report on lessons learned

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REPORT ON LESSONS LEARNED Documented for Equitable Payments for Watershed Services (EPWS) in Kibungo Juu; Morogoro, Tanzania

EPWS: A Project Implemented by CARE Tanzania and World Wildlife Fund (WWF)

Prepared:  EPWS Implementation Team of CARE  Tanzania  ‘ Dosteus Lopa; PIM Manager  ‘ Erasto Massoro; Technical  Officer: Soil and Water  Conservationist.  ‘ Acquiliner; Technical Officer:  AgriEconomist   

EPWS lessons learned. ************************************** Morogoro Program Office April 2012

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Table of Contents Table of Contents ................................................................................................................................... i List of tables ........................................................................................................................................... ii List of boxes ........................................................................................................................................... ii List of figures ......................................................................................................................................... ii List of photos/plates ............................................................................................................................. ii 1. Introduction and Background information............................................................................... 1 1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Background information ...................................................................................................... 1 1.3 Location where EPWS programme .................................................................................... 2 1.4 Goal and objectives of the EPWS project........................................................................... 2 1.4.1 Objectives of the Programme .......................................................................................... 2 2. Approaches towards EPWS implementation ............................................................................ 2 2.1 Phased approach of implementation.................................................................................. 2 2.2 Public-Private Partnership approach ................................................................................. 3 3. Land use change interventions ................................................................................................... 4 3.1 Land use change practices ................................................................................................... 4 3.2 Approaches applied in (Motives behind) implementing land use change practices ... 5 3.3 Climate change adaptation practices.................................................................................. 8 3.4 Co-benefit such as Livestock promotion and women empowerment............................ 9 3.4.1 Livestock promotion............................................................................................................ 9 3.4.2 Women Empowerment....................................................................................................... 9 4 Establishing payment mechanism............................................................................................ 10 4.3 Payment mechanisms......................................................................................................... 10 4.4 Payment criteria and modalities ....................................................................................... 10 4.5 Payment flow and transaction vehicle ............................................................................. 11 5 Devolving monitoring responsibilities..................................................................................... 12 Hydrological monitoring.................................................................................................... 12 5.3 5.3.1 Monitoring devices...................................................................................................... 12 5.3.2 Hydrological monitoring approaches....................................................................... 12 5.4 Livelihoods monitoring ...................................................................................................... 15 5.4.1 Livelihood monitoring methods................................................................................ 15 5.5 Outreach and Learning....................................................................................................... 18 6 EPWS model to apply for poor people/usefulness of EPWS model for the poor .............. 20 6.3 Contextualization of EPWS................................................................................................ 20 6.4 EPWS working for the poor ............................................................................................... 20 6.4.1 Ensuring livelihood improvement ............................................................................ 20 6.4.2 Availability of labour power....................................................................................... 21 6.4.3 Increase relationships between rural poor communities and profit oriented companies..................................................................................................................................... 21 6.5 Failures and Challenges for EPWS to work for the poor ............................................... 21 6.5.1 Failure to include many of the poorest people in the communities .................... 21 6.5.2 Failures to include many young people ................................................................... 21 6.5.3 Very challenging to get buyers pay or fulfil commitments.................................... 22 7 Sustainability and scaling up of EPWS initiatives.................................................................. 22 Reference:............................................................................................................................................. 24

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List of tables Table 1: Risks zones for determining soil and water conservation techniques to be applied to intervene watershed degradation in Kibungo Juu communities, Ulugurus................................. 4 Table 1: Trend of farmers joining implementation of EPWS programme in Kibungo Juu........ 5 Table 3: Changes in quality of livelihood status in Kibungo Juu communities as enabled by programme implementation ............................................................................................................. 16 List of boxes Box 1. Interest story from Viti Mhigile on terraces .......................................................................... 7 Box 2. Interest story from Mzee Joseph BUNGI ............................................................................ 17 Box 3. Mzee Magana’s interest story ................................................................................................ 18 List of figures Figure 1: Win-win situation when conserving watershed and vice versa (adopted from Curtis, 2006)....................................................................................................................................................... 1 Figure 2: Technical/feasibility studies carried out to produce technical reports which provided hotspots.................................................................................................................................. 3 Figure 3: Flow of payments/rewards from DAWASCO to farmers in 2009............................... 11 Figure 4: Rainfalls received in 2011 indicating last part of the year received a lot of rainfalls 15 List of photos/plates Plate 1: A farmer showing maize produced from excavated fanya juu terrace............................. 8 Plate 2. One of the empowered woman chairing a meeting (Mama Maria Bunga).................... 9 Plate 6: Scientific monitoring being carried out by experts.......................................................... 13 Plate 7: Young man collecting data from staff meter ..................................................................... 13 Plate 8: Local people being trained on hydrological monitoring by using imhoff cone to assess sediment load in the river at a particular time ............................................................................... 14 Plate 9: Farmer to farmer exchange visit at Lanzi village on maize production with application of appropriate spacing, mulching and farm yard manure........................................ 16 Plate 10: Youth people carrying tengas to earn cash incomes ...................................................... 22

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1. Introduction and Background information 1.1 Introduction EPWS is part of a broader concept of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) with the underlying principle of which the beneficiaries of ecosystem services should compensate/pay/reward those who provide or play a role to guarantee continuous flow of such services (figure 1). Thus, EPWS program in Tanzania which is implemented by CARE International and WWF Country Office stands to ensure a sustainable flow of watershed services to beneficiaries into the future via a mechanism that promotes articulation of conservation practices in catchment areas which in turn alleviate poverty to land mangers. This report presents EPWS programme’s lessons learned from the implemented interventions in Uluguru Mountains. Figure 1: Win-win situation when conserving watershed and vice versa (adopted from Curtis, 2006)

1.2 Background information Watershed Services (WSs) refers to Natural water that the natural world provides to people. But the natural water is regarded as free access good and/or as a gift of natural. This has caused haphazard and over utilization of water resources to the extent that they are declining in quantity and quality as time goes on. This has also caused problems to economic activities especially those that their productions rely at large percent on availability and quality of water. The proponents of Payments for Environmental Services (PES/PWS) stipulate that such situations are due to the failure of societies to compensate land managers (in uplands) for conserving watershed services in this case Ulugurus. This compensation actually finances and encourages conservation efforts as well as crucially improves the livelihoods of the rural poor community members. The new PES/PWS mechanism has therefore enormous potential to not only reverse the trend of failure of societies to compensate land managers but advance a new conservation revolution.

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1.3 Location where EPWS programme This EPWS programme is being implemented in the Uluguru Mountains, with the main focus on the Ruvu River and its tributaries. Ruvu River is the principal source of water to the City of Dar es Salaam, an economic hub for Tanzania, and indeed other towns such as Morogoro, Kibaha, Mlandizi and Bagamoyo. Within Ulugurus the program is being implemented piloted in four villages (Kibungo, Lanzi, Nyingwa and Dimilo) in Kibungo sub-catchment of the Ruvu River. Uluguru mountains range is part of eastern Arc mountains range located in Tanzania which provides a wide range of ecosystem services including water supply, forests, fresh air, recreation, landscape beauty and biodiversity as to mention the few. Despite of all benefits provided by Uluguru Mountains, there are: ƒ Watershed degradation: In Ulugurus, there are a larger proportion of communities residing adjacent to and highly depend on the watershed and other ecosystem services as their sources of livelihoods. Such dependence causes deforestation and watershed degradation (at the rate of 9%) especially decline in water flow volumes and increasing water turbidity in the Ruvu River, reflecting a dramatic increase in sediment loading into the river that affect various uses downstream especially Dar es Salaam including high treatment and tariffs’ costs. These are therefore core problems which have been largely exacerbated by: ¾ Unsustainable farming and irrigation practices ¾ Encroachment to the Forests and water sources ¾ Illegal mining activities in river systems and within forest reserves ¾ Accelerated poverty in local communities ƒ Impoverishments of dwellers in Ulugurus: The recent poverty analysis showed that around 31% of the population of the Ulugurus lives below bellow 1 USD and depends on crop farming as an activity that provides most of their livelihoods. However, the farming system is subsistence farming with slash and burn in shifting practices which calls for innovative solution like EPWS. 1.4 Goal and objectives of the EPWS project The overall goal of EPWS project is to deliver sustainable natural resource conservation and improved livelihoods of the rural poor with social justice and equity. 1.4.1 Objectives of the Programme Specifically to the situation explained above this innovative EPWS mechanism aims at: ƒ To establish long term financial investment (FI) in modifying land use to conserve and improve “watersheds” for reliable flow and quality of water. ƒ To establish compensation mechanism that recognizes the needs and priorities of the marginalized and poor people to improve their quality of life hence contributing to poverty reduction 2. Approaches towards EPWS implementation 2.1 Phased approach of implementation Implementation of Equitable Payments for Watershed Services (EPWS) programme in Ulugurus Tanzania applied phased approach with two main phases. As per programme proposal (2007) phased approach was applied in order to first, divide implementation to focus on specific activities within a short time frame with the sole purpose of assessing the feasibility of equitable PWS and then “filter” to only the most promising site for

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implementation of the initiatives. Lastly, this division was instrumental in generating a number of lessons, which significantly contributed to the successes of the Programme as a whole at the end of this Phase 2. For example, Phase I began in June 2006 for 18 months to undertake feasibility studies which identified and verified scientifically core problems and respective solutions. The feasibility studies produced technical reports (summarised in figure 2), which identified hotspots, upstream communities as sellers and beneficiaries of water services (water users) downstream as buyers. The identified buyers were Dar es Salaam water users including DAWASCO and Coca Cola Kwanza Limited. This was an important deliverable to the programme initiative during Phase I which helped to enter into agreement by signing MoUs between upstream communities and downstream users based on a viable business case for both groups. Also, Phase I was used to sensitise and mobilize partners to support the programme implementations during and beyond programme period. When phase I ended, Phase II started which aimed at implementing the payment for watershed services mechanism. Figure 2: Technical/feasibility studies carried out to produce technical reports which provided hotspots Situation/Baseline Studies

Technical Guidelines

Hydrology

livelihoods

Legal institutional

Cost-benefit

Technical Reports

2.2 Public-Private Partnership approach The phase two was designed for implementation of the PWS mechanism in the site through partnership which involved the Upland communities of Kibungo Juu ward in Ulugurus (sellers) and downstream water users especially DAWASCO and Coca Cola Kwanza Limited (buyers) to achieve conservation and livelihood improvement goals. The terms of the partnership as established in an MoU in which: (1) upstream communities (service providers or “sellers”) agreed to change their land use activities in order to restore the ecosystem and therefore its capacity to provide watershed services; and (2) downstream stakeholders (service users or “buyers”) agreed to support the efforts of “sellers” during the Programme implementation (CARE/WWF Project Proposal, 2007). Alongside these two core partners (sellers and buyers), the PWS initiatives in Tanzania also engaged a wide range of national 3

partners in the implementation including Local Government Authorities (LGAs), Central Government Agencies and Ministries, NGOs and local academic institutes. These partners were involved in various ways including: o Supported community and national sensitisation o Provided technical assistance in extension services and hydrological monitoring o Provided working tools/equipments like spirit levels, sediment sampler, current metre, staff gauge, automatic rain gauge as to mention the few o Provided comments and ideas on programme development o Advised on national strategies, priorities, p0licies and regulations o Undertook laboratory testing of the sediment load in the water and soil characteristics such as soil moisture content, fertility, temperature, texture and structures 3. Land use change interventions 3.1 Land use change practices unsustainable land use usually connected to subsistence agriculture practiced by communities upland

The programme was thought from the beginning that it will ensure a sustainable flow of watershed services to beneficiaries of these services into the future through effective conservation practices while at the same time addressing issues related to poverty alleviation (CARE/WWF project Proposal, 2007). The programme therefore implemented various land use change interventions including agro-forestry, reforestation, grass strip farming, contour farming, and terracing and riparian zone restoration. In the course of implementation the programme provided extension services such as training, inputs, implements and monitoring to ensure that all land use interventions are implemented successfully and appropriately to bring the required or expected results. Achieving required results was considered as very important and part of Payments for environmental services (PES) conditionality. In deed all interventions were done according to the slope as recommended by a study conducted in 2008 by Justus Nsenga when looking on existing soil and water conservation measures in Kibungo Juu Ward. The study showed that there were three critical zones in the catchment which need to be intervened appropriately. These zones were high, medium and low risk zones as presented in table 1: Table 1: Risks zones for determining soil and water conservation techniques to be applied to intervene watershed degradation in Kibungo Juu communities, Ulugurus Slope/characteristics

Zone High risk

Medium risk Low risk

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55%+ Water body and/or source like stream, river, spring Forest reserve Endangered species 30% to 54%+ Grass land mixed with shrubs