ŽœŠ‹•’œ‘ȱ Ž—Ž›Š•ȱ ›ŽŽ›Ž—ŒŽȱ’—Ž›ŸŠ•œȱ˜ȱ‘Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱŸŠ•žŽœǯȱ —Žȱœ‘˜ž•ȱ‹ŽȱŠ Š›Žȱ‘Šȱ›Š—œŽ›ȱ˜ȱ꜑ȱ›˜–ȱ natural environment to the laboratory inevitably ’—Ÿ˜•ŸŽœȱœ˜–ŽȱŽ›ŽŽȱ˜ȱœ›ŽœœȱžŽȱ˜ȱ–Š—’™ž•Š’˜—ȱŠ—ȱŒ˜—ę—Ž–Ž—ǰȱŽŸŽ—ȱ’ȱŠ™™›˜™›’ŠŽȱ acclimation takes place and optimum water šžŠ•’¢ȱ’œȱ–Š’—Š’—Žǯȱ‘Ž›Ž˜›Žǰȱ‘ŽȱŸŠ•žŽœȱ˜ȱ ‘Ž–Š˜•˜’ŒŠ•ȱ™Š›Š–ŽŽ›œȱ˜ȱ꜑ȱ›ŽŠ›Žȱž—Ž›ȱ laboratory conditions and those sampled di›ŽŒ•¢ȱ›˜–ȱ—Šž›Š•ȱŽ—Ÿ’›˜—–Ž—ȱ–Š¢ȱ’쎛ǯȱ It is, however, possible to develop the ranges

‘Žȱ™›ŽœŽ—ȱœž¢ȱ Šœȱꗊ—ŒŽȱ›˜–ȱž—œȱ

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