Role of Interpersonal Communication in Organizational Effectiveness

53 downloads 11 Views 267KB Size Report
Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014). Vol. 1 Issue 4 Oct. - Dec. 2014 ... organization likely use interpersonal communication every day to handle complaints from their ... uses in their official, Interpersonal, and small group communication activities.

International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014)

Vol. 1 Issue 4 Oct. - Dec. 2014

ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online) ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)

Role of Interpersonal Communication in Organizational Effectiveness Dr. Amit Kumar Singh, IILalropuii

I I,II

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Management, Mizoram University, Aizawl (Mizoram)

Abstract Interpersonal communication in recent years has been consistently placed high as an important requirement for conducting successful job performance in the organizations.It looks reasonable to determine that one of the most impeding forces to organizational effectiveness is a privation of effective communication. Moreover, good interpersonal communication skills are very important to employees for making a successful organization. This paper tries to better understand how interpersonal communication can improve the functioning of organizations. To begin, the paper describes what is meant by the interpersonal communication, organizational effectiveness and then discusses how interpersonal communications affects the different elements of organizational effectiveness. Keywords Interpersonal Communication, Communication Barrier, Organizational Effectiveness,Assertion Strategies I. Introduction It’s difficult to imagine for any organization which doesn’t require one people to interact with other people. Employees of the organization likely use interpersonal communication every day to handle complaints from their customers, to persuade their superiors to give you some time off, or to comfort a colleague dealing with difficult problems.Interpersonal communication in recent years has been consistently placed high as an importantrequirement for conducting successful job performance in the organizations. This is why companies and institutions put a highimportance on interpersonal communication [1] The study of different forms of communication is important, because every administrative and managerial function and activity involves some form of direct as well as indirect communication. Whether planning,organizing, leading and monitoring, managers communicate with and through other people. This implies that every person’s communication skills affect both personal and organizational effectiveness [2]. It looks reasonable to determine that one of the most impeding forces to organizational effectiveness is a privation of effective communication.[3] Moreover, good interpersonal communication skills are very important to employees for making asuccessful organization. A recent study showed that recruiters rated communication skills as the most important characteristic of an ideal job candidate.[4] This paper tries to better understand how interpersonal communication can improve the functioning of organizations. To begin, the paper describes what is meant by the interpersonal communication, organizational effectiveness and then discusses how interpersonal communications affects the different elements of organizational effectiveness.

IV. Materials And Discussion A. Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication is the process of transmitting information and common understanding from one person to another, which is very essentialfor the success of any organization. Therefore it must be effectively handled to ensure the attainment of the organization’s goals.Vardaman and Halterman define communication inside the organization as the flow of information, materials, perceptions and understandings among the variousstakeholders of the organization, all the methods, media and means of the communication , all the networks, channels, systems of communication or organizational structure, all the person – to – person interchange or interpersonal communication. They includes all aspects of communication and make it comprehensive, because it advises that there is so plentifulthings are going on in the organization.[5] According to Wilson communication in different organization refers to various ways, strategies and tools which the employees uses in their official, Interpersonal, and small group communication activities. The easiness or complexity of the interpersonal communication process is dependent on the easiness or complexity of the organization. [6]Sambe defines it as one thatimplies a flow of information in a societal system to bear its operation and to gear it towards attaining its predetermined goals.[7] Also Nwosu sees organizational communication as one which mentionsfundamentally to group and interpersonal communication inside an organizational setting. Interpersonal communicationgives emphasis on how organizational structures distress communication between the employeesthat brands up the organization and how those organization structures are in turn affected by interpersonal communications [8]. Communication in different organization is very vigorous and that is the reason Greenbaum contends that the tenacity of organizational communication is to facilitate the attainment of organizational objectives [9]. Interpersonal communication provides a way of reaching others with facts, ideas, thoughts and values. It is a connection of meaning among employees so that they can share what they know and feel.[6] Interpersonal communication is a term usually applied to verbal and nonverbal interfaces in one-on-one or some small-group settings. “People skills” and “soft skills” areterms often used to label someone’s interpersonal competence, though the word “soft”

II. Objective The main objective of this paper is to explore the role of interpersonal communication in developing the effectiveness of organizations. III. Methodology In present study researchers used the narrative literature review methods for describing role of interpersonal communication in developing the effectiveness of organizations.

© 2014, IJRMBS All Rights Reserved

36

www.ijrmbs.com

ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online) ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)

International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014)

Vol. 1 Issue 4 Oct. - Dec. 2014

seems to be an inappropriate word to describe skills which can potentially cost you your job. If viewed from another perspective, that these should be “hard” skills too because they are difficult to learn and their impact on your career and personal life is huge. In the workplace, one who is very good in interpersonal communication can report to and work with a wide variety of people,handle conflicts, negotiate differences, make requests effectively andreceive information objectively. A person who is effective in interpersonal communication willbe open to the ideas of other employees and willing to put forward their views of essentialactivities in the process of problem solving. Interpersonal communication effectively works on four basic principles. These principles inspire the workings in real life of interpersonal communication. They are basic to interpersonal communication and play great importance in building the effectively of organizations. These principles are• Interpersonal communication is inescapable • Interpersonal communication is irreversible • Interpersonal communication is complicated • Interpersonal communication is contextual In other words, communication does not occur in isolation. There are different context of communication. One of them isPsychological context, which describethe existence of employees and what they bring to the interaction. Employee’s desire, needs, values, personality, etc., all may be consideredform psychological context. Another framework is Relational, which concernsemployee’s reactions to the other employees. The Situational context deals with the psycho-social "where" people are communicating. An interaction that takes place in one organization will be very different from other that takes place in different organizations. Environmental context deals with the physical "where “employees communicate. Furniture, noise, location, level, season, temperature, time of day, these are considered asexamples of environmental context.Cultural context includes all the scholarly behaviors and instructions that affect the interaction. One can from a culture where it is considered insolent to make long, direct eye contact; one will out of respectto avoid eye contact. If the other employee comes from a different culture where long, direct eye contact signals are reliable, then one should in the cultural context for a basis for misunderstanding. [10]

designation of functions often pointers to misuse of functional authority in the organizations. Functional authority should be delegated toa suitably designated employee based on the departmental policy. The manager must be trained, educated and with experience, his level of honesty must be high and authentic and must be judgmental in his dealing with everyone.[11] Wilson [6] brought out the following facts as barrier to effective communication in different types of organizations. • Physical setting of office • Clothes • Timing of the message • Lack of rapport between the sender and receiver • Lack of motivation • Non-payment of salaries As it is with all social activities, organization cannot run well without effective interpersonal communication. For any organization to recognize its set organizational goal there must be rich and free drive of interpersonal communication, operative organizationalobjectives will be achieved also if these obstacles are met and face-toface interface is the most advantageous to the employees in the organization than the written documents. Interpersonal communication has the advantage of providing feedback and the opportunity of understanding the message more appropriately in this global economic age. C. Organizational Effectiveness The American Public Human Services Association (APHSA) definesOrganizational Effectiveness as systemic approach for continuously improving an organization’s performance, organizations ‘performance capacity and client outcomes. APSHA refers “Systemic” to taking into account the complete system or in the case of organizational effectiveness an entire organization; “systematic” refers to captivating a step‐by‐step approach. In simple terms, Organizational Effectiveness is a step‐to‐step approach for continuously improving the whole organization. In the Organizational Effectiveness approach, effective organizations are described as operating systems that are made up of the different interconnected moving parts, such as the aim of the organizational strategy shared and perceived as important by the employees within the organization and stakeholders opinion to the organization; resources placed into the organization to achieve the organizational strategy ; ability of the organization to advance toward outcomes using available resources for assessing performance capacity of organizations; activities of the organization towards(performance actions; results of system performance ; changes in lives as a result of outcomes; and feedback from clients, staff, partners, key other stakeholders, and the community about how well the organization is achieving its desired outputs and outcomes from the environment. Feedback helps in continuous improvement of organizational strategy. This motivates continuous improvement of performance, inputs, capacity, and performance actions, for continuous improvement of outputs and outcomes. Strategy work involves defining the aim and game plan of the organization.What the organization is, what it plans to do and why, how it will plan to do it, and what it requires to succeed. Structure and culture work contains modeling values and significant and communicating departments, levels, jobs, work teams, policies, and desired performance. Key work processes involve defining definite processes and procedures that explain strategy and anticipated

B. Barriers to Effective Organizational Communication Some barriers of organizational communication have been identified as they affect the effectiveness of organizational. These barriers include: 1. Lack of clarity: Failure to use common language and honest expressions 2. Lack of proper coordination: Organizational Failure to coordinate the various activities of the different departments in the organization frequently results in pitiableinterpersonal communication, repetition of effort and regular irritation and frustration for the employees affected. Proper channel of interpersonal communication in organization has to be followed for improving the organizational productivity. 3. Lack of adequate organizational equipment: Lack of necessary communication facilities can significantlyhamper the proper functioning of a business environment in the organization. Interpersonal organizational communication remains effective when all the required facilities are put in the organization and the employees are trained. 4. Improper description of functions: Undefined and unclear www.ijrmbs.com

37

© All Rights Reserved, IJRMBS 2014

International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014)

Vol. 1 Issue 4 Oct. - Dec. 2014

structure and culture into direction for day-to-day work. Operations work comprisesrealizing key processes, providing services to customers, and managing employee’s performance. [12]

organizational performance.Long-term study of Fortune 1000 firms shows positive trends in use ofemployee involvement programs within these organizations, along with increasing number of employee participation in employee involvement programs. [12] The key point of interpersonal communication is assertion, thus the most criticaltactics in effective interpersonalcommunication are assertion strategies.These are the means that supportemployees to maintain their respect, satisfy their needs, and defend their rights without manipulating, dominating, abusing, or controlling others. It is important for organization to make their employees familiar with these strategies in demand to develop their skills and attitude in effective interpersonal communication. Effective interpersonal communication requires other employees to do something, perhaps to change their own behavior or to ask them to do things for others. Because of this, a dedication among employees comes from high degree of self-esteem and an acceptance of oneself.As everyone is not able to assert herself or herself and get the other to do something. Appropriate interpersonal communication thus is making explicit what organizational employees think about other employees of the organizations. It recognizestheir rights as specific and the rights of other employees also. When it requires, an employee expert in interpersonal communication can stand up for their rights, disagree and present another points of view without being unsettled or putting the other employeesdepressed. In contrast, an employee weak in interpersonal communication feels threatened in such situations and behaves with aggressive rather than with assertive behavior. [13]

D. Major Challenges to Organizational Effectiveness The challenge for businesses organizations seems simple: align and engage employee’s workforce to a clearly expressed strategy. However, this can be a challenge to attain. It requires a complete, coordinated effort to put a large number of building blocks or key elements in place. The key elements of organizational effectiveness are needed to motivate employee engagement in the organizations. Employee engagement influences the clients’ experience and, ultimately, the complete performance of an organization in terms of efficiency and profitability. The performance of organizations is measured on the basis of outcome or the delivery of services. Different studies revealed that many business leaders struggle to bring into line and engage employees with the organization’s strategy for making organization successful. So it is important to understand how do businesses achieve sustainable organizational effectiveness? As it is identified that, a key element is to align organizational employees with the organization’s strategy by helping employees to understand the role they play in achieving success, and placing employees on their jobs with the organization. Alignment of strategy is achieved through a “fit-for objective” structure, talented leadership, and operative people systems and culture. Integrating efforts through these areas will lead to more extremely engaged employees who are enthusiastic and capable of serving the organization to achieve its goal. However, justifiable organizational effectiveness needsimportant attention be paid to all of these elements. Focusing attention on just one element without the others will not provide long-term engagement. [13] There are a number of processes that need to be in place to ensure leaders are supported to take action and that the right changes occur and are embedded within the organization. These processes include: o Communication process that reaches all key stakeholders and clearly covers the why, what, when, and how. o Developmental process to ensure leaders has the knowledge and skills to take action. o Leadership support that ensures resources and energy are aligned with the strategy. o Process for communicating the findings quickly and transparently. o Process for effectively cascading engagement initiatives throughout the entire workforce. o Process for measuring success and return on investment. o Process for business leaders to report progress and draw ideas and support from their leader and peers.

V. Conclusion Communication is the process of transmitting information and common understanding from one person to another. Every organization, regardless of industry or country, seeks to be more effective and achieve superior results. Business strategy is developed to achieve this. Execution occurs when structure, roles, capability, leadership, systems, and culture are all pulling together and aligned with the strategy. One without the other will create misalignment and success will not be realized.The main consideration to this study is the capture of respondents’perceptions of effectivenessof interpersonal communication at a single point in time.The organizations performance depends on leader’s interpersonalskill in change implementation overthe life of an organizational affectivity.This paper identify that key point of interpersonal communication is assertion, thus the most critical tactics in effective interpersonal communication are assertion strategies. The people strong in interpersonal communicationcan stand up for their rights, disagree and present different points of view without intimation or putting the other employees down for making the organization more effective.

E. Inter Personal Communication and Organizational Effectiveness Interpersonal Communication can be an effective tool for motivating employeesof the organization involved invarious activities. Appropriate communications provideemployees with feedback and reinforcement during the effective organizational change [14]. The effective organizational change, for increasing organizational affectivity, enablesemployees to make better decisions and preparesthem for the advantages and disadvantages of change [15]. Employee involvement in various organizational activity increases employees input into decisions which affects © 2014, IJRMBS All Rights Reserved

ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online) ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)

Reference [1] Centre for English Language Communication National University of Singapore (2011).Interpersonal Communication.Singapore:Author [2] Brun, J. P. (2010). Missing pieces: 7 ways to improve employee well-being and organizational effectiveness. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. [3] Lutgen-Sandvik, P. (2010). Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences, and constructive ways of organizing. New York, NY: Routledge. 38

www.ijrmbs.com

ISSN : 2348-6503 (Online) ISSN : 2348-893X (Print)

International Journal of Research in Management & Business Studies (IJRMBS 2014)

Vol. 1 Issue 4 Oct. - Dec. 2014

[4] Yate, M. (2009). Hiring the best: A manager’s guide to effective interviewing and recruiting. Cincinnati, OH: F & W Media. [5] Vardaman, G &Halterman, C. (1968). Managerial control through communication. New York: John Wiley & sons. [6] Wilson, D. (2005). New perspectives in applied Communication. Ibadan: SterlinHordan Publishers [7] Sambe, J.A (2005). Introduction to mass communication practice in Nigeria. Ibadan: spectrum Books Ltd. [8] Nwosu, I &Ekwo, U. (1990).Mass Media and Marketing Communications.(Principles, perspectives and practices). Enugu: Dek Computer Technologies. [9] Greenbaum, H.(1974). The Audit of organizational communication, Academy of Management Journal. Pp73954 [10] Lunenburg, F.C,& Irby, B. J. (2006). The principalship: Vision to action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage. [11] Organizational Change: Motivation,Communication, and LeadershipEffectiveness Ann Gilley, Jerry W. Gilley and Heather S. McMillanEffectiveness of Organizational Communication in the Global Age [12] American Public Human Service Association (2012).A Guidebook for Building Organizational Effectiveness Capacity: A Training System Example, Washington, DC: Author [13] Organizational Effectiveness (http://www.right.com/ thought-leadership/research/ organizational-effectivenessdiscovering-how-to-make-it-happen.pdf accessed on 22nd November 2014) [14] Peterson, D. B., & Hicks, M. D. (1996).Leader as coach: Strategies for coaching and developing others. Minneapolis: Personnel Decisions International. [15] Saunders, R. (1999). Communicating change.Harvard Management Communication. Letter, 8(1), 35–36. Authors Profiles Dr. Amit Kumar Singh is assistant professor in the department of Management, Mizoram University, Aizawl. He got his education from BHU, Varanasi, VBS PU Jaunpur and IIM Ahmedabad. He has published 1book and more than 35 research papers in International/National journals and edited books. He also served as member of different academic bodies like BOS, School Board, Academic Council (as Head i/c), etc. Currently he is in the advisory board of 12 International journals. Dr. Singh is also working as Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) service consultant for department of Forest, Government of Mizoram. Lalropuii is assistant professor in the department of Management, Mizoram University, Aizawl. Her area of teaching is Finance and Managerial Skill development. She is pursuing her Ph.D in the area of Public Distribution System.She also served as member of different academic bodies like BOS and School Board.She is also programme officer of NSS Mizoram University unit and office bearerf Mizoram University Alumni Association.

www.ijrmbs.com

39

© All Rights Reserved, IJRMBS 2014