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PROCEEDING OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS

AUGUST 20-21, 2015

DARMAJAYA INFORMATICS AND BUSINESS INSTITUTE

SUHENDRO Y. IRIANTO CHAIR AND EDITOR

Proceeding of International Conference on Information Technology and Business

Bandar Lampung, Indonesia Novotel Hotel Thursday, 20 August, 2015

Suhendro Yusuf Irianto, Ph.D Conference Chair and Editor of the Proceeding

Sponsored and Organized by

[email protected] 2015 The authors Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Suhendro Yusuf Irianto,Editor and Chair of the Proceedings, would like to thank and acknowledge the following people:

Sri Karnila Nurfiana Sahli Ramadhon Rio Kurniawan Betty Magdalena for thier typesetting assistance Anuar Sanusi Yulmaini Winda Rika Lestari Rahmalia Syahputri Abdi Darmawan Dedi Putra Sri Lestari Muhammad Ariza Eka Yusendra for thier administrative support

Sutedi M Said Hasibuan Lila Rahmawati Fajrin Armawan Sadat Pulungan Dwi Lianiko Fitria Linda Septarina for thier technical and web based support

FOREWORD

I am delighted to introduced the International Conference On Information Technology And Business. By doing this I am continuing a university tradition to publish its dissemination s research, to give support and encouragement to work of our research, and I fully intend to continue with this commitment. The papers that are presented in this volume will be followed by next years publications in having both depth and breadth. The conference spectrum is represented here with topics ranging from performance modeling, through AI and adaptive systems, to image processing, mobile television, Business Performance Management, Communications Management, Customer Behavior, Corporate Governance, Cost Management-Business and E-Commerce, E-Government, and E-Education. This conference is an opportunity for researchers to submit their work for scrutiny by their peers and colleagues within universities and beyond. It is an important step in their journey to publishing their work in a wider context, and the defense of their ideas in front of a critical but supportive audience is one that will give them the confidence to progress and to take their ideas to new arenas of academic debate. It is only by presenting our research for discussion and by sharing our ideas that we can ensure we are moving in a positive direction and that our hypotheses are well founded. In this way we can continue to progress, incorporate new proposals in our current work and build upon the existing body of knowledge to create new and exciting directions and projects. This is the purpose of this conference and I hope all those who participate and attend will leave with new inspiration. Before closing I would like to express thanks to all my colleagues for again doing an excellent job of organizing the conference and for administrative support and for the contributors for their work in writing the papers and preparing the presentations. I m sure that this conference will not only enhance the research of those participating, but will also encourage the investigation of new areas and the forming of new collaborations that will be represented in future workshops.

The Head of Research Centre Anuar Sanusi

International Conference On Information Technology And Business

The Proceedings contain research papers and long abstracts on the latest researches.

Printed in Indonesia

ISSN 2460-7223 Copyright © 2015 The Authors Authors are encouraged to complete and publish their works in specialized journals. Edited by: Suhendro Y. Irianto Conference Chair and Editor

Table of Contents ANALYSIS THE EFFECT OF VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE TO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT FAUZI, ANUAR SANUSI .................................................................................................................................................................1

INVESTIGATING PERFORMANCE ZERO-FORCING OF SOURCE WEIGHTING MATRIX IN MIMO RELAY COMMUNICATIONS APRIANA TODING, RISMAWATY ARUNGLA BI ...................................................................................................9 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SPEAK ENGLISH WITH ME PROGRAM ON SPEAKING ABILITY OF STUDENTS OF ENGLISH COURSE AT UPT BAHASA OF IBI DARMAJAYA IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2014/2015 BETTY MAGDALENA .......................................................................................................................................14 THE GLOBALIZATION STRATEGY OF VIETNAMESE IT ENTERPRISES IN THE CONTEXT OF ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY VIA THE CASE STUDY OF FPT CORPORATION HOANG VAN CUONG, (DIRECTOR OF INTERNATIONAL MOBILITY DEPARTMENT, FPT UNIVERSITY VIETNAM) HOANG VAN CUONG ......................................................................................................................................22 TOPOLOGICAL COMPARISON-BASED WORMHOLE DETECTION FOR MANET KING SUN CHAN, MOHAMMAD RAFIQUL ALAN ...............................................................................................28 DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR SCHOLARSHIP IN BALI STATE POLYTECHNIC USING AHP AND TOPSIS NI GUSTI AYU PUTU HARRY SAPTARINI1, PUTU MANIK PRIHATINI2 ................................................................ 38 A PREDICTION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE AMOUNT OF CORN PRODUCTION USING TSUKAMOTO FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM FITRIA ...........................................................................................................................................................47 ROLE OF COOPERATION IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY HD. MELVA SITANGGANG . ....................................................................................................................54 ASSOCIATION RULE METHOD FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM EPIDEMIC DENGUE MAPPING BASED ASSOCIATION OF RISK FACTORS IN PALEMBANG ERMATITA, SUCI DESTRIATANIA.. .....................................................................................................65 S-GIS: DIGITAZING SKIN DISEASE SPREAD IN LAMPUNG PROVINCE INDONESIA RAHMALIA SYAHPUTRI, MUHAMMAD SAID HASIBUAN......................................................................................71 LEADERSHIP STYLE RIGHT IN THE DEMOCRATIC TOGU HARLEN LBN. RAJA ...............................................................................................................................74

INTERNET HELPS PEOPLE IN DELIVERING INFORMATION WITHIN THE COMMUNITY IN INDONESIA AS A DEVELOPING COUNTRY TRUFI MURDIANI............................................................................................................................................80 SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS THE SAVIOR OF FOOD SECURITY ISSUES AMONG THE ELDERLY: A PROPOSAL SHAMSHUBARIDAH RAMLEE1*, NORNGAINY MOHD TAWIL1, SITI SURYANI MAT NASIT, ....................................84 OPTIMIZATION OF WIRELESS PRICING SCHEME FITRI MAYA PUSPITA, KAMARUZZAMAN SEMAN, BAHOK M. TAIB, ISMAIL ABDULLAH

..................................89

PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF STOCK MUTUAL FUNDS BASED FINANCIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM ABSHOR MARANTIKA .................................................................................................................................... 95 PERSPECTIVE TEXT MINING ANALYTICS INTELEGENT INFORMATION EXTRACTION FOR IMPECT OF INDONESIAN SOCIAL MEDIA AGUS SURYANA, SRI IPNUWATI .........................................................................................................................................100 BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES FOR INDUSTRIES, WORKERS, AND GOVERNMENT OF INDONESIA IN THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY IMPLEMENTATION INDRA BUDI SUMANTORO ............................................................................................................................114 MULTIMEDIA BASED APPLICATION DESIGN OF SELECTION EXAMINATION AS A SUPPORT FOR PAPERLESS OFFICE IN PPKD EAST JAKARTA HENRI SEPTANTO, PETRUS DWI ANANTO ......................................................................................................125 OPTIMUM FEATURE FOR PALMPRINT IMAGE AUTHENTICATION RATIH AYUNINGHEMI, DWI PUTRO SARWO SETYOHADI ................................................................................ 134 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN OF TOURIST ATTRACTION AND NEAREST FACILITY IN BANDAR LAMPUNG CITY DEVI KATHINA RANI, YULMAINI ................................................................................................................... 139 LEARNING PROCESS OF INTRODUCTION TO LAMPUNG SCRIPT THROUGH ICT (INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES) FOR KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS OF TK RASYIDUL JANNAH BANDAR LAMPUNG ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015 DHARLINDA SURI .........................................................................................................................................144 IMPROVING RELAY MATRICES FOR MIMO MULTI-RELAY COMMUNICATION USING GRADIENT PROJECTION APRIANA TODING ........................................................................................................................................150 DETERMINATION MODEL OF INDEPENDENT BUSINESS CREDIT "GRAMEENBANK" PATTERN USING SIMPLE ADDITIVE WAIGHTING (SAW) METHOD TO ENHANCING THE

RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SATRIA ABADI, SRI HARTATI .........................................................................................................................155 COMPOSITE STOCK PRICE INDEX (IHSG) MACRO FACTOR IN INVESTMENT IN STOCK (EQUITY FUNDS) ANDI DESFIANDI, ABSHOR MARANTIKA ........................................................................................................160 THE ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTIVE ASSETS QUALITY ON BANK HEALTH RATING OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN INDONESIA ANGRITA DENZIANA, HANINUN, ERWIN OCTAVIANTO .....................................................................................................165

THE EFFECTIVE OF IMAGE RETRIEVAL IN JPEG COMPRESSED DOMAIN SUHENDRO Y. IRIANTO ............................................................................................................................... 179 THE INFLUENCE OF SERVICE QUALITY ON STUDENTS SATISFACTION AT PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN BANDAR LAMPUNG RINA MILYATI YUNIASTUTI , VITRATIN , NOVITA SARI .................................................................................................184 THE INFLUENCE OF PROMOTION MIXTURE TOWARD DECISION OF BUYING HANDPHONE SAMSUNG (CASE STUDY AT SAMSUNG PLAZA IN BANDAR LAMPUNG) RATIH AMELIA , VITRATIN ..........................................................................................................................186 IMPLEMENTATION OF RFID (RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION) FOR STUDENT ATTENDANCE SYSTEM NURFIANA, PUTRI ........................................................................................................................................190 THE DESIGN OF OBJECT-ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR TEACHERS IN ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL OF ROUDLATUL QURAN METRO CITY SULISTIYANTO, SRI KARNILA ........................................................................................................................ 195 AN ANALYSIS OF OBSTACLES OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM APPLICATION ISO 9001:2008 AT SMK SMTI BANDAR LAMPUNG FITRIAH WULANDARI.....................................................................................................................................200 THE USAGE OF WARD AND PEPPARD METHOD IN IS/IT STRATEGIC PLAN COMPILATON IN DISHUBKOMINFO EAST LAMPUNG ABDUL LATHIF SAMPURNA, ABDI DARMAWAN, HANDOYO WIDI NUGROHO.....................................................205 AN EVALUATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT OF ASSEST AND LOGISTIC MANAGEMENT BUREAU USING COBIT 4.1 YUNI PUSPITA SARI.......................................................................................................................................213 THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT HEALTH CAMPAIGN COMMUNICATOR CREDIBILITY ON HEALTHY LIFE HASAN BASRI............................................................................................................................................................ 218

MODEL ANALYSIS OF LEADERSHIP AND WORK DISCIPLINE AGAINST REVENUE SERVICE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT A.K YOHANSON.............................................................................................................................................226 EMPLOYEE S PERFORMANCE THORUGH EDUCATION AND TRAINING AS WELL AS RENUMERATION ADITYA IRAWAN............................................................................................................................................232 COMPETITIVE BUSINESS INDONESIA M. APUN SYARIPUDIN....................................................................................................................................238 AN ANALYSIS OF SECURITY AND SERVICE QUALITY TOWARD PURCHASE DECISION ON E-COMMERCE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS OF CONSUMER LOYALTY ARDIANSYAH.................................................................................................................................................250 AN ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION AND COMPENSATION ON LECTURERS JOB PERFORMANCE AT INFORMATICS AND BUSINESS ISTITUTE (IBI) DARMAJAYA BESTI LILYANA .........................................................................................................................................................259

THE EMPLEMENTATION OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE PLANNING (EAP) MODEL FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AT HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT HALIMAH YUNUS.......................................................................................................................................... 263 THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL CAPACITY ON BUDGETARY SLACK USING PARTICIPATIVE BUDGETING AS MODERATING VARIABLE AT IBI DARMAJAYA PEBRINA SWISSIA..........................................................................................................................................267 QUALITY AUDIT IN BANKING INDUSTRY TULUS SURYANTO.........................................................................................................................................271 AN AUDIT ANALYSIS ON SERVICE INFORMATION SYSTEM AT ACADEMIC ADMINISTRATION BUREAU OF INFORMATICS AND BUSINESS INSTITUTE DARMAJAYA BANDAR LAMPUNG THROUGH COBIT 4.1 AMNAH........................................................................................................................................................280 IMPLEMENTATION OF NAÏVE BAYES CLASSIFICATION METHOD TO PREDICT GRADUATION TIME OF IBI DARMAJAYA SCHOLAR KETUT ARTAYE.............................................................................................................................................284 USING QUALITY OF SERVICE VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) ON E-KTP BANDAR LAMPUNG NOVI HERAWADI SUDIBYO, MUHAMMAD SAID HASIBUAN............................................................................. 291

A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF ENTERPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATIVE ENTERPRENEUR S ROLES TO CONTINUAL DEVELOPMENT MIEKE RAHAYU.............................................................................................................................................296 THE EFFECT OF SPECIAL PRICE GIVING ON THE LAMPUNG POST DAILY NEWSPAPER ON COLLEGE STUDENTS BUYING INTEREST IN BANDAR LAMPUNG ZURIANA.......................................................................................................................................................308 MEASUREMENT OF SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MOHAMMAD MACHRUS................................................................................................................................312

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

THE ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE TO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT Fauzi1, Anuar Sanusi2 1) STMIK Prengsewu 2) Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Bandar Lampung [email protected]

significant to the earnings management measures, and

ABSTRACT

voluntary testing of these revelations on the relationship This study is aimed at examining the relationship

between the practice of earnings management and

between

corporate

and

corporate governance mechanisms remains to show that

earnings

management

disclosure

the composition of an independent commissioner is not

(voluntary disclosure) as a moderating variable.

significant. This gives evidence that the ineffectiveness

Corporate governance is proxied and measured by

of the company's independent commissioner.

governance with

mechanisms

voluntary

Managerial Ownership (MGR) Institutional Ownership (INST), board size (BSIZE), and the independent

KEYWORDS:

Earnings

management,

Commissioner (KI). Voluntary Disclosure of Earnings

Disclosure, Corporate Governance

Voluntary

Management proxied in this study uses the value of discretionary accruals, and Voluntary Disclosure is proxied by the disclosure index. The population of this study is all listed manufacturing companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2006 to 2011.

evidence to suggest that there are negative effects of accruals

managerial

ownership,

institutional ownership and a positive influence on the size of the board of directors. Overall, these results are consistent with research conducted by Pranata (2003) and Rajgopal (1998) that managerial ownership and institutional ownership become a constraint on earnings management practice. Second, testing the relationship between voluntary disclosure mechanism between corporate governance and discretionary accruals indicate that the earnings management practices will be carried out if the company is getting a lot of information. These results are consistent with the research conducted by Aryati

(2003).

independent

Third,

the

commissioner

composition was

Several

accounting

relationship

studies

between

have

examined

corporate

the

governance

mechanisms and earnings management. Warfield et al.

The results of this study are first, there is an empirical

discretionary

A. INTRODUCTION

not

of

the

statistically

(1995)

found

a

negative

relationship

between

managerial ownership and discretionary accruals as a measure of earnings management and a positive relationship between managerial ownership with the content of information in earnings. Midiastuty (2003) replicates the study by Warfield et al. (1995) that examined

the

relationship

between

corporate

governance mechanisms and earnings management, and tested the quality of the reported earnings of the Indonesian capital market. mechanism

is

tested

on

Corporate governance managerial

ownership,

institutional ownership, board size and earnings management that affect the behavior and the quality of earnings. As a result, managerial ownership and institutional ownership are negatively related to earnings management, while the size of the board of

1 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 directors is positively related to earnings management.

that uses the management (agent) to perform services of

The opposite result was found by Gabrielsen et al.

interest to principal, in this case there is a separation

(1999) who found a positive effect between managerial

between ownership and control of the company's

ownership on earnings management and information

contractual relations to run smoothly, the principal will

content of earnings by using the Danish stock market

delegate decision-making authority to the agent, and

data, the opposite result may be caused by different

this relationship also needs to be in a contract that

ownership structures among companies in the United

typically use accounting figures stated in the financial

States and in Denmark. Ownership structure in

statements as the basis. In terms of the contract

Denmark is characterized by concentrated ownership

appropriate to align the interests of agents and

structures, while in the United States it is pread further.

principals that will bring up a conflict of interest, this is what is at the core of agency theory (Scott, 2000) Healy

Khomsyiah (2003) provides an evidence of an

and Wahlen (1998) reveal that earnings management

association between the levels of implementation of

occurs when certain management uses judgment in

corporate governance disclosure. Companies that

financial statements and transactions to alter financial

implement good corporate governance will provide

reports as a basis for the company's performance that

more information, in order to reduce information

aims to mislead the owners or shareholders or to

asymmetry. The information provided indicated the

influence contractual outcomes that rely on accounting

level of disclosure, the better the implementation of

figures reported.

corporate gorvenance by a company, the more information is revealed. This study was aimed at

Corporate governance is a mechanism used to ensure

examining

corporate

that the shareholders of the company to obtain the

governance mechanisms and earnings management

return of the activities undertaken by the manager, or

with voluntary disclosure as a moderating variable.

how shareholders exercise control over managers

Research Trueman and Titman (1988) revealed that the

(Schleifer and Vishny, 1997). Khomsyiah (2003)

information asymmetry is a necessary condition to

conducted a study that examined the relationship of

perform earnings management. Richardson (1998)

simultaneous implementation of corporate governance

found an evidence that information asymmetry as

with the level of information disclosure in annual

measured by the difference in the supply and sale prices

reports of public companies listed on the JSE. These

(bid-ask spread) and the difference with the predictions

results provide evidence of an association between the

of analysts is positively related to the level of earnings

level of disclosure to the implementation of corporate

management. Therefore, when information asymmetry

governance, the better the implementation of Corporate

is high, shareholders do not have the resources,

Governance is done by a company, the more

encouragement, or access to relevant information to

information is revealed. Conversely, companies that

monitor the actions that can bring earnings management

provide high disclosure in the annual report will show

practices.

the implementation of corporate governance in the

the

relationship

between

company. Information asymmetry that occurs between B. LITERATURE REVIEW

managers and shareholders as users of financial statements because shareholders can not observe all the

Jensen and Meckling (1976), and Scott (2000) describe the relationship of agencies as a relation that arise,

performance and prospects of the company perfectly. In situations where the shareholders have less information

because of the contract specified shareholder (principal)

2 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 than managers, managers can use the flexibility to

statement data to calculate discretionary accruals and

perform their owned earnings management.

non-discretionary accruals, market value of equity, leverage, earnings before extraordinary items, earnings

Trueman and Titman (1998) reveals that the asymmetry

per share and net income, voluntary disclosure of data.

of information is a necessary condition to perform

The population of this study is all listed manufacturing

Earnings management. Richardson (1998) finds an

companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange (ISE) from

evidence that information asymmetry, as measured by

2006 to2011. The sampling technique was done by

the difference in the supply and sale prices (bid-ask

using purposive sampling.

spread) and the difference with analysts' forecasts, is positively related to the level of earnings management.

1. Independent Variables

So, when information asymmetry is high, stakeholders do not have the resources, encouragement, or access to

Mechanism Corporate governance is proxied and

relevant information to monitor the actions of

measured:

managers, who can bring the practice of earnings Managerial

management. Based on some of the results of the above

ownership

(MGR)

is

the

percentage of shares owned by management

studies, alternative hypotheses formulated in this study

who actively participates in decision-making

are:

process (commissioners and directors) H1:

Managerial

ownership,

Institutional

institutional

ownership

(INST),

ie

the

ownership, size and composition of the

percentage of shares owned by institutional

board

independent

investors. Institutional bias comes from the

commissioners have a significant effect on

government or non-government as a company

discretionary accrual

that has a great importance to the investment

of

directors

of

Size of the board of directors (BSIZE), ie the H2:

With the voluntary disclosure it will

number of board members

reduce

between

The Independent Commissioner (KI), the

managerial

number of independent commissioners who

ownership, institutional ownership, size

joined the company commissioner. This study

and composition of the board of directors

uses a dummy variable that is 0 for the

of independent commissioners

companies with independent ownership and 1

the

discretionary

association accruals

for

for the commissioner which does not have. C. RESEARCH METHODS 2. Dependent Variable 1. Sample Selection Earnings Management can be achieved from a variety The data used in this study is a secondary data obtained from the annual report, the publication of the Business Data Centre Indonesia (PDBI), Capital Markets Data Center (PDPM), Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta and other JSE publications includeing Managerial Ownership, size of the board of directors, Institutional Ownership,

Independent

Commissioner,

of events, such as the value of discretionary accruals or change in method of accounting. This study used a value of discretionary accruals. It used the Modified Jones' model (Dechow, 1995) to measure the level of earnings

management

or

discretionary

accruals

(DTAC). This model uses total accruals (TAC)

financial

3 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 classified as discretionary component (DTAC) Dannon

3. Moderating Variables

discretionary (NDTAC). It is defined as follows: Voluntary Disclosure For each sample firm, voluntary expression index is

TAC = NDTAC + DTAC TAC = + DTAC NDTAC

obtained by comparing scores with the scores obtained The

first

step

taken

for

the

measurement

of

by the company that may be acquired. The company

discretionary accruals is the value of total accruals as

was given a score of 1 if it expresses items of

the dependent variable in the regression aimed at

information in the instrument and given score 0 if it is

getting the parameters for calculating the non-

not revealed.

discretionary accruals value. Method of Data Analysis TAC = net income (net income) - Operating cash Normality Test was done prior to hypothesis testing, to

flow (cash flow from operation) ..... (1)

determine the distribution of the data to test the model Next is to compute non-discretionary accruals estimated

Kolmogorov Smirnov normality. Regression Model

using the model of Jones (1991) estimated by OLS

study used multiple regression to examine the

regression equation: The total value of the accrual of

relationship

the estimated OLS regression equation as follows:

moderating variable and independent variable.Overall,

between

the

dependent

variable,

the OLS regression equation models used are: TAC t / N t-1 = a 1 [1/TA t-1] + a 2 [ REV t / N t-1] + a 3 [PPE t / N t-1] +

........... (2)

Model analysis for Discretionary Accruals

By using the above regression coefficients, it can be

DTAC

determined parameters (a

BSIZE+

1,

a

2

and a

3)

of each

i,t

= 4

0

CI

+

1

MGR+

INST+

2

3

.(6)

it

company. The value of non-discretionary accruals (NDTAC) can be calculated by the formula:

Model analysis for the three components of corporate governance and earnings management are moderated by

NDTAC = a 1 [1/TA t-1] + a 2 [(

t REV - REC

t) / N

the voluntary disclosure.

t-1] + a 3 [PPE t / N t-1] ..... (3)

DTAC i, t = DTAC = TAC NDTAC

t

/TA

t-1

TAC DTAC =

t

/ N

t-1

-

..(4) NDTAC ........ (4)

0

+

CI +

1 5

MGR +

index +

* INST + +

i

8

2 6

INST +

3

BSIZE +

index * MGR +

index * BSIZE +

9

7

4

index

index * CI

....... (7 )

Where: TAC = total accruals in period t

D. Results

NDTAC= Value of non-discretionary accrual DTAC= Discretionary accrual REV

t

= Changes in net sales in the period t

REC

t

= Changes in net receivables in period t

Descriptive Statistics The result of the normality test shows that significant

PPE = Property, Plan, and Equipment

Kolmogorov-Smirnov> 0.05 for institutional ownership.

a 1 a 2 a 3 = coefficient of regression equation (2)

So it can be concluded that the data were normally

a

distributed in this study only for institutional ownership

1

a

2

a

3

= Fitted coefficient obtained from the

regression equation (2)

data, while discretionary accruals and managerial

4 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 ownership and board size were not normally distributed.

no effect of discretionary accruals on the composition

If the data by the number N> 30 was not normally

of an independent commissioner.

distributed by Central Limit Theorems, then testing can be obtained by using parametric test. (Gujarati, 2004)

Testing Hypothesis 2

Since all probabilities are below 0.05 unless the composition of an independent commissioner, it means that the correlation between discretionary accruals with managerial ownership and institutional ownership and board size shows a negative relationship, meaning that managerial ownership, institutional ownership and board size the higher the discretionary accrual will be

This hypothesis was tested by multiple regression test that showed the value of

t-test

for the accrual

discretionary for managerial ownership, institutional ownership, and board size was statistically significant less than 0.05. The effect was statistically significant at the level of 0.05. With the moderating variables, ie voluntary disclosure to discretionarry accrual for

smaller and vice versa.

institutional ownership, managerial ownership, board size showed a statistically significant influence on the

Hypothesis Test 1

whole below 0.05, at a rate of 0.05. This result means This hypothesis was tested by using multiple regression

that statistically it favors the alternative hypothesis,

test that showed the value of

for accrual

namely discretionary accruals as a voluntary disclosure

discretionarry the managerial ownership is 0.451 with a

is smaller. However, the composition of independent

probability value = 0.000 two-sided. The effect was

commissioners remained statistically significant above

statistically

0.05 or not statistically significant.

significant

at

the

t-test

level

of

0.05.

Discretionarry accrual demonstrates the value of institutional ownership as 1.324 with a t-test probability

Discussion

value = 0.044 two-sided. The effect was statistically significant at a level of 0.05. Coefficient indicates a negative value is -1.120, which means that the direction is negative. The effect was statistically significant at the level of 0.05. This means that statistically favor the alternative hypothesis, that there is a negative effect of discretionary accruals on Institutional Ownership. Discretionarry accrual of property size board shows the value of t-test with a probability value = 0.761 0.012 twosided. The effect was statistically significant at a level of 0.05. Coefficient indicates a positive value as 0.067. This result means that it statistically favor the alternative hypothesis, that there is a positive effect of discretionary

accruals

on

Board

Size,

while

discretionarry accrual to independent commissaries t-test showed the value of -1.61 with a probability value = 0.873 two-sided. This result means that statistically it does not support the alternative hypothesis, that there is

The results indicate rejection of the null hypothesis that the

empirical

evidence

supports

the

alternative

hypothesis that there is a significant influence on the mechanisms of discretionary accruals for govenance corporate

or

managerial

ownership,

institutional

ownership and the size of the board of directors, while the composition of an independent commissioner shows that it supports the null hypothesis or not there is an influence

between

the

accrual

discretionary

composition of an independent commissioner. These results are consistent with the results of the research conducted by the Flower Institutions (2003), from the results of testing the dependent variable (discretionary accrual) with managerial ownership, institutional ownership and the size of the board of directors showed a negative effect. These results suggest that managerial ownership in Indonesia to become good corporate governance mechanisms that can reduce the problem of misalignment between the interests of managers with

5 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 owners or shareholders. These results are also

E. Conclusion

consistent with the research conducted by Jensen and Meckling (1976) and Warfield et al (1995) in the

Based on the hypothesis testing and discussion, it is

United States.

concluded as follows. First, there is an empirical evidence that supports the alternative hypothesis, which

For managerial ownership this study is consistent with

states that there is a negative effect of discretionary

the results of the study by Pranata (2003) which proved

accruals

that Institusonal Owners also have a significant

ownership and a positive effect on the size of the board

negative effect on discretionary accruals. It means that

of directors. Overall, these results are consistent with

the greater the number of board of directors is, the

the researches conducted by Pranata (2003), Rajgopal

higher the earnings management is. It means that the

(1998), and Jensen and Meckling (1976) mentioning

small size of the board of directors will be more

that managerial ownership, institutional ownership as a

effective in carrying out the functions of monitoring

constraint on earnings management practice. Second,

over financial reporting, thereby reducing the incentive

the relationship testing between voluntary disclosure

for managers to manipulate earnings. These results are

mechanism corporate governance and discretionary

also consistent with the research done by Jensen (1993)

accruals indicates that the practice of earnings

and Vafeas (2000). The composition of independent

management will be smaller if the company is getting a

commissioner showed no significant results. It means

lot of information. These results are consistent with the

that the composition of an independent commissioner

research conducted by Aryati (2003). Third, the

can not be used as a tool to prevent opportunistic

composition of the independent commissioners was not

managers from performing actions. This is because in

statistically significant to the earnings management

Indonesia the number of independent commissioners

measures, and voluntary testing of these revelations on

composition may not affect the company's performance,

the relationship between the practice of earnings

consistent with the results of the research by Aryati

management and corporate governance mechanisms

(2005) which states that the independent commissioner

remains to show that the composition of an independent

is not able to affect the company's financial

commissioner is not significant. This gives an evidence

performance, even in Indonesia there are still many

of the ineffectiveness of the company's independent

companies

commissioner.

that

do

not

have

an

independent

on

managerial

ownership,

institutional

commissioner The results of testing the second hypothesis implies that it statistically supports an

REFERENCE

alternative hypothesis, namely the smaller discretionary accruals as a voluntary disclosure. However, the composition of an independent commissioner remains statistically insignificant despite voluntary disclosure. These results are consistent with the result of the research by Veronica (2003) that prove that the disclosure of financial statements has a significant negative correlation. Companies with low levels of disclosure tend to do a lot more earnings management

Chtourou SM, J.

Bedrar, and L. Courteau, 2001.

Corporate

Governance

Management.

Working

and

Earnings

Paper

Universite

Laval, Quebec City, Canada. Dechow, R. Sloan, and A. Sweeney 1995. Detecting Earnings

Management.

The

Accounting

Review , p.193-225. The Accounting Review, p.193-225.

and vice versa, the company does a lot of earnings management tend to disclose less information.

6 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 Gabrielsen, G., JD Gramlich and T. Plenborg 1999.

Mediastuty, Pratana Puspa. 2003. Relationship Analysis

Manajerial Ownership, Information Content of

Corporate Governance with Management

Earnings and Discretionary Accruals in A Non

Earnings

(Earnings

earnings

quality.

US Setting. Working Paper.

Management) Thesis

S2,

and UGM

Jogjakarta. Healy and JM Wahlen. 1998. A Review of Earnings Management Literature and It's Implication for Standar Setting. Working Paper.

Rajgopal, S., Venkatachalam M and J. Jiambalvo. 1999. Is Institusional Ownership Assosiated with Earnings Management and The Extent to

Herwidayatmo.

2000.

Implementation

of

Good

Corporate Governance for Public Companies

Wich Stock Price Reflect Future Earnings?. Working Paper.

in Indonesia. Entrepreneur, October 10 Th. XXIX,p. 25-32.

Richardson ,VJ 1998. Information asymmetry and Earnings Management: Some Evidence.

Jansen, M. Jansen, M. Dan W. And W. Meckling. 1976.

Working Paper.

Theory of The Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency and Ownership Structure. Journal of Financial Economic , p.305-360.

Scott, WR 2000. Financial Accounting Theory. Scott, WR 2000. Second Edition. Prentice Hall: Canada.

Khomsyiah, 2003. Relations Corporate Governance and Disclosure:

In

Simultaneous

Testing.

Trueman, B., and S. Titman. 1988. An Explanation for

Procceding National Accounting Symposium

Accounting Income Smoothing. Journal of

VI, October 16 to 17. Surabaya.

Accounting Research 26 (Supplement), p. 127-139.

Klein, April. 2000. Audit Committe, Board of Director Characteristics and Earnings Management. Working Paper.

Warfield, W. And Wild. 1995. Managerial Ownership, Accounting Choices, and Informativeness of Earnings. Working Paper .

Lang, Mark dan RJ Ludholm. Lang, 1993. CrossSectional Analysis determinant of Rating of Corporate Disclosure. Journal of Accounting Research, 31, p. 246-271.

7 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Correlation

Model 1

(Constant) MGR INST BSIZE CI

Unstandardized Coefficients Std. B Error -.134 .066 -8.765 1.276 -10.447 7.894 4.897 3.245 -.007 .041

Stand. Coefficients Beta

t -2.032 .451 1.324 .761 -.161

-1.041 -1.120 .067 -.014

Sig. .445 .000 .044 .012 .873

Testing Hypothesis 1

Model 1

(Constant) MGR INST BSIZE CI

Unstandardized Coefficients Std. B Error -.134 .066 -8.765 1.276 -10.447 7.894 4.897 3.245 -.007 .041

Stand. Coefficients Beta -1.041 -1.120 .067 -.014

t -2.032 .451 1.324 .761 -.161

Sig. .445 .000 .044 .012 .873

Testing Hypothesis 2

Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1

Stand. Coefficients

B -.096

Std. Error .056

MGR

.768

.803

INST

.204

.601

BSIZE

.180

CI

t -.708

Sig. 2.090

-.042

-.296

-.001

.175

.277

.001

.587

.160

.350

.012

.236

.749

-.155

-.192

-.059

Inter MGR

.628

.603

.071

.486

.002

Inter BZISE

.591

.601

-.100

-.539

-.001

Inter INSZ

.473

.711

-.127

-.721

-.008

Inter CII

.305

.130

.141

.030

.134

(Constant)

Beta

8 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Investigating Performance Zero-Forcing of Source Weighting Matrix in MIMO Relay Communication Apriana Toding1, Rismawaty Arungla bi2 Dept. Electrical Engineering1,2 Universitas Kristen Indonesia Paulus, Makassar, Sul-Sel 90245, Indonesia [email protected], [email protected] ABSTRACT

Relay schemes can be broadly categorized into three

In this paper, we study the zero forcing (ZF) algorithm for

general groups: amplify-and-forward (AF), decode-and-

a two hop multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay

forward (DF), and compress-and-forward (CF). in the AF

communication system consisting of one source node, one

scheme, the relay nodes amplify the received signal and

relay node, and one destination node. We consider

rebroadcast the amplified signals toward the destination

amplify-and-forward (AF) strategy at relay node and

node [3]-[6]. In the DF scheme, the relay nodes first

destination node, respectively. We propose Pre-ZF

decode the received signals and then forward the re-

equalization on the transmitter side. We have evaluated

encoded signals toward the destination node [7]. In the CF

the proposed system by comparing with existing

method, the relay nodes compress the received signals by

algorithms. The proposed Pre-ZF equalization algorithm

exploiting the statistical dependencies between the signals

has a significant improvement in the system bit-error-rate

at the nodes [16]. In this paper we consider the AF

(BER) performance.

strategy which is easier to implement compared with the other two approaches.

Key words: multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO),

When nodes in the relay system are installed with

MIMO relay networks, relay system, beamforming, zero

multiple antennas, we call such system multiple-input

forcing.

multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication system. Recently, MIMO relay communication system have

1. Introduction

attracted much research interest and provided significant

In order to provide a reliable wireless transmission, one

improvement in terms of both spatial efficiency and link

needs to compensate for the effects of signal fading due to

reliability [4], [6], and [13]-[16]. In this paper, we

multi-path propagation and strong shadowing. One way to

investigated the performance of zero forcing (ZF) relay

address these issues is to transmit the signal through one

communication system consisting of one source node,

or more relays [1]-[6], which can be accomplished via

relay node, and one destination node in terms of bit error

wireless network consisting of geographically separeated

rate (BER). Note that the ZF algorithm has already been

nodes. And then the basic motivation behind the use of

studied with single-hop MIMO [17] and MIMO relay

cooperative communications lies in exploitation of spatial

channel [18]. And then, in [15], pre-ZF has been

diversity provided by the network nodes [7] and [8], as

investigated for single-hop MIMO channel and two-hop

well as the efficient use of power resources [9]-[14] which

MIMO relay channel. We have evaluated the proposed

can be achieved by a scheme that simply receives and

system by comparing with existing algorithm. The

forwards a given information, yet designed under certain

proposed Pre-ZF equalization algorithm has a significant

optimality criterion.

improvement

in

the

system

bit-error-rate

performance.

9 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

(BER)

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

The rest of the paper is organized as follows: the system

communication

process

between

the

source

and

model is described in Section II; In section III we study

destination nodes is completed in tow time slots. In the

the weight matrix on the transmitter side in a MIMO relay

first time slot, the Ns x 1 modulated symbol vector

system; Section IV shows the simulation results which

linearly precoded as

is

justify the performance gain with relay Pre-ZF algorithm and the conclusion is given in Section V.

(1) Where W is an Ns x Ns source weight matrix.

is the Ns x

H

2. System Model

1 transmit data vector with E[

] = INs.

2.1 General Assumptions

The precoded vector S is transmitted to the relay nodes.

Fig. 1 illustrates a two-hop MIMO relay communication

The received signal at the ith relay node can be written as (2)

system consisting of one source node, K parallel relay nodes, and one destination node. We assume that the

i = 1, .., K

source and destination nodes have Ns and Nd antennas,

where

respectively, and each relay nodes has Nr antennas.

the source and the ith relay node,

is the Nr x Ns MIMO channel matrix between and

are the

received signal and the additive Gaussian noise vectors at the ith relay node, respectively. In the second time slot, the source node is silent, while each relay node transmits the amplified signal vector to the destination node as xr,i = fiyr,i

(3)

i = 1, .., K Fig. 1. System model. The generalization to the system with different number of antennas at each relay node is straightforward. To

where fi is the Nr x Nr amplifying matrix at the ith relay node. Thus the received signal vector at the destination node can be written as (4)

efficiently exploit the system hardware, each relay node uses the same antennas to transmit and receive signals.

Where

is the Nd x Nr MIMO channer matrix between

th

Due to its merit of simplicity, we consider the amplify-

the i relay and the destination node,

and

are the

and-forward scheme at each relay.

received signal and the additive Gaussian noise vectors at the destination node, respectively. Substituting (1)-(3) into (4), we have (5)

2.2 System Model Throughout the paper, we make a practical assumption

Where we define

that the source node and the relay nodes have their own transmit power constraints, i.e., Ps and Pr. All channels are

[

assumed to be slow, frequency flat Rayleigh fading model which the coefficients are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d), circularly symmetric complex Gaussian

Here (.)T denotes the matrix (vector) transpose, bd(.)

random variables with zero mean and unit variance. The

stands for a block-diagonal matrix, Hsr is a Nd x KNr

10 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

channel matrix between all relay nodes and the destination

Where is the original symbol vector for transmission. In

node, Vr is obtained by stacking the noise vectors at all

case where the ZF equalization is employed, the

the relays and F is the KNr x KNr block diagonal

corresponding weight matrix is given as

equivalent relay matrix. The diagram of the equivalent

(8)

MIMO relay system described by (5) is shown in Fig. 2.

Where

Thus we see from the above equotation that the received

power constraint after pre-equalization and it is given as

is a constant to meet the total transmitted

signal vector at the destination can be equivalently written

(9)

as (6) Where

Where (10)

is the equivalent MIMO channel

and v=

A simple approach to design the relay is to treat it as an

is the equivalent noise.

all-pass AF unit, which we construct as F = INr, where

3. Proposed the Source Weight Matrix for

is the amplifying factor of the relay and INr, is an identity matrix of dimension Nr

MIMO Relay System

.

We can find

from

. Here Ps > 0 and Pr > 0 are

We study the following detection algorithms for MIMO relay systems: the ZF algorithm at the transmitter side technique. If we consider the received signal vector at the

the transmit power available at the source and the relay nodes respectively, (.)H denotes matrix Hermitian and tr{.} indicates trace of matrix.

destination in (4) then our proposed MIMO relay channel (Fig.1) reduces to a MIMO channel (Fig.2) with the equivalent channel matrix of vector v=

of

and

the

equivalent

the signal noise

vector

of

4. Simulation Results and Discussion In the simulations, the transmission signaling is in spatial multiplexing mode (i.e., the source transmits independent

.

data streams from different antennas) with total transmit power uniformly distributed among the transmit antennas. Also, all simulations are conducted in a flat-fading Reyleigh environment using the BPSK constellation, and Fig. 2 Equivalent MIMO Channel

the noise variances are assumed to be the same for all

Now we can analyze the signal detection Pre-ZF

antennas. We transmitted 103 randomly generated bits in

equalization with equivalent MIMO channel.

each channel realization and the BER results are averaged through 200 channel realizations. We plot BER curves

The Pre-ZF Algorithm

versus SNR.

The weighting matrix at the transmitter side to be

In this example, we simulate Ns = Nr = Nd = 2 and

described in this paper is Pre-ZF equalizer. The Pre-ZF

compare the BER performance of the proposed Pre-ZF

equalization can be represented by a Pre-ZF equalizer

equalization algorithm with Transmit zero forcing (TxZF)

weight matrix W and thus, the precoded symbol vector S

algorithm [15] in MIMO relay channel with varying SNR

can be expressed as

in the source-to-relay link (SNRs) keeping the relay-to(7)

destination SNR (SNRr) at 20 Db. From Fig. 3, it can be seen that the TxZF algorithm has the worst performance,

11 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

we achieve a 7 Db gain from TxZF to Pre-ZF in BER = -2

10 . TxZF Algorithm [15]

10

10

[4] B. Wang, J. Zhang, and A. Host-Madsen, On the capacity of MIMO relay channels, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 29-43, Jan. 2005. [5] I. Kang, W. Sheen, R. Chen, and S. Lin C Hsiao, Throughput improvement with relay-augmented cellular architecture, IEEE 802.16mmr-05 008, http://www.wirelessman.org, Sep. 2005.

1

[6] T. Tang, C. B. Chae, R. W. Heath. Jr., On achievable sum rates of a multiuser MIMO relay channel, in Proc. of IEEE ISIT 06, Seattle, WA, Jul. 2006.

2

[7] 10

3

Fig. 3 BER versus SNRs. Ns = Nr = Nd = 2 and SNRr = 20 Db for MIMO relay channel.

5. Conculsion In conclusion, we have demonstrated the advantage of using source weight matrix algorithms for Parallel relay in MIMO relay network. We designed relays as all-pass amplify-and-forward (AF) units which are simpler to implement. Our result demonstrate that Pre-ZF algorithm outperform the TxZF algorithm.

References

J. N. Laneman and G. Distributed space-time coded exploiting cooperative diversity Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 49, no. 2425, Oct. 2003.

W. Wornell, protocols for in wireless, 10, pp. 2415-

[8] J. N. Laneman, D. N. C. Tse, and G. W. Wornell, Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior, Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3062-3080, Dec. 2004. [9]

H. Sampath, P. Stoica, and A. Paulraj, Generalized linear precoder and decoder design for MIMO channels using the weighted MMSE criterion, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, pp. 2198-2206, Dec. 2001.

[10] S. Serbetli and A. Yener, Transceiver optimization for mul- tiuser MIMO systems, IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 214-226, Jan. 2004.

[1] H. Bolukbasi, H. Yanikomeroglu, H. Falconer, and S. Periyal- war, On the capacity of cellular fixed relay networks, in Proc. Electrical and Computer Engr., 2004. Canadian Conf., May 2004, vol. 4, pp. 2217-2220.

[11] A. Zanella, M. Chiani, and M. Z. Win, MMSE reception and successive interference cancellation for MIMO system with high spectral efficiency, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1244-1253, May 2005

[2] R. Pabst, B. H. Walke, D. C. Schultz, D. C. Herhold, H. Yanikomeroglu, S. Mukherjee, H. Viswanathan, M. Lott, W. Zirwas, M. Dohler, H. Aghvami, D. D. Falconer, and G. P. Fettweis, Relay-based deployment concepts for wireless and mobile broadband radio, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 80-89, Sept. 2004.

[12] K. Sayana, S. Nagaraj, and S. B. Gelfand, A MIMO zero forcing receiver with soft interference cancellation for BICM, IEEE Workshop on Signal Proc. Commun., vol. 4, pp. 837-839, 2005

[3] H. Hu, H. Yanikomeroglu, D. D. Falconer, and S. Periyalwar, Range extension without capacity penalty in cellular networks with digital fixed relays, Proc. Glob. Telecom. Conf., Nov. 29- Dec. 3 2004, vol. 5, pp. 3053-3057

[13] Y. Rong and Y. Hua, Optimality of diagonalization of multi- hop MIMO relays, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 6068-6077, Dec. 2009. [14] Y. Rong, X. Tang, and Y. Hua, A unified framework for optimizing linear non-regenerative multicarrier MIMO relay communication

12 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

systems, IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4837-4851, Dec. 2009. [15] Joham, M., Utschick, W., and Nossek, J. A., Linear transmit processing in MIMO communications systems, in IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 53 no. 8, pp. 2700-2712, 2005 [16] S. Simoens, O. Munoz, J. Vidal, and A. D. Coso, Compress- and-forward cooperative MIMO relaying with full channel state information, in Proc. IEEE Signal Theory and Commun., Nov. 2008. [17] K. Sayana, S. Nagaraj, and S. B. Gelfand, A MIMO zero forcing receiver with soft interference cancellation for BICM, IEEE Workshop on Signal Proc. Commun., vol. 4, pp. 837-839, 2005. [18] Apriana Toding and Yue Rong, Investigating successive in- terference cancellation in MIMO relay network, Proc. IEEE TENCON, Bali, Indonesia, Nov. 21-24, 2011.

13 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SPEAK ENGLISH WITH ME PROGRAM ON SPEAKING ABILITY OF STUDENTS OF ENGLISH COURSE AT UPT BAHASA OF IBI DARMAJAYA IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2014/2015 Betty Magdalena Lecturer at Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Bandar Lampung Jalan Z.A. Pagar Alam No.93, Labuhan Ratu, Bandar Lampung, Lampung [email protected] Speaking ability is one of productive language

ABSTRACT This research is aimed at knowing the implementation of Speak English with Me

skills where a speaker can communicate information to a

program toward speaking

listener. In fact, it is sometimes considered as a parameter

ability of students of English course at UPT Bahasa of IBI

of a person s language competence. On the other side,

Darmajaya.

sampling

many learners intensively taking an English lesson at

technique where there are 50 out of 685 students of

English courses have to feel dissatisfied with their

Elementary English 2 (level 2) taken as the sample. In the

achievement after their study because they cannot get

research, there are two kinds of tool used to collect the

what they expect. This might be caused by some factors

data; they are questionnaire and documentation. The

such as too big number of students in one course class,

result of the research shows that Speak English with Me

limited practice time for learners, and low motivation and

program can be implemented to improve speaking ability

unself-confidence. Those problems are, in fact, faced by

of students of English course at UPT Bahasa of IBI

most students taking English course at UPT Bahasa of IBI

Dasrmajaya.

Darmajaya that they feel like to have very little time to

This

research

uses

random

practice their English. Based on the result of students English competence after joining the course, it indicates

KEY WORDS Implementation,

Speak English with Me , English

course

that their achievement in English is not remarkable yet. Many students still get difficulties in communicating and applying their knowledge and skill of English either orally

1. Introduction

or in a written form.

In the era of globalization the ability to communicate in

The problems of the research can be formulated

English has become a demand to people from different

as follows: (a) Can Speak English with Me program be

fields of study, such as education, health, business and

implemented to the students of English course at UPT

technology. English as a language in common used by

Bahasa IBI Darmajaya? (b) Is Speak English with Me

people all over the world is still a foreign language to the

program able to improve the speaking ability of the

people of Indonesia. In other words, it is neither mother

students of UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya?

tongue nor the second language of the nation. To be able

The objectives of the research are (a) to know

to communicate in English well, a person must master the

how much Speak English with Me program can be

four language skills, listening, speaking, reading and

implemented to the students at UPT Bahasa? (b) find out

writing and language components such as grammar,

the correlation between

English English with Me

vocabulary, and pronunciation.

14 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

program and speaking ability of the students of the

it can be concluded that speaking is a person s act or

English course at UPT Bahasa

ability in expressing ideas, feeling, or experiences to

Furthermore, this result of the research is

another.

expected to be able to be (a) used practically as a reference by English teachers, lecturers or instructors for

2.1.3

teaching speaking effectively, and a supporting reference

Speaking ability is the ability to express ideas, thought,

for other researches to conduct further researches, and (b)

feelings and opinions orally. Siahaan (2008: 2) states that,

used theoretically as a supporting theory to enrich former

the spoken productive language skill is called speaking. It

relevant theories, and as a specific concept on learning

is the skill of speaker to communicate information to

styles in group learning theories.

listener or group listener. Additionally, speaking ability is

Speaking Ability

one of language abilities to be learned and mastered by

2. Literature Review and Hypothesis

the students in learning a foreign language. By practicing

2.1 Literature Review

speaking the language learned, the students will more

2.1.1

easily master it. Speaking is limited to the ability to

Speak English with Me Program program is an alternative

conduct a simple conversation on some subjects, while

program to improve languages skills especially speaking

speaking skill is a difficult one to access with precision

ability of students at UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya where

since it is a complex skill to acquire. In communicating

they have to demonstrate or practice their speaking ability

with other people, it is important to know the situation

through dialogs or conversations in pairs talking over a

whether it is formal or informal. Besides, it is also

topic provided by an instructor. He/she will observe and

important to know that the language used, in this case

give scores on a control card for their conversation. This

English, can be standard or non-standard so that they can

speaking activity is usually done by the end of the class or

communicate effectively.

Speak English with Me

at the beginning of class as a review. This program can be an alternative solution to help improve speaking ability of the students, encourage them to practice their speaking more. Furthermore, it is a sound solution to the problems faced

by

the

students

having

difficulties

in

communicating in English.

According to Littlewood success is measured not only in the functional effectives of the language, but also in the terms of the acceptability of the forms that are used. in other words, it can be concluded that students speaking ability is their ability to express their ideas, opinion, thought, experiences and feelings using English with good mastery of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, fluency

2.1.2

Speaking

and comprehension.

Speaking, an important language skill, is an act of expressing thought, feeling, or opinion orally where it involves a speaker and a listener. According to Siahaan (2008: 2) speaking is a productive language skill that a person is able to communicate information to another. In addition, Lado (1991 : 240) defines speaking as (a) an act of expressing oneself to a real world, (b) an ability to tell about actions or situations verbally, and (c) an act of

2.1.4

Activities to Promote Speaking

There are many activities to promote speaking. According to Kayi (2006), there are thirteen activities to promote speaking, which are: a. Discussions b. Role Play c. Simulations

communicating or expressing ideas smoothly. Therefore,

15 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

d. Information Gaps

3.1 Population and Sample

e. Brain Storming

Population of the research is all students of level 2 at UPT

f. Storytelling

Bahasa in the period of April-June 2015 with the total

g. Interviews

number of the students as 685 distributed into 46 classes.

h. Story completion

The sample taken is students of level 2 because the course

i. Reporting

material at level 2 is more communicative and the

j. Playing Cards

students speaking ability is better than those at level 1.

k. Picture Narrating

The sample is taken by using random sampling technique,

l.

meaning that each has the opportunity to be selected as a

Picture Describing

m. Find the Differences

sample (Sugiyono : 2003 : 74-78). Further, the sample is 50 students of level 2 taken randomly from 3 classes by

Based on the thirteen activities to promote speaking

picking out 15 to 20 students out of those classes.

above, Role play is a relevant speaking promote activity in which students are to work in pairs or in peers playing

3.2 Variables of the Research

roles of different characters provided by an instructor.

Sugiyono (2009 : 38) defines research variable as an

According to Djamarah and Zain (2002 : 67) there are

attribute or characteristics of a person, an object, or an

some advantages of role play:

action that has specific variation determined by a

a.

Role play helps students train themselves to

researcher to study and then to draw a conclusion. In the

understand and memorize the role play material.

research, there are two variables, (a) Speak English with

b.

It enables students to be initiative and creative.

Me program as independent variable (X), and Speaking

c.

It is able to help foster students

Ability as dependent variable (Y). On Speak English

d.

e.

language

competence.

with Me program is given 13 question items with 5

It helps students get accustomed to accepting and

dimensions, and at the students speaking ability is given

sharing responsibilities with others.

7 questions with 5 dimensions.

It helps students practice using a correct language. 3.3 Location of the Research There are two techniques used to collect the data of the

2.2 Hypothesis Based on the formulation of problem, objective of the research, and theoretical framework, the hypothesis can

Speak

English

with

Me

program

can

be

implemented to the students of English course at UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya. b.

Speak English with Me program is able to improve the speaking ability of the students of UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya.

(a) Questionnaire. In this research, the researcher uses direct close questionnaire because the

be formulated as follows: a.

research. They are:

respondents just have to give a cross mark (X) on the answer they choose. This technique is applied to obtain qualified descriptive data used to test the hypothesis through index scale model with 5 options for each question. The four options are (1) Extremely Agree (SS) with score 5, (2) Agree (S) with score 4, (3) Neutral (N) with score 3, (4)

3. Research Method

Disagree (TS) with score 2, and

Strongly

16 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Disagree (STS) with score 1. In this case, Likert scale is used to measure the speaking ability. According to Sugiyono (2012: 93) Likert scale is used

to

measure

attitude,

opinion,

and

perception, or a person or a group of people on a case or social phenomenon. (b) Documentation. According to Arikunto (2006: 158) documentation is searching data and collecting data in the form of notes, transcription, books, newspaper, magazines, and agenda. In this research, the researcher makes videos on conversations or dialogs between student and student or student and instructor. The dialog is made based on the topic on the control card given by the instructor. Every pair should perform the dialog in 5 to 10 minutes. Besides video making, the research takes pictures of students activities taken from the three classes.

4. Research Result Analysis 4.1 Descriptive Table of Data Taken from the Questionnaire Given to 50 Respondents. PERTANYAAN R es

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1

X 1

X 2

X 3

X 4

X 5

X 6

X 7

X 8

X 9

X 1 0

X 1 1

X 1 2

X 1 3

1

5

2

5

5

5

3

5

5

4

4

4

4

2

4

2

5

2

2

4

5

4

4

4

4

5

3

3

2

3

4

4

4

5

4

5

2

4

4

2

4

4

3

4

4

4

4

1

2

2

4

4

4

4

2

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

4

4

4

3

3

2

5

2

4

2

4

4

4

4

4

4

1

4

2

3

2

1

2

3

2

4

2

1

1

1

5

2

4

2

5

4

3

2

4

2

4

4

4

4

2

4

2

2

4

4

4

4

4

3

4

4

4

1

4

3

3

4

1

4

5

4

3

4

3

5

3

5

4

5

4

4

4

4

2

4

5

1

4

2

4

4

5

4

5

5

5

5

5

4

1

5

2

4

4

5

4

5

5

5

5

5

4

5

3

4

5

4

5

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

2

5

2

5

4

5

4

5

4

4

4

4

5

To tal

5 2 4 7 4 7 4 2 5 2 4 5 2 8 4 2 4 5 4 4 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 6 5

5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 9 5 0

3

4

2

4

2

5

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

3

2

3

2

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

3

2

5

2

5

5

5

5

5

4

4

4

2

3

2

1

1

1

2

3

2

2

2

4

1

2

5

2

5

2

4

3

4

2

4

4

4

1

2

5

2

4

2

4

3

4

2

4

4

4

1

2

3

2

3

4

4

1

4

4

4

4

2

4

2

5

2

5

5

5

1

4

4

4

4

4

5

3

3

2

4

5

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

2

5

4

4

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

3

2

1

3

5

5

5

4

2

4

4

4

2

3

2

5

2

4

2

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

3

2

4

4

4

4

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

4

2

5

5

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

3

5

5

4

4

2

4

2

4

4

4

4

2

4

1

4

2

4

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

2

3

2

3

2

4

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

4

2

5

3

4

4

4

4

1

4

4

4

4

5

1

5

1

5

5

5

4

4

5

5

5

2

4

2

5

4

4

3

3

4

5

5

4

4

2

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

4

5

5

5

5

1

5

1

5

2

3

3

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

1

4

5

4

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

3

4

4

2

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

3

2

4

2

4

2

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

3

2

4

4

4

2

3

4

4

4

4

4

2

4

2

2

4

4

4

5

4

2

4

4

2

2

5

2

5

5

5

4

5

4

5

5

5

4

5

4

2

3

4

4

2

5

4

5

5

5

4

2

3

2

1

1

1

2

3

2

2

2

4

1

4

5

4

4

5

4

4

4

2

4

2

5

4

2

4

2

5

4

5

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

4

5

1

4

5

4

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

2

5

1

5

2

3

3

5

4

4

4

4

4

3

5

3

4

5

5

3

5

2

2

2

2

4

3 4 7 4 8 5 4 2 6 4 2 4 1 4 1 5 0 5 0 4 8 4 4 4 5 5 0 5 1 4 9 4 3 4 3 4 5 5 4 4 9 5 2 4 5 4 9 4 7 4 3 4 4 4 3 5 6 5 2 2 6 5 1 5 2 4 9 4 6 4 5

4.2 Descriptive Table of Variable Y (Speaking Ability) Data Resp.

Y1

Y2

Y3

Item Y4 Y5

Y6

Y7

17 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

Total

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

1

4

4

5

5

3

4

4

29

44

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

33

2

3

5

5

5

5

4

5

32

45

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

30

3

4

2

5

5

3

4

5

28

46

2

4

5

5

3

3

3

25

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

5

30

47

4

4

5

5

3

3

3

27

5

1

2

5

5

5

3

3

24

48

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

29

6

1

4

5

5

5

5

5

30

49

4

4

5

5

5

4

4

31

7

2

4

5

5

3

4

4

27

50

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

29

8

2

4

5

5

5

3

3

27

9

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

33

10

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

33

11

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

30

12

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

26

13

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

26

14

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

29

15

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

29

16

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

33

17

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

33

18

4

4

5

5

1

3

3

25

19

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

33

20

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

33

21

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

35

22

2

4

5

5

5

5

5

31

23

5

4

4

4

3

3

5

28

24

4

4

5

5

1

3

3

25

25

2

4

5

5

5

5

5

31

26

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

29

27

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

29

28

4

4

5

5

3

3

3

27

29

4

4

5

5

1

3

3

25

30

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

29

31

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

33

32

4

4

2

3

3

2

2

20

33

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

29

34

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

26

35

4

4

5

5

3

3

3

27

36

5

5

4

4

4

3

3

28

37

4

4

5

5

5

2

2

27

38

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

33

39

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

29

40

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

33

41

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

35

42

4

4

5

5

5

3

3

29

43

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

26

Recapitulation Table of Variable Data Respondent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

Variable X 52 47 47 42 52 45 28 42 45 44 52 53 54 56 53 47 48 54 26 42 41 41 50 57 48 44 45 50 51 49 43 43 45 54 49 52 45 49 47 43 44 43 56 52 26 51 52

Variable Y 29 32 28 30 24 30 27 27 33 33 30 26 26 29 29 33 33 25 33 33 35 31 28 25 31 29 29 27 25 29 33 33 29 26 27 28 27 33 29 33 35 29 26 33 30 25 27

18 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

48 49 50

49 46 45

29 31 29

From the data above, it can be seen that 50 respondents

46 47 48 49 50

5 6 5 6 7

9 9 10 9 6

3 3 4 2 3

3 2 0 2 4

0 0 1 1 0

76 79 78 77 76

for Variable X with the highest score as 56 and the lowest

From the computation result, it is gained that the highest

score as 26. On the other side, for Variable Y the highest

score is 84 and the lowest score is 68.

score is 35 and the lowest score is 25. 4.4 Table of Respondents Answer Characteristics 4.3 Data Tabulation Table No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

SS (5) 7 7 5 4 5 6 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 6 7 7 4 7 6 5 7 5 5 6 5 3 6 6 5 5 4 8 6 6 6 7 3 5 5 4 8 5 7

S (4) 8 7 8 9 10 8 8 6 11 10 9 10 9 10 7 10 9 8 7 7 8 8 8 10 10 6 8 10 8 8 10 9 10 8 8 9 7 10 11 10 10 9 8 10 7

N (3) 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 5 1 2 2 2 2 0

TS (2) 1 4 3 5 2 3 5 5 3 0 2 1 1 0 3 2 2 3 5 4 5 5 2 1 2 3 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 0 2 3 4 0 1 4 3 5 2 3 6

toward Variable X ( Speak English with Me STS (1) 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Score 79 77 72 72 76 75 69 69 78 78 79 79 80 84 78 80 81 79 68 75 75 73 78 80 78 73 74 73 75 78 76 76 74 80 78 78 73 82 76 76 77 72 82 77 76

Program) F

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

F

STS %

P1

10

10

16

20

7

14

22

44

6

12

P2

18

36

15

30

17

34

0

0

0

0

P3

7

4

15

8

3

6

27

66

8

16

P4

19

38

23

40

8

16

1

2

2

4

P5

8

16

19

38

4

8

17

34

2

4

P6

18

36

23

46

3

6

3

6

36

6

P7

9

8

26

42

14

28

8

16

3

6

P8

18

36

21

42

9

18

0

0

2

4

Item

SS

S

N

TS

P9

10

10

40

70

0

0

9

18

1

2

P10

15

20

38

66

0

0

6

12

1

2

P11

12

14

39

68

0

0

9

18

0

0

P12

13

16

41

72

2

4

3

6

1

2

P13

13

16

41

72

0

0

1

2

5

10

Total

170

357

67

106

34

Based on the result of computing respondents with 13 questions at variable X ( Speak English with Me Program), it is gained that 170 respondents choose SS, 357 respondents choose S, 67 responents choose N, 106 respondents choose TS, and 34 respondents choose TS. 4.5 Table of Respondents Answer Characteristics toward Variable Y (Speaking Ability)

SS

S

N

TS

STS

Item F

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

P1

4

8

37

74

1

2

5

10

3

6

P2

5

10

42

84

0

0

3

6

0

0

P3

39

78

9

18

0

0

2

4

0

0

P4

39

78

9

18

2

4

0

0

0

0

19 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

4.7 Determining the class for Variable X ( Speak

P5

30

60

7

14

11

22

1

2

1

2

P6

16

32

5

10

26

52

3

6

0

0

English With Me program) with interval 10

P7

20

40

3

6

24

48

3

6

0

0

No. Range

Scaling Norm

Total

153

1.

26 - 35

Poor

2.

36 - 45

Bad

Based on the result of computing respondents with 7

3.

46 - 55

Fair

questions at variable Y (Speaking Ability) Program), it is

4.

56 - 65

Good

gained that 153 respondents choose SS, 112 respondents

5.

66 - 75

Very Good

112

64

17

4

choose S, 64 responents choose N, 17 respondents choose TS, and 4 respondents choose TS.

4.8 Determining the class for Variable X (SpeakingAbility) interval 5

4.6 Interval Determination

No. Range

Scaling Norm

4.7.1. Characteristics Interval for Variable X

6.

25 - 29

Poor

( Speak English with Me Program)

7.

30 - 34

Bad

8.

35 - 39

Fair

9.

40 - 49

Good

Below is interval determination proposed by Slovin. R = (Number of Question X) X ( Highest Score) (Number of Question X) X (Lowest Score) 5

R = ( 13 x 5) (13 x 1) 5 R = 65 - 13 5 R = 52 5

10. 50 55

Very Good

4.9 Averarage Scoring Percentage for Variable X ( Speak English with Me Program) Total Questionnaire Questions (PXI PX13 ) Number of questions

R = 10.4 = 10 170 + 357 + 67 + 106 + 34 13 4.7.2. Characteristics Interval for Variable Y (Speaking Ability) R = (Number of Question X) X ( Highest Score) (Number of Question X) X (Lowest Score) 5

734 13 56

R = ( 7 x 5) (7 x 1) 5

Based on the average scoring percentage, it is seen that

R = 35 - 7 5

respondents respond GOOD because it can be used to

R = 28 5 R = 5.6 = 5.

for Variable X ( Speak English with Me

Program)

improve their speaking ability.

4.10 Average Scoring Percentage for Variable Y (Speaking Ability) Total Questionnaire Questions (PYI PY7 ) Number of questions

20 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

153 + 112 + 64 + 17 + 4 7 350 7

(3) Djamarah, Syaiful Bahri & Aswan Zain, Strategi Belajar Mengajar, Jakarta, Rineka Cipta. 1995 (4) Harmer, Jeremy. How to teach English. England: Pearson Longman. 2007.

50

Based on the average scoring percentage, it shows that for Variable Y (Speaking Ability) the speaking ability of the students become VERY GOOD because their speaking becomes well-controlled and their speaking ability gets much improved.

(5) ____________. Practice of English Language Teaching. Longman, England. 2003. (6) Kayi, Hayriye. Teaching Speaking Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language. The Internet Journal. Vol.XII,no 11 http://iteslj.org/Articles/KayiTeaching Speaking. html. 2006 (7) Little Wood, William., 2004. Communicative Language Teaching, Cambridge University Press.

5. Conclusion and Suggestion a. Conclusion Based on the result of analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that Speak English with Me program can be implemented well to the students of UPT Bahasa IBI Darmajaya since their speaking ability, after joining the program, becomes much improved.

(8) Siahaan, Sanggam. The Yogyakata: Graha Ilmu.2008.

English

Paragraph.

(9) Setiadi, Ag. Bambang. Metode Penelitian Untuk Pengajaran Bahasa Asing. Yogyakarata: Graha Ilmu. 2006. (10) ________. Teaching English As a Foreign Language. Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta. 2006. (11) Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Bisnis. Bandung. Pusat Bahasa Depdiknas. 2003.

b.Suggestion Based on the result of analysis and discussion, it suggested that: 1.

(2) Arikunto, Suharsini. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Yogyakarta. PT. Rineka Cipta. 2010

Instructors should be to allocate time for students to practice their English. There should be good time management for activities in class. Student talking time and teacher talking time should be

(12) Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R & D. Penerbit Alfabeta, Bandung. 2008 - 2012 (13) Suprijono, Agus. Cooperative Learning Teori dan Aplikasi Paikem. Pustaka Pelajar. Yogyakarta. 2013. (14) Wilkins, D.A. Linguistics in Language Teaching, London, Edward Arnold Publisher. 1980.

properly managed. 2.

Instructors should be more selective in providing topics familiar to students in order that they are able to express their opinion or experiences comfortably.

REFERENCE (1) Ardhana in Meleong Lexy J,. Metodologi Penelitian Kuantitatif. Bandung, Rosda Karya. 2002

21 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August, 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223  

THE GLOBALIZATION STRATEGY OF VIETNAMESE IT ENTERPRISES IN THE CONTEXT OF ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY VIA THE CASE STUDY OF FPT CORPORATION HOANG VAN CUONG, (DIRECTOR OF INTERNATIONAL MOBILITY DEPARTMENT, FPT UNIVERSITY VIETNAM) Hoang Van Cuong Hanoi Foreign Trade University President Assistant at FPT University in 2012. [email protected] ABSTACT Vietnam IT Industry has been growing rapidly during

and Cambodia in the West. It has a long coast of around 3,200 km along Eastern Sea (South China Sea).

the past 15 years. It has been considered as the main

Vietnam is a young country (over 50 million

short cut to develop the Vietnamese economy from a low

out of 90 million population aged under 35). This is a

income to a middle income country (MIC). From 2002

huge potential for IT human resource.

to 2013, the revenue of software industry increased 52

Some facts about Vietnam:

times to reach nearly 3 US$ billion; and the revenue of

Area of land: 330,972.4 km2

hardware industry increased 70.5 times to reach 36.8

Population up to date 31st December 2014: 89,708,900

US$ billion. Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City – the two

people

biggest cities in Vietnam have been ranked in the Top

GDP of 2014: 171.2 billion USD

100 outsourcing destinations by Tholons (an advisory

GDP per capita of 2014: 1,908 USD

firm for global outsourcing and investment).

Growth rate of GDP in 2014: 5.42%

ASEAN is one of the key markets for Vietnam’s

Export value of 2014: 132,143.9 million USD

IT industry. The region also provides a high potential

Import value of 2014: 132,125.9 million USD

labor force market to solve the human resource

(Source: General Statistic Office of Vietnam)

problems of the IT enterprises. In this context, ASEAN Economic Community will have a significant influence to the development of Vietnam’s IT enterprises.

Vietnam has been known as a communist country with the long history of a subsidy economy.

This paper will discuss the globalization

After the Vietnam – America war ended in 1975,

strategy of Vietnamese IT enterprises in the context of

Vietnamese government still keeps the old economic

ASEAN Economic community via the case of FPT

management system until it shows the failure in the end

Corporation – the leading IT Company in Vietnam

of 1980s. The inflation rate increased up to 600 – 700%

which currently has its office in Singapore, Malaysia,

while the socio – economic situation was at the worst

Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Indonesia and

during many years. The 6th National Congress of the Vietnamese

the Philippines.

communist party (CPV) has set up the Renovation 1. Overview of Vietnamese IT Industry 1.1. About Vietnam Vietnam is a medium country in South East Asia, shared the border with China in the North; Laos

strategy (“Doimoi”) with some main changes: •

Privately owned enterprises were permitted in commodity production (and later encouraged) by the Communist Party of Vietnam

22 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015  

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   •

DoiMoi reforms led to the development of

ICT developed much faster than ever. This is one of the

what is now referred to as the Socialist-

key condition for Vietnam to use ICT as a leverage for

oriented market economy, where the state plays

its economic development.

a decisive role in the economy, but private

1.2. Overview of Vietnamese IT Industry After

enterprise and cooperatives play a significant



nearly

15

years

of

successful

role in commodity production.

development, IT industry in Vietnam has achieved the

DoiMoi helped Vietnam establish diplomatic

next level of matured stage and obtained a new power. The IT Industry in Vietnam is combined from

relationships with the capitalist West and East Asia in the 1990s. Vietnam joined ASEAN in

three

main

sub-industries,

including:

hardware,

1995, and normalized the relationship with the

software, and digital content. There are about 14,000 IT

US in the same year.

enterprises totally in Vietnam (2014) with 50% in the

With DoiMoi, Vietnam officially opens its

software industry.

door to the international community at the time when Total number of registered enterprises in the IT industry sector (enterprises) Sector

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Hardware

992

1,273

2,763

2,431

2,485

Software

1,756

2,958

7,044

7,246

6,832

Digital content

2,844

2,312

3,289

3,883

4,498

(Source: Authority of Business Registration Management, Vietnam Ministry of Planning and Investment, 2015) For market size, the total revenue of the

enterprise is only 2.86 million USD/ year (small and

whole IT industry in Vietnam is 39,530 million USD

medium enterprises)

(2014), means that the average revenue per Vietnam Information Technology Market Revenue of IT Industry (million USD)

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Growth rate

Hardware

4,627

5,631

11,326

23,015

36,762

59.7%

Software

850

1,064

1,172

1,208

1,361

12.7%

Digital content

690

934

1,165

1,235

1,407

1.9%

Total

6,167

7,629

13,663

25,428

39,530

55.3%

(Source: Authority of Business Registration Management, Vietnam Ministry of Planning and Investment, 2015)

Human resource is the key factor for the

more than 200 vocational schools are offering

development of Vietnamese IT industry. The IT

training courses on IT majors with the total annual

workforce counts around 450,000 employees (2014)

enrollment quota of 65,000 students. This is not

of which over 200,000 ones are postgraduates and

really match with the need of the industry while it’s

graduates. Young students in Vietnam are trainable,

still remain a big gap between the universities and

motivated, intelligent and strong in mathematics.

the industry.

They can easily move beyond routine tasks and

2. The globalization strategy of Vietnamese IT

come up with solutions. However, the weaknesses of

enterprises in the context of ASEAN Economic

Vietnamese IT workforce is the working skills and

community

foreign language (English, Japanese). There are

Corporation

via

the

case

study

of

nearly 300 universities and colleges together with

23 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015  

FPT

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   Technology is the foundation for any

A new technology can be spread widely over the

development of the IT industry, including its

World in just a few weeks, even a few days.

globalization. Technology itself is the best example

SMAC (Social, Mobility, Analytics, and Cloud)

of globalization. Never as before, the world is driven

becomes the newest and most popular platform for

by technology and deeply influenced by technology.

the World’s technology. The table below shows that SMAC is being considered as the newest IT Era:

IT Era

Dates approximate

Computers

Applications

approximate

approximate

Users approximate

Mainframe

1950 – 1965

~ 100,000

Thousands

Millions

Mini-computing

1965 – 1980

~ 10M

Thousands

Ten of millions

PC & Client/ server

1980 – 1995

~ 100M

Ten of thousands

Hundreds

of

millions Internet (Web)

1995 – 2010

~ 1B

Hundreds

of

Billions

thousands SMAC

2010 – 2025(?)

~ 10B

Millions

Billions

(Source: computerworld.com)

(The model of SMAC)

In this paper, the author will not focus on the technology site of SMAC but just emphasize SMAC as

foundations to apply and develop SMAC as a leverage for the development in this new era.

the new trend for globalization of Vietnamese IT

All biggest Vietnamese IT companies (FPT,

industry. Vietnam’s IT enterprises have many good

VNPT, Viettel, CMC, etc.) have officially state SMAC as their development and globalization strategies. Under

24 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015  

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   this strategy, software industry, particularly software

more than VND 35,114 billion, equivalent to nearly USD

outsourcing becomes the most effective way to

1.65 billion (financial statement 2014), creating more

internationalize Vietnamese IT industry. Vietnam is in

than 24,000 jobs for the society. The company’s market

the Top 10 most attractive destinations for software

capitalization (as of Feb 28, 2014) reached VND 17,608

outsourcing in Asia with the advantages of labor force

billion, being one of the largest private enterprises in

market.

Vietnam (ranked by Vietnam Report 500). In terms of market, Japan, America and Europe

Through conducting core businesses in the

are the biggest markets for Vietnamese software

fields

industry. To be able to get bigger scale, some big

telecommunications, FPT has been providing services to

Vietnamese IT companies have developed its software

all sixty three cities and provinces of Vietnam and

outsourcing development centers outside Vietnam to take

continued expanding its business to the global market.

the advantage of human resource in the region. In this

FPT has had clients or opened representative offices and

context, ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) will

companies in 19 countries including Vietnam, Laos,

create an important framework. AEC is the most

Cambodia,

important milestone in the development of ASEAN and

Myanmar, France, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, United

its regional economic integration which will create a free

Kingdom,

labor force market and encourage investment within the

Bangladesh and Indonesia.

of

region.

information

America,

Slovakia,

Japan,

UK,

technology

Singapore,

and

Germany,

Philippines,

Kuwait,

FPT has intensive experience of establishing This paper will study the case of FPT

and implementing large scale business models. After

Corporation as an example for the globalization strategy

nearly twenty six years, FPT is now the No. 1 company

of a Vietnamese IT enterprise (particularly in the

in Vietnam specializing in Software Development,

software industry) in the context of ASEAN Economic

System Integration, IT Services, Distribution and

Community.

Manufacturing

2.1. Overview of FPT Corporation

telecommunications area, FPT is one of three biggest



Year of establishment: 1988



Number of staff: 24,000



Company member: 07



Business areas: Software (System integration, IT service, telecommunications, digital content, training service, distribution, manufacturing and retail of IT and telecommunication products), Information System, Online, Trading, Retail,



of

IT

products,

and

Retails.

In

Internet services providers in Vietnam. In regard to content development, FPT is now the No. 1 online advertising company in Vietnam, owning an enewspaper with more than 42 million page views per day, which is equal to the number of Internet users in Vietnam. In addition, FPT is one of the best IT training service providers in Vietnam with college and vocational training system, attracting nearly 17,000 students.

Education

2.2. SMAC as the globalization in technology of FPT

Oversea offices: in 19 countries, including the

Corporation

US, Japan, France, Germany, Singapore, etc. •

Consolidated Revenue: 1.65 billion USD (2014)



General introduction Founded 1988, for nearly 27 years of

development, FPT Corporation has always been the

Understanding the role of SMAC as the keyword to change the ICT sector in the near future, FPT commits to bring more values to the customers through SMAC – the based business model of smart services and solutions.

leading ICT company in Vietnam with the revenue of

25 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015  

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   FPT has developed several projects related to SMAC

telecommunication companies in Laos, Cambodia and

technology, including:

Myanmar; FPT Software development centers in

- FPT Play HD: a television service, integrating the most modern and smartest entertainment technology, provides

TV

viewers

an

infotainment

Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines; and FPT Information system in Singapore and Indonesia.

system.-

With this operational network, FPT is taking the

FPT.eGOV is a comprehensive system comprising 31

advantage of ASEAN Economic community to expand

subsystems (applications). Each subsystem, used for one

its presence in the region. Especially with the software

field, helps manage the administrative activities of State

development centers in the Philippines and Thailand,

bodies and delivers IT applications to all levels of the

FPT is using the best human resources in the region to

province or city.

provide software solutions and services to clients around

The system is designed to apply the latest IT

the World. Employees from Thailand or the Philippines

technology to establish and develop an exclusive

with a better background of foreign languages (especially

database system that enables users to increase access and

English) can support FPT in its globalization strategy.

processing speed. They can also retrieve and supply exact, timely, complete and synchronous information. - E.click: a smart advertising network based on Big Data collected via users’ interaction on online products and services. Advanced algorithms are used for behavior analysis, subgroup, data mining to display relevant ads, helping advertisers optimize their efficiency

For education, FPT University – the member of FPT Corporation also develop a lot of exchange programs and other kinds of cooperation to the ASEAN universities. FPT University is founding member of P2A (Passage to ASEAN) – a network to develop the mobility of students among the region and increase their awareness of ASEAN Economic integration. These activities are expected to not only develop the English

and publishers optimize their revenue. - FPT.eHospital is a comprehensive software system for hospitals that manages all activities of patient from the time they into the hospital to the time they leave the hospital. FPT.eHospital is divided into 35 modules

ability of students but also to create a good culture foundation for students to be able to work in any country in the region after they graduate. 3. Conclusion and policy recommendation Vietnamese IT industry, particularly software

which combined to create a unified information flow,

industry is developing fast but it is also facing with the

giving the hospital complete control. FPT.eHospital has versions which are suitable for each type of hospital: public hospital, health center, private hospital, specialty hospital, general hospital, etc.

problem

of

human

resource.

The

gap

between

universities and industry is bigger especially when technology moving so fast like today. Universities should be more independent to develop its curriculum

2.3. ASEAN in the globalization strategy of FPT Corporation

and update the latest technology to its program; otherwise students will be left behind. ASEAN Economic Community will also create

In

the

globalization

strategy

of

FPT

Corporation, ASEAN has a very important influence. FPT currently has its office in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Among that, besides head office and main development centers in Vietnam, FPT has set up its

a big change in the labor force market of the region. For the companies, this is a good chance for them to recruit the best employee and open the offshore development centers in the region. For students, this is also an ideal opportunity to get their global career. In this context, higher education institutions will need to take a more important role; and we expect to see more framework/

26 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015  

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   platform for the cooperation among universities in the region.

References: •

White book on Information and Data on Information and Communication Technology Vietnam 2014, Ministry of Information and Communication of Vietnam (2015)



Vietnam’s 30 leading IT companies 2014, Vietnam Software and IT Services Association (2015)

27 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015  

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

TOPOLOGICAL COMPARISON-BASED WORMHOLE DETECTION FOR MANET King Sun Chan1, Mohammad Rafiqul Alan2 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Curtin University, Bentley, Perth, 6102 Australia [email protected],[email protected]

ABSTRACT

scheme can achieve both high wormhole attack

Wormhole attack is considered one of the most

detection rate and accuracy. Our scheme is also

threatening security attacks for mobile ad hoc

simple to implement.

networks (MANET). In a wormhole attack, a tunnel is setup in advance between two colluders. The

KEY WORDS

colluders record packets at one location and forward

Wormhole attack, Byzantine wormhole attack,

them through the tunnel to another location in the

manet, topological comparison.

network. Depending on whether or not the colluders are participating in the network functions, the wormhole attack can be further divided into two categories:

of attention recently in networking community. Most

Byzantine wormhole attack. Existing researches

of the previous ad hoc networking research has

focusing on detecting traditional wormhole attacks

focused on routing protocols and communication

can be classified into three categories: one-hop delay

methods in a trusted environment. However, many

based approach; topological analysis based or

applications need secured communication [1].

special hardware/middleware based approaches.

MANETs are vulnerable to a number of security

Unfortunately, they all have their own limitations.

attacks

Most

Byzantine

configuration, openness of the wireless medium and

wormhole attack are not addressing the Byzantine

absence of any centralized controller. Recently, there

wormhole attack directly. Instead, they focus on

are many papers focusing on providing security for

observing the consequence after a Byzantine

MANETs. Authors in [2] proposed a password-

wormhole

or

authenticated group key exchange protocol for

modification. In this paper, we propose to detect

MANETs. Authors in [3] proposed two-layer INS

both traditional and Byzantine wormhole attacks by

concept to secure routing protocols. A detection

detecting some topological anomalies introduced by

framework called separation of detection authority is

wormhole tunnels. Simulation results show that our

proposed in [4] for detecting selfish nodes on

the

wormhole

researches

attack,

like

attack

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) attracted a lot

and

of

traditional

1. Introduction

detecting

packet

dropping

due

to

their

flexibility

in

28 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th 21th August 2015

network

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

MANETs. In this paper, we focus on one particular

two hops long in this paper. As a wormhole tunnel

network layer attack: wormhole attack. Depending

will introduce some topological anomaly, we focus

on whether or not the attackers are also actively

on topological analysis to detect such topological

participating

the

anomaly for detecting both traditional and Byzantine

wormhole attack can be further divided into two

wormhole attacks. Simulation results show that our

categories:

scheme can achieve both high wormhole detection

in

network

traditional

layer

wormhole

functions,

attack

and

Byzantine wormhole attack. In the traditional

rate and detection accuracy.

wormhole attack, an attacker overhears the packets in its vicinity, records them and then tunnels them to another location where they are replayed by another colluding attacker. As a result, two far away nodes consider themselves as one-hop neighbours. In the Byzantine wormhole attack, the attackers also participate in the network functions, like routing, flooding, authentication, etc. In Byzantine wormhole

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we review existing wormhole detection methods and their limitations. Our proposed solution for

detecting

traditional

wormhole

attack

is

presented in section 3. We extend our scheme to detect Byzantine wormhole attack in section 4. Finally, our conclusion is drawn in Section 5.

attack, when one colluder receives a packet, it first takes action according to the network function requirement, and then tunnels the packet to the other side of the tunnel. The other colluder, after receiving the forwarded packet from the tunnel, will then process it and then take appropriate action as if it is received from a direct legitimate neighbour. As the colluders also participate in all network functions,

2. Related Works Wormhole attack attracts a lot of attention in MANET security research community recently. In this section, we first briefly review existing schemes for detecting traditional wormhole attack. Then we move to cover the existing schemes for defending against Byzantine wormhole attack.

Byzantine wormhole attack is more difficult to detect. The motivation of this paper is to develop a unified scheme to detect both traditional and Byzantine wormhole attacks with high detection rate and simple implementation.

2.1 Existing methods for detecting traditional wormhole attack Existing approaches for detecting traditional wormhole attack can be classified into three categories:

As short wormhole links may not attract a lot of traffic and will not be of much use to the adversary

topological

one-hop analysis

delay

based

based

or

hardware/middleware based solutions.

[5], we consider the wormhole tunnel to be at least

29 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th 21th August 2015

approach; special

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Schemes proposed in [6-12] are one-hop delay

Unfortunately, the presented detection scheme

based. In [6], a wormhole detection method based on

requires the network to run Dijkstra shortest path

round trip time (RTT) and neighbour number is

routing algorithm which may be a heavy burden to

presented. When the RTT between two nodes is

many mobile ad hoc networks.

considerably longer, they check the neighbour number. If the value of neighbor number is greater than the average neighbor number, there is a suspect that a wormhole link is in between. This method assumes that all network nodes use the same hardware and software configuration. Moreover, they assume the network nodes are uniformed distributed, which may not be true in some mobile ad hoc networks. Schemes in [7-12] also rely heavily on measuring one-hop delays to detect wormhole

The solutions belonging to the third category of combating wormhole attack use a special hardware device, strict time synchronization or special network protocol. Packet leashes are used in [1] to detect and defend against wormhole attacks. However, the accuracy of GPS devices is low in presence of physical obstacles. Another detection method in [15] uses directional antennae to obtain relative directional information and verify possible neighbors. This method suffers from antenna s

attack.

directional errors. In NEVO [16], a firmware upAnother approach of combating wormhole attacks

gradation of the MAC layer is needed so that the

is to use graph analysis. Maheshwari et al. in [5]

sender can passively monitor the forwarding of

proposed a wormhole detection algorithm which

broadcast type packets by its neighbors. Moreover,

looks for forbidden substructure in the connectivity

NEVO uses network layer verification, which is a

graph that should not be present in a legal

time consuming task.

connectivity graph. Unfortunately, this approach is very complicated and impractical to real system.Lee et al. in [13] propose a method where each node gathers information of its neighbors within two hops. Each

newly

joined

node

broadcasts

an

announcement, which is valid only within the next two hops. The requirement of maintaining two hops neighbors,

keyed

hash

and

TTL

limit

the

applicability of this method in a distributed system where exists a wide variety of participants. Dong et al. in [14] propose to analyse the topological impact introduced

by

traditional

wormhole

tunnels.

It can be seen that most of the existing traditional wormhole detection methods rely on measuring one hop delays. The major advantage of this type of solutions is simplicity and easy implementation. However, delays are not only caused by the presence of wormholes but also some other factors like link congestion, queuing delays, difference in intra-nodal processing capabilities etc. In our scheme, instead of only looking at the round trip delays, we turn to detect the topological anomalies introduced by the wormholes. Using this topological feature, we can

30 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th 21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

detect traditional wormhole tunnel with high

Byzantine wormhole tunnels can be completely

accuracy.

avoided and thus minimizing the adverse impact.

2.2 Existing methods for detecting Byzantine wormhole attack Most of the existing solutions for detecting Byzantine wormhole attack rely on encryption and authentication. As the compromised nodes will drop or modify the user packets, these solutions try to detect the dropped packets or modified packets to identify the Byzantine attacks. In ODBSR [17], reliability is chosen as the metric in routing. Each link and then path consisting of multiple links is assigned a weight. If the packet loss rate is over

3. Detecting traditional wormhole attack In this section, we present our proposed scheme for detecting traditional wormhole attack. This scheme will be extended to cover the Byzantine wormhole detection in section IV. Our scheme is based on the following two observations of traditional wormhole attacks: 1)

Temporal

anomaly:

Two

fake

one-hop

neighbours with a wormhole tunnel in between have longer RTT, compared to the RTT between two true one-hop neighbours.

some threshold, the source launches the binary search to determine which link is in fault. The faulty

2) Topological anomaly: Two true one-hop

link will be assigned a larger weight and eventually

neighbours usually share common true one-hop

avoided in the future connection setup phase. In

neighbours among them, and two fake one-hop

SRAC [18], the authors proposed an algorithm to

neighbours do not share common true one-hop

detect Byzantine attacks by using both message and

neighbours.

route redundancy during route discovery. Multiple copies of the same packet are received by a node. After comparing all multiple copies, it is possible to detect any missed or modified copies and identify the compromised nodes. Unfortunately, all these schemes are very complicated and only focusing on packet dropping or modification. If the compromised nodes are only interested in analysing traffic or spoofing, all these schemes fail. In our approach, we intend to address byzantine wormhole attack directly. We focus on detecting abnormal topological features introduced by byzantine wormhole tunnels. Therefore, it is possible that paths including

3.1. Neighbor List Construction Each node in the network maintains its own onehop neighbor list and average RTT (RTTavg) to its direct neighbors. The neighbor list consists of two parts: trusted and suspected. The nodes included in the trusted part are considered true direct neighbors while the nodes included in the suspected part are suspected as under the traditional wormhole attack. Nodes exchange HELLO and HELLO_REPLY packets for populating their neighbor lists. The HELLO packet contains the following fields: source node

ID

and

sequence

number.

31 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th 21th August 2015

The

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

HELLO_REPLY packet contains the following

value, denoted by RTTavg in this paper, is measured

fields: source field, destination field and sequence

using the following formulae:

number.

The

details

of

the

HELLO

and

HELLO_REPLY exchange are described in the following: 1. The source node broadcasts a HELLO packet to its one-hop neighbors.

3.3 SUS and TRST parts of a Neighbor List Based on measured RTT, we can populate the

2. A node receiving a HELLO packet unicasts a

SUS and TRST parts of a node s neighbor list.

HELLO_REPLY packet back to the source

However, the list may not be accurate enough as

node.

RTT is affected by many factors. We use topological

3. After receiving a HELLO_REPLY packet

comparison to eliminate as many as possible true

from one neighbor, the RTT between the

neighbors from the SUSP part to improve the

source node and the neighbor is first

detection accuracy.

measured. Based on the relationship between the measured RTT and the maintained RTTavg, this neighboring node may be put into the suspected or trusted part of the node s neighbor list: if the measured RTT is greater than three times of the current RTTavg (RTT > 3 × RTTavg), this neighboring node is included into the suspected part of the neighbor list; otherwise, this node is considered a trusted neighbor and RTTavgis updated. 3.2 Calculating RTTavg

3.4 Topological Comparison As we have noticed in observation 2), if two nodes are true one-hop neighbors, they usually share other common true neighbors. However, the nodes around a traditional wormhole tunnel get a distorted view of the network topology. Therefore, two far away nodes consider themselves as direct neighbors but this particular topological feature may not be held anymore. We can use this property to improve the performance of our scheme.

Round Trip Time (RTT) is measured as the delay

If a node s SUSP part of the neighbor list is not

between when a HELLO packet is broadcasted and

empty, it sends ENQ packets to all nodes in its

when the corresponding HELLO_REPLY is received

SUSP part of the Neighbor List. In response to

by the initiator.

ENQ, the recipients reply with their respective

Each node maintains an average value of one-hop RTT between itself and its one-hop neighbors. This

TRUS part of their Neighbor List back to the ENQ source. After receiving the reply, the node can use Algorithm 1 to conduct topological comparison. The parameters used are shown in Table I.

32 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th 21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Table I parameters for Algorithm 1

Routing algorithm

S

Sender of ENQ packets

Simulation

r

Receiver of ENQ packets

scenario

TRUSs

TRUS list of s

TRUSr

TRUS list of r

me

trusted

runs

AODV per 100

We use detection rate and detection accuracy as

TRUE/FALSE, denotes whether

performance measurement of our scheme. Figure 1

s is in TRSTr

shows the detection rate versus tunnel length for

No. of nodes in TRUSr

TRUSs

different network sizes. It can be seen that the detection rate increases as the tunnel length

Algorithm 1 Detectingtraditional Wormhole

increases. It is because that, with longer tunnel

1. ifme = TRUE then

length, the RTT between a pair of fake direct

2. Delete r from SUSPs

neighbours is longer and easier to be identified. It

3. Insert r into TRUSs

can also be seen that higher detection rate is

4. end if

achieved with larger network size. It is due to the

5. else if me = FALSE then

fact that, with larger network size, each node has

6.

if ( trusted=0 ) then

more genuine neighbouring nodes which leads to

7.

link with r contains wormhole tunnel

more accurate RTTavg estimation and thus less likely

8.

else

to misclassify fake neighbouring nodes as trusted

9.

delete r from SUSPs

neighbours. We also compared the detection rate of

10.

Insert r into TRUSs

our scheme with that of scheme developed in [7] in

11.

end if

Figure 2. It can be seen that our scheme achieves much better performance. It can also be noted that

12. end if

the improvement of our scheme is more significant when the tunnel length is short. It is because that the 3.5 Performance evaluation

scheme in [7] relies on RTT only to detect wormhole

We use ns-2 to evaluate our scheme. And

attack.

parameters are listed in Table II. Table II Simulation parameters Simulation area

1000m×1000m

to

1400m×1400m Number of nodes

10, 15, 20, or 30

Transmission range

250m

33 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th 21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460 2460-7223 7223

introduce some anomalies which can be observed for detecting such attacks. Our scheme is based on the following two observations: 1) Temporal anomaly: two

fake

three-hop three-

neighbors with a Byzantine wormhole tunnel in between have longer RTT. 2)

Topological anomaly: two true threethree-hop

neighbors have some of the other s oneone-hop neighbors as no-more-than no than-three-hop hop true neighbors, except the one involved in this pair s threethree-hop connection. Figure 1 Detection rate vs. Tunnel length 4 Neighbor List 4.1 Each node in the network maintains its own neighbor list which includes all neighbors no less than three hops away. The neighbor list consists of two parts: trusted part (TRUS) and suspected part (SUSP). As we only only consider the Byzantine wormhole attack, we assume all one-hop one hop and twotwo hop neighbors are true neighbors. Therefore, the suspected part only includes the three-hop three hop neighbors which are considered under the Byzantine wormhole attack. The procedure for constructing constructing the neighbor list is similar to Section 3 and we exclude the details Figure 2comparison comparisonwith with the scheme in [7]

due to space limit.

4. Detecting Byzantine wormhole attack In this section, we turn our attention to detect the Byzantine wormhole attack. As we have explained

4.2 Topological Comparison

earlier, two nodes with a Byzantine wormhole tunnel in between consider themselves as three three--hop neighbors. However, as in the traditional wormhole attack case, a Byzantine wormhole tunnel will also

If two nodes are true three-hop three hop neighbors, they usually consider some of the other s oneone-hop neighbors as trusted neighbors, except the one

34 |International International Conferences on Information Technology Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th 21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

involved

in

the

pair s

three-hop

connection.

in comparison are shown in Table III. In this phase,

However, the nodes around a Byzantine wormhole

the TRUSparts of a Neighbor List is modified when

tunnel get a distorted view of the network topology.

a suspected node proves its credibility.

Therefore, two far away nodes consider themselves as three-hop neighbors but this particular topological feature may not be held anymore. Therefore, we can use this feature to detect Byzantine wormhole attacks in MANET. We modify the topological comparison algorithm we developed in section 3 for

Algorithm 2Detecting Byzantine Wormhole 1. ifme = TRUE then 2.

Delete r from SUSPs

3.

Insert r into TRUSs

4.

end if

5. else if me = FALSE then

detecting Byzantine wormhole attack. Table III Notations used in Algorithm 2 S

Sender of ENQ packets

r

Receiver of ENQ packets

SUSPs

SUSP list of the neighbor list of s

ONLs

One-hop neighbor list of s

TRUSr

TRUS list of the neighbor list of r

ONLr

One-hop neighbor list of r

me

TRUE/FALSE, denotes whether s

6.

if (trusteds=1 and trustedr=1 ) then

7.

connection with r contains Byzantine wormhole tunnel

8. 9.

delete r from SUSs

10.

Insert r into TRSTs

11.

trustedr

No. of nodes in TRUSr No. of nodes in TRUSs

end if

12. end if

4.3 Simulation results We have also simulated our scheme with

is in TRUSr trusteds

else

ONLs ONLr

simulator

ns-2

to

evaluate

the

performance.

Simulation parameters are similar to those shown in table II, except that the simulated area is limited in a

Each node in the network has its own Neighbor List. After the neighbor discovery process a node sends ENQ packets to all nodes in its SUSP list of

square field of size 1000m * 1000m with 30 randomly generated nodes. Figure 3 shows the detection rate versus Byzantine

Neighbor List. In response to ENQ, the

wormhole tunnel length. It can be seen that detection

recipients reply with their respective TRUS part of

rate increases as tunnel length increases. It is

their Neighbor List back to the ENQ source. After

because the RTT between a pair of fake three-hop

receiving the reply, the node runs Algorithm 2 for

neighbours is greater with longer tunnel length, and

detecting the Byzantine attack. The parameters used

therefore easier to be identified. In Figure 4, the

the

35 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th 21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

detection accuracy versus tunnel length is shown. It

wormhole

detection

schemes

focus

only

on

can be seen that our scheme can achieve very high

traditional wormhole attacks. And they rely on

accuracy.

observing longer RTTs between neighbouring nodes under the traditional wormhole attack which may lead to poor detection performance. Existing schemes for Byzantine wormhole attacks focus on the consequences of Byzantine wormhole attacks, like packet dropping and modification to detect the existence of Byzantine wormhole attacks. In this paper, we try to detect both traditional and Byzantine wormhole attacks directly. We propose to detect the topological abnormality introduced by the traditional and Byzantine wormhole attacks. By detecting wormhole attacks directly, those links under

Figure 3Detection rate vs tunnel length

wormhole attack can be avoided completely during the routing phase and thus limiting the adverse consequence from wormhole attack to the minimum. Simulation results show that our scheme can achieve both high detection rate and accuracy of alarms. The implementation of our scheme is also simple. REFERENCES

Figure 4Accuracy vs tunnel length

4. Conclusion Wormhole attack is considered one of the most challenging and threatening security attacks in mobile ad ho networks. Most of the existing

[1] Y.-C. Hu, A. Perrig, and D. B. Johnson, Wormhole attacks in wireless networks, IEEE JSAC, pp. 370 380, Feb. 2006. [2] D. He, C. Chen, M Ma, S. Chan, and J. Bu, A secure and efficient password-authenticated group key exchange protocol for mobile ad hoc networks , International Journal of Communication systems, 2011. [3] A. Le, J. Loo, A. Lasebae, M. Aiash, and Y. Lou, 6LoWPAN: a study on QoS security threats and countermeasures using intrusion detection system approach , International Journal of Communication systems, 2012. [4] Z. Chong, S. Tan, B. Goi, and B. Ng, Outwitting smart selfish nodes in wireless

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[6]

[7]

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[10]

[11]

[12]

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[14]

[15]

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11th Network and Distrbuted System Security Symposium, 2003. [16] X. Su and R. V. Boppana, Mitigating wormhole attacks using passive monitoring in mobile ad hoc networks, Proc. IEEE Globecom2008, 2008. [17] B. Awerbuch, R. Curtmola, D. Holmer, et. al., ODSBR: An on-demand secure Byzantine resilient routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks , ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur., 2008. 10(4): p. 1-35. [18] M. Yu, M.C. Zhou, and W. Su, A secure routing protocol against byzantine attacks for MANETs in adversarial environments , IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2009. 58(1): p. 449-460.

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DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR SCHOLARSHIP IN BALI STATE POLYTECHNIC USING AHP AND TOPSIS Ni Gusti Ayu Putu Harry Saptarini1, Putu Manik Prihatini2 Informatics Department, Bali State Polytechnic1,2, Kampus Politeknik Negeri Bali Bukit Jimbaran, Kuta Selatan, Badung Bali, PO BOX 1064 Tuban Kode Pos 80364 Telp. (0361) 701981 Fax. (0361) 1,2 [email protected], [email protected]

ABSTRACT

1. Introduction

One effort to help people in continuing their education is

Education is a very important thing. A good standard of

through a scholarship program. Currently there are many

living can be achieved by one of them with a good

scholarship programs from the government and state-

education. By having a higher education, the opportunity

owned enterprises or private. With the help of these

to obtain a better life will be higher as well. Today many

educational, students race to achieve in order to offset the

students experiencing economic constraints in higher

cost of education which is currently quite expensive. The

education. One way to alleviate the burden is by providing

number of students applying for the scholarship would

scholarships. Scholarships are usually awarded by certain

require a separate time to filter out students who meet the

agency or organization. Scholarships given can be varied

requirements and then rank students based on the criteria

as scholarships for poor students or achievements. This

of the scholarship. The complexity of the problems occur

programs are expected to help students in education

because each criterion has its own priority. Screening and

funding so that more people can take higher education.

grading manually would require considerable time and

Bali State Polytechnic (PNB) is one vocational education

susceptible to human error. This research, developed

institutions located in Jimbaran Bali. On the academic

automatic screening and decision support system to rank

year of 2013/2014, the number of students were 2990. In

students according to given criteria. The method used is

PNB there are many types of scholarships are offered. In

analytical hierarchycal process (AHP) to give weight to

last 3 years, there are between 10 to 11 types of

each criterion based on its priority, and the technique for

scholarships

order of preference by similarity to ideal solution

scholarship has some assessment criteria for determining

(TOPSIS) to rank students based on its values of each

who is entitled to a scholarship student. The criteria used

criterion. By construct this decision support system, then

usually in the form of GPA, parents income, number of

selecting scholarship recipients can be faster and valid.

family members covered parents, academic and non-

The system that was built provide recommendations by

academic achievement (SKKM). Every applicant will be

rank students based on the final calculation.

compared to get student with the highest score to receive

are

offered

each

year.

Eachoffered

scholarship. KEY WORDS

The number of applicants for each scholarship at PNB,

Decision Support System, AHP, TOPSIS, Scholarship.

resulting in resource needs both time and human to do the

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selection criteria by comparing one by one applicant.This

concept of

problem becomes complex because the combination

TOPSIS to build a decision support system for the design

ofmany applicants and criteria used for selecting

layout of the plant. Rahimi et al [7] to build a web-based

scholarship applicants.

decision support system for medical diagnosis with

Thus we need a decision support system (DSS) to assist

TOPSIS method. Athawale and Chakraborty [8] using

decision making recipients in PNB. Using DSS, the time

TOPSIS to build a decision support system in evaluating

for decision-making can be more quickly and scholarship

the CNC machine of the specifications and costs.

recipients are students who fit all criteria. This study using

Several studies have been done to build a decision support

TOPSIS method for the decision-making process by

system for granting beasiswa.Wimatsari et al [9] using

comparing the valuesof each criterion of the applicants,

TOPSIS method for building decision support system

while the weighting of each of the criteria used in the

with Fuzzy TOPSIS at the University Udayana.Wibowo et

assessment usingtwo choices, inputting weights based on

al [10] using Simple Additive weighting method (SAW)

the preferences of decision makers or using AHP. AHP

to build a support system Bank BRI grantee's decision at

method is a method that is quite simple but good in the

the Islamic University of Indonesia. In this study used

weighting and comparison of several criteria. TOPSIS

AHP to compare the level of interest among the

method not only produces a decision that comes closest to

assessment criteria, which is a synthesis of the pairwise

the positive criteria, but at the same time also resulted in

comparison matrix will be the weight for each criterion.

the decision by far the most negative criteria.

By applying the method of AHP, is expected to better

Some studies for decision making using AHP has been

reflect the weight of each criterion which is formed

done by Tahriris et al[1] to assist decision making to

between the level of importance of each criterion in which

supplierelection.Syamsuddin and Hwang [2] using AHP

the weights will be used in the matrix calculation on

in its research to develop a decision support system for the

TOPSIS method. By combining both methods is expected

banking

e-

DSS built will be able to improve the process and quality

banking.Triantaphyllou and Mann [3] using AHP to assist

of admission scholarship in PNB, so as to improve the

decision-makers in the field of engineering.Wei et al. [4]

effectiveness and efficiency of the decision making

using the AHP in building decision support system in the

process.

industry

related

to

security

issues

-cuts.Ataei [6] using TOPSIS and fuzzy

election of the Enterprise Resource Planning system (ERP). The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to

2. Research Method

Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is a method that is widely used

This research using AHP and TOPSIS to make a decision

in making a decision. There are several studies conducted

support system. AHP is used to gain weightof each

by TOPSIS method as practiced by Jahanshahloo et al. [5]

criterion by compared their priority. TOPSIS then used to

using TOPSIS method for building decision support

rank all of candidate. TOPSIS will give the best candidate

system on problems with the data which the fuzzy, where

who has the shortest distance with positive ideal solution

fuzzy numbers normalized value is calculated using the

and the longest distance to negative ideal solution.

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2.1 Analytical Hierarchycal Process

2.2 The Technique for Order of Preference by

Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a measurement

Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)

theory through pairwise comparisons and rely on the

Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal

judgment of experts to get the priority scale. AHP will

Solution (TOPSIS) is one method in decision-making

buildthepairwise comparisonmatrix between a criterion

which is in producing a decision will choose the

with other criteria. Comparison matrix for decision

alternative that is not only the most positive approach the

variables on each criterion will also be built. Table 1 is a

ideal solution, but also the most distant from the negative

scale that is used for charging the pairwise comparison

ideal solution.

matrix in AHP

According Zahedy F. [12], with m criteria and n Table 1

alternative, then the steps are performed in TOPSIS

Saaty Rating Scale for Pairwise Comparison Matrix[11] Intensity of

Definition

Importance

method is: 1.

Explanation

Build a normalized decision matrix. In TOPSIS, the performance of each alternative

1

3

Equal

Two factors contribute equally to

importance

the objective

Somewhat

Experience

more

slightly favour one over the other

and

is calculated using Equation 1.

judgement

importance 5

Much more

Experience

and

judgement

strongly favour one over the

2.

other 7

Very

9

2,4,6,8

much

Build a normalized weighting matrix The ideal positive and negative solution A- A +

Experience and judgement very

more

strongly favour one over the

can be determined based on the normalized

important

other

weight rating (yij) as follows:

Absolutely

The evidence favouring one over

more

the other is of the highest

important

possible validity

Intermediate

When compromise is needed

value

3.

Determine the ideal solution both positive and negative

This is the step done in this research using AHP : 1. Build a pairwise comparison matrix for each of the

Positive ideal solution matrix can be calculated with Equation 3, while the negative ideal

criteria according to Table 1

solution matrix can be calculated by Equation 4

2. Perform the synthesis of each alternative decision 3. Calculate the consistency index (C.I.) 4. Perform

a

comparison

between

criteria

and

alternatives 5. Calculate the final ranking

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4.

Calculate the distance of each alternative

Start

decision of the positive and negative solutions idela The distance between the alternative Ai with a

Input scholarship Input criteria for scholarship

positive ideal solution can be calculated by Equation 5

Determining criteria weight using AHP

Read data of students that apply for the scholarship

The distance between the alternative Ai with negative ideal solution can be calculated with

Fuzzification on every criterion of student

Equation 6 Calculate closeness for every student using TOPSIS

Sort student ascendingly based in their closeness

5.

Determining the value of the preference for each alternative

Finish

Preference value for each alternative (Vi) is given by Equation 7.

Figure 1. Flowchart of System

Context diagram (CD) for this system is shown in Figure 2, and data flow diagram (DFD) is shown in Figure 3

3. Result and Analysis 3.1 System Analysis and Design The flowchart of decision support system built is shown in Figure 1.AHP is used to determining criteria weight based on its priority input by user in pairwise matrix. For every student, the fuzzification will be done and the result will be used to calculated the closeness value using TOPSIS.

Figure 2. Context Diagram of System

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Entity relationship diagram (ERD) for the system is

Every

entities

has

their

relationship

to

shown in Figure 4. There are nine entities in the system.

Figure 3. Data Flow Diagram of System

Figure 4. Entity Relationship Diagram of System

42 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

others.

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Fuzzy graph for GPA, economic condition (parents income/number of family members covered parents), academic and non-academic achievement (SKKM) is shown in Figure 5,6, and 7 respectively. There are five kinds of linguistic for each criterion. Figure 8. Inputted Priority in Pairwise Matrix

Figure 9. The weight for each criterion resulted by AHP Figure 5. Fuzzy Graph of GPA 3.3 TOPSIS Method This study use 25 student data as experiment to test TOPSIS method. Figure 10 shows data of 25 students use to held the experiment. Linguistic is gotten from fuzzy graph in Figure 5,6 and 7. Data in Figure 10 is normalized using Equation 1, and then the weighted normalized Figure 6. Fuzzy Graph of Economic

matrix is calculated using Equation 2. In this case we use 3 criterion, which is GPA and SKKM as positive criteria and economic condition as negative criteria. The positive ideal solution for positive criteria isthe maximum weighted of all students in that criterion, while for negative criteria isthe minimum weighted of all students.

Figure7. Fuzzy Graph of SKKM

On the contrary, the negative ideal solution for positive criteria isthe minimum weighted of all students, while for

3.2 AHP Method

negative criteria isthe maximum weighted of all students.

In this study, we use AHP to get the weight of each

The positive and negative ideal solution is shown in

criterion based on their priority compared to others. User

Figure 11. Y1is for GPA, y2 for SKKM, and y3for

needs to input the priority in pairwise matrix. The value

economic condition. The next step is calculating the

inputted to pairwise matrix based on Table 1. Figure 8

distance for solution ideal positive and negative using

show example input for each criterion. User only input

Equation 5 and 6 respectively. The last step for TOPSIS is

above the diagonal, while the rest will calculated

calculating closeness value using Equation 7. Closeness is

automatically. The weight for Figure8 is shown in Figure

a measurement that guaranteed the candidate to close to

9, which is used for TOPSIS method as a weight for each

positive ideal solution and far from the negative ideal

criterion. In Figure 1, A is GPA, B is SKKM, and C for

solution. The TOPSIS result is shown in Figure 12, where

economic condition (parents income/number of family

those data is sorted descending based on closeness value.

members covered parents).

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Figure 10. Data Testing and Fuzzy Linguistic for Every Student

Figure 11. Ideal Positive and Negative Solution for Each Criterion

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Figure 12. TOPSIS Result Ordered By Closeness in Descending Order The student who has the highest closeness value is the

based on their closeness value. The best closeness value is

first priority to get scholarships based on TOPSIS method.

the first priority to get scholarship.

4. Conclusion It can be conclude that applying AHP and TOPSIS for

References

scholarships program selection can be done. Structured

[1] Tahriri, F, Osman, M. R., Ali A., Yusuff R. M.,

system design is modeled by context diagram and data

Esfandiary A., 2008. AHP Approach for Supplier

flow diagram. The database design is model by entity

Evaluation and Selection in a SteelManufacturing

relationship diagram. AHP can be applied to determine

Company. Journal of Industrial Engineering and

the weight of each criterion through pairwise matrix.

Management 01(02).hal. 54-76

Those weight then use in TOPSIS method. Fuzzy is used to represent linguistic for every student. TOPSIS method give a value of closeness for every student, that value represent both distance, to negative and positive ideal solution. The final result of the DSS is the rank of student

[2]Syamsuddin I., Hwang J., 2009,The Application of AHP Model to Guide Decision Makers: A Case Study of E-Banking Security. Fourth International Conference

on

Computer

Sciences

Convergence Information Technology

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and

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[3]Triantaphyllou E., Mann, S. H., 1995. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Decision Making in Engineering Inter l

Applications:

Journal

of

Some

International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 10, Issue 1, No 2, January 2013

Challenges.

Industrial

Engineering:

Applications and Practice, Vol. 2, No. 1, hal. 35-44 [4]Wei CC., Chien C., WangMJ., 2005,An AHP-Based

[10] Wibowo H.S., Amalia R., Fadlun M. A, Arivanty K., 2009,Sistem

Pendukung

Menentukan

PenerimaBeasiswa

Menggunakan

Keputusan

FMADM

Bank (Studi

untuk BRI Kasus:

Approach to ERP System Selection. Int. J.

Mahasiswa Fakultas Teknologi IndustriUniversitas

Production Economics 96 (2005) hal.47 62

Islam Indonesia). Seminar Nasional Aplikasi Teknologi Informasi 2009 (SNATI 2009) ISSN:

[5]JahanshahlooG.R.,

Lot

F.

H.,

Izadikhah

M.,

1907-5022, Yogyakarta, 20 Juni 2009

2006,Extension of The TOPSIS Method for Decision-MakingProblems

With

Fuzzy

Data.

[11] Saaty, T. L., 2008,Decision Making With the

Applied Mathematics and Computation 181 (2006)

Analytic Hierarchy Process. Int. J. Services

hal.1544 1551

Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1

[6] Ataei E., 2013,Application of TOPSIS and Fuzzy

[12] F. Zahedi, 1977, The Analytic Hierarchy Process-A

TOPSIS Methods for Plant Layout Design. World

Survey Of The Method and Its Applications,

Applied Sciences Journal 24 (7),hal. 908-913

Interfaces, Vol. 16, hal.343-350

[7] Rahimi S.,Gandy L.,Mogharreban N., 2007,A WebBased

High-PerformanceMulticriteria

Support

Systemfor

Diagnosis.International

Decision Medical

Journal

of

Intelligent

Systems, Vol. 22, hal.1083 1099 [8] Athawale V. M., Chakraborty S., 2010,A TOPSIS Method-based

Approach

to

Machine

Tool

Selection. Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference

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Industrial

Engineering

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ManagementDhaka,

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Bangladesh,

January 9 10, 2010 [9] Wimatsari G. A. M. S, Putra I. K. G. D., Buana P. W., 2013,Multi-Attribute Decision Making Scholarship Selection Using a Modified Fuzzy TOPSIS. IJCSI

46 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

A PREDICTION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE AMOUNT OF CORN PRODUCTION USING TSUKAMOTO FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM Fitria1 Department of Informatics Engineering. The Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. ZA Pagar Alam Bandar Lampung Indonesia No. 39 35 142 Tel: +62 721 787214 Fax: +62 721 700261 ext. 112 Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT

logic firmly set. But logic firmly set cannot be operated or

Fuzzy inference system is a computing framework based

used by the general public (only the analysis), because in

on fuzzy set theory, fuzzy rules in the form of IF-THEN,

addition to rather complicated in the calculation,

and fuzzy reasoning.

Fuzzy inference system receives

constraints in production will also complicate the

input crisp. This input is then sent to a knowledge base that

completion of maize production optimization problems.

contains fuzzy rules in the form of IF-THEN. Fire strength

Besides logic firmly set, fuzzy logic can also be used in

will be sought at every rule. If the number of rules is more

corn production optimization problems.

than one, it will be the aggregation of all the rules. Furthermore, the aggregation results will be defuzzy to get

Alam Jaya Farmers Group has been producing corn as

crisp value as output system (Kurniawan, 2004).

much, so much the rest of the corn stored in inventory

The method used in building this system is the method of

warehouse. Due to the large supply of corn stored in

Tsukamoto fuzzy inference system. Tsukamoto method is

warehouse, very large costs incurred due to a decrease in

an extension of the monotonous reasoning. In Tsukamoto

the quality of maize. So, the Farmers Group Alam Jaya

method, each consequent upon the rules that forms If -

requires a system that can predict the amount of corn

Then shall be represented by a fuzzy set membership

production.

functions are monotone.

The application of fuzzy logic to the completion of maize

The results of this study are to predict number of

production problems uses fuzzy inference system. The

information systems on corn production in the SPSS South

problem resolved is how to determine if corn production

Lampung District Court and to get the desired results

uses only two variables as input data, namely: demand and supply. The first step problem solving corn production

KEY WORDS: corn production information system, the

using fuzzy method in determining the output variable is

prediction system

set firmly, the second step is to convert the input variables into fuzzy set with fuzzification process, the next step is

I. INTRODUCTION

the third data processing and fuzzy set with maximum

1.1 Background

method. And the last or the fourth step is to change the

Optimization of the production of maize in farmer groups

output to be set firmly with the defuzzification process, so

Alam Jaya affects the financial sector because it can

it will obtain the desired results.

estimate the expenditure of raw materials, while also in terms of production costs and the cost of transportation and

1.2 Problem Formulation

storage. For that reason we need a method that can predict

The formulation of the existing problems in this research is

the amount of corn production of the maize and maize

how to design and build a system to predict the amount of

production optimization problems. Many methods and

corn production using Tsukamoto Fuzzy Inference System.

techniques used. The most commonly used method is the

47 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 production 1.3 Research Objectives

quantities

using

Tsukamoto

Fuzzy

Inference System.

The objective of this study is to develop and produce the number of corn production prediction systems using

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

Tsukamoto Fuzzy Inference System at Farmers Group

2.1 Fuzzy Inference System

Alam Jaya in the great teak.

Fuzzy logic approach is broadly implemented in three stages which can be described as follows (Kurniawan,

1.4 Benefits of the Research

2004):

The benefits of the research to be carried outa are:

1. Phase blurring (fuzzification), the mapping of input to

a. Software for designing prediction system helps Farmers

the set of fuzzy firmly.

Group Alam Jaya in Jatiagung in determining the

2. Phase of inference, namely the generation of fuzzy

amount of corn production using Tsukamoto Fuzzy

rules.

Inference System.

3. Phase assertion (defuzzyfication), the transformation of

b. The result of the research can be used as one of the

the output of fuzzy value to the firm value.

basic considerations in the decision making corn

Input

output averment Blurring

inference

Decisive

decisive

Figure 1. Stages of Process in Obscure Logic

2.2 Method of Tsukamoto

At this stage of the calculation of Defuzzyfication average

Tsukamoto method is an extension of the monotonous

(Weight Average / WA) of each predicate in each variable

reasoning. In Tsukamoto method, each consequent upon the

is done by using the following equation:

rules that form If-Then shall be represented by a fuzzy set membership functions are monotone. As a result, the output of the inference results of each rule is given explicitly (crisp) by

-predicate (fire strength). The final result is

obtained by using a weighted average. (Kusumadewi, 2010).

The steps to resolve Tsukamoto method is as follows: 1) .Input fuzzy set, 2) Determine the membership degree of

Description n= predicate value to-n Zn = index value to the output

n

2.3 System Design 2.3.1 Context Diagram

fuzzy sets, 3) Calculate the predicate rule ( ), 4) Defuzzyfication

Context diagram is the highest level in the data flow diagram and only contains one process, showing the overall

48 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 system. The process is numbered zero. All external entities

III. METHODS

are shown in the following context data flow diagram-major

3.1 Data Collecting Methods

data flow to and from the system. The diagram does not

Data collecting method is used in this study to obtain data.

contain simple data storage and seem to be created, so

The data in the research gained from: a). Field studies,

external entities as well as the flow of data-flow of data to

b).interview, c).Observation, d).documentation

and from the known system analyzer of interviews with users and as a result of analysis of documents (Pressman,

3.2 Application of Tsukamoto Fuzzy Inference System

2002).

(FIS)

Diagram Context highlighted a number of important characteristics of a system (Pressman, 2002):

In the base model is, in general, there are three steps to predict the amount of corn production are: define variable,

a.The user group, the parties will provide data to the system

inference, and defuzzification (specify the crisp output).

b.Data, what is received / generated by the system from / to

The valuea analyze the large amount of corn production

the outside world

with numbers, with a range of 0 to infinity, while the

c.Storage of data, a system must provide information or

variable is considered that the number of requests and the

reports

amount of inventory

d. Limitation, which distinguishes between system and environment

3.2.1 Defining fuzzy variables (Fuzzyfication) This stage, the value of the current set membership

2.4 Method of Software Development Method Using the

searched using fuzzy set membership functions with due

System Development Life Cyclemodel Waterfall

regard to the maximum value and minimum value of each

In this research, the method of software engineering that is

variable is variable. Each variable consists of 2 fuzzy sets,

used is the Waterfall model as shown in the following

namely: up and down.

picture: 3.2.2 Determination of the amount of production in the manual Tsukamoto method (Tsukamoto-based Model)

Table 1. Assessment of Fuzzy Association and Range Variabel

Fuzzy

Range

Set

1. Demand Input

Down

0 75

Normal

(quintals)

Up

50 125 (quintals)

Figure 2. Waterfall Model Development Method

75 150

Description (Dennis, 2003):

(quintals)

1).Planning,2).Analysis,3).Design,4).Implementation,5).Sys tem

2. Supply

Few

0 50

Normal

(quintals)

Many

25 75

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Output

Rice production

(quintals)

Variable Demand (100):

50 100

Down for x

(quintals)

Normal = (125-100) / (125-75) = 25/50 = 0.5; then Normal

Diminish

0 80

= 0.5

Normal

(quintals)

Up = (100-75) / (125-75) = 25/50 = 0.5; then

Increase

50 130

Variable Inventory (60):

quintals)

if x

80 160

Normal = (75-60) / (75-50) = 15/25 = 0.6; then

(quintals)

0.6

The design of the variable input and fuzzy output variable

50; then

25; then

Down = 0

Up = 0.5

Bit = 0 Normal =

Many = (60-50) / (75-50) = 10/25 = 0.4; Many then

= 0.4

(fuzzification) The rules are rules used in the function MIN implications: 3.3 Structure Design of Tsukamoto fuzzy method

[R1] IF demand falls and stocks are low then the maize

Based on the nine fuzzy rules, will be determined value of

production is normal -predikat1 =

min for each rule

Request (Down)

= Min ( Request (0)

Inventory (Slightly)

Supplies (0) )

= Min (0; 0) = 0 [R2] IF demand falls and inventory is normal, then corn production is reduced [R3] IF demand falls and supplies much then corn production is reduced [R4] IF demand is normal and then supply of corn production is increased slightly [R5] IF demand is normal and supply is normal, then maize production is normal Figure 3. Structure of the Tsukamoto FIS

Z (Normal Production || down) = (130-Z) / (130-80) =

The specification:

0.5

Input is a number

= (130-Z) / 50 = 0.5

All rules are evaluated in parallel

= 130-Z = 50 (0.5)

defuzzification

= 130-Z = 25

Output of the number

= Z = 130-25 = 115 Z (Normal Production || ascending) = (Z-50) / (80-50) =

3.4 Calculation of Tsukamoto FIS

0.5 = (Z-50) / 30 = 0.5

Table 2. Variable Value Table No. 1.

Name Farmer groups Alam jaya

Demand 100

= Z-50 = 30 (0.5) Supply 60

= Z-50 = 15 = Z = 15 + 50 = 65 [R6] IF demand is normal and supply is much, then corn production is reduced

50 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 Z (Production Decreased || down) = (80-Z) / (80-50) = 0.4

is output on the problems of the prediction of the amount of

= (80-Z) / 30 = 0.4

corn production.

= 80 Z = 30 (0.4) = 80 Z = 12

Table 3. Table of Value defuzzification

= Z = 80-12 = 68

Defuzzification

[R7] IF demand rises and supplies are slight, then corn (0*50) +(0*80) +(0*80) +(0*80) +(0,5*65)

production is increased

+(0,4*68)

[R8] IF demand rises and inventory is normal, then corn

+(0*80) +(0,5*105) +(0,4*62)

production is increased Z (Production Increases || ascending) = (Z-80) / (130-80)

Z= 0+0+0+0+0,5+0,4+0+0,5+0,4

= 0.5 = (Z-80) / 50 = 0.5

(0) +(0) +(0) +(0) +(32,5) +(27,2) +(0) +(52,5)

= Z-80 = 50 (0.5) = Z-80 = 25

+(24,8) Z=

= Z = 25 + 80 = 105

1,8

[R9] IF demand rises and supplies are great, then maize production is normal Z (Normal Production || down) = (130-Z) / (130-80) =

137 Z=

0.4

= 76,111 1,8

= (130-Z) / 50 = 0.4 = 130-Z = 50 (0.4)

Firm value obtained is 76.111. Then the number of

= 130-Z = 20

predicted amount of corn production is 76 Quintal.

= Z = 130-20 = 120 Z (Normal Production || ascending) = (Z-50) / (80-50) =

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

0.4

4.1 Weather Prediction Amount of Production

= (Z-50) / 30 = 0.4

Farmer Alam Jaya clicks the link production quantities. In

= Z-50 = 30 (0.4)

this page there is a form input data for the prediction of the

= Z-50 = 12

amount of corn production. It can be seen in Figure 4.

= Z = 12 + 50 = 62

Below

In Tsukamoto method, to determine the output of firm used an average defuzzification centralized, namely: z = (a1z1 + a2z2 + ... + anzn)) / (a1 + a2 + ... + an) for nine fuzzy rules, the average formula is centralized as follows:

z=

Firm value can be obtained by using the formula for the average centralized 9 fuzzy rules above. The middle value

Figure 4. Page on Predicted Amount of Production

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4.2 Predicted Results Page on Amount of Production In this page the results of predicted amount of corn production can be seen in Figure 5 below

Figure

7.

Pages

of

Predicted

Total

Production

(Administrator)

4.5 Page of Result of Predicted Amount of Production This page contains Prediction Result of Details Total Production. It can be seen in the image below.

Figure 5. Page of Results of Predicted Amount of Production 4.3 Home Rule This page contains a list of rules that can be seen in Figure 6. below.

Figure 8. Predicted Result Details Page of Amount of Production

4.6 Testing Software testing serves to determine the achievement of objectives based on the criteria. In this case the testing is Figure 6. Rule Page

done by connecting each entity of the system in accordance with the specifications of the hardware and software.

4.4 Weather Prediction of Total Production (Administrator)

Application performance testing is only done on the

This page contains a prediction page of production

processing of applications related to the database in

quantities. It can be seen in Figure 7 below:

Dreamweaver 8 program and MySQL database. Whereas, testing is done with the variation in the number of databases should be executed. In addition, the performance of the software is related to the condition of the used database connectivity.

52 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 After Xampp installed for temporary server used is localhost. Arrangements can be made through phpmyadmin

Hakim , Lukmanul. 2006. Book Way Being True PHP Programmers. Media Solutions. Yogyakarta.

database that serves to create, modify and delete databases. With this facility will facilitate the making of the mysql database because it does not use the command (syntax) sql manual.

4.7 Test Results The software is implemented in accordance with the specification requirements on the analysis and design. This is evidenced by the success of each subsystem do what the specification as has been asked in the test results above, so that the process is happening already with the procedures specified. The number of tables is not a barrier to process the data. But while this is the access delay is the time

Kadir, Abdul. 2003. Web Programming, Andi: Yogyakarta. Kristanto, H. 2002. Concepts and Database Design. Andi Offset. Yogyakarta. Kusumadewi, Sri. 2003. "Artificial Intelligent (Techniques and Applications)". Yogyakarta: Graha Science. Kusumadewi, Sri. 2010. Fuzzy Logic Applications for Decision Support.Graha Science: Yogyakarta Sidik, B. 2005. MySQL. Bandung Informatics. Bandung. Sutanta. E.2004. Database Systems. Graha Science. Yogyakarta. Pressman, S. Roger. 2002. Software Engineering. Andi Offset. Yogyakarta.

required to complete the application process all the data but it can also be caused by the quality of the server used. To perform maintenance or care that these websites should have their own server as the use fresshosting will have difficulty, for example, at the time of opening the website will take a long time because the server does not support the program. In the web hosting has to be considered available capacity that can support the programming language PHP and MySQL scripts and supporting software used and the cost to get hosting.

V.CONCLUSION Based on the analysis and discussion of the problem, the conclusions of this study are as follows: a.

The result of the study can be used to generate a prediction of the amount of corn production system using Tsukamoto Fuzzy Inference System.

b.

Prediction of the amount of corn production system helps farmers to determine the amount of rice production to the fore.

REFERENCES Dennis, A. & Haley Wixom, Barbara. 2003. System Analysis Design. Second Edidition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., United States of America.

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ROLE OF COOPERATION IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY HD. Melva Sitanggang1 Fak. Agrotechnology University Prima Indonesia [email protected] ABSTRACT

increasing the incomes of farming communities

Indonesia is an agricultural country rich in

and also its role in the sustainability of

natural

agriculture and social life.

resources

Indonesian

and

population

livelihood of

of

the

predominantly

agricultural products. In the development of the

KEY WORDS : agriculture, farmers

agricultural economy caused by a problem in the field of agriculture as well as in the availability

I. Background Indonesia's

of venture capital that will be used by farmers in

population

continues

to

the provision of seeds and fertilizer as well as

increase, from statistical data in 2014 that the

maintenance until production is required for the

total area of Indonesia 1,919,440 which consists

role of cooperatives in alleviating bebab of

of land and oceans 93.000 1.82644 million.

farmers.

State of Indonesia as an agricultural country said

According to the Act - Act No. 25 in 1992, said

this was due largely Indonesian population

that "Cooperatives are business entities whose

works in agriculture and natural resources are

members - the person or legal entity which

diverse

and

have

a

fairly

wide

area.

bases its cooperative activities based on the

In the agricultural sector GDP increase is

principle of cooperation as well as people's

a sector that needs to be considered because

economic movement based on the principle of

Indonesia is an agricultural country. The

the family" With the role of cooperatives in the

agricultural

provision of soft loans in the availability of

important role in both the economy or

venture capital and cooperatives can play a role

subsistence or food, with the increasing

in the marketing of agricultural products. In

population, food consumption will also be

addition to the effort, this study also describes

increased so as to boost the economy for

the effect of the economy toward ter cooperative

farmers.

country,

agriculture

has

an

farmers and also to the social and cultural life of

Deputy Production Statistics Central

society. And the role of cooperatives in

Statistics Agency (BPS), Adi Lumaksono

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revealed

that

the

agricultural

sector's

"The economy is structured as a joint effort

contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

based on the principle of family". And "wake-up

has been declining since the period 2003 to

company that is in accordance with the

2013 from 15.19 percent to 14.43 percent or

cooperative". Because the impulse ideals -

below average other sectors. This may be due to

ideals that the people, laws - laws on

a lack of cooperative role in the provision of

cooperatives No. 25 of 1992 states that in

capital in agriculture either as seeds, fertilizers

addition to the cooperative business entities are

and lack of knowledge about agriculture as well

also economic movement. "

as in the marketing of agricultural products in

Law - Law No. 25, 1992, gives the definition

which farmers can only rely on middlemen who

of "Cooperative is a business entity consisting

come to agricultural products at a low price.

of people - person or legal entity which bases its

To realize the goal of populist economic

cooperative activities based on the principle of

development, especially in the agricultural

cooperation as well as people's economic

sector, it is necessary to prepare a strategic

movement based on the principle of the family".

policy to increase or accelerate the growth of the

Based on the limitations of cooperatives,

agricultural sector and this may be a growing

cooperative Indonesia contains five elements as

point for other sectors eg the industrial sector,

follows:

particularly the increase in income and welfare of the community through the cooperative. One way

to

achieve

these

objectives

is

the

development of co-operative well-planned and related to the development of other economic sectors, especially in rural areas.

Cooperatives are business entities (Business Enterprise) Cooperative is a collection of people - and the people or entities - legal entity

cooperative

Indonesia Cooperative is a cooperative that works based on the "principle - the principle of cooperation".

II.LITERATURE REVIEW

Cooperative Indonesia is "Movement of

A. Definition Cooperative

People's Economy".

Cooperative is an organized movement that is driven by ideals - ideals of the people reach an

Cooperative Indonesia "based on the principle of kinship"

advanced society, equitable and prosperous as

So that the agricultural sector can be

mandated by the 1945 Constitution, particularly

increased and following the competition an

Article 33 paragraph (1) which states that:

increasingly competitive atmosphere where in

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2015 has been the era of free trade, so the

Cooperative is a gathering of people - people

existence of the cooperative efforts required to

(Association

be able to compete with other businesses,

Merging people - the person based on

because

considered

volunteerism (Voluntarily joined together).

sufficient repsentatif in empowering farming

There are economic objectives to be achieved

these

institutions

are

community's economy.

of

persons).

(to Achieve a common economic end).

With the role of community agricultural

Cooperative formed is a business organization

cooperatives to the economy resulting in a

(entity) that is monitored and controlled

significant improvement to the acceleration of

democratically

(formation

of

the regional economy, and therefore the need for

democratically

controlled

business

partnerships in the development of cooperatives.

organization)

Partnership in question is in the form of

There is a fair contribution to the capital

participation of all elements related to the

required (making equitable contribution to

development of cooperatives.

the capital required)

a

Improvement of a business largely

Members of the cooperative receive the

depends on the existence of cooperatives.

balance of risks and benefits (Accepting a

According to an International organization of

fair share of the risk and benefits of the

cooperatives provide a more detailed definition

undertaking).

of cooperatives and international impact given

In order to increase the GDP of a region

by the ILO as follows: "Cooperative defined as

cooperative development is necessary because it

an association of persons usually of limited

is one of the strategies of each regional head of

means, who have voluntarily joined together to

economic

Achieve a common economic end thorough the

cooperatives has been known so far as an

formation

of

controlled

institution that is considered able to help people

business

organization,

equitable

in solving problems in order to reach the ideal of

contribution

a

to

democratically

the

making

capital

required

development.

The

existence

of

and

enhancing the well-being of the people.

accepting a fair share of risk and benefits of

Cooperative is an autonomous institution that

undertaking". Definition cooperative raised by the

organization, and being in the socio-economic environment, where the existence of the

ILO, there are six elements contained in the

cooperative

can

benefit

each

cooperative as follows:

administrator and leader and all members,

56 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

member,

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administrators and leaders to formulate goals

some certain business activities were identified

autonomously and realize objectives through

were able to provide the benefits and role

work by activities that have been agreed upon

which is better than the other business

and

institutions,thus

can

be

carried

out

jointly.

In the opinion of Sukamdiyo (5: 1997),

Similarly,

the

credit

cooperatives.

First, cooperation is seen as an institution that

Third, the cooperative into an organization

operates a certain business activities, and those

owned by its members. This sense of ownership

activities are needed by the community.

is considered to have been a major factor that

Business activity may be referred to the

led to the cooperative is able to survive on a

financial needs of the service or credit, or

range of difficult conditions, by relying on the

marketing activities or other activities. At this

loyalty of members and kesediaaan members to

level are usually cooperative penyediakan

jointly cooperative experiencing difficulties. As

services business activities that are not provided

an illustration, when conditions banks became

by other business organization or other business

uncertain with very high interest rates, the

institutions can not implement them due to

loyalty of cooperative members make the

regulatory barriers. This can be seen in the role

members do not move existing funds in the

of several credit unions in the provision of funds

cooperative to the bank. The consideration is

is relatively easy for members compared to the

that the relationship with the credit unions

procedure to be followed to obtain funds from

which have longstanding, and to date the credit

banks.

union

Secondly, the cooperative has become an alternative to other business organizations. In

is

able

to

serve,

member-owned

organizations, and the uncertainty of the attractiveness of bank interest.

this condition, people have felt that the benefits

According to Prof. Marvin, A. Schaars, a

and role of koperasilebih good compared to

professor from the University of Wisconsin,

other institutions, the involvement of members

Madison, USA, provides a definition "A

(or not members) with the cooperative is due

Coorperative is a voluntary business is owned

consideration

the

and controlled by members of patrons, and

cooperative is able to provide better service.

operated for them and by them an a non-profit

Cooperative who has been in this condition

or cost basis". Which means, "Cooperative is an

assessed

more

entity that voluntarily owned and controlled by

high visible role for society. Some KUD for

members who are also its customers and

to

rasioanal

be

at

who

a

viewed

level

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operated by them and for them on a nonprofit

to produce certain types of goods and help sell

basis or on the basis of cost".

and market these productions. Members should consist of similar production units.

TYPES AND FORMS OF COOPERATION

In everyday life there are two (2) types of

b. Cooperative based on the level and broad

cooperatives are quite known to the public,

daerahkerja

namely KUD (Koperasi Unit Desa) and KSP

1. PrimaryCooperative

(Credit Unions), which grew and flourished

Primary Cooperative is a cooperative that is a

during the reign of the new order. While KSP

minimum of a membership of 20 individuals.

(Credit Unions) grow and thrive in the

2. Cooperative Secondary

current era of globalization. Village Unit

Cooperative which consists of a combination

Cooperatives

the

of cooperative bodies and has a wide

economy because of the cooperative unit

working area compared to the primary

adheres to the principle of family village.

cooperatives.

very

existence

helps

I.1. TYPES OF COOPERATION

c. Cooperative By Type Efforts

a. Types of Cooperatives by Function:

1. Credit Unions (KSP)

1. Cooperative Consumption

Cooperative which has a single business that

The cooperative was founded to meet the

accommodates ni Melaya member savings and

general needs of its members daily. What is

borrowing. Members who save (store) will get a

certain goods sold in the cooperative should be

fee for the borrower and charged services. The

cheaper slammed in another place, because the

amount of services for savers and borrowers are

cooperative aims for the welfare of its members.

determined through members. from meeting

2. Cooperative Services

here, cooperative business activities can be said

The cooperative was founded to provide

to be "of, by, and for the members."

financial services in the form of loans to its members. Of interest are set to be lower

2. Business Multipurpose Cooperative (KSU)

than borrow money other places.

Cooperative that its business manifold. For

3. Cooperative Production

example, savings and loan business unit, the unit

Its business is helping supply of raw

stores to serve the daily needs of members as

materials, production equipment supply, helping

well with the needs of society, the production

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II.Cooperative Porpuse

unit 3. Cooperative Consumption

We know that the information we get

Cooperative whose scope of business providing

from farmers in conducting agricultural sector at

the daily needs of members. The need is for

the present time is terms of the availability of

example the need groceries, clothing, home

seeds and fertilizer problem that costs soaring

furnishings.

and often empty in the market. So is the case

4. Cooperative Production

with the marketing problems faced due to

Production cooperative is a cooperative whose

production facilities and infrastructure that do

scope

goods

not support the development of the agricultural

jointly-

sector. If we look at Indonesia's laws and

sama.Anggota cooperative generally own efforts

regulations set forth in Article 3 of Law No. 25

and through cooperative members get funding

in 1992, said that the purpose of the cooperative

and marketing.

is

of

business

(manufacture)

and

making selling

the the

Promoting the welfare of cooperative members and the community (Promote the welfare of

I.2. FORMS OF COOPERATION According to Regulation 60 of 1959 that

members of Cooperatives and community)

the cooperative form is divided into two forms

Participate in developing national economic

namely:

order

1. Primary Cooperative

economic order) in order to create a society that

Cooperative is the primary form of cooperative whose members consist of

people

(Participate

in

building

a

national

is prosperous, just and developed with still based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.

with the number of members a minimum of 20 people, who have in common activities, interests, goals and needs of the economy. 2. Cooperative Secondary Cooperatives

formed

III. Function And Role of Cooperatives Running a business, we can not be separated from management functions because

by

at

least

three

in a company have an organization consisting of

cooperatives are legal entities both primary and

existing employees in the company. All

secondary. By taking the example of the

members of the existing organization has a

cooperative that is known now, meaning the

function, and the role of each in running the

center of the cooperative established by at least

organization as well as with cooperative

three primary cooperatives.

organizations. In cooperatives that exist in

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Indonesia has a function and a role as follows:

1. Agricultural crops (rubber, palm oil, etc.).

1. Develop and build the capability and potential

2. Agricultural crops (rice, beans, corn, etc.).

of cooperative members in particular and

The science of agricultural economics is

society in general to improve the socio-

a science related to the good management of the

economic welfare.

availability of capital, seed, fertilizer and

2. Participate actively (role Actively) in order to

marketing of agricultural production. Along

increase and improve the quality of life of

with the times in which the development of

members of the cooperative and community.

agricultural economics increasingly gained a

3. Strengthen and mengkokohkan economy as

place after the formation of the Association of

the basic resilience of the Indonesian people and

Indonesian Agricultural Economics (PERHEPI)

the strength of the national economy by the

in

February

1969

in

Ciawi,

Bogor.

cooperative as a cornerstone of his teacher.

According Mubyarto 2003, said that

4. Trying to realize and develop the national

the agricultural economy is the study of

economy which is a joint venture based on the

phenomena and problems related to agriculture

democratic

both

principle

of

the

family

and

macro

and

micro.

economists. In carrying out the functions and

In Indonesia, agricultural problems caused by

role of the cooperative depends on what the

the lack of government's role in empowering the

sector needs to be developed in the development

agricultural sector, where this can we see the

of an area so that the existence of a cooperative

lack of agricultural policy for empowerment of

is beneficial in improving the economy of

farmers and agricultural infrastructure such as:

society.

capital of farmers, fertilizers and pesticides, agricultural extension workers, and agricultural

B. Definition of Agricultural Economics

markets.

Indonesia is an agricultural country and agriculture is one sector that is dominant in the

I.

Problem

In

Agricultural

Economics

life of Indonesian society. It can be seen from

In carrying out agricultural activities,

the majority of the population who are farmers

many of the problems faced by the farmers that

and supported by soil fertility conditions and

we know very influential on the availability of

tropical climates can grow a variety of crops.

capital,

Agriculture in Indonesia is divided into two, namely:

seeds,

fertilizers

and

marketing.

The sustainability of agriculture is strongly influenced by the yields obtained by

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farmers and prices give a traders. Income

converted into residential land. If this happens,

derived dati agriculture is expected to be

it is expected that the role of government in

sufficient

farmers.

finding a solution to conduct training in the field

Problems faced by farmers in general are weak

of agricultural science undertaken by PPL to

in terms of Capital resulted in a low level of use

effect

of inputs for farmers generally have a narrow

agricultural

land area and because of being pressured

Diversification

lives

of

improvements

in

development

the for

of

pattern

of

example

do

Agriculture.

financial problems when the production of

Increased agricultural productivity in

agricultural products declined. Besides the

Indonesia is experiencing a variety of problems

production of quality agricultural sector is still

where this is caused by several things, among

low, due to the pattern of Indonesian agriculture

others:

is still oriented to meet the needs of the family

1. Aspects paradigm where agribusiness system

(subsistence), If the results of market-oriented

should be based shifted to farmers

agricultural community is then farmers will try

entrepreneurs, while the role of governments

to make improvements to agricultural output.

as facilitators and perceived role of local

Still

length

of

the

chain

of

the

agricultural trade system, causing farmers can

and

government is still lacking. 2. Aspects of production where the business

not enjoy better prices, because traders have

scale is still small farmers and

taken profits from the sale are too large.

land conversion to non agriculture is very

In addition to the internal problems

high, very minimal irrigation canals and

faced by farmers in the field of management of

many are damaged, the lack of war of

agriculture, problems that also affect the

agricultural extension workers, the high

availability of supporting factors such as

human dependence on rice, the traditional

infrastructure, rural economic institutions, the

agricultural system in which the public

intensity of illumination, and government

farming

policies that give effect to an increase in

conditions, we still smallholder farmers who

activities in agriculture and increase farmers'

have small land sanagat bahkaan still many

access

yanag rented land and low agricultural

on

demand

market.

The high rate of population growth of Indonesian society while the land is fixed. This causes the existing agricultural land will be

is

still

dependent

agricultural

on

natural

technology farmers. 3.

Aspects of distribution where price fluctuations

are

very

high,

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uneven

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distribution

management

throughout

the

processing, maintenance and other agronomic

region, demand from outside the region is

measures. Based on the stage of development of

very high, which has not been recorded rice

agriculture generative divided into two groups:

reserves.

1. Shifting cultivation (shifting cultivation),

4. Aspects of consumption where food safety, food

insecurity

and

malnutrition,

2. Agricultural settled (settled agricultured)

food

Furthermore, based on the economic

diversification as well as people's purchasing

characteristics inherent in each style agriculture

power is inadequate.

are

two

categories

namely

agricultural

5. Aspects of coordination where each agency

subsistence farming and commercial farming.

only focus on their respective duties and the

Subsistence agriculture is characterized by a

lack of role of leader among agencies to

lack of access to markets. In other words,

cooperate in the improvement of agriculture.

agricultural products are produced to meet

6. Financial aspects where the farmer is very

family

difficult to get funding in agriculture so that

Commercial agriculture was on the side

farmers are less than the maximum in the

dichotomous

improvement of agriculture. (Journal of Defense

Commercial agriculture generally characterize

Studies

agricultural

RI,

May

15,

2013

edition).

consumption

only,

not

subsistence

companies

(farm)

for

sale.

agriculture.

where

the

manager has a market-oriented farming. Thus II. Scope of Agriculture Based on the development of agricultural

the entire agricultural output is generated entirely sold and not consumed alone.

activities carried out by the Indonesian peasant society is divided into two types of agriculture

III.

are:

Agricultural Economy

Problems

Impact

on

Growth

of

a. Extractive agriculture, namely farming is

In Indonesia Positive impact Indonesia is a

done by simply taking or collecting natural

country rich in natural resources are abundant,

results without the effort of reproduction. This

especially related to the agricultural sector, such

kind of agriculture include fisheries and

as; land, water, climate and variety of crops

extraction of forest products.

where there is a problem about the high rate of population growth while agricultural land

b. Agriculture

generative ie agricultural

remain and even less.

patterns that require breeding or breeding,

62 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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When existing agricultural land can be

`

At this time the cooperative development

put to good use and maximum intensification

received less attention from the government

and diversification of agricultural crops, the

because

agricultural sector has a huge potential in the

performance and a better image than ever

development

sector.

before. This situation is one proof that the

The agricultural sector is expected to absorb the

government's commitment is still lacking in the

labor force due to the increase in population

development of cooperatives and the number of

increase where it will have an impact on the

farmer cooperatives that are not growing even

decrease

in

rate.

close because they do not have the capital in its

If

we

of

activities. To support the advancement of the

agricultural land and many people then this

agricultural sector, the role of cooperatives very

condition should be a very big yaang capital for

great influence starting from the availability of

the government in managing agricultural and

capital and production factors needed in

empowering communities. In the financial crisis

agricultural activities and the marketing of the

that hit Indonesia in 1998 when it was then of

products

of

the

the

agricultural

unemployment

compare

the

condition

of

of

the

the

cooperative

agricultural

showed

less

community.

all production sectors in Indonesia had been

Development of the agricultural sector is

swept away, but the agricultural sector which

a process that must be sustained. The next

can survive and revive the monetary crisis in

question how cooperative prospects in the

Indonesia.

future. Indonesian Society for the existence of

Negative Impact Exploration The natural

the cooperative already familiar, the cooperative

resources without excessive attention to local

is characterized by an establishment or family

wisdom and the environment that will lead to

togetherness. Cooperatives in Indonesia engaged

reduced and destruction of natural resources

in various fields that point in giving a loan in

owned so will hamper the development of the

conducting business activities so as to achieve

agricultural sector.

the welfare of the community, and one of the

If population growth continues to increase is

benefits of cooperatives to agriculture.

supervised it would also

Indonesian communities largely live off

cause a serious problem for food needs.

the farm so that the role of cooperatives have a

not in control and

considerable influence in the beginning does the C. The Role of Cooperatives in Agricultural

farm until the end of the farm as expected

Economics.

cooperative activities can be as a container to

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accommodate the agricultural products of the

the Context of National Defense, Defense RI Research Journal, Issue 15, May 2013.

community so that the community is no pressure on

prices

for

agricultural

production.

Businesses in agriculture is an activity that many obstacles facing them is the application of agricultural management, capital, information,

education

and

technology.

Cooperative is an effort to address the constraints faced by farmers, but until now the role expected by the Cooperative can not be implemented

properly

and

even

many

cooperatives that can not perform its functions

Hutasuhut D, Arman. 2005. Scientific Journal "Management and Business" Program Management Studies, Faculty of Economics, University of North Sumatra Muhammadiyah. Riau: UMSU, Press. Krisnamurthi, B. 2002. Building Cooperative Member Based in the Framework of Economic Development of the People. People Economic Journal. Year I. 4. June 2002. Mubyarto, 2013, Introduction to Agricultural Economics, Publisher LP3ES, Jakarta. Law

BIBLIOGRAPHY Annonimius, 2013, Enhance Agricultural Productivity To Achieve Food Security in

No.25 of 2000 on the National Development Program 2000-2004.

Wolf, Eric R. 1983. Farmer A Review of Anthropology. Jakarta: PT Rajawali

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ASSOCIATION RULE METHOD FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM EPIDEMIC DENGUE MAPPING BASED ASSOCIATION OF RISK FACTORS IN PALEMBANG Ermatita1, Suci Destriatania2 Computer Faculty of Sriwijaya University1, Public Health Faculty of Sriwijaya University2, Palembang City. Indonesia1, Palembang City. Indonesia2 [email protected] 1, [email protected] 2 ABSTRACT Endemic diseases dangerous such as dengue fever must be handling seriously for the risk minimize by the disease.

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is disease has not been found vaccine or cure is powerful. It is necessary

Endemic disease is serious problem faced by an

treatment to prevent the occurrence of dengue fever,

area (region). Endemic diseases dangerous such as dengue

especially when it came to the incidence of dengue fever

fever must be handling seriously to minimize the risk

endemic in certain areas by doing Epidemiologist dengue

disease. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is disease

fever. Epidemiology is identification of risk factors for

which has not been found vaccine or cure is powerful.

DHF to find level of area

risk. Risk factors of

Endemic dengue is often found in Palembang city.

hemorrhagic fever endemic must be identified to prevent

Various articles have revealed that Dengue Hemorrhagic

the occurrence of dengue fever. Identifying risk factors

Fever (DHF) often occurred in Palembang.

and risk factors association can potential increase the

Head of Health Office Palembang city,

Anton

occurrence of dengue fever. This study developed

Suwindro mention in the newspaper Sindo December 23,

mapping information system Dengue epidemic through

2013 stated, cases of dengue

Association rule method of data mining. The information

recorded 725 cases and 2011 as many as 500 cases.

generated in the map of epidemic DHF level based

Meanwhile, until the beginning of December 2013, the

association of potential risk factors that cause hemorrhagic

number of dengue cases already can be reduced to 450

fever endemic. Analysis with the Association Rule to

cases.

determine level of

Palembang continued.

DHF epidemic area based data

reporting system.

Therefore,

prevention

in Palembang at 2012

of

dengue

cases

in

Palembang consists of 14 sub-district with 103 villages including

region endemic in the province of

KEY WORDS

South Sumatra. Found 85 villages (83.5%) and 16

information system mapping, data mining, Association

endemic villages (15.5%) are sporadic and only one area

Rule, endemic, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF).

of the village belongs to the category of potential-free. (DHO Palembang, 2005, Prop South Sumatra Health Office, 2005). By region by district / city in South Sumatra Province, dengue morbidity in Palembang is high (62.34

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every 100,000 population), Prabumulih (49.93 every

important for the Management in decision making. The

100,000 population), Banyuasin (26.22) and Lubuk

information system is system within

Linggau (15.66). (South Sumatra province health office

brings daily transaction processing needs to support

2008, Hamza Hashim, 2008). Of the 14 districts, Ilir

operations function managerial organization with strategic

Timur I was the District with the most dengue cases with

activities of

117 cases per 100,000 population with CFR 1%. Based on

outside parties with the necessary reports (Sutabri, 2004).

organization that

organization be able to provide certain

the case every year, the city of Palembang considered

2.1.2 Components of the information system

endemic region (Santoso, 2008) in (Hamzah, et al, 2009).

According to Burch Grudniski (1986) said that

Therefore, it takes a work program to combat and

the information system referred to as term building blocks

control the spread of dengue fever in the city of

, among others input block, model block, database block,

Palembang. To prevent and control dengue endemic

technology block and control block . Six of the block is

should be understood risk factors that can lead to endemic

interact with each other unity form to achieve their goals.

dengue. There are many risk factors that can lead to the

2.1.3. Basic Concepts Database

incidence of dengue fever. Among other risk factors cause

Database

is

collection

of

computerized

a lot of population, high population mobility, low areas,

information with respect to certain topics (Suyanto, 2003).

weather, population age, gender and densely populated. In

According to Kadir (2003) referenced in Ariansyah

accordance with the Minister's decision 581/1992 on

(2004), the database is system of organizing data with the

efforts to combat dengue fever, the efforts to control the

help of computer that allows data to be accessed easily

disease must be done by looking at three (3) important

and quickly.

matters, namely: 1) human resources, such as counseling

Database

can

organize

the

information

and education; 2) policy agents, such as government /

interrelated and to be logical form for easy access

cross-sectoral and community; 3) action, in the form of

(Suyanto, 2003).

preventive and curative. (Kurniati, 2009).

2.2 Epidemiology Dengue Cases Dengue is

vector-borne disease, which could

2. Literature Review

potentially cause Extraordinary Events. Proactive effort to

2.1 Information System

prevent the occurrence of Extraordinary Events Dengue can be done by controlling risk factors, such as

2.1.1 The basic concept of information systems dengue

environmental risk factors physical (vector breeding sites),

fever

biological environment (vector), as well as the social According Sutabri (2004), the system is group of

elements that are closely related to one another, which function together to achieve certain goals. Furthermore Suyanto (2004) describes the information is data process into more useful form and better meaningful to humans. Application of information systems within the organization to support information needed by all levels of management. It is known that the information is very

environment (knowledge, attitudes and behaviors) that can be done through study Risk Factors DHF aims to identify environmental risk factors (physical and social) based on regional approach, measured variables of risk factors physical and social environment include the level of knowledge about dengue and the presence of larvae in the homes of respondents, with the parameters of House Index (HI ). The existence of high HI indicates that in the

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surveyed area has the potential for the occurrence of

identify risk factors of dengue fever. This study enroll 6

dengue transmission in the region because there are

risk factors to be studied

sources of infection (patients with DHF). Even in the

Topography, rising temperatures, climate change and

absence of DHF patients was still

population density.

chance for the

there are: Age, Sex,

occurrence of dengue transmission if the mosquitoes in the region has occurred Vertically transmission, i.e the transmission of Dengue viruses occur vertically from the mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae mature to derivatives so that when adults are infective without having to bite people with dengue , (Ludfi Santoso Eni Ratna Mintarsih, Hadi Suwasono, 1996, Enny Muchlastriningsih et al, 1997). Actually, the Indonesian people already know the signs and modes of transmission of DHF, because DHF entered Indonesia since 36 years ago. Prevention is simple and does not need high technology. To combat dengue clear and simple steps are needed to foster changes in attitudes and awareness of all parties and the community in keeping the environment clean. With large population, supposedly helping people and worked together to clean up the environment, just with simple steps mosquito nest eradication (PSN) conducted by 3M activity, the chain of transmission of the mosquito Aedes aegypti as the cause DHF can be cut, so as not to spread widely. (Rita Kusriastuti 2004, Wiku BB. Adisasmito M. Hasyimi, 1997) incidence of dengue cases has increased more years with different clinical manifestations. It is transboundary disease, which can actually be predicted and anticipated by the model-based integrated management of infectious diseases in the region comprehensive perspective. (Umar Fahmi Achmadi, 2005, Dep.Kes RI, 2002b, Gubler DJ, 1988, Santoso, 2008).

Results of research showed the age group most affected (data of patients by sex and age) 5- 9 years old and 9-14 years age group. While male gender that suffered most were. This may imply that risk factor age and risk factor gender had impact on the Dengue Fever endemic. These data indicate that the incidence of dengue fever affected by weather and climates which is a lot of rainfall will affect the high incidence of dengue fever. Conditions weather is risk factor that affects dengue too. Risk factor of topographical areas many marshes relative incidence of dengue fever becomes more. It shows that Topography affects dengue epidemic. Based upon

risk factor that has been stated

above, sought the association of each risk factor that can amplify the incidence of dengue fever. The results will be showcased in the mapping of areas prone to epidemics of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. To analyze the effect of concurrent risk factors that can lead to an epidemic of dengue fever, a technique used association rule. Occurrence of a particular set of items is determined by counting the frequent item sets. Following simulations on systems that have been developed. Initially will be selected health centers of villages in the city of Palembang. Region predetermined point is the determination of the location of health centers to be sampled. As shown Figure 1. below:

3. Results and Discussion Results of this study is mapping information system Dengue epidemic DHF at Palembang city. The system developed based on the analysis and design of

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comparator.

So

we

get

the

data

as

follows

Figure 1. Location of health centers to be sample Above is the result of data output by specifying the

Figure. .3 The existing comparator

coordinates health centers sako

Once we get the value of the largest possible potential of an area. Then it will be displayed as shown below.

Once completed, determine the value of an epidemic of a

Calculations using avg value of the existing potential.

new sample data that we have input. By selecting the menu Factors> Risk Factors

Figure 2. Risk Factor Select the Village that will be made Assessment . And enter a value of 1 and 0 as Substitute and no. After successful entry into the next menu. Menu Factor> Factor Comparison Select the Village, then select comparison. After

doing

repeatedly

throughout

the

existing

Figure 4. The value of the largest possible potential of area Here is a picture on the home page, where the data is displayed in a manner that appears most frequently value. And on the following pages, the menu mapping Epidemic total. By looking for the maximum value

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obtained from the calculation of the epidemic that we

2. Association of several risk factors can increase the potential of

created earlier.

endemic dengue. 3. The system developed for mapping the dengue fever

By using the calculation of the total value of the results of the comparison. And provide the possibility / biggest percentage that will happen.

epidemic that is based on the association of risk factors, can identify areas that have some association with the risk factors that can lead to an epidemic of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever.

References [1] Mintarsih, E.R, Santoso, L, Suwasono, Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Term Life Natural Air Aedes aegypti females in Salatiga Municipality and Semarang, Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, International Standard Serial Number: 0125 913X,1996

Figure 5. Result of calculation on map And the calculated value epidemic in total, we can see, same potential value. So that the colors on the map did not under go changes. Results of level dengue epidemic potential of associated risk factors. Dengue fever epidemic potential, according to calculations by Association Rule method. In Figure.5 above shows the blue color of the village shows that the potential is at level 4. This means that the association of some of these risk factors is high enough potential cause of the epidemic of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever.

4. Conclusion Based on the research that has been done and the results of discussions which have been described previously, it can

2] Enny Muchlastriningsih,E, et All, Haemagglutination Test Results Analysis of Patients with Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Jakarta, , Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, International Standard Serial Number: 0125 913X, 1997 [3] Erdinal and Hasyim, H, Spatial Analysis of Risk Factors Dengue dengeu In the province of South Sumatra PSKM FK Unsri, DIPA DIKTI,2008 [4] Jogiyanto, H.M, Introduction of ComputerBasic Computer Science , Programming . Information Systems and Artificial Intelegenti Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi. 888, 1999 [5] Kurniati. D, Sanitation Hygiene study DHF in Palembang, South Sumatra in 2009 ,http://www.tempo.co/, 2009 [6] Hasyimi. M, Wiku Bb. Adisasmito (1997) Impact of Community Participation in Dengue Fever Prevention against the vector density in the district of East Jakarta Pulogadung, Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, International Standard Serial Number: 0125 913X, 1997 [7] Robert H and Friis, T, Sellers Epidemiology for Public Health Practice, Boston, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2004

be concluded that: 1. The risk factor is a factor that can give potential dengue

[8] Roux, A.V. Diez, A Glossary for Multilevel Analysis. Journal Epidemiology Community Health, 588-594, 2002

trjadinya [9] Santoso, Knowledge,Attitude and Relationshipof The Community Towards

69 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

Practice Dengeu

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Hemorraghic Fever (DHF) in Palembang City South Sumatra Province. Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan, 7, 732-739, 2008 [10] Sithiprasasna R, Et.Al (2004 ) The geographic information system as an epidemiological tool in the surveillance of dengue virus-infected Aedes mosquitos. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 2004 [11] Sutabri, T, Analysis of Information Systems, Yogyakarta : ANDI Yogyakarta, 211, 2004 [12] Suyatno. 2003, Microsoft Access 2000 Fundamental. Bogor : Training Database and Networking Biodiversity. National Biodiversity Information Network-LIPI. 76, 2003 [13] W.J Parks, Et.Al, International Experiences In Social Mobilization And Communication For Dengeu Prevention And Control, Overview. Dengeu Bulletin, WHO., 28, 2004 [14] Who, Demam Berdarah Dengue Diagnosis, Pengobatan, Pencegahan dan Pengendalian. , Jakarta, Buku Kedokteran EGC, 1998

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S-GIS: DIGITAZING SKIN DISEASE SPREAD IN LAMPUNG PROVINCE INDONESIA Rahmalia Syahputri1, Muhammad Said Hasibuan2 Faculty of Computer Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Lampung Province, Indonesia [email protected], [email protected]

In specific area, for instance Bandar Lampung, the

ABSTRACT Skin disease is a common disease whether in urban or

graphics are same. For period 2009

2013, the New

rural area. Various types are listed in this category. Some

Case Detection Rate (NCDR) of leprosy tends to rise

of them are easily transmitted and turn into epidemic. To

(figure 1) [4].

help the health department or other parties to map the spread of the diseases as well as to broadcast the information easily to the citizen, thus it is important to develop a system that able to provide data based on gograpfical. Furthermore, the data should be easily to be accesed. To enable related parties to be able to collect, store, and analyze the spread of skin disease particularly in

Lampung

Province

Indonesia,

a

geographical

information system has been developed. In addition, this system acts as a monitoring tool for Government or

Figure 1. Leprosy Distribution in Bandar Lampung City

Agencies that responsible for the health issues in Lampung and Indonesia.

To facilitate the health department and related parties to map the spread of the skin diseases, the

KEY WORDS: geographic information system, skin diseases spread, Lampung Province.

geographic based information system, called S-GIS is built. In addition, this system is able to be a center of information about the diseases. Hence, the public will be

1. Introduction

easy to access the information as well as monitor it.

Lampung Province is located in the most south of Sumatera island of Indonesia. The province had a population of 7,880,769 at the 2013 census [1] and has total area 35,376 km2 [2]. Lampung is subdivided into twelve regencies and two autonomous cities [2]. In Lampung, according to data from the Department of Health from 2009

2012, a number of

people who was infected by leprosy, one of skin disease, was slightly rose from previous period for about 0, 33 per 1,000 people. The level of cure rates from this disease, however, still less than 90% [3].

2. Geographic

Information

System

in

Health Geographic Information System is widely used in the health field to map the spread of a particular disease area. According to Musa, et al [5] GIS has been used in the health sector since the 5th century country China, Greece, and India. In the 18th century, the first modern map of the disease had been created by Leonhard Ludwig Finke. This map is an important tool for

71 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 understanding the spread of the disease and the

The user of this system is divived into three categories:

relationship between the diseases and environmental

administrator, operator, and guest. The administrator is

conditions. With the development computer science in

responsible to manage the entire system, adding new

the 20th century, the map can be made more quickly and

operator, adding new data of regencies and autonomous

more precise calculations. In addition, the spread of the

cities. The operator has responsibility to input the data.

disease can be easily mapped and analyzed.

The guest is people or other parties who want to view

In 2012, Loughnan, et al [6], uses GIS to map the

and get the information from the system.

risk of heat stroke in urban areas while the summers are very extreme region Melbourne, Australia. While Curtis, et al, utilizes video spatial data which is then translated into the GIS to analyze the risk of diseases associated with changes in the urban environment [7]. In 2015 [8], Ebener, uses GIS to map the health of mothers and newborns to support develepment Millennium Goals. In the same year, Ayanlade, et al, uses GIS and Remote Sensing Technigue to manage the spread of epidemic

Figure 3 Use Case for Administrator

meningitis in Northern Nigeria. The system is built using PHP language

3. Proposed System

program, while the database is using the MySQL. The

The system is built to be able to run on personal

maps menu is linked to google maps.

computer, laptop, notebook and other media that support connection to internet and has a web broser application installed as well. Users can use various web browsers such as Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome or Opera. The sytem covers information the spread of skin dieases in all regencies and autonomous cities of Lampung.

User access the Skin Diseases Database

4. Result and Discussion The information system has six main menus which are home, maps/peta, disease/penyakit, patient/penderita, and login. Each of menus has it own function. For instance, home menu has function to be a front cover of the information system.

(SDS), where all the data are stored, and view the map through the server.

Figure 4. Home Menu

On menu Disease/Penyakit, there are three fileds that need to be filled by the operator system, the code of disease, the disease itself, the image and the symtomps of the disease. This menu is itended to give Figure 2. Architecture System

information about the various skin diseases and to let the viewers or visitor able to check their skin if infected by one of the diseases.

72 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 to detect skin diseases, how to cure them, and other information. Hence, the viewers will get numerous of valuable information and aware about their health.

Figure 5. Various of Skin Diseases Menu/Jenis Penyakit Kulit Figure 8 News/Berita

To be able to map the spread of the skin disease, the operator needs to provide information about the data of

5. Conclusion

patients. This data will be not published, to ensure the

In Conclusion, the system to provide information

confidentiality of the patient, only operator and

regarding the spread of skin disease based on geographic

administrator who able to view this page. However, for

of Lampung Province has been built. This system helps

the few parties who have right to get this data, they will

health department to broadcast the information to

be able to request it by contacting the operator.

increase the awareness of health in society. To take full advantage of the system, some functions such as type of skin diseases and news have been sucefully added.

Acknowledgement(s) Thank you to Directorate of Research and Community Service, Directorate General Higher Education of Figure 6 Menu Data of Patient/Data Penderita

Republic Indonesia for the grant to conduct this research.

References Once the data of patients have been entered, the operator will be able to view a number of patients in particular area. This information helps the viewers to see the data largely. Thus, they will be able to see the dissimilarity of the patient in particular period.

Figure 7 Maps/Peta

To optimize the function of the system, news menu is developed. Operator can publish information about how

[1] Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Data dan Informasi kesehatan Propinsi Lampung, 2013. [2] https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lampung [3] Profil Kesehatan Provinsi Lampung Tahun 2012. [4] Profil Kesehatan Kota Bandar Lampung Tahun 2013. [5] Musa, George J., et al. Use of GIS mapping as a public health tool-from cholera to cancer. Health Services Insight (2013): 111. [6] Laughan, Margaret., Neville Nicholls., and Nigel J. Tapper. Mapping heat health risks in urban areas. International Journal of Publication Research (2012). [7] Curtis, Andrew, et al. A ubiquitous method for street scale spatial data collection and analysis in challenging urban environments: mapping health risks using spatial video in Haiti. International Journal of Health Geographics 12 (2013): 21. [8] Ebener, Steeve, at al. The Geography of maternal and newborn health: the state of the art. International Journal of Health Geographics 14 (2015): 19.

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LEADERSHIP STYLE RIGHT IN THE DEMOCRATIC *Togu Harlen Lbn. Raja Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi LMII Medan *Dewan Pembina Yayasan IMII, Ketua LPPM STIE LMII Medan. Doktor bidang Manajemen dari Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung. [email protected]

ABSTRACT

President Jokowi is one of the leaders who attract the

Each leader has a leadership style that is different to

attention of the people of Indonesia and even the

be adapted to the work environment so as to avoid

international community because of the presence of

internal conflicts between superiors and subordinates.

the President Jokowi become President of the people

No leadership style that has been attached since the

of Indonesia, where he comes from ordinary people

man was still in the womb, but some are derived from

become President.

experience and knowledge about leadership.

President Jokowi career ranging from the Mayor of

In an era of democratization takes leaders who have a

Solo, Jakarta Governor and now as the President of

democratic leadership style that promotes democratic

the Republic of Indonesia which is the first time in

values that exist so that the subordinate was given the

Indonesian history records about the hierarchy

opportunity to cooperate and coordinate with

obtained by someone from a small office to large

colleagues in the organization.

office. This success is quite remarkable that earned by a man

Keywords: Style Leadership and Democracy.

named Joko Widodo, who is believed to be the President of the Republic of Indonesia to 7.

Preliminary.

Obviously the success of President Jokowi influenced

In everyday life we can see the various types of

by the type of leadership that exist in itself and the

leadership that is both small in size and large size that

democratic system in Indonesia as a democratic state.

are around us.

With the democratic system adopted in our country

The leader of the smallest is the leader in the

then there is the opportunity for every citizen to

household where the husband is the leader in every

choose and choose to be leaders in our country

household that will bring to the direction in which the

ranging from village elections, election of regent /

destination of the household and is responsible for the

vice regent and mayor / deputy mayor, the election of

entire household activities.

governor / deputy governor and presidential elections

Talking about the leader is not unusual but it is not

and vice president.

unusual because every day we hear people talking

Indonesian public's attention is very focused on the

about leaders and leadership.

attitudes and policies taken by President Jokowi in

We can hear and read the story of the leaders in the

organizing government has entrusted to him during

world that began in the days of the prophet, the royal

the next 5 years.

era to the present age of the millennium.

The

President Jokowi is a leader at any time discussed in

organizations

Indonesia and even abroad because each leader will

dependent on the leader and the type of leadership

be a concern for the people around him.

that exist in the leadership of the type of leadership

success

of and

an

organization

large

both

organizations

small highly

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where one will be able to affect change in the behavior of others to follow the direction of

Understanding the Leader.

leadership.

Hearing the words of a leader that is in our mind is

We hear many famous leaders were greatly admired

that there is someone who is a role model in an

by the international community because of persona

environment.

and the type of leadership that the implementation

The presence of the leader in a place influenced by a

can affect people who hear it.

number of reasons and certainly one is based on the

1.

In

a

rule,

the

leadership

pattern

is

attitudes and behaviors that exist in itself which can

determined by a number of determinants, among

convince others.

others:

Any person or organization in desperate need of a

2.

leader is firm and bold, especially to fight for the

and

Philosophy of the country as a way of life worldview

(lebensanschauung

and

rights and the fate of its members and is always

welanscahuung).

present when the members of the organization

3.

requires.

Factors ideological, political, economic,

social, cultural, defense, national security is

The organization is a group of people who are in a

growi in the country concerned.

container that cooperate in achieving goals together

Personality leaders with all the characteristics, habits,

with utilizing all the resources that exist in the

temperament and character thatdefine the style of the

organization.

organization that will be used, helpers that surrounds

From the above understanding can be explained that

him, the means used, professed ideology and

the elements of the organization are:

objectives to be achieved. (Kartini Kartono, 2011).

1. The existence of a group of people.

There are few international figures who greatly

2. The existence of cooperation.

admired by the international community of its

3. The existence of a common goal.

leadership as: Ir. Soekarno President of the Republic

Thus, the three elements that will have a bottleneck in

of Indonesia, Mahatma Gandhi in India who are able

the achievement that does not have a leader who is

to invite people to strive together in seizing

able to coordinate with existing members in it.

independence.

Definition of a leader is a person who has the skills

Many other figures who succeeded in carrying out

and advantages (especially in the field) to be able to

their duties in carrying out the mandate given to him

influence others to jointly undertake certain activities

based on the type of leadership that is adhered

in order to achieve one or more objectives. (Syamsul

respectively.

Arifin, 2012).

The presence of a leader in the middle of the

Then Matondang, 2008, said that a leader is someone

community is needed because people want to live

who is able to influence others to do or not do

together with a sense of peace side by side so we

something to be desired as desired.

need a leader who can to save.

A leader is someone who has the ability to lead

We also heard many stories about the greed of

means to have the ability to influence the behavior of

leaders ranging from ancient times to the present

another person or group without regard to the form of

repression against its members.

the reason. (Susilo Martoyo, 2001).

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From the above understanding is clear that the

When we consider that a successful leader when the

presence of a leader is needed once in an organization

leader is able to perform the function of leadership

because it will be able to manage all the resources

there is in him that is able to influence others to carry

available to the organization for the welfare of its

out his orders.

members live. In a democracy the presence of a leader can be born

Leadership values that exist in a leader can come

at once because there are no rules that hamper the

from a variety of reasons such as:

emergence of a leader in the midst of society, another

1. The instinct of existing born attached to him

case with the ancient times when the royal era where there will be a leader if it comes from the kingdom or

since the human being in the womb. 2. Experience in get by someone on the activities

the son of a king for generations.

done in everyday life that can be emulated

Currently there are still some countries that embrace

surrounding community.

the kingdom such as: Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei,

3. The knowledge gained by someone on the

Japan, Britain, the Arab countries, etc.

leadership that the leader be a leader on

In a country that adheres to the kingdom then people

knowledge

will not get the chance to be king of the common

deliberately prepared by the government to

people so that is possible to be king.

meet the required number of leaders and

In Indonesia, which adheres to the republican system

quality leaders expected.

gained.

Such

leaders

are

of government gives an opportunity to every people

Preparation is done to get a quality leader expected

of Indonesia to be anything in the government that

leaders so as to bring the organization's direction and

has the ability to carry out their duties.

objectives for the future.

From the seventh President of the Republic of Indonesia, the Indonesian president only one person

The Government issued a huge cost to make and

who has a relationship with his parents as a President

prepare prospective leaders in both government

is Mrs. Megawati, but not because of bloodlines as

institutions and the military and police agencies

the son of the President which resulted in Mrs.

through increased formal education and training.

Megawati became president, but because of the

Faustino, 2001, said that the training is any attempt to

nature of democracy that exist in Indonesia which

improve the performance of the worker to a particular

provides the opportunity for anyone to become a

job is becoming a responsibility or a job that has to

leader in Indonesia.

do with his job.

Leadership.

The goal of the training is carried out:

Said leaders have a relationship with the word

1.

Increasing appreciation of life and ideology.

leadership where these two words have a close

2.

Increasing labor productivity.

relationship. Leader means a human figure, while

3.

Improving the quality of work.

leadership is in the process of carrying out the

4.

Increase the provision of human resource

functions leader attached to a person.

planning.

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  5.

Increase the stimulus so that employees are able to perform maximal.

There are several types of leadership, namely:

6.

Improve health and safety.

1.

7.

Avoid Obsolescence (Obsolescence).

that is in him that has the power to influence

8.

Increase employee development. (Anwar

others through charisma that is in the leader.

Prabu Mangkunegara, 2001).

2.

Leadership charismatic type of leadership

Leadership

is

a

type

of

leadership

paternalistic fatherly type of leadership which Based on the background of a person who has a

assumes that the subordinate is not very mature

variety of leadership styles leadership then it should

so it needs to be directed and need to be

be able to adjust the attitude and personality of its

empowered and protected.

members. This is called it is the art of management

3.

(Management is art) means that every leader must

leadership

have the art in leading his soldiers through its

subordinates

leadership attitude that can be adapted to anyone and

subordinates,

in different situations.

responsibility.

Leadership is behavior and attitude shown leadership

4.

in others in the face of everything, especially in

leadership that exist in military organizations

communicating with the people he leads. (Hadari

where subordinates lack the opportunity to give

Nawawi, Martini Hadari, 2004).

an opinion and always obeys the laws of

Then J.K. Hemphill & Coons AE, 1957 in Sutarto,

superiors and can not refuse orders from

2001, said: "leadership is the behavior of an

superiors.

individual when he is directing the activities of a

5.

The democratic leadership that is the type of that and

provides always

good

guidance

to

coordinated

cooperation

Leadership militaristic is

his with

and

full

the type of

Etc.

group toward the goal" (Leadership is the behavior of

From some type of leadership that is there then we

the individual when he directs the activities of the

will see the right type of leadership in the

group to achieve a common goal).

democratization era in which democratic leadership type is the type of leadership that is appropriate to the

Democratic Leadership Style.

era of democratization.

Leadership style of a leader is different and depends

Syafei, 2003, said that the democratic leadership style

on the attitude and personality of each of the leaders

of government that is the way and the rhythm of a

in every organization.

government leader in dealing with subordinates and

Each leader must be clever to adjust its style of

society by means of the method the division of tasks

leadership that subordinates can receive his superior

with subordinates, as well as the subordinate tasks

leadership style in carrying out the tasks assigned to

evenly divided, then the selection is done with an

subordinates.

open

In the current era of democratization is certainly

discussions about its existence to discuss its work,

leadership style should be played is a leadership style

even though both the low employee may submit

appropriate to the era of democratization so that there

suggestions and recognized rights, with the consent

is no conflict between superiors and subordinates.

and consensus so possessed by mutual agreement.

task,

among

subordinates

recommended

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Hasibuan, 2006, said that the democratic leadership

Kartini Kartono, 2012, explained that the

style is the style of leadership that has the power to

leadership of Pancasila is in accordance with the

motivate subordinates to improve the motivation to

characteristics of the Indonesian nation with be

work and carry it out with a persuasive leader it will

based on to:

create

a

harmonious

cooperation

between

1.

subordinates and superiors, subordinates and foster loyalty is important is able to foster the participation

Almighty). 2.

of subordinate. Democratic leadership provides the opportunity for

Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa (Belief in God

Hing ngarsa sung tulada

(in front of an

example). 3.

subordinates to carry out its activities in accordance

Hing madya mangun karsa (in the middle of building motivation and willingness).

with its expertise and there are no restrictions on the

4.

Tut wuri Handayani (behind giving strength).

rights and obligations of each subordinate.

5.

Waspada purba wisesa (alert and power based

In Indonesia, democracy is very precise type of leadership to serve as the basis and soul of every

on authority and power). 6.

prospective leaders in our country Indonesia.

Ambeg

Paramarta

(have

the

correct

properties).

Leadership type of democracy that exist in Indonesia

7.

Prasaja (are simple).

is very in keeping with the values of Pancasila and

8.

Satya (faithful).

the 1945 Constitution which became to follow for

9.

Hemat (Gemi, nastiti, ati-ati) / thrifty, careful,

every citizen of our country because of the Pancasila

meticulous and careful.

and the 1945 Constitution has been explained that the

10.

Terbuka (Open).

Pancasila ideology contained in the principles of

11.

Legawa/rela dan tulus erta ikhlas (willing and

Pancasila describes the attitude and personality of the Indonesian nation.

genuine and sincere). 12.

Bersifat

Ksatria

(noble

character

and

praiseworthy).

There are several values of Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution that have a relationship with the leadership, among others: 1.

In 1945 explained that every resident of

Democratic Leadership research. 1.

Mardiana,

2014,

explaining

that

the

Indonesia secured its independence in thought,

democratic leadership style has a positive

prayer, etc.

influence on the performance of employees at

2.

the Secretariat Office of Samarinda at

Pancasila as the state, as the nation's

15.244%.

personality and outlook on life as a nation. The values of the principles of Pancasila which

2.

Son, Raniasa and Sobiri, Kgs, M. And Alfatih,

Almighty God, just and civilized humanity, unity

Andi,

of Indonesia, Democracy, led by the inner

leadership style have a relationship with the

wisdom of deliberations representation and

performance of employees in the Office of

social justice for all Indonesian people.

Industry, Trade and Cooperatives, Small and

3.

Medium Entrepreneurs Ulu Ogan Ogan at

Leadership Pancasila will be able to

maintain the noble values of our ancestors.

2006,

said

that

the

democratic

0.788.

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  3.

Dwi Windu Satya Adriana, 2014, There is a principal's leadership style influence on the performance of the National Starch teacher in high school.

4.

Husnaini Mailisa Safitri, Amri, M. Shabri, 2012, where the results of the research explained that there is an influence on the performance of democratic leadership style

Menengah Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu, Kapasitas Jurnal Kebijakan Publik, 1 (1). Pp. 116-135, ISSN 1907-1825. (10) Susilo Martoyo, 2001, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia, Edisi Ke 3, Penerbit BPFE, Yogyakarta. (11) Sutarto, 2001, Dasar-Dasar Kepemimpinan Administrasi, Penerbit Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. (12) Syamsul Arifin, 2012, Leadership Ilmu Dan Seni Kepemimpinan, Penerbit Mitra Wacana Media, Jakarta.

described by t hitung > t table (3.462> 1.645). REFERENCES (1) Anwar Prabu Mangkunegara, 2001, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Perusahaan, Penerbit PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, Bandung. (2) Dwi Winda Satya Adriana, 2014, Pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan Dan Komunikasi Interpersonal terhadap Kinerja Guru di SMA Nasional Pati, Jurnal Ilmiah PPKN IKIP Veteran, Semarang. (3) Faustino Cardoso Gomes, 2001, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia, Penerbit Andi Offset, Yogyakarta. (4) Hadari Nawawi, Martini Hadari, 2004, Kepemimpinan Yang Efektif, Penerbit Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. (5) Husnaini Mailisa Safitri, Amri, M. Shabri, Pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan, Kerjasama Tim dan Gaya Komunikasi Terhadap Kepuasan kerja Serta Dampaknya Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai Pada Sekretariat Daerah Kota Sabang, Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen Pascasarjana Universitas Syiah Kuala, pp. 1-17, ISSN 2302-0199, Vol. 1, No. 2, November 2012. (6) Kartini Kartono, 2011, Pemimpin Dan Kepemimpinan, Penerbit PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta. (7) Mardiana, 2014, Pengaruh Gaya kepemimpinan Demokratis Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai Pada Kantor Sekretariat Daerah Kota Samarinda, ejournal Ilmu Pemerintahan, 2 (1) 2014 : 1802-1816, ISSN 2338-3651, ejournal.ip.fisip.unmul.ac.id. (8) Matondang, MH, 2008, Kepemimpinan; Budaya Organisasi Dan Manajemen Strategik, Penerbit Graha Ilmu, Jakarta. (9) Putra, Raniasa and Sobiri, Kgs. M. And Alfatih, Andi, 2006, Hubungan Kualitas Sumber Daya Manusia dan penerapan Kepemimpinan Demokratis Pancasila Dengan Kinerja Oragnisasi Pada Dinas Perindustrian Perdagangan dan Koperasi Pengusaha Kecil

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INTERNET HELPS PEOPLE IN DELIVERING INFORMATION WITHIN THE COMMUNITY IN INDONESIA AS A DEVELOPING COUNTRY Trufi Murdiani, S.T., M.A. Gajah Sakti Poly Technique Prasetiya Mandiri Group Lampung Zainal Abidin Pagar Alam Street/Pelita I Number 24 B Kedaton [email protected]

ABSTRACT In the past time when ancient kingdoms still exist,

1. INTRODUCTION

Indonesian people have unique methods in communicating

People in most of developing countries have a very close

and announcing important news of information in

kinship to each other and live in traditional values, including

community. In the villages and some small cities, people

in communication way. As one of the developing country,

applied these ancient communicating methods. It’s affective

people in Indonesia are also upholding the values of

and cheap on cost.

togetherness and kinship in the community.

Until nowadays, those methods still common. One most ancient method is applied for announcing something

Indonesian people have unique methods in communicating

important that related with the community interest. The

and announcing important news of information in

village leader goes to religion house such as mosque,

community. Since the internet and even telephone trend did

church, and temple.

not occur yet and still until nowadays, especially in villages

Another way is implemented by knocking bamboo gong.

and some small cities, people applies these ancient

For each sound of bamboo gong represents the vary

communicating methods. Indonesian people find it’s

occurred events such as the sounds for many times knocking

affective and useful even it’s very traditional and cheap on

is to fire, sounds with a bit long and a few times is to

cost. Indonesian people do these methods as a hereditary

announce a theft case, different sounds are to inform

tradition.

citizens about the volcano eruption, flood, earthquake and other kind of disasters. Currently, when the internet era is

The first method is very common in all provinces in

emerging, the method to informing something important in

Indonesia. For announcing something important and very

the community is also done by internet. Moreover,

urgent that related with the community interest, one person

Indonesia with area of 1,919,440 Kilo-Metres squares with

who is usually a leader of the village or even the smaller

33 provinces and an island country, is a very big country in

community than village, just need to go to the religion

terms of range and population. The existence of internet

house such as mosque, small mosque or surau/musala,

eases the delivering information in the community.

church, and temple or pura in the village.

KEY WORDS: information, ancient method, internet.

Then, she/he can announce the information through a megaphone, microphone or other sound loader equipment

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and all people in the village/community would hear its

information. Those modern tools such as telephone, mobile

announcement. Beside house of worship, the same way

phone, and even e-mail which part of the convenience tool

could also be done in other public places. Like

that offered by internet.

public/village night guardhouse, village hall, or even in traditional market.

As the internet has been available and many people use it, the way to convey information to the public, especially in

Things that could be announced from small mosque or

villages and small towns, still obtain by an announcement

village hall usually related with community could be

from the mosque. And it's still done until today.

happiness, meeting schedule or even sadness things. For instance, about a birth of a baby of one family in the village,

Currently, when the internet era is emerging, the method to

meeting agenda, Quran recitation or pengajian, and even the

informing something important in the community is also

death of someone who lived in the village.

done by internet. Moreover, Indonesia with area of 1,919,440 Kilo-Metres Square and the 15th largest country

Whereas, the village night guard house usually knock the

in the world is a very big country in terms of range and

bamboo gong when natural disaster happen. And people

population. In addition, with 33 provinces that spread in

have already recognize the meaning of knocking bamboo

many islands, Indonesia is also the island country.

gong sounds that represent the occurred events. For example, the sounds for many times knocking is to fire, then

So, in addition to delivering information, the existence of

gong hit sounds with a bit long and a few times is to

the internet is very helpful for people among community in

announce a warning because of the theft, as well as the

Indonesia.

meaning of sounds to inform citizens about the volcano eruption, flood, earthquake etc.

2.

THEORETICAL BASICS

Mowlana (n.d.) emphasized, “The central question in the The second way, people walk around the village to

new communication and cultural era is who owns and

announce the important information and supported with

controls the production and distribution of information, for

bamboo gong plus megaphone. And later, this way has

what purpose and intent, and under what conditions and

emerging by the truck or pickup car.

values” (p.20).

By that background, the mass communication or more

Regarding on source of information, the using of internet in

specifically the way to convey information to the public that

Indonesia can be as backgrounds and additional related

very traditionally made the sense of kinship in Indonesian

information. As Baird (2010) said, ”We understood the

society became closer.

internet to be not just a source of information, fun and power, but as basic right—a right that is crucial to

And along with the rapid development of technology, choice

democracy, diplomacy and open government” (n.p.).

of methods as well as supporting tools in communicating for

And Calabrese (n.d.) in The MacBride Report: Its Value to a

Indonesian society more diverse. Because of the old ways

New Generation concluded:

were still being used while the community also has the other

“Today, modern media technologies, particularly the

modern equipments so as to speed the process of conveying

internet and satellite communication, have become

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the infrastructure that has made possible a new global market system and a new context for the spread of

Since the internet era has came, the way of getting and

political, economic and cultural ideas. Emerging with

giving information Indonesia as a developing country was

these new powers have come opportunities for the

change.

elimination of global poverty and the greater capacity for citizens of the world to bear witness to and fight

Andrew Calabrese (n.d.) added in The MacBride Report: Its

against violation of human rights, wherever they may

Value to a New Generation:

happen. But alongside the many positive changes are

“The

the perils that must be avoided, not least of which are

hopefulness about how a better world is possible,

the uses of these new means of communication by

about the continued importance of public institution

some to violate the dignity and humanity of others

as means to ensure global justice at local, national

through public deception, economic exploitation,

and transnational levels, and about the value of global

political surveillance and repression, and other abuses

communication

of power.” (p.24).

understanding and mutual respect.” (p. 25).

The existence of the Internet has proven can facilitate people in delivering information in the community in

3.

MacBride

Report

as

a

projects

means

to

a

spirit

of

knowledge,

CONCLUSION 1.

Indonesia with area of 1,919,440 Kilo-Metres

Indonesia which is one of developing countries in Asia. It is

squares that spreads in 33 provinces and as an

not only in getting additional background and supporting

island country, is a very big country in terms of

data, but also in communicating quickly and inexpensively

range and population.

with the stringers could be done with internet tools such as

2.

People in Indonesia have a very close kinship to

email and chat and even the internet based social networks

each other and live in traditional values, including

sites like Facebook and Twitter.

in communication way. 3.

Indonesian people have unique methods in

In addition to facilitate the working of delivering

communicating and announcing important news in

information, the internet also began as a medium to preach

community. Especially in the villages and some

about Indonesia as developing country.

small cities. Indonesian people use the various traditional and

Chris Paterson (2006) said in News Agency Dominance in International on the Internet that:

cheap method in delivering

information as a hereditary tradition. 4.

The first method is using megaphone, microphone

“Yahoo was the first to develop a strategic

or other sound loader equipment at religion house

relationship with the Reuters news agency in the mid-

such as mosque, small mosque or surau/musala,

1990s to facilitate such sites, and their model was

church, and temple or pura in the village. The same

widely copied. The second type of provider were

way could also be done in other public places like

content-producing online media, which tended to

public/village night guardhouse, village hall, or

combine original content (written by the company’s

even in traditional market.

own journalists or commissioned for the company) with news agency content”. (p. 4).

5.

The announcing person usually knocks the bamboo gong with various sounds when natural disasters

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happen. People have recognize the meaning of knocking bamboo gong sounds that represent the occurred events like the sounds for many times knocking is to fire, then gong hit sounds with a bit long and a few times is to announce a warning because of the theft, as well as the meaning of sounds to inform citizens about the volcano eruption, flood, earthquake. 6.

The other method, people walk around the village to announce the important information and supported with bamboo gong plus megaphone. And later, this way has emerging by the truck or pickup car.

7.

Currently, when the internet era is emerging, the method to informing something important in the community is also done by internet.

REFERENCES Baird, J. (2010). Freedom should trump privacy. Article. (n.p.). Calabrese, A. (n.d.). The MacBride report: Its value to a new generation. Monographic, 21, 23-25. Mowlana, H. (n.d.). The MacBride report revisited. Monographic, 21, 19-20. Paterson, C. (May 2006). News agency dominance in international news on the internet. Papers in internatiomnal and global communication, 01/06, 4. Profil Indonesia. (December 27, 2005). Retrieved on April 10, 2015 from http://www.indonesia.go.id/in/sekilasindonesia/geografi-indonesia

 

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SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS THE SAVIOR OF FOOD SECURITY ISSUES AMONG THE ELDERLY: A PROPOSAL Shamshubaridah Ramlee1*, NorngainyMohd Tawil1, SitiSuryani Mat Nasit1, SarmilaMd Sum2, Center for Entrepreneurship and SMEs Development1 Faculty of Science Social and Humanity2 UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia, [email protected]*,[email protected],[email protected] [email protected],

ABSTRACT Food security among senior citizen is a new phenomenon in

KEY WORDS

the caring of senior citizens. Apart from making food

Social business, enterprise social preneur, Food Safety,

affordable with the required nutrients, sustainability of the

Health Qualities, Senior Citizen, Al-Fikrah Living Lab.

supply at affordable prices is of utmost importance. Relying on government funds as in most care centers in Malaysia;

1. Introduction

and donations in providing food to enhance the better health

In a statistics published by the Department of Statistics,

qualities is not sustainable. In a Laureate project involving a

2010 the population of Malaysia will grow from 28.6

living lab in the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur, we piloted a

million to 32.4 million in 2020 with those above the age of

caring service to transform the well-being of the senior

65 will increase from 5% to 6.8% when Malaysia reached

citizens. With the community assets available in the vicinity

its developed nation status. The dependency ratios for the

of the lab, we present a proposal on monetizing the

young to care for the elders will increase from 7.4% in 2010

community assets available around the senior citizen’s

to 16.6%. Whether this group of population cared by their

home. Solving the food security problem will be

children or in senior citizens care centers, feeding and

approached from the perspective of social entrepreneurship

caring for them will remain an issue that needs to be

where an initial proposal of a community based food

addressed. Senior citizens above the age 65 years are on the

security project is proposed, known as the Enterprise Social

average less productive and less healthy due to morbidity

Preneur Project. This paper will introduce the trends of the

requires more care and healthcare services. This affects

aging society in Malaysia and define food security in the

health expenditures spent by the Malaysian government.

context of social entrepreneurship. This will be followed by

Healthcare expenditures have grown to more than 11%

a description of the Laureate project at the Al-Fikrah Living

since 2009 according to an unpublished report by the

Lab where the idea of food security started. The next

Malaysia National Health Accounts: Health Expenditure

section will discussed on the findings of the community

Report [1].With the rising costs of living, making food

assets and finally propose a solution to ensure sustainability

available, accessible, affordable, safe and nutritious can be

of the food security and caring services from among the

challenging. These rising costs are even more challenging

senior citizens.

with a reduced arable land in the urban or sub-urban areas.

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International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   Almost 60% of the healthcare expenditures are for the

role on policy control over the sectorial composition of

curative hence increasing the cost of medication [2,3,4].

income from the cultivation of crops.

Efforts are being done to reduce the dependence on medication and increase the preventive approach in treating

3. Social Entrepreneurship in food security

diseases among the population and the senior citizens in

Social entrepreneurship and enterprise is a new brand of

particular. Being active with proper nutritious diets among

entrepreneurship wave in Malaysia. Leveraging from the

seniors will help prevent non-communicable diseases where

rising number of youth involved in volunteerism activities,

nutritious food will be an alternative to medicine [5,6,7].

resources are deployed to see if these activities can be

This will reduce the expenditures for medication and food

turned to a business endeavors. While caring for the senior

consumption if food is made available in a more sustainable

citizens used to be a community based activities, it is now

manner approached from the perspective of social

transformed according to the business framework to help

entrepreneurship.

designed a value proposition for the intended customers namely the senior citizens. The current funding from the

2. Food Security Initiatives in Malaysia

Ministry channeled to welfare home utilised for the

Food security is defined by Food and Agriculture

consumption of food can now be replaced by cultivation of

Organization’s [8] as access for all people at all time to

crops within the vicinity of the homes. This will therefore

adequate food for healthy and active life include three

make the food supply more sustainable and if crops were

components such as adequacy in food production, stability

cultivated in a safer conditions and standards, this will result

in food supplies and physical and economic access by

in a more nutritious food able to reduce diseases among

vulnerable groups. Food security is getting more attention

senior citizens in the homes.

because increase in population givesan unbalance food production to the nation [9]. Malaysia will face food crisis if

4. Laureate Project

there are no action taken. There are three aspects for food

UKM-CESMED under Laureate Project conducted a

security which are availability, accessibility andcontrolled

research in providing general and health care services

utilization of pesticides and that requiresimmediate and

among the senior citizens. The AlFikrah has been chosen as

precautionary action by government. Currently, Malaysian

a living lab to conduct the research where it housed 75

government hadtaken action concerning both micro and

senior citizens. The lab is situated on a 3 acre piece of land

macro levels for sustaining food security [10]. At the micro

with reasonable infrastructure with community assets like

level,Malaysia focused in developing rural area, rural

fertile land to grow crops and poultry farming.

education, healthcare, nutrition education and the stability

operation of the lab is assisted by the nearby community

of food system. Food security also can be sustained by

and relevant agencies from the welfare department.

improving the land water management, adopting eco-

UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia’s (UKM) Faculty of Public

friendly technologies and initiating good agricultural

Health, Faculty of Social Science, Faculty of Economics

practices [11]. These are implemented by agriculture

and Management and the Faculty of Engineering and

agencies. At the macro level, Malaysia government play

Architecture provided the academics and students to

  85 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th ‐21th August 2015     

The

Internnational Connference On Information I Technology And Business ISSN 24660-7223   mobilize the idea of sociall entrepreneurrship. A comm munity

attack, strokke and other ddisease. All 75 5 residents arre above

a its mapping of the Al-Fikraah Homecaree as a lab and

the age of 600 years old wiith no beneficciaries who were w sent

community were w done annd were locaated at JalanC Cheras,

by hospitalss after they w were given treeatment. Fourr of the

Kajang, Selanngor in a subburban area not n far from Kuala

residents arre individualss with disabiilities and All-Fikrah

Lumpur.

Home Care has h five conveerts.

J 2013 and it Al-Fikrah Hoome Care wass opened on January

5.2. Elderly Expenditurees

located on a land donated by a memberr of the comm munity.

m utilisedd for the The amount of funding received were mainly

c is home to75 senior citizens; meen and This home care

he building, m medical and disposable d iteems and upkeep of th

women that have h chronic disease, d with no n beneficiariees, and

food. The figure fi 1 illustrrates the purp pose of expennditures

person with disabilities, eelderly and Muslim M conveerts. In

untulised forr the senior cittizens. They usenearly u halff of their

this action prooject, researchhers formulatee health and general g

funds received for food exxpenditure wh hich is 48 %, 22% 2 for

care modules with the helpp of agencies such as the Welfare W

medical andd disposable 222%, anotherr 22% in utiliity bills

Department, Ministry M of H Health, City Coouncil, Selang gor and

and remaininng in utility biills.

MARDI an agriculture department, d thhese moduless were used as a piloot with the sennior citizens.

es Elderlyy Expenditure 6% 22 2%

5. Finding and discusssion 5.1 Categoryy of Senior Ciitizen

Food 

48%

22%

Medicaal and  Dispossable Utility Bills

The Al-FikraahHome is a living lab whhich is a non n-profit Rental 

organization whose fundding come mainly m from funds received from m the Welfarre Departmennt in Malaysia and donations froom corporatioons and indivviduals. Most of the

Figure 1.C Categories off Expenditure in i AlFikrah Home H

dwellers are sent s by hospittals or send byy individuals. Below are the demoggrahics of the occupants of the home.

5.3 Community Asset Uttilization

Table 1.Categgory of Seniorr Citizen at All-Fikrah Homee Care

Al-Fikrah Home Care sitss on a 3 acre fertile f land thaat grows

No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Categoryy Chronic disease No beneficiaries Persoon with disabilities Elderrly/senior citizzen Convverts

N of Resideents No. 25 75 4 75 5

Table 1 show w the categorries of seniorr citizen at Alfikrah A Home Care, 75 7 of residentts are where 50 5 are males and 25 females. Am mong 75 senioor citizens, 25 of them suuffered from chronic disease such as diabetic, blood b pressuree, heart

corps and poultry farm ming (Figure 2). Healthyy senior citizens will take a slow w walk within the t vicinity ass part of their daily acctivities. The healthier residdents will worrk at the field and grow vegetablle such as eggplant, e okraa, chili, cucumber and a bitter grround. The residents r also plant rambutan trree and papaaya as local fruits to givve more nutrition foood for them.

Other thann that, they also do

poultry farm ming, rearing quails and caat fish. This piece p of land gives more m benefit too the senior citizen in gettinng better

  86 | International Confeerences on In nformation TTechnology and Business (ICITB), 20th ‐21th Augustt 2015     

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   nutrition from food. The produce from this activity will be

help of communities in the area, the project not only can

used as food to the residents and help in the saving of food

provides food but also encourage production, processing,

expenses apart from having enough nutrition in their food in

distribution and consumption of the food.

order to maintain their conditions.

The figure 3 is a model that can be developed where the care center with community formed a wholly enterprise

6.0 Recommendation

social preneurstartup company established by entrepreneurs

In recommendation, there are model that can create an

whose funding is from the individuals. The second model is

Figure 2. Crop Cultivation and poultry rearing

Figure3: Proposed Community Nutrition Project Model (M2PK)

opportunity to senior citizen to increase the health qualities.

a business set up by a joint venture between the community

Figure 3 shows the Community Nutrition Project Model

and trading companies whose funding comes from grants

(M2PK) which can be used by agencies in helping senior

obtained through the care center only. The third model

citizens. This model is use to generate income and help

utilised both grants and investment from care centers and

senior citizenin having more nutritious food.

Through

trading partners. The last model is by using a private

social entrepreneurship, local council, health sectors,

company who invest solely on investments and without

business network and NGO’s can help the senior citizen in

grants who act as a full pledged enterprise social preneur.

producing their own food and income [12, 13,14]. With the

All produce will following standards required in food safety

  87 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th ‐21th August 2015     

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   and can only be done with the network from among relevant

[3] A.S.Suhaimi, A. Halimah and M. Norma.Population aging and

town councils, health sectors, business trading networks and

social protection in Malaysia.International Conference on

Non- Profit organizations.

Population Aging: Issues and Challenges. 2014. [4] N.Y Siti and A.B.Gorgiana. Aged Society: The Way Forward.

CONCLUSION

International Journal of Trade Economic and Finance,4(4),2014. [5] M.N.M. Nik and Y.A. Mohamed.Senior citizen environment in

In an effort to reduce the burden on Government and relying

Malaysia: Impact of multiple built environment characteristics.

on unsustainable funds from donations to provide funding

Procedia- Social and Behavioral Science.49, 2012, 120-126.

for the caring of senior citizens, we proposed that the

[6] H.S. Minhat, A.R. Mohd and K.Shamsuddin. Late-life leisure

community assets available in the AlFikrah Home Care

constraints among Malaysian ederly: A Qualitative Approach.

Center be transformed into a social business activity. Efforts

Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine,12(2), 2012, 24-30.

can only materialized with the concerted efforts among community members such as the town councils, NGOs, Agriculture Agencies and Welfare Departments [15].

[7] D.P. Selvaratnam, A.B. Norlaila and H.I. Nortini.Economic well-being and morbity of senior citizen in Malaysia.Journal of Modern Acconting and Auditing,6(4), 2010.Vol 6 No.4. [8] Food and Agriculture Organization. A reappraisal of the

Models involving the pure social enterprise companies with

concept

inviduals’ investments, social enterprise startups using

Committee on World Food Secutrity.Eighth Session.1983.

individual social entreprenuer’s fund and a social enterprise

[9] I.M.R Mohamad, S.M.A.H. Afzan, A. Norazira, I. Rafidah and

using grants and investments were presented.

I Zakimi.Sustaining Food Production for Food Security in

and approaches.Report

on

World Food

Security

Malaysia.Journal of Economics and Development Studies, 1(2),

Acknowledgement

2013 [10] L.C.L Wong. Food security and growth: Malaysia’s strategic

Thanks to UKM-CESMED for giving this opportunity to

approach and future adjustment. 2008.

conduct a research for senior citizen transformation plan.

[11] K. Shetty, S. Ayyappanand M.S.Swaminathan.Climate

Also thanks to Al-Fikrah Home Care for collaborating with

change and suatainable food security.National Institute of Advance

us as a living lab and all students and academics from UKM

Studies, 2013.

FSK, UKM FSSK, UKM FEM and UKM FKAB who

[12] A.A.G. Zuhairah, M. Herna andH. Zarinah. “Legal Eagle”

participate in this research. This research was supported by LAUREATE- 2013-5 grant.

Entrepreneurship Education for Law Students: Special Reference to International Islamic University Malaysia. Journal of Science Social and Humanities, 22, 2014, 83-98 [13] Z.Y. Mohammed, A.I. Ibnor and A.H. Mohamad.Who is the social entrepreneur? Easy question, difficult answer.International

References

Conference on Business and Economic Research, 2013. [14] M. Yunus.Creating world without poverty: social business

[1] H.A. Karim,.The senior citizen in Malaysia.Demographic trends.Medical Journal of Malaysia, 52(3), 1997,206-212 [2] R. Wolf, L. Daichman, G. Bennett. World Report on Violence and Health Organization. Chapter 5: Abuse the senior citizen. Health Organization, Geneva, 2002.

and the future of capitalism. Global Urban Development, 4(2), 2008. [15] A.Z. Fakrul, N.W.D. Wan, A. Zulhamri, R.Y. Mohd. Social entrepreneurship practices in Malaysia- The case of social NGO. National Journal of Academic Reseach in Busienss and Social Science, 4(12), 2014.

  88 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th ‐21th August 2015     

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

OPTIMIZATION OF WIRELESS PRICING SCHEME Fitri Maya Puspita1, Kamaruzzaman Seman2, Bahok M. Taib2, Ismail Abdullah2 Mathematics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, 1, Faculty of Science and Technology2, University ofSriwijaya, Inderalaya, OganIlir, South Sumatera, Indonesia1, UniversitiSains Islam Malaysia, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia 2 [email protected],{drkzaman, bachok, isbah}@usim.edu.my2

ABSTRACT

wired multi QoS network [6, 7] have been discussed. The

The wireless service providers obtain surplus from

results mainly inform about the choice of ISP decision to

consumers who applied the service. That pricing strategy

adopt the model by fixing the base price, quality premium

is developed by considering the linearity factors, elasticity

and QoS level.

price, price factors, acceptance factor and unit service

Recently, the development of wireless networks rapidly

price. Previous researches are focussed on the introduction

grows importantly in business life by approaching the

of the models in general. This new approach of the model

network

is by considering the model as the nonlinear programming

volume discounts as the nonlinear pricing model the profit

problem that can be solved optimally using LINGO 13.0.

of consumers can be achieved. However, due to static

The optimal solution could give information on decision

condition, the dynamical situation of the models are still

variables and objective function to maximize the revenue

in slow progress [9]. Their simulation results show the

for the providers. The several objectives to be achieved by

connection between acceptance factor with the user price

service providers are by setting the increment or

elasticity.

decrement of price change due to QoS change and amount

Past research [10] focussed on modelling the wireless

of QoS value.

nonlinear pricing scheme by applying some factors such as

as optimization problem [8]. By using the

the linearity factors, elasticity price and price factors. The KEY WORDS

idea of modelling the wireless pricing strategy is powerful

Optimization, price change, QoS change, amount of QoS

to be applied in mathematical model.

value

So, in this paper, we propose the new approach of wireless pricing model originated by [9, 10] by considering the

1. Introduction The pricing scheme has been a critical topic in business. The service providers has the obligation best QoS based on certain services [1, 2]. The research on internet pricing in multi service network in wired networks [3-5], and

model as the nonlinear programming problem that can be solved optimally using LINGO 13.0.

The idea to

transform the model into nonlinear programming model is to enable us to identify the connections between the acceptance factor, the price, the revenue, the amount of decrement or increment of QoS change and price change.

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2. Literature Review

research on this pricing has been begun in last decade and

Table I summarized some of those research focusing on

critically improves to fit in dynamical situation in wireless

the wireless network schemes. Some pricing models do

network.

not

explicitly

describe

the

availability

for

Some research on dynamic pricing model

differentiation. Table I Several Past Research On Internet Pricing Pricing Strategy Responsive Pricing [11]

Pricing plan [12]

Pricing strategy [1]

Optimal strategy [13]

pricing

Paris Metro Pricing [14, 15]

Pricing strategy by [16]

Strategy of pricing proposed by [17]

Models for internet pricing proposed by [18] Pricing scheme proposed by [19]

Table II

QoS

How it Works Three stages proposed consist of not using feedback and user adaptation, using the closed-loop feedback and one variation of closed loop form. It Combines the flat rate and usage based pricing. Proposed pricing scheme offers the user a choice of flat rate basic service, which provides access to internet at higher QoS, and ISPs can reduce their peak load. Based on economic criteria. They Design proper pricing schemes with quality index yields simple but dynamic formulas . Possible changes in service pricing and revenue changes can be made The schemes are Flat fee, Pure usage based, Two part tariff. Supplier obtains better profit if chooses one pricing scheme and how much it can charge. Two part of analysis homogenous and heterogeneous. Different service class will have a different price. The scheme makes use of user partition into classes and move to other class it found same service from other class with lower unit price. Discussion about the measurement of QoS network service performance based on bandwidth, delay and delay jitter, throughput and loss rates. Pointed out the importance of multiservice networks such as assisting ISPs in spending their allocations, increasing the effectiveness of network usage by giving incentives to customers, to aid well established market view since new services can gain more sustainability. The utility function of a user can be in the form of probability of packet loss, average packet delay, probability of packet tail, delay of maximum packet and also throughput. Pricing schemes based on QoS levels in different allocations that control congestion and load balance.

Pricing Strategy

How it Works

Pricing for 3G network proposed by [10] Pricing strategy proposed by [20]

By considering the linearity factor, acceptance factor, elasticity price, the provider able to maximize the price for user and class. By considering the optimal pricing strategy for specific service as function of time. Their proposed model was created then comparing with the existing approaches available. The models focus on continuous models solved heuristically the dynamic pricing scheme proposed by setting up the model as a partial differential equation (PDE) and solving it numerically. The pricing scheme proposed mainly for pricing companies. Their work utilizes the PDE background by utilizing necessary and sufficient condition of Lagrange. So by solving the boundary conditions the pricing scheme involving company debt can be calculated. Pricing strategy that is based on profit maximization of provider. The model is transformed into optimization model. Able to examine the schemes that are not reached by network testing and able to improve model and performance.

Pricing strategy proposed by [21]

Social Optimal Pricing by [8] Simulation method for designing network proposed by [22] Concept of Dynamic pricing introduced by [23] Pricing QoS strategy proposed by [24]

The process to fluctuate prices between consumer and provider. In market condition, the re -priced can often occur . utility function and cost function are proposed, and pricing mechanism is based on QoS service classes.

2. Models Models used in this framework are adapted from [9, 10] but the approach is the nonlinear programming approach. So the model will consist of the objective function to be maximized subject to sets of constraints. Then, the models are solved using LINGO 13.0 software to obtain the optimal solutions. Based on four cases of the model by

Furthermore, the research on dynamic pricing models and

considering the increment or decrement of price change

wireless design network is summarized in Table II. The

90 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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due to QoS change and increment or decrement of number

where

of QoS needed we can set up the models required.

the class j and Lx is the linearity factor. The QoS attributes

Basically, the models attempt to maximize the total price

used are bandwidth and end to end delay. Then, aijwhich

for a connection based on QoS parameter. The total price

defines the linear price factor in user i and class j, the

is the summation between basic price for a connection and

linear factor

is the basic price for a connection for user i and

and the traffic load tl. So,

the price change due to QoS change. We have i users and j class. Lx is a linearity factor that depends on the linearity

3. Result and Discussion

parameters of a and

. Then

The objective of the research is to obtain the revenue for the provider. The model provided by [10] and then work

With x is assumed between 0 and 1.

done by [9] are available. However, we create the models

The traffic load will be determined by setting the range for

by gathering all information about parameter and

the traffic load is between the prescribed value arranged

variables.

by the providers.

So, the objective function will maximize

The linear price factor aij is set up between prescribed values determined by the provider, say f and g. So,

which means to maximize the revenue that consists of the combination of acceptance factor,

the price for a

The range of allowed traffic load

is also determined by

the providers, say h and k. Then,

connection with QoS available andthe price change over that QoS and price of unit of service. The objective function has limitation to be satisfied to obtain the revenue which is called the sets of the constraints. The first constraint states that the price change will depends on the factor of the price, that involves the

For x as the amount of increment of decrement in QoS value, we range between 0 and 1 implying 0 is in best effort service case while 1 means in perfect service case. B is arranged between 0.8 and 1.07 since in this range, the best network quality occurs [10].

bandwidth as QoS attribute, the basic price at user i and class j, and also the factor of linearity. Gather all information, we have the sets of the constraints as follow.

For parameter value PRij, the provider arranges the value to have a connection. It also happens in a as the linearity parameters that keep the ratio of the price between floor and ceiling of QoS value is not really high. Next step, for a model described above, the optimal solution for 4 cases involving decrement or increment of

91 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

price change due to change of QoS and decrement or

change due to QoS change and decrement the amount of

increment of QoS value is conducted by using LINGO

QoS change, the providers gain best revenue.

13.0. Table II and III summarize the solver status for all Table IV

cases and the decision variables, respectively. Table III

Decision Variables Of Nonlinear Programming Model Of

Solver Status Of Nonlinear Programming Model Of

Wireless Pricing Scheme

Wireless Pricing Scheme

variables

PQijincrea se x increase

PQijincrea se x decrease

Model Class

NLP

NLP

State

Local Optimal

Local Optimal

435.443

435.443

5.9x10-11

2.4x10-12

23 30 1s

22 30 0

Objective Infeasibilit y Iterations GMU ER

PQij decreas e x increas e

PQij decreas e x decreas e

NLP

NLP

Local Optima l 42.52 3.1x108 22 30 1s

Local Optima l 43.58 1.07x10 -13 22 30 0s

In Table III, model class for each class I defined as nonlinear programming, having local optimal state. The best objective value to maximize the price for each user is achieved when

increases with decrease of x.

variabl es

PQ11 PQ12 PQ21 PQ22 x PB11 PB12 PB21 PB22 a11 a12 a21 a22 B Q11 Q12 Q21 Q22

Iterations involve in the highest objective value is the lower or the same value with other case. Next, in Table IV, the decision variables for 2 users and 2 classes are presented. The price change due to QoS change

tl Lx

PQijincre ase x increase

PQijincre ase x decrease

PQijdecre ase x increase

4.42 4.13 3.83 3.54 0 2.57 2.4 2.23 2.06 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.12 1.07 10 10 10 10 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 50 1.7

4.42 4.13 3.83 3.54 0 2.57 2.4 2.23 2.06 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.12 1.07 10 10 10 10 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 50 1.7

0.07 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.4x10-6 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.08 0.8 10 10 10 10 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 50 1.7

PQij decrea se x decrea se 0.07 0.08 0.1 0.11 0 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 1.07 10 10 10 10 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 50 1.7

for each case appears to have different value if we increase or decrease the condition of the change. The value of

4. Conclusion

linearity parameter B, in three cases is the ceiling of the

The goal to maximum price is achieved when the provider

requirement set up for B. The value of the unit of service

set the increment of price change due to QoS change and

price is the same value for all cases. The traffic load value

the decrement of amount of QoS value. The QoS attribute

is the floor of the predetermined range while the linearity

used is bandwidth and end to end delay. The linearity

factor has the same value for all cases. It is shown in the

parameter set up for most cases is obtained in ceiling

Table IV that by setting up the increment of the price

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value. Linear price factor ranges between the prescribed values especially cases when we increase the price change due to QoS change and increase the amount of QoS values.

Acknowledgement(s) Theresearchleading to this paper was financially supported by Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia for support through Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) 2014.

References [1] Byun, J. and S. Chatterjee. A strategic pricing for quality of service (QoS) network business.inProceedings of the Tenth Americas Conference on Information Systems. 2004. New York. [2] Bouras, C. and A. Sevasti, SLA-based QoS pricing in DiffServ networks.Computer Communications, 2004.27: p. 1868-1880. [3] Puspita, F.M., K. Seman, B. M.Taib, and Z Shafii, A new approach of optimization model on internet charging scheme in multi service networks.International Journal of Science and Technology, 2012.2 (6): p. 391-394. [4] Puspita, F.M., K. Seman, and B.M. Taib, The Improved Models of Internet Pricing Scheme of Multi Service Multi Link Networks with Various Capacity Links., in Advanced Computer and Communication Engineering Technology, H.A. Sulaiman, et al., Editors. 2015, Springer International Publishing: Switzeland. [5] Puspita, F.M., K. Seman, B. M.Taib, and Z. Shafii, An improved optimization model of internet charging scheme in multi service networks.TELKOMNIKA, 2012.10(3): p. 592-598. [6] Puspita, F.M., K. Seman, B. M.Taib, and Z. Shafii, Improved Models of Internet Charging Scheme of Single Bottleneck Link in Multi QoS Networks. Journal of Applied Sciences, 2013.13(4): p. 572-579. [7] Puspita, F.M., K. Seman, B. M.Taib, and Z. Shafii,, Improved Models of Internet Charging Scheme of Multi bottleneck Links in Multi QoS Networks. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2013.7(7): p. 928-937.

[8] Huang, J. and L. Gao, Wireless Network Pricing, ed. U.o.C. Jean Walrand, Berkeley. 2013, Hongkong: Morgan & Claypool. [9] Grubb, M.D., Dynamic Nonlinear Pricing: biased expectations, inattention, and bill shock.International Journal of Industrial Organization, 2012. January 2012. [10] Wallenius, E. and T. Hämäläinen, Pricing Model for 3G/4G Networks, in The 13th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications. 2002: Lisbon, Portugal. [11] MacKie-Mason, J.K., L. Murphy, and J. Murphy, The Role of Responsive Pricing in the Internet, in Internet Economics J. Bailey and L. McKnight, Editors. 1996, Cambridge: MIT Press. p. 279-304. [12] Altmann, J. and K. Chu, How to charge for network service-Flat-rate or usage-based?Special Issue on Networks and Economics, Computer Networks, 2001. 36: p. 519-531. [13] Wu, S.-y., P.-y. Chen, and G. Anandalingam, Optimal Pricing Scheme for Information Services. 2002, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia. [14] Ros, D. and B. Tuffin, A mathematical model of the paris metro pricing scheme for charging packet networks. The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking - Special issue: Internet economics: Pricing and policies 2004. 46(1). [15]Tuffin, B., Charging the internet without bandwidth reservation: An overview and bibliography of mathematical approaches. Journal of Information Science and Engineering, 2003. 19(5): p. 765-786. [16] Hwang, J. and M.B.H. Weiss, On the Economics of Interconnection among Hybrid QoS Networks in the Next Generation Internet, in XIII Biennial Conference of the International Telecommucations Society (ITS). 2000: Buenos Aires. [17] Paschalidis, I.C. and Y. Liu, Pricing in multiservice loss networks: static pricing, asymptotic optimality, and demand substitution effects. IEEE/ACM Transactions On Networking, 2002. 10(3): p. 425438. [18] Gottinger, H., Network economies for the internetapplication models.iBusiness, 2011. 3: p. 313-322. [19] Gu, C., S. Zhuang, and Y. Sun, Pricing incentive mechanism based on multistages traffic classification methodology for QoS-enabled networks.Journal of Networks, 2011. 6(1): p. 163-171. [20] Safari, E., M. Babakhani, S.J. Sadjadi, K.Shahanaghi, and K. Naboureh,Determining strategy of pricing for a web service with different QoS levels and reservation

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level constraint. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 2014. [21] Castillo, D., A. M. Ferreiro, J. A.García-Rodríguez, and C.Vázquez,Numerical methods to solve PDE models for pricing business companies in different regimes and implementation in GPUs. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 2013: p. 11233-1257. [22] Kennington, J., D. Rajan, and E. Olinick, eds. Wireless Network Design Optimization Models and Solution Procedures. International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, ed. F.S. Hillier.Vol. 158. 2011, Springer: Dallas, Texas. [23] Smyk, D., Optimization of Dynamic Pricing in Mobile Networks Deriving greater value out of existing network assets. 2011, Telcordia. [24] Jang, H.-C. and B. Lu, Pricing-Enabled QoS for UMTS/WLAN Network.JCIS, Atlantis Press, 2006.

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PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF STOCK MUTUAL FUNDS BASED FINANCIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM Abshor Marantika1 Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Bandar Lampung [email protected]

ABSTRACT The lack of public information on how to invest to

1.

INTRODUCTION

be a major cause of the lack of public interest on capital

Before investing in mutual funds, we need to know the

market investment. Besides of that, for the certain

kinds of mutual fund that is suitable with the goal and the

instrument such as mutual funds of society will get

investment necessity. There are 4 kinds of mutual fund that

difficulty in judging and choosing the mutual funds which

is served in Indonesia based on instrument category in

be able to give optimal performance and benefit influences

investment, characteristic of benefit potencial and the risk,

the slowness of mutual funds development.

such as: money market mutual funds , fixed income funds ,

Result from this research activity is for finding the

stock funds and mixed funds .the first mutual funds, money

measurement of the performance mutual funds stock by

market mutual funds is the mutual funds that invest 100%

using stage of stock rotation and stage of stock mutual fund

on the money market securities such as debt securities with

which is made to be a accounting management information

a maturity of less than one year. The second, fixed income

system and financial. With this stock mutual fund

funds is the mutual funds that invest atleast 80% from

performance measurement model so that can be tool of

manages portfolios into debt securities such as bonds. The

important information for investor, society about the

third, stock funds is the mutual funds that invest atlest 80%

investment will have good potency of financial and the

from portfolios that is managed in the equity effect (stock).

major elements causeof the performance of that mutual

The last, mixed funds is the mutual funds that invest in the

funds in capital market. Therefore, society can value and

equity effect and debt effect that its located do not include

choose mutual fund which be able to give performance and

in the category of fixed income and stock funds.

optimalization in benefit especially in capital market.

In 2009 based on the Bapepam data on December

Explanatory research, this research has the goal to explain

2011 (Bapepam 2011), the amount of managing all of

the relationship between the research variable through the

mutual funds kinds Rp 116 billion. With condition of stock

hypotheses based on the data, such as: rotation stage and

market which is better, managing funds of mutual funds

risk stage concerning the stock of mutual fund performance.

will increase. Data of Badan Pengawas Modal dan

Multiple regression analysis will be used to test the effect

Lembaga Keuangan (Capital Supervisory Agency and

of two or more independent variables on the dependent

Financial Institution)/(Bapepam-LK) show per December

variable . independent variable in this research is rotation

2011 the total value aktiva bersih (NAB) Rp 193 billion.

stage and risk stage. Meanwhile in independent variable is

Panjaitan(2011), said that since the introduction the mutual

the stock mutual fund performance. The research result for

funds in Indonesa in 1996 untul now, mutual fund has

the simulation of measuring stock of mutual funds model,

increased well, even in the crisis economics the mutual

to measure the stock mutual funds performance.

funds got the decreasing. Based on the BAPEPAM data (2011), on the last December 2011 has been noted there are

KEY WORDS: performance, mutual funds, stock risk.

646 the mutual funds. Whereas in 1996 only there are 25

95 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 mutual funds. The mutual funds has existed in Indonesia

intermediaries other parties, namely the investment

since 1995 but the mutual funds has not been published in

manager.

society. The lack of people information about how to invest to be a major cause of the people interest to invest in market capital. Besides of that to do the certain instrument

2.3 Investment risk

such as society mutual funds gets difficulties in measuring

According to Harry Markowitz 's theory in the book (

and choosing the mutual funds which be able to give the

Zalmi Zubir , 2011: 19) defines risk as the difference

performance and the ptimal benefit influences the slowness

between the expected results ( expected return ) and its

of mutual funds development.

realization . The bigger the return , the greater the level of risk . Investors in making any investment decision

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

always trying to minimize the risks that arise , both the

2.1 Investment

risk of long-term and short-term risks . Any changes in

Eduardus Tandelilin (2010 : 2) Investment is the

economic conditions will also encourage the formation

commitment for the amount of funds or the other

of a variety of conditions requiring an investor to

resource that is done right now, with the goal to get

decide what to do and what strategies are applied in

amount of benefit in the future. An investor buys stock

order to obtain the return arrives investors expected .

righ now with the hoping will get benefit from the

With so investment risk can be defined as the

incresing of the stock or the amount of deviden in the

likelihood of the difference between the actual return

future, as the benefit for the time and the risk which is

and expected return ( E ( R )

related to that investment. Based on Eduardus Tandelilin (2010 : 12) the process of decision in

3. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

investing will be 5 steps until getting the best

H

investment decision.

mutual funds performance

1

: rotation stage influences to the stock of

Ha1 : rotation stage influences to the stock of mutual funds performance

2.2 Mutual funds The first mutual funds is Massachusetts Investors

H2

: risk stage influences that mutual funds

Trust that is applied in 21 March 1924, that was only 1

stock

year had 200 mutual funds investor with the asset US$

Ha2 : risk stage influences that mutual funds

392.000. In 1929 when the stock exchange got

stock

decresing so the industry of this mutual funds development to be slow. Pozen (1998) said that

4.

RESEARCH METHOD

Amutual funds is an investment company that pools

In this researchh method appies explanatory research

money from share holders and invest in a diversified of

that is research that explain the correlation kausal and

securities. Investments in mutual funds attractive to

korelasional among the variables through hyphoteses test.

investors because the investors do not require the

This

investment analysis and monitoring market conditions

correlation among the research variables through the

on an ongoing basis and does not require a relatively

hypotheses test based on the field data, such as: rotation

large

stage and risk stage with the stock mutual funds

funds

,

investments

are

made

through

Explanatory research has the goal to explain the

performance. Mutual linear regression analysis is done to

96 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 know the linear similarity. Like this one, will be shown the

www.bi.go.id. The sample in this study is a mutual fund

result of calculating mutual regression analysis.

shares listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2009 to the period 2011.

4.1 Data Collection The data used in this research is secondary data

4.2 Methodology

sources , because in this study the researchers did not

The linear regression similarity between the rotation stage

conduct direct observation to the Indonesia Stock

and the risk stage to the stock of mutual funds performance

Exchange. but through the medium of an intermediary such

is:

as literature related to the research . Source of data in this

KR =

+ TP + TR + e

study can be obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange ( IDX ) through www.idx.co.id , Bapepam - LK through www.bapepam.go.id/reksadana/ , Bank Indonesia through

In this research model used estimation model that used to form multiple linear regression similarity with the ordinary least square metode (OLS):

Tabel 4.1 Hasil Estimasi OLS (Ordinary Least Square) Variabel

Coefficient

Std. Error

t-Statistic

Prob.

C

-.224

.036

-6.256

.000

TP

-.095

.016

-6.065

.000

TR

.831

.811

1.024

.316

0.800 determination coefficient (R2 ) is got 0.639, it From the estimation result by using OLS method, on the

means around 63.9% the stock mutual funds performance

table 4.11 will get the similarity sech as:

will be influenced of the rotation stage and risk stage

KR = -0.224 - 0.095TP + 0.831 TR + e

factor that can measure the stock of mutual funds performance from (table 4.8) and the rest will be

5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Conslusion 1). The influence analysis of rotation stage trogh the stock of mutual funds performance Turnover has big influence to the success of mutual funds. Total turnover refers to how often the buying and selling securities . A high turnover ratio means that these funds are very active and frequent buying and selling . Mutual funds that have a very high turnover ratios , indicate that the investment manager buying and selling activity with high frequency . Good performance of mutual funds occurs in mutual funds with high activity Tradding . The higher the turnover rate , the greater the return that may be obtained . From the test result is got value R or correlation

influeced of another variable. That thing will be matched with the criteria of decision taking, it can be seen from the value Sig 0.000 < from alpha value 0.05 on the table before (table 4,8), so HO is rejected and receive H1, In another word the decision that is taken shows that the rotation stage influence the stock of mutual funds performance. The high of turnover ratio means that investment manager does not anticipate the change of the market like many kinds of issue that exist, with the economics condition that influences the asset price then. Trading Activity which is high shows that investment of manager effort in applying maximal return in doing the trade. This result suitable with the explanation of Erich A Helfert (1997), he said that the rotation stage which is higher. For

coefficient that show the correlation among the variable

97 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 that to reveal that the rotation stage (turnover) related to

5.2 Recommendations

the mutual funds performance.

1)

Indonesia goverment must increase the relationship in invesment with the other countries, especially US,

2).

Singapore and the other developed countries. This

The risk stage with the stock of mutual funds

thing will increase the capital inflows to Indonesia.

performance Every changes of economical condition will push the

2)

Investor should attend how the movement of US

form of many kinds condition that must an investor to

dollar exchange rate and Straits times index that can

decide what should be done and what strategy that should

influence the Indonesia capital market performance,

be applied in order the investor gets the return that is

this thing will give the benefit for the investor to

hoped. The highest return on the stock of mutual funds

determine the ideal position, should buy, sell or save

shows the mutual funds is optimal, higher the risk of

the stock that is had of Indonesia capital market.

certain mutualfunds so it will be highest for the reslut

Then, investor does not have to worry with the

(return), that is got, so that it will be better the mutual

inflation movement, becuase inflation will not

funds performance. The risk stage of mutual funds on the

influence the capital market performance as long as

wisdom of asset allocation, it means how invesment

the movement of inflation still low (less than 10%

manager allocates the funds on th asset classes that exists

per year). As well as Dow Jones Industrial Average,

and how many funds for its distribution.

investor does not have to worry with up and down of

. from the result test will get R value or correlation

the indexs as long as US economic condition is still

coefficient that shows the cprrelation between variable

good, it will not influence the others economic

2

0.882 determination coefficient R around 0.675 that

countries.

shows the stock of mutual funds performance will be influenced the risk stage around 67.5% on the table before

REFERENCES

(table 4.10) and the rest is influenced by another variable. That is matched with the criteria of decision taking, it can be seen that the value of Sig 0.000 < Alpha value 0.05 on the table before (table 4.8), so HO is rejected and receive H1, with another word the decision taking shows that the risk stage inluences to the stock of mutual funds performance. The risk stage is the possible stage actual return will not be as hope as because of the factors that is foolowed. The higher of the the return so it will be better of the mutual funds performance. This reslut is suitable with Harry Markowitz explanation that the risk is the difference between the expexted return and its realitation. The higher return, so the higher for its risk stage.

Elviandari Laily, 2007. Analisis Variabel-Variabel yang Berpengaruh Pada Kinerja Reksadana Di Indonesia. Jurusan Akuntansi Faultas Ekonomi Universitas Brawijaya. Fahmi, Irham. 2012. Pengantar Pasar Modal. Alfa Beta. Bandung Ghozali, Imam. 2009. Ekonometrika Teori: Konsep Dan Aplikasi Dengan SPSS 17. Universitas Diponogoro. Semarang. Hasyi, 2010. Penilaian Kinerja Saham: Pendekatan Model Treynor. Jurnal Akuntansi Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang. Jogiyanto, 2007. Teori Portopolio dan Analisis Investasi, Edisi 3. Yogya. Mardalis, 2010. Metode Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Proposal. PT. Bumi Aksara. Jakarta. Nurcahya, 2010. Analisis Pengaruh Kebijakan Alokasi Aset, Pemilihan Saham, dan Tingkat Risiko Terhadap Kinerja Reksadana Saham di Indonesia.

98 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Sebelas Maret. Surakarta. Panjaitan Osin, 2011. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kinerja Reksa Dana Saham. Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Sumatera Utara. Medan Reilly, Frank K. dan Edgar A Norton, 1995. Investment. The Dryden Press. Florida. Rusman, Teddy. 2008. Statistik Penelitian dengan SPSS. Bandar Lampung. Samsul, Mohamad. 2006. Pasar Modal Dan Manajemen Portofolio. Erlangga. Jakarta. Sari, 2012. Analisis Kinerja Manajer Investasi dan Tingkat Risiko Terhadap Kinerja Reksadana Saham. Fakultas Ekonomika dan Bisnis Universitas Diponegoro. Semarang. Simatupang, Mangasa. 2010. Pengetahuan Praktis Investasi Saham Dan Reksadana. Mitra Wacana Media. Jakarta. Sugiyono. 2009. Metode Penelitian Bisnis. CV. Alphabet. Bandung Waelan, 2008. Kemampuan Memilih Saham dan Market Timing Manajer Investasi Reksadana Saham Di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Jurnal Akuntansi dan Auditing Indonesia, Vol 12, No 2, pp 167-176. Zalmi Zubir, 2011. Manajemen Portofolio. Salemba Empat. Jakarta.

99 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

PERSPECTIVE TEXT MINING ANALYTICS INTELEGENT INFORMATION EXTRACTION FOR IMPECT OF INDONESIAN SOCIAL MEDIA 1

Agus Suryana, 2Sri Ipnuwati

Departement of Information Science, STMIK Pringsewu Lampung Indonesia [email protected], [email protected] Indonesia reaches 15 % or 38,191,873 of the total ABSTRACT

population of Internet users we 251,160,124 , Medium

The development and growth of the Indonesian nation-

internet users using mobile / smartphones reached 14 % of

building which consists of various cultures and religions

the population . Naturally, our country is tempting targets

changed the way the public life of the state and the nation

for smarphone marketing today .

of Indonesia. Social media plays an important role in the ideological aspect, the social aspect, cultural aspect, the

Based on statistical indicators of Internet users in Indonesia

religious aspects, and aspects of defense and security of

who we get , the average time it takes users to access the

the ethnic diversity of the community. Social media is

Internet via a PC or laptop information around 5 hours 30

the social interaction among people in which they create,

minutes every day , the percentage of Internet users via

share or exchange information and ideas in virtual

mobile or smarphone 14 % of the total population . Being

communities and networks. While the future of social

the average time spent by Internet users via mobile or

media is uncertain, current trends suggest that there they

smartphones or mobile technology in Indonesia about 2

will become increasingly widely adopted. Our research

hours 30 minutes each day .

focuses on the perspective of the influence of social

Based on statistical indicators of social media users in

media and the development of those aspects that affect

Indonesia, we get that , for the percentage of social media

the people of Indonesia by using text mining and

users in Indonesia, 15 % of the total population , the average

information extraction.

time it takes a user to access social media in Indonesia is

Index

Terms

Social

Media,Text

Mining

Analytics,

Information Extraction, Indonesian Social Media.

about 2 hours 54 minutes each day . Being the percentage of users who access social media through mobile or smarphonenya 74 % . A company used to be able to create a brand image in the minds of the public through advertising

I. INTRODUCTION

alone. Today, advertising is only a part of the brand-building

Indonesia is a country that has the largest internet users in

process. Consumers are making more deliberate, considered

Southeast Asia . Internet in Indonesia today has become a

purchases as opposed to impulse purchases, which are all

primary requirement for its users, the development of social

researched online. That research inevitably includes reviews

media is also becoming one of the important factors the

by experts with blogs, customers with opinions and friends

amount of internet users in this country . Not only do it just

with recommendations.

based on the Survey Data Global Web Index , Indonesia is a

The quantity and polarity of online, written communication

country that has a social media users are most active in Asia.

about almost any product or service has become statistically

Indonesia has 79.7 % of active users in the social media beat

significant and sways purchases. Given the trust imbued in

the Philippines 78 % , Malaysia 72 % , China 67 % . Believe

friends and experienced customers and the skepticism felt

it or not , that the statistical development of the Internet in

toward promises delivered by vendors, what people say

100 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 about you online is becoming more influential than

Michael Haenlein define social media as "a group of

advertising.

Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the

The leading social media website, Facebook, was

creation and exchange of user-generated content."[2]

reaching 700 million users by mid-2011, while Twitter is

Furthermore, social media depend on mobile and web-based

coming close at 500 million users by February 2012. One

technologies to create highly interactive platforms through

of the explanations behind its popularity is the network

which individuals and communities share, co-create,

effect: social media s utility increases when more people

discuss, and modify user-generated content. They introduce

use it. The utility comes from the users finding social

substantial and pervasive changes to communication

media more effective and efficient in reaching a larger

between organizations, communities, and individuals.

number of people and the information they provide (Dijk

These changes are the focus of the emerging field of

2006). Social media, however, is particularly fascinating

technoself studies.

[3]

because it differs from traditional media such as newspapers and television in three important ways: (1) it is

Social media differ from traditional or industrial media in

able to facilitate two-way interaction with a large number

many ways, including quality,[4] reach, frequency, usability,

of people at the same time; (2) actors are connected with

immediacy, and permanence.[5] There are many effects that

each other directly, without middlemen that control

stem from internet usage. According to Nielsen, internet

contents; (3) and popular social media websites are free to

users continue to spend more time with social media sites

join, making the cost of usage very low by modern

than any other type of site. At the same time, the total time

standard.

important

spent on social media in the U.S. across PC and mobile

conclusion: social media makes it easy for people to

devices increased by 37 percent to 121 billion minutes in

evaluate their counterparts

July 2012 compared to 66 billion minutes in July 2011.[6]

These

advantages

lead

to

actions

an

and therefore

beneficial as an bussineas strategy.

For content contributors, the benefits of participating in

Many-to-many communications have given the public

social media have gone beyond simply social sharing to

enormous influential power. Public opinion is more trusted

building reputation and bringing in career opportunities and

and respected than the promotional declarations of

monetary income, as discussed in Tang, Gu, and Whinston

a

company. Text analytics are our only hope for monitoring,

(2012).[7]

comprehending and participating in public discourse. While the variety of technologies may be perplexing, the uses for

Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) define social media as a group

them are vital for calibrating the success of social media

of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological

investments, and maintaining good relations and a

and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow

competitive edge. From the advertiser s perspective, success

the creation and exchange of user generated content . To be

is measured in the reach required to generate awareness.

specific, social media has many different types, which

Text analytics strive to derive meaning from the written

includes blogs, social networking sites, communities, video

word.

or photo sharing sites, and so on.

This

is

massively

complex

because

human

communication is so context dependent. Antony Mayfield (2008) identified social media from II. LITERATUR REVIEW

customers (users) perspective: social media is best understood as a group of new kinds of online media. And he

A. Social Media

believed that main social media types share most or all of Social media is the social interaction among people in which they create, share or exchange information and ideas [1]

in virtual communities and networks.

Andreas Kaplan and

the following characteristics: 1.

Participation:

Social

media

encourages

contributions and feedback from everyone who is

101 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 interested. It blurs the line between media and audience. 2.

Openness:

definition is limitative as it refers to by computer , Social

media

encourages

voting,

comments and the sharing of information. They are rarely any barriers to accessing and making use of content. 3.

extracting , and reference

to

written resources . Moreover, the more

conventional

means

of

experimentation is vague and does not pertain to a definition (such exploration might not always take place).

Conversation: Social media is better seen as a twoway conversation or catalyst for it whereas traditional media is about broadcast and a one-way communication

from

a

media

broadcasting

company to mass audience. 4.

means of experimentation . Marti A. Hearst.20 This

Text mining attempts to discover new, previously unknown information by applying techniques from information retrieval, natural language processing and data mining . This definition is text-specific ( text-

Community: Social media allows communities to form quickly and communicate effectively.

mining ) and refers to a non-exhaustive list of techniques from information retrieval, natural language processing and data mining . Data mining is here only a

Because of those characteristics, social media started to be accepted by more and more users and there are always

subset of text mining (while we would tend to consider that the opposite is true instead).

new social media types emerging into the market. Conversations between the people that communities as well as the networks that connect the social web.

are

Information Extraction is the mapping of natural language texts (such as newswire reports, newspaper and journal articles, electronic mail, World Wide Web pages, any database,

etc.)

into

predefined,

crawled by

software that

recognizes entities,

relationships and actions . This definition confirms our

B. Intelegent Information Extraction

textual

A computational process whereby text or datasets

assumption that deep into

data analysis does not always

go

content as it refers to crawling and not

necessarily extracting 23.

structured

representation, or templates, which, when filled, represent

Text and Data Mining means to perform extensive

an extract of key information from the original text

automated searches of Publisher s Content, the sorting,

[14].

parsing,

The intelegent information extraction

concerns

addition or removal of linguistic structures,

interest in the application domain (e.g.

and the selection and inclusion of content into an index

companies or persons), or relations between such entities,

or database for purposes of classification or recognition

usually in the form of events in which the entities take part

of relations and associations .

entities

of

(e.g. company takeovers, management successions etc.). Once extracted, the information can then be stored in databases to be queried, data mined, summarised in natural language, etc. C. Text Mining

D. The Development Of Indonesian Social Media As the rapid development of technology today it is also in line with the development of existing applications. Can even put aside differences of space and time at the same time. In other words, the technology has grown rapidly

Text Mining is the discovery by computer of new,

this allows us to communicate with someone who is way

previously unknown information, by automatically

down in the absence of an obstacle. These days the

extracting information from different written resources.

internet is one of the facilities are very effective and

A key element is the linking together of the extracted

efficient when compared with other communication tools.

information together to form new facts or new hypotheses to be explored further by more conventional

102 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 At this time in 2013 has a lot of the inventor or inventors

III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

who create social media applications to achieve the

Intelegent Information is hidden in the large volume of web

effective and efficient communication among existing

pages and thus it is necessary to extract useful information

Facebook, Twitter, Friendster, Tumblr, MySpace , Plurk,

from the web content, called Intelegent Information

Path and so on . Half of Earth's population uses the

Extraction.

application and Indonesia is no exception . With the rise of social media users in the country is not without any

A. Intelegent Information Extraction Framework

problems such as the one infidelity , cybercrime , fraud and so on . The types of people who make use of this app is also different, some are just looking for a friend or a mate, some use it as a place to sell, nothing to make fake accounts, and that is rampant is alay accounts ( read : kids kites ) were always make eye sore to see if the username

Fig. 1:Intelegent Information Extraction Framework

or the status and usually they make them " live "on Facebook (username alay example : zhiieciinakanchol yankchlallugalu ) .

automatic extraction of structured information such as

Range of 2008-2010 applications are very well known social media in this country is up, carrying millions of active users are in this country. Beginning of the 2000s we know applications such as Friendster and 2004 began to go into the Facebook (250 million users worldwide online) that shifts the fame of Friendster with more complete

features

Intelegent Information Extraction (IE) is the process of

and

annually

Facebook

itself

entities,

relationship

between

entities

and

attributes

describing entities from unstructured texts. Mostly useful information such as names of people, places or organization mentioned in the text is extracted without a proper understanding of the text. Traditional data mining systems assumes that the information to be mined is already in the form of relational database.

increasingly in demand because in addition to the features that constantly updates there also provided an online

B. Social Media Research Methods

game which in turn make the user more comfortable to be

1) Interviews

on Facebook . Other applications are popular in Indonesia

1. Surveys

other than Facebook is Twitter . The existence of other

Creating a group variable questionnaire on social

applications lacking a place in the hearts of social

media data sources. 2.

networking users in Indonesia .

Content analysis

The use of social media should be accompanied with

Data collection phase of social media by digging

responsibility and awareness of the user so as not to

Indonesia contents of the material:

abuse and needed the attention of parents in supervising

Facebook Walls

their children in the minors make use of

Tweets

these

applications are increasing more rapidly each year. Many

Deliciuous Bookmark

of the users who complain or vent about the problems in

Youtube Comments

the real world even some who tells his personal life and

Flickr Comments, Tag

diumbar into cyberspace . Therefore we are writing this

Yahoo!Answer question, answers,

short does not stop here because we will continue to

comments, ratings

observe the changes and developments of existing social

Blog Articles

media in the future .

Wiki Articles

103 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460 2460-7223 7223 2) Data mining

offer change in society, and adherence to a set of ideals

Gain knowledge of social media by following the

where conformity alre already ady exists, through a normative

Data Mining process that includes :

thought process. Ideologies are systems of abstract thought as opposed to mere ideation applied to public matters and thus make this concept central to politics. Implicitly every political tendency entails an ideology whether or not it is propounded as an explicit system of whether thought.

Pancasila in Indonesia is very important, because Fig.2:Data Mining Process

Ideology Indonesia or Pancasila can awaken our spirit to build Indonesia to be better country than another country, provide guidance about the wo world rld and its content and

3) Data from human subjects Conducting interviews and surveys to professionals

build spirit to struggle to move against the occupation.

such as :

Pancasila is the most important in Indonesia because Pancasila is Ideology for Indonesia, where that ideology

Social Media User

has function for filter influence from Indonesia. Many

College Students

people who study or work in neighbor country. When

Nurses

they back to Indonesia, they take along until they back to

Patients

Indonesia. Because they has a long time to stayed in

Librarians

neighbors country, because that they familiar with

IV. PERSPECTIVE SOCIAL MEDIA INDONESIA

western style.

That influence had some impacts for Indonesia. The

Ideology of Pancasila

impact for Indonesia such us, Indonesian used a sexy National Defense and Security

clothes, used harsh words, more popular modern dance

Indonesian Social Media

Political

than traditional dance, and so on. Many culture in Indonesia where must we protect and we continue because a lot culture in Indonesia ttaken aken by another

Economic

Social Culture

country. So, we must protect our culture.

Fig.3.. Perspective Social Media Indonesia. Indonesia A.. Perspective Intelegent The Ideological Indonesian

other country see our country is not good country because much Indonesian used a bad attitude. Maybe relationship

Nation An ideology is a set of aims and ideas that directs one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision,

Impact for our relationship with the other country is the

as a way of

looking at things, as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies, or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society or a 'received consciousness' or product of socialization. The main purpose behind an ideology is to

between Indonesia with th thee other country is not good and so on. So, we must used a good attitude and filter influence from the other country, because influence from the other country is not good for Indonesian where Indonesia have religion and have principles for build good country. countr Proclamation of August 17, 1945 has given birth to the State of RI State Equipment complete PPKI tools a

104 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 220th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 hearing on August 18, 1945 and successfully passed the

Pancasila Indonesia is taken from the culture and

Constitution in section four which consists of opening the

traditions of cultural acculturation Indonesia and India

4th paragraph of Pancasila formulation contained therein.

(Hindu-Buddhist),

Formulation

and

(Islamic). According to Sukarno's "Belief" is a native of

constitutional right as the basis of the state of RI PPKI

Indonesia, "Justice Social" inspired by the concept of

passed by the representative of the entire people of

Messiah. Sukarno was never mentioned or propagandizes

Indonesia.

"Unity". That's statement It is from Soeharto version

of

Pancasila

is

a

legitimate

Western

(Christian),

and

Arabic

pancasila Philosophy. Five Principles according to the Jakarta Charter adopted on June 22, 1945 the following formula :

Based on the above explanation is understanding the general

1.

Belief in the Islamic obligation to run a follower-

philosophy of Pancasila is the result of thinking / thinking

followers.

deeply of the Indonesian people who are considered, trusted

2.

Humanity is just and civilized;

and believed to be something the truest, most just, most

3.

Unity of Indonesia;

wise, best and most suitable for the Indonesian nation

4.

Democracy guided by the wisdom and deliberation

5.

amongst representatives;

B. Perspective Intelegent Of Political Indonesian in Social

Social justice for all people of Indonesia.

Media

Conclusion of the various terms of Pancasila is a legitimate and constitutional right of Pancasila which is listed in the Preamble UUD 45, it is strengthened by the MPRS

decree

and

Presidential

Instruction

No.

NO.XXI/MPRS/1966. 12 dated 13 April 1968 which confirms that the pronunciation, writing and formulation of the State of RI Pancasila legitimate and correct which is as stated in the Preamble UUD 1945.

Indonesia or Pancasila from philosophy of pancasila, the original philosophy, base on Soekarno speech, base on Soeharto speech, After we knew philosophy of Indonesia is Pancasila. In fact the definition of philosophy in the Pancasila has been modified and

interpreted differently by some philosophers Indonesia. Pancasila discourse made since 1945.

for Electoral Systems, 51% of Indonesians vote for the same party most of the times, compared to 41% who always vote for different parties. This shows that Indonesian voters core and swing divisions are quite even. Indonesians also state that they prefer to vote for a candidate directly (77%) rather than to vote for only a party (17%). In making their selections, however, candidate s personality is still the most

After that, we can know point of view about ideology of

philosophy of

According to a report published by International Foundation

Pancasila

philosophy is always updated in accordance with the "demand" of the ruling regime, so that Pancasila is different from time to time. Originality of Pancasila philosophy. Philosophy of Pancasila and developed by Sukarno from 1955 until the end of his rule in1965. At the time of Sukarno always stated that the original philosophy of

important factor (40%), compared to other qualities such as candidate s platform (11%), and party affiliation (5%) (IFES 2010). The variety of voters and their preferences lead candidates to use a variety of strategies, such as policybased strategies to target swing districts, and valence-based strategies to target core districts. In terms of their campaigns, there is also a certain balance between partymobilization strategies and personal-mobilization strategies. What I am interested in this thesis is that as an electoral strategy, whether social media aids party or personal vote mobilization, and whether social media complements valence or policy-based strategies. The main findings of this thesis are social media is a personal-vote mobilization tool, and it complements policy-based strategies. Online social networking media as one of the products enough communication technology used in the election campaign McLuhan concept which states that technology

105 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 is a basic concept that the media form the basis for the

media now makes many of them developing and the

analysis of this case. From McLuhan's concept down into

impact it senggaja utilizing social media to achieve the

several theories Seyang linked and can also be a knife in

goals to be achieved in almost all aspects of life.

the analysis of numerous cases in politics. The results of

(Mirabito, 2004) One of the areas are pretty much very

the discussion and the conclusion is that the ever-evolving

dependent on communication technology is the field of

communication technologies lead to influence on politics

politics. Because in this political field of political

through campaign activities today is developed through

communication is very important in politics. One form of

new media and technological deternism visible presence

political activity that is known to the wider community is

in the community because many people are so

a lot of political campaigns. In this case, the campaign

dependence on technology functions so life is dominated

itself is divided into several categories such as legislative

by technology. As social beings, humans will never be

campaigns,

able to live alone and it is also confirmed one aksimoma

campaigns in the head area etc. What is also very

of communication that "we can not not Communicate"

interesting to observe is a shift form dilakukanoleh

(Ruben, 2006). Is true that people can not not

political campaigns of candidates in the campaign. We

communicate. This communication is communication

knew before berkembanganya communication technology

both verbal and non-verbal. Communication itself is a

is still very much in the encounter how the campaign by

process of communication of beam from the sender to the

putting up large banners, banners - banners seseluruh

receiver through the media. Departing from the axioms of

road, billboard posters also meet throughout the city that

this one, the technology is growing so fast without us

actually quite so much to have both positive and negative

knowing it fully. Over time, the rapidly evolving

impact on it. Now, as time goes by, and the development

technology and the emergence of so many rmenimbulkan

of communication technologies is also rapid, as described

new media that have an impact on the social life of the

earlier about the emergence of new media to make a shift

community, "... New media technologies impact our life

in the campaign. Many who use the new media in a

culture by offering new lifestyles, creating new jobs and

campaign to attract as many times and to vote in

eliminating others, demanding regulations and presenting

elections. In the near future, Indonesia will celebrate one

unique new social issues ... "(Straubhaar, 2012) It is

of the bigest democratic party for the new 2014 election

improper for the menjadai forgotten is that the base is":

for the next term. From some of the participants of the

the

in

election has started doing way to entice the masses and

communications technology (CT) are based on the

memlihi election. A variety of ways ranging from the old

fundamental ideas that can be Considered systems.

ways like the use of billboards, posters also deploy

Understanding the fundamental Reviews These systems

various banners. It comes in various television shows

allows knowledge of various information technologies to

with a variety of existing imaging was also performed by

be added, brick by brick, to build on understanding of

all couples cagub cawagub. Some participants of the

current and developing technologies. One of the primary

election campaign team was also utilizing social media as

systems in CT is signaling. "(Jones, 2009) From the

a means to attract the attention of the masses. Almost all

notion of fundamental importance and that social media

social media there are also utilized one of which is a

was born. Like Facebook, MySpace, Linked In or Twitter

forum for social networking and online media. Social

with nearly millions of people of the world have joined

media has greatly affected the lives of men. (Liu, 2007)

together in a variety of the many types of social media

including in the political field is also affected by the

set. Any kind of social media such as Facebook, MySpace

existence of social media. In the political field itself in

and others have each different from one another. (Grant,

which there are also political communication that the

language,

Acronyms,

and

discussions

presidential

campaigns

and

2010) With so many types and users on every social

106 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

election

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460 2460-7223 7223 public can be affected to choose a candidate to get a

b.

power.

Promoting social cohesion and political processes through assimilation with the isolated community of common community / forward .

B.. Perspective Intelegent Social Culture Indonesia's telecommunication industry has grown very remarkable since 2000 the number of cellular subscribers in Indonesia has reached 236 million subscribers by the end of 2010. That is to say the market penetration has reached 99% of the total population in 2010 of 237 million Indonesian population despite the high number of accumulated accumu cellular subscribers this is due to there are some customers who subscribe to more than one operator. operator The operators were competing to offer various services to access the Internet either via mobile phone or using a modem. modem With the price of internet access via mobile technologies are getting cheaper resulting in nearly 40% of mobile subscribers have access to the internet via their mobile phone which on average they access social media networks like facebook and twitter. Based on data from insidefacebook.com insidefacebook.com in September 2010 that Indonesia has become the 3rd largest user in the world under the USA and the UK with 27.8 million users.

c.

Improving the way and quality of public services delivery government government.

d.

Stimulating

the

equilibrium

distribution

of

population.. e.. Eliminating the social and economic gap between the information

rich

and

the

information

poor. poor.

From the above discussion we can see that so many positive effects on the progress of the technological advances of ICT on economic issues, issues increased knowledge and improved government service or other business institutions to the community. community But technological progress is like a double-edged edged sword,, of which there are negative aspects arising when people are not able to filter and judicious in the use of the technology it self....

Is social media?? According to Wikipedia, Wikipedia, social media is an online media where users can easily participate, participate share and create conten contents ts include blogs, social networks or social networks networks, wikis, forums and virtual worlds. worlds Blogs, Blogs social networking and wikis may be a form of social media that is most commonly used by people around the world world.

In Indonesia, Indonesia the development of social media is rapidly increasing This development is supported with easy increasing. access to the internet via mobile phones. Now to access facebook or twitter for example, example can be done anywhere and at any time simply by using a mobile phone So quickly people can access social media resulted in a major Fig.4.Facebook Top 10 Growth Markets.

phenomenon of the flow of information not only in developed countries but also in Indonesia. Indonesia Because the

The government has an active role to improve the use of

speed of social media is also starting to look obviate the

the Internet to remote rural areas through the project

conventional

mass

media

in

spreading

news. news

Universal Service Obligation (USO). The purpose of the project Universal Service Obligation (USO) is not solely

In fact, many social and political changes caused by the

to provide telecommunications facilities to a person or

influence of social media networks. networks Internet marketing

group of people, but is to :

methods used by Barack Obama to win the election in the

a.

United States is an example of the influence of social

Increase productivity productivi and economic growth. growth

107 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 220th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460 2460-7223 7223 media networks that can affect the preferences of a voter vo to vote in the presidential candidate superpower.. The most obvious example of the effectiveness of the Internet in Indonesia in community issues is a 'liberation liberation movement' seed-Chandra seed on facebook which is a key strategic victory of the people face the cruel politics of law enforcement officers. officers After the liberation of the

Fig.5.Facebook Audience Demographics Indonesia

internet back helps Pritchard of pressure arrogant institution

assisted

law

enforcement

officers. officers.

.

To reduce the negative influence of social media networks necessary to take a comprehensive of all

But besides that, that the other negative side is rioting in London England recently where the riots were driven through social media networks. networks So it is no exaggeration to

stakeholders

ranging

from

family,,

educational

institutions government and providers and network institutions, operators the Internet itself itself..

.

say the internet is a bastion of democracy. democracy As a weapon of public, social media is a two-bladed two sword In the hands sword. of a good person, person he brings improved.. In the hands of a bad person,, he supported the crime. Fortunately for us that people are far more good than bad people. people.

.

From the family of each parent should always have sufficient knowledge about the internet and they can teach their children about the negative impacts im of the internet. internet Besides, they also have to exercise control of their children, especially in terms of access to any web site on children,

Another negative impact of the social aspect is the increasing individuality of the people of Indonesia who frequently interact through social media networks. networks

the internet and also with whom they befriend virtual world Parents must actively teach the values of world. togetherness and kinship..

.

Individuality here is they do not really care about the people who are around, around, but more busy with the handsets they hold from chat,, status updates on facebook or twitter ngetweet. So some say that social media networks are connecting people but disconneted family. family And as we all know that the people of Indonesia have a tremendous respect for the culture of the meaning of family. family

In terms of educational institutions should be taught how to use the internet to their students healthy. healthy So the students before using the internet and access social media network has been equipped with adequate knowledge to counteract the negative effects that may arise. arise And also conduct activities that increase the togetherness like the scouts scouts.

With the high usage of social network media in the age range 13-25 years basedd on data from inside facebook where users in the age range up to 70% % of total users in Indonesia. So it becomes fear the future, future the younger generation be the generation that is individualistic and forget the values of their ancestors that upholds the nature

From the government side should be a regulator for content and information circulating in the social media network etwork. The positive things that have been tried by the government is blocking access to porn sites that could damage the morale of the nation Indonesia. Indonesia.

.

of family and togetherness in social life.. In terms of telecommunications service providers must actively assist the gover government nment to block access to content that could damage the morale of the people, people especially the younger generation generation.

108 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 220th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 C. Perspective Intelegent Economic

third largest market for Facebook after the United States

There was a time when the construction in Indonesia

and India, and the fifth largest for Twitter. This may be

looks so left in the middle of a rapidly growing trend in

driven by the fact that almost half of Indonesia's

other Asian countries. But it did not take long for

population under the age of 30. Interestingly, according,

Indonesia to shine again and go beyond the countries in

jakartaupdates.com site, nearly one-third of the global

Asia are growing most rapidly, particularly India and

trending topic on Twitter came from Indonesia in 2011.

China.

.

Today,

practitioners

of

marketing,

communications, business and politics in the world are

Given the size and growth of Indonesia's young

increasingly eyeing Indonesia as the latest Asian tiger.

demographic, the brand owner must work extra to attract the attention of consumers in Indonesia. They must be

Economic growth plays an important role in encouraging

quick and precise in taking steps to benefit from the

the development of this country. Since the economic

intensity and the willingness of this consumer group.

crisis in 1997, Indonesia's economy continues to grow

They now have to promote two-way communication to

rapidly with the growth of gross domestic product (gross

get the attention of consumers in this unique market.

domestic product - GDP) figures were consistently

.

reaching 6-7% annually over the last 3 years. From the

Some companies have begun to take strategic steps to

eyes of economists, this growth means huge potential that

capture the opportunities in social media. One example is

has attracted foreign investors to take advantage of the

a fast food restaurant from the United States. After using

Indonesian consumer market is also growing rapidly. Not

a strategy that focuses on the use of social media to

only being the 3rd most populous country in Asia after

increase brand awareness and disseminate updates its

China and India, Indonesia also has the highest birth rate

promotional activities, the company managed to grab the

of all three, which makes the consumer market in

attention of consumers in Indonesia, which later led to

Indonesia will continue to grow in the coming years.

loyalty and publicity outside of the online realm. By using

.

Twitter to directly reach its target audience is young From the eyes of the public, the story of Indonesia may

consumers, the brand managed to get continuous

sound pretty familiar: a state with a dense population will

coverage in social media and traditional media in a large

be middle class segments more shine and made it through

national scale. The success of this brand surpassed its

the global financial crisis. A country that is now offering

competitors as the top choice of consumers and be an

millions the opportunity to enter a market of consumers

accurate example of how effective use of social media for

who continue to hunt for brands that they see in the

business practices in Indonesia.

.

movies, hear music and discuss online. But the online discussion is what distinguishes the Indonesian market

It can also be a trigger to change the low level of internet

with China and India (and even other countries

penetration of an obstacle into an opportunity to tap into a

throughout the world). When talking about engaging

huge market that contains more than 250 million people

online, Indonesia has created a new platform.

and relatively not been touched. Internet penetration rate

.

is low does not mean the decline. The penetration rate Indonesia has its own uniqueness in the online world.

continues to rise consistently from 17.5% in 2010 to 22%

Currently 80% of Internet users, or commonly called by

last year, this matter is supported by the increase in

netizens, active in a wide variety of social media, the

mobile web usage is also becoming consistent. Now, the

internet connection in Indonesia is still in the lowest order

majority of mobile phones are sold in Indonesia can

in the region with a percentage of 22.4% according to

access

Marketplus. But on the other hand, Indonesia is now the

telecommunications services very affordable (less than $

the

sites

on

the

internet,

and

109 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

with

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 12 a month for unlimited data package), it is not likely

After the end of the cold war (cold war) in 1989 marked

that Indonesia will possess a number of netizens largest in

the collapse of the Berlin Wall, making the United States

Southeast Asia. Plus an increase by 61% annually in

became the sole superpower the world coupled with the

smartphone shipments, growth rate internet access in

development of science and technology and invested in

Indonesia will show double-digit growth this year.

the form of computer-based technologies have spurred the

And not something that is too early to forecast that mobile

United States to transform the information technology-

marketing will be a vital medium for reaching consumers

based change and then known as IRMA iT (Information

in Indonesia. Although today it is still in its early stages,

Technology Revolution in Military) .1 this change also

but is expected to be a sharp increase in mobile

resulted in threats faced by a nation transformed from a

advertising and marketing as well as e-commerce as a

threat

result of this online trend. Therefore, it is clear that there

uncconvensional threat or Asymmetric Warfare. The

is a vast opportunity for growth in this field.

threat of war began to change both the shape and the ways

.

that

is

for

traditional

(conventional)

.

used. Entering 1990, the war did not use the traditional

Audience in Indonesia is very unique and they are hoping

way, but using a new method that is better organized,

to get the treatment and services are unique as well. Many

carried out by non-state actors and not tied to place and

companies are already aware of this fact and try to

time used. War is called "Global War on Terror". The

achieve success by creating local sites as well as on

pattern of fighting and strategy used has changed and

various social media profiles specifically designed

shifted toward ways asymmetric warfare (Asymmetric

specifically for the Indonesian market. What do these

Warfare).

companies have to prove is that the direct digital

"Asymmetric Warfare is violent action undertaken by the"

communication between the consumer at any time with

have-nots "against the" haves "have-nots whereby the, be

them has been the key to establish a strong online

thet state or sub-state actors, seek to generate profound

community and gain the loyalty of consumers in

effects-at all levels or warfare (however defined), from

Indonesia. In other words, this is a shift of only spreading

the tactical to the strategic-by Employing Reviews their

a

own

message

to

consumers

becoming

interactive

communication with the fans. Localization online will

specific

advantages

relative

against

the

vulnerabilities of much stronger opponents

continue to be a trend that is in control. Companies that benefit most from these trends is that they managed to

The threat in the era of globalization and information

establish consistent communication with their audience.

technology not only to the military, but non-state actors

.

are the main actors in performing any action threat. The

Indonesia has slowly established itself as a global hub of

threat of non-state actors is often done today is the threat

social media. As the market is just starting to reach

of terror (terrorism), an armed separatist movement

maturity, it gives the challenges and opportunities for

(insurgency), and threats in cyberspace (cyber crime). The

companies and business practitioners to take part in it.

threat of non-conventional or asymmetric warfare such as

Businesses, whether it be in the beginner level as well as

environmental

leading brands, which successfully reap the benefits of

smuggling, sea property theft, illegal immigration, ethnic

social media obsession Indonesia to be a great success.

conflict and communal conflicts, poverty, hunger, and

While they were not informed only be left with many

others that can destabilize national security and

questions.

sovereignty. In that sense, the state is obliged to nullify all the

D. Perspective Intelegent National Defense and Security

sources

degradation,

of

threats

human

that

rights

abuses,

conventional

or

nonconventional for every citizen. Thus, Indonesia needs to make a national defense system that integrates with all

110 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 components from Sabang to Merauke.

.

freedom and social justice. "the threat posed by non-state actors can threaten the stability of and national security

The development of social media or social media marked

that needs special attention in the deal according to the

a very high amount of use of blogs, social networks

level

(Facebook, Twitter, WorldApp, Line, WeChat), and a

Facing the threat of new patterns and shapes as in the era

forum for communication in cyberspace makes humans

of globalization and information technology today, can

can communicate to exchange information regardless of

not be done simply by relying on the force of arms

time and space. The presence of social networking among

(hardpower), but the use of diplomacy or means other

people has become an extraordinary phenomenon and

approaches (softpower) or the incorporation of both

become part of the lifestyle even become a necessity in

(SmartPower) more effective in handling. As the Chinese

society, whether old or young. These practices will bring

philosopher Sun Tsu in his book On War says:

positive and negative effects of public life in a country,

"Getting a hundred victories of a hundred battles is not

the positive impact of technological advances on the

unusual, but can defeat the enemy without fighting is

internet can be is that the information can be obtained

incredible"

quickly

and

easily

delivered,

resulting

in

and

pattern

of

threats

made.

faster

communications implemented and accepted by all

National defense system now needs to be developed by

personnel, while negative impacts that can be caused by

utilizing the entire defense components are integrated in a

these developments is the risk of spreading information

network of the national defense system of the 21st

that is not on target, may result in leakage of confidential

century. This system is called Network Centric Warfare

information that may harm themselves, other people, or

Indonesia (NCWI) of the 21st century. NCWI an

other groups. On the other hand, the negative things

amalgamation of all components of the national defense

caused by the development of Internet technology is

system and then integrated in a system of information

many criminal acts in cyberspace or better known as

technology, where the military as the holder of command

cyber crime. Crime cyber crime generally refers to

and control in performing every operation homeland

criminal activity with a computer or computer network as

security and sovereignty. NCWI to be formed later on the

its main element, the term is also used for traditional

development

criminal activity where a computer or computer network

Communication, Computer, Intellegence, Surveillance,

used to facilitate or enable the crimes occurred. Internet

and Reconnaissance) that already exist. An integrated

crime (cybercrime) are often performed include: carding,

defense system of the universe by using information

cracking, joy computing, hacking, The Trojan horse,

technology and sensing equipment and satellite radar

leakage of data, the data diddling, software piracy, cyber

crate. Sensing Technology (RADAR / Radio Detection

espionage, forgery of data, unauthorized access to

And Ranging) is useful for detecting, measuring

computer and service, and others . Crimes committed in

distances, and create folder objects such as aircraft, motor

the era of globalization and information technology done

vehicles and information other. In military use, the

by actors covert (non-state actors) with different aims and

satellite is used to help convey important information

objectives that conflict with national objectives as stated

with defense and security systems both nationally and

in the fourth paragraph of the Preamble of the 1945

internationally.

of

C4ISR

(Command,

Control,

Constitution, namely: "Later than that to form a government Indonesian state to protect the people of

V.

FUTURE RESEARCH

Indonesia and the country of Indonesia, to promote the

The development of social media is growing, it is

general welfare;,, the intellectual life of the nation, and

interesting to study further research focus on how to

participate in the establishment of world order based on

create a social media strategy implementation and

111 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 education affect the political climate of Indonesia's democracy and political leadership of the nation of Indonesia. Future research will be developed in the behavior of politicians in the competitive Indonesian nation's leader in implementing strategic planning in the Indonesian nation-building process.

[6] Brooks, Jennifer. (2010). Social media for small communities. Municipal World, 120(4), 37. [7] Bryer, T. A., & Zavattaro, S. M. (2011). Social media and public administration M.E. Sharpe Inc. [8] Bughin, J., Chui, M., & Manyika, J. (2011). Clouds, big data, and smart assets: Ten tech-enabled business trends to watch. McKinsey Quarterly, August, 1-14.

VI. CONCLUSION

[9] Carlson, J. (2012). USING SOCIAL MEDIA 'BUILDS

The development of social media and social network

COMMUNITY'. Wisconsin State Journal, , B.8.

development greatly affects the joints Indonesian public

[10] City of Palo Alto. (2010). Social Media Use Policy,

life. Perspective social media affecting the Indonesian

Standards and Procedures. Retrieved July 11, 2012,

nation include aspects of ideology, political aspects,

from

social aspects of social, religious harmony aspect of life,

ilg.org/sites/main/files/fileattachments/resources__Palo

aspects

_Alto_Policy.doc

of

the

nation's

cultural,

economic

and

development aspects of the Indonesian nation. It should be further developed and researched the positive and negative effects of social media influence both macro and micro.

[11] Flickr,

http://www.ca-

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Wikipedia,

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113 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

Hawaii

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OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES FOR INDUSTRIES, WORKERS, AND GOVERNMENT OF INDONESIA IN THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY IMPLEMENTATION Indra Budi Sumantoro Darmajaya Institute of Business & IT Bandar Lampung Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT The ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) era has

Each of these characteristics has the components described in brief as follows:

arrived, but the echo is still not being a major concern, both for the majority of community nor the government of

A. Single market and production base

Indonesia. Things are more political noise and feels lumpy

1. The Free Flow of Goods

always happened all the time, rather than discuss anything

The free flow of goods is one of the primary means of

that has to be prepared and conducted in the MEA era.

achieving a single market and production base. Single

This paper would like to remind again community and

market for goods (and services) will also facilitate the

government to do preparation in the era of MEA. This

development of a production network in the region and

paper is in principle underlines that the opportunities and

increase the capacity of ASEAN as a global production

challenges for the industries, workers, and government, as

centre or as part of the global supply chain. The pillars as

the tripartite, is very important to be used as a foundation

the basis to perform actions in the free-flow of goods are

in drawing up action plans to face the era of MEA.

as follows: a. The Elimination of Tariffs;

KEY WORDS: Opportunities, Challenges, Industries,

b. Removal of Non Tariff Barriers;

Workers, and Government.

c. Provisions of the Origin of the Goods; d. Facilitation of Trade;

1. Introduction

e. The Integration of Customs; f. The ASEAN Single Window;

Along with the signing of the ASEAN Economic

g. Standards and Technical Barriers to trade.

Community Blue Print by 10 heads of States of ASEAN members, Indonesia as one of the countries that signed this

2. The Free Flow of Services

document, claimed to be committed to running what is

The free flow of services sector is one of the important

mandated by the blueprints. In point 8 of chapter II of the

elements in realizing the ASEAN economic community, in

blueprint as intended, there are 4 characteristics that will

which there are no barriers to ASEAN services suppliers

be reached by the ten ASEAN member countries, namely

in the provision of services in a cross-country in the

the single market and production base, the high economic

region, according to the domestic rules in each Member

competitiveness, the area with equitable economic

State. Service sector liberalization negotiated in several

development, and fully integrated with the global

rounds of negotiations, particularly through the ASEAN

economy.

Coordinating Committee on Service (CCS). Negotiations

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for certain sectors such as financial services and

The pillars are the basis to perform actions in the free flow

transportation of the country shall be executed through the

of skilled workforce is as follows:

Ministry. In the service sector, liberalization is not allowed

a. Allow managed mobility and facilitate the entry of

to pull back the commitment and flexibility which was

labour involved in the trade of goods, services and

agreed by all ASEAN member countries. In facilitating the

investment in accordance with the regulations applicable

free flow of services sector in 2015, ASEAN is also

in the country of the recipient

preparing

of

b. In order to facilitate the free flow of trade services (not

professionals, with the goal of facilitating its movement in

later than in 2015), the ASEAN also seeks harmonization

the region. For the financial sector, efforts to liberalize

and standardization, in order to facilitate the movement of

financial services sector should allow the Member States

labour in the region.

the

recognition

of

qualifications

to ensure the development of the financial sector and maintaining financial stability as well as economic

6. Integration of Sector priorities and Cooperation in the

socialization.

Fields of Food, Agriculture, and Forestry As many as twelve economic priority sectors have been

3. The Free Flow of Investment

identified to speed up economic integration. Some

The grammar rules of a free and open investment is the

Member States have played a role as a coordinator for

key to enhance ASEAN'S competitiveness in attracting

each sector. The priority integration sectors each have a

foreign direct capital in planting (Foreign Direct

road map that combines specific sector initiatives with

Investment/FDI) including intra-ASEAN investment. The

broader sector initiatives in cross-cutting policy such as

inflow of new investment and increased investment that

trade facilities. The pillars are the basis to perform actions

has been there (reinvestments) will encourage and ensure

within a freer capital flow is as follows:

the economic development of ASEAN. The pillars are the

a. Enhance cooperation, technology transfer and joint

basis to perform actions in the free-flow of investment is

approaches among countries members of ASEAN with

as follows:

regional organizations and international as well as the

a. Protection of Investment;

private sector.

b. Facilities and cooperation;

b.

c. Promotion and Awareness.

cooperatives as a means to empower and enhance market

Encourage

access

for

cooperation

agricultural

ASEAN

products,

agricultural

building

network

4. A Freer Flow of Capital

mechanisms linking agricultural cooperatives, and meet

The pillars are the basis to perform actions within a freer

the goal of agricultural cooperatives to provide benefits for

capital flow is as follows:

the farmers in the region.

a. Strengthen the development and integration of ASEAN capital markets; and

B. The High Competitive Area of Economy

b. Allow higher capital mobility.

1. Business Competition Policy The main objective of competition policy effort is

5. Free Flow of Skilled Workforce

reinforcing a culture of healthy competition. The Institute and legislation related to competition policy effort has

115 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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recently been formed in some ASEAN countries. At this

ASEAN transport also has significance for connecting the

time there is not yet an official body for ASEAN

neighbour countries in the North-East and South Asia.

cooperation CPL (Competition Policy Law) that serves as a network for business competition agencies or entities

5. Taxation

related to someone of experience and institutional norms

Action is taken in this pillar is completing bilateral

regarding CPL.

agreements on double taxation avoidance between ASEAN member countries in 2010, if possible.

2. Consumer Protection The establishment of an economic area with integrated

6. E-commerce

approaches on society has made ASEAN matter that

Action is taken in this pillar is drawing up policies and

consumers cannot be excluded in the process of

legal infrastructure in the area of e-commerce and through

integration. Consumer protection efforts continue to be

the

developed in line with the economic policies is

agreement and is based on the common frame of reference.

implementation

of

the

e-ASEAN

framework

recommended. C. Areas with equal economic development 3. Intellectual Property (IP or HKI)

1. The Development of SMES

In principle, copyright/IP policy can become a strong

ASEAN policy blueprint for SME development (APBSD)

driving force for (a) cultural, intellectual Creativity and art

2004-2014 outlines a framework for SME development in

as well as commercial aspects; (b) the implementation and

ASEAN. APBSD consists of 31 strategic work program,

the use of advanced technology efficiently; and (c) the

policy measures, and the expected output.

learning process in order to achieve expected balanced performance. Copyright/IP policy can also foster a culture

2. ASEAN Integration Initiative

of creativity and innovation, as well as ensure access and

Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI) launched in

benefits for all stakeholders equally, both on traditional

November 2000 provides direction and sharpen the focus

and HKI. Furthermore, the copyright/IP policy can affect

of the joint efforts to narrow the gap of development, not

the volume and quality of investment and foreign trade, as

only in ASEAN but also between ASEAN and other parts

well as the transfer of advanced technology. Creativity

of the world. At the moment, IAI covering the areas of

HKI is a major factor that determines the value of local

priority, namely 32, HR, ICT infrastructure, capacity

and external competitiveness.

building for economic integration of the region's climate, energy, investment, tourism, poverty alleviation and the

4. Infrastructure Development

improvement of quality of life.

Cooperation on transport, the transport network is efficient, safe and integrated in the ASEAN is very

D. Fully integrated with the Global economy

important to realize the potential of the ASEAN free trade

1. An integrated approach towards External economic

area is in full, and enhance the attractiveness of ASEAN as

relations

a region as a single tourist destination, production and

ASEAN should maintain centrality of ASEAN in external

investment, as well as narrowing the gap of development.

economic relations, including, but not limited to,

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negotiation of free trade agreements (FTAS) and

easier access to world markets. However, the condition

comprehensive economic partnership (CEP).

can bring up the exploitation risk. Indonesia still has a less binding regulation level so that it can give rise to acts of

2. Increased Participation in Global Supply Chain

exploitation on a large scale against the availability of

ASEAN should also increase participation in the global

natural resources by foreign companies coming into

supply chain through:

Indonesia as a country that has abundant natural resources

a. Continue the application of best practices and

in comparison to other countries. No possibility of

international standards in the field of production and

exploitation also performed foreign companies could

distribution, if possible.

damage ecosystems in Indonesia, while the regulation of

b.

Develop

policy

packages

help

comprehensive

investments in Indonesia have not been strong enough to

techniques for ASEAN member countries who has not yet

maintain natural conditions including availability of

developed to enhance the skills and productivity in the

natural resources is contained.

industry so that it can increase its participation in various global and regional integration initiatives.

From the aspect of employment, there is a big chance for job seekers because it can be widely available employment opportunities with a variety of needs for a wide range of

In his paper, Baskoro analyzes the opportunities,

expertise. In addition, access to go out of the country in

challenges, and risks for Indonesia in general with the

order to find a job even easier, could be without any

ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) as described

obstacles. MEA also became a great opportunity for the

below:

entrepreneur to find the best worker in accordance with the

For Indonesia itself, MEA will be a good opportunity

desired criteria. In this case could bring the risk of

because of trade barriers will likely diminish even be non-

employment for Indonesia. Seen from the side of

existent. It will have an impact on increasing the export

education and productivity of Indonesia still compete with

that will eventually increase the GDP of Indonesia. On the

labour that came from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand

other hand, emerging new challenges for Indonesia in the

as well as the Foundation of the industry for Indonesia

form of its homogeneity issues traded commodities, e.g.

itself makes Indonesia ranks fourth in ASEAN (Republika

for agricultural commodities, rubber, wood products,

Online, 2013).

textiles and electronic goods (Santoso, 2008). In this case

With the presence of this MEA era, Indonesia has the

the competition risk would arise with many imported

opportunity to take advantage of economies of scale

goods that will flow in large quantities to Indonesia which

advantages within the country as a base for a profit.

would threaten local industries in competing with foreign

However, Indonesia still has a lot of challenges and risks

products in a much higher quality. This will ultimately

that will arise when the MEA has been implemented.

increase the deficit of trade balance for Indonesia itself.

Therefore, the risk professional is expected to be more

On the investment side, these conditions can create a

sensitive to the fluctuations will occur in order to

climate that supports the entry of Foreign Direct

anticipate the risks-risk appropriately. In addition, a

Investment (FDI) that can stimuli the economic growth

beautiful collaboration between State authorities and the

through the development of technology, job creation, the

perpetrators of the effort required, infrastructure both

development of human resources (human capital) and

physical and social (law and policy) needs to be addressed,

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as

well

as

the

need

for

improved

skills

and

competitiveness of the workforce and companies in Indonesia. Indonesia should not just be a spectator in his

The Industrial Sector 357.544)

own country by 2015.

Opportunities

Challenges

producer in the world

movement of the

after Thailand. There

price of rubber in the

are many industries

world market. If the

that cultivate rubber

rubber price is

From the results of analysis of Baskoro above, need to be

for tires and have

corrected, the

addressed in more detail about the opportunities and

managed to export to

performance of the

challenges

various countries.

rubber industry fell,

of

the

industrial

aspect

of

Indonesia,

while export value

employment policies, and in the face of the era of the

plunged.

MEA. The most important things that need to be discussed further associated with these three aspects are what are the opportunities and challenges for Industries, labour, and

Automotive (number

Indonesia this year

The industry is

of labor 118.643 and

became ASEAN's

growing well. The

80.949)

largest automotive

challenge is how this

market. These

industry maintain

opportunities in

growth and become

automotive principals

the number one

to open factories in

automotive

Indonesia. This time

production base in

slowly has started

ASEAN beat

exporting products.

Thailand.

Government in the face of the era of the MEA. These are discussed in the following chapter.

2. The Opportunities & Challenges for the Industries, Workers, and Government Food & drink (the

Indonesia has some

This industry must

A. Industries

amount of labor

of the food and

compete with food

Based on the results of the analysis presented in the

931.293 and 877.424)

beverage industry

produced by other

that has already

countries in ASEAN.

mastered the

The challenge of

domestic market and

making food and

opportunities and challenges for industries in facing the

also export to

drink that could be

era of MEA:

different countries, as

accepted by the tastes

done by Indofood

of local communities.

Group and Mayora

The industry should

Group.

also be alert with

KONTAN Daily Business & Investment, Monday 7 July 2063 as quoted by Krisna and Utami, here are the

The Industrial Sector

Opportunities

Challenges

health standards in

Metal, iron and steel

This industry relied

Raw material for

(number of labor

upon Indonesia to

industrial production

161.861 & 156.953)

expand the market in

was partly still

Footwear and

Indonesia could

Indonesia currently

ASEAN. Quality

imported. Not only

footwear (number of

expand ASEAN

relies on a sports shoe

steel production,

that, the industry is

labor 256.500 and

market. The reason

accessories from

metal iron, and

also still has to

220.723)

for this is only

China by 50%. While

Indonesia is better

compete with

Indonesia which has a

the import duty gear

than other ASEAN

imported products

casual and sport

is still high.

countries.

finished goods from

shoes factory. No

other countries.

other ASEAN

Rubber (the amount

Indonesia is the

The industry is very

of labor 353.624 and

second largest rubber

sensitive with the

other countries.

countries which produce both

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The Industrial Sector

Opportunities

Challenges

The Industrial Sector

Opportunities

simultaneously.

Challenges use ceramics sales results.

Textiles and Textile

Indonesia could

The industry is facing

Products (the amount

become exporters of

difficulties in recent

Basic Chemistry (the

Indonesia had a basic

Raw material for

of labor 1.082.458

textile and textile

years. The amount

amount of labor

chemical company

industrial production

and 900.677)

products in the world

keeps shrinking.

185.066 and 182.115)

that is integrated from

is still part of the

and Southeast Asia.

There are many

upstream to

import. The

Because the article is

challenges this

downstream. The

weakening of the

the primary human

industry, start the

basic chemistry of the

value of the rupiah

needs.

engine is old, labor

interior needs

also overloads the

wage rise, the

continue to grow

production expenses

increase in electricity

along with the needs

for the cost of raw

rates, until a flood of

of other industries

materials.

imported products.

that use basic chemical raw

Fertilizer (no data on

Became one of the

This industry is

the amount of labor)

chain's national food

heavily dependent on

security cycle.

raw materials with

Cement (there is no

Cement industry has

The inclusion of a

Fertilizers help

gas. The issue, in the

data on the amount of

a huge market, along

number of

improve agricultural

domestic gas supply

labor)

with the growth of

conglomeration in the

productivity that

is frequently

the property and

industry, enliven

pushes the national

interrupted. If gas

various infrastructure

competition cement

food security. So that

went well, fertilizer

projects in and

industry. Electricity

countries do not need

from Indonesia

outside the country.

tariff increase

to import food.

favored in other

materials.

burdens the industry.

countries primarily in Asia.

The above table shows generally that:

Ceramics (no data the

The domestic market

This industry had a

number of labor)

is still very large,

challenge in the form

tiled along with the

of the supply of raw

growth of residential

materials in the form

food and beverage industry.

properties and

of natural gas that is

2. On both the industry, Indonesia has a great opportunity

projects in Indonesia.

not fixed. Gas is often

as the exporter based on this experience and the

Most of the ceramic

preferred for export

manufacturers also

rather than to meet

have been exporting

the needs in the

for many people.

their products.

country. The growth

3. As for the challenge on the textile industry and textile

of the industry is also

products are the amount that continues to shrink due to old

vulnerable to exchange rate turmoil

1. The industry with the largest number of labour (labour intensive) is a textile and textile products, followed by

importance of both the industry in meeting the basic needs

machine, labour wage rise, the increase in electricity rates,

with the rupiah,

until a flood of imported products.

because natural gas is

4. While challenges in the food and beverage industry is

purchased using us

on the level of competition, adaptation to the tastes of

dollars, while most

local communities, and health standards in other countries.

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entrepreneurs to accelerate the expansion of employment B. Workers

opportunities. Third, workers of Indonesia are dominated

Based on the Wuryandani s paper in the month of

by workers not educated so that their productivity is low.

September 2014, following are the challenges and

Fourth, the growing number of unemployed educated

opportunities for the workforce:

Workforce, a result of the discrepancy between college

From the aspect of employment, there is a big chance for

graduates with the needs of the labour market. Fifth,

job seekers because it will be available with different

labour productivity imbalances between sectors of the

employment needs of the diverse expertise. In addition,

economy. Sixth, the informal sector dominates the field of

access to go abroad in order to find a job is easier even

work, where this sector has not been optimal attention

likely with no particular barriers. MEA also became a

from the

great opportunity for the entrepreneur to find the best

Indonesia is the highest in unemployment from 10

worker in accordance with the desired criteria. On the

ASEAN member countries, including the unpreparedness

contrary, such a situation also gave rise to a risk of

of skilled Labour in the face of MEA 2015. Eighth, the

employment for Indonesia. Seen from the side of

demands of workers have against the minimum wage,

education and productivity of Indonesia still compete with

labour contract, employment and social security. Ninth,

Labour that came from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand.

the labour issue Indonesia (TKI) that many are scattered

Report of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the

abroad.

Government. Seventh, unemployment in

International Labour Organization (ILO), MEA can create

Indonesia still has enough time to renegotiate about key

14 million additional jobs or increase 41 per cent in 2015

points agreed to give you an advantage in the position of

because of the increasingly free movement of skilled

Indonesia. The pattern or model which has been

labour. Regional economic growth can also be increased 7

implemented by the Member States of the European

percent. Indonesia, however, the possibility of not much

Economic Community (EEC) should not be applied on the

benefited. New employment estimates reached only 1.9

agreement MEA. Most points at MEE must be avoided on

million or 1.3 per cent of total workers. While the ILO

MEA so MEA should be more guarantees the delivery of

estimates the demand for middle-class work force will

the decision to each of the Member States. In this context

increase 22 percent or 38 million and a low level of labour

the importance of Indonesia can play a role. Socialization

increased by 24 percent or 12 million. According to the

of government must also be done in the context of

study, about half of the workforce highly skilled foreseen

preparation MEA. The socialization is not simply about

will work in Indonesia. Unfortunately, most of the jobs it

how to penetrate the ASEAN market but much more

will be contested by candidates who are less trained

important is how the national entrepreneurs can survive in

workers and minimal education. As a result, it will reduce

the local market amid the magnitude of trade in services

the skills gap of productivity and competitiveness of

from ASEAN, which certainly will involve a workforce

Indonesia.

HR expert and skilled every sector will require

As for some of the fundamental issues still faced by

coordination and cross-sector consolidation. In line with

Indonesia in order to face the MEA 2015. First, there are

that, the required control of the acceleration of

still high numbers of unemployment disguised (disguised

infrastructure development so that Indonesia could take

unemployment). Second, the low numbers of new

the positive benefits of the ASEAN community. A new era

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of ASEAN community is certainly also sparked intense

2. Each region has different total minimum labour costs

rivalry between regions in the future as a result of the

depending on the level of inflation. This is where industry

increased trade and capital flows. Nevertheless, this

peers can choose which area ratio a comparison between

liberalization

the minimum labour costs with the best productivity

also

assessed

potentially

sharpening

inequality. Most employment opportunities will be

among others.

touched on trade, construction, transportation, and the

3. In the era of MEA, industries can choose the best ratio

informal workings filled more power men rather than

that compares total minimum labour costs with the labour

women. The level of displacement of workers of low to

productivity levels between ASEAN member countries.

medium-sized skilled will also be increased. It thus

4. It is this ratio ASEAN member countries are expected to

requires increased protection efforts. Therefore, the

compete in providing human resources effectively and

government needs to recognize the importance of the

efficiently.

regulation of the placement of foreign workers better though jobs requiring low skills are still widely available.

C. Government

Indonesia benefited on the chemical sector, construction,

Referring to the Wangke s study in May 2014, the

trade, and transportation. But the third sector may require

following below is an analysis of what should be done by

high skills. Therefore, various HR improvement program

the government in facing the era of MEA:

can

be

implemented

in

cooperation

between

the

In order to welcome the ASEAN free trade era in twelve

government, private sector, universities and communities

sectors agreed, Indonesia has given rise to important

to prepare the work force of high skilled. Moreover, it can

regulatory Act No. 7 Year 2014 concerning trading that

also be done through the introduction of science and

has been introduced to the public as one of Indonesia's

technology, because of the impact brought about by the

strategy of stemming the flood of imported products entry

technology in the era of globalization, in particular

into Indonesia. This Act regulates general provisions about

information and communication technologies, is very

licenses for businessmen who are involved in the activities

broad. This technology can eliminate the geographical

of trade in order to use the language of Indonesia in the

limits on the level of the country or the world. With the

labelling, and the increased use of domestic products.

economy in the aspect of science and technology, human

Through this Act the government are required to control

resources of Indonesia will increase along with the process

the availability of the material basic necessities for the

of knowledge of the technology. So indirectly will also

entire territory of Indonesia. Then determine the

affects the improvement of economy in Indonesia.

prohibition or limitation of the goods and services for the

In addition to what has been described above, the authors

national interest such as to protect national security.

provide additional as follows:

It feels important when considering trade conditions that

1. The total minimum labour costs consisting of minimum

Indonesia has not been optimally exploit the market

wages and employers contributions on social security

potential of ASEAN. In period January

programs as well as the allocation of severance payments

example, Indonesia's exports to the ASEAN market

that tend to experience increased from year by year, must

recently reached 23% of the total value of exports. This is

be accompanied by increased productivity.

among other things because the export destination of

August 2013 for

Indonesia is still focused on traditional markets such as the

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United States, China and Japan. ASEAN tariff preference

percent. Therefore, socialization MEA becomes very

level utilization used exporter Indonesia for the ASEAN

important to all citizens of Indonesia which has the largest

market penetration recently reached 34.4%. Indonesia's

population in ASEAN. Worries that arises is, Indonesia

ranking according to the global competitiveness index is

will only be a market for similar products from other

th

still at 38 position from 148 countries. While Singapore ranked Malaysia at position 2, to 24, Thailand at position th

37, 70 for Viet Nam, and the Philippines at position 59.

ASEAN countries. For the pillars of the economy, Indonesia is also still has to enhance Indonesia products. Indonesia still needs to

Tight competition in the ASEAN market further away

develop industry-based added value. Therefore, Indonesia

can be listened from the Indonesia trade performance in

needs to do the hard work of down-streaming products.

2014. Until March 2014, Indonesia trade surplus deals of

From the upper side, Indonesia has become a reliable

up to 673.2 million US dollars. Surplus obtained from the

manufacturers ranging from agriculture, marine and

difference between the export values reached 15.21 billion

estates. But all of these products have not been up to the

with imports 14.54 billion US dollars. The March surplus

downstream to reduce imports of finished goods, as

was the second month of February amounted to 843.4

Indonesia has had sufficient raw material.

million US dollars. Nevertheless, Indonesia needs to give

From the side of the trade liberalization, practical

special attention to the trade deals with Thailand which

products Indonesia not too face problems because almost

will be jointly involved in MEA 2015. In March 2014,

80 percent of trade in Indonesia already Freeway. Even the

Indonesia suffered a deficit with Thailand to 1.048 billion

economic populist-based (SMEC) is a chance to penetrate

US dollars.

the market of ASEAN countries. The Government has

Furthermore, Indonesia trade surplus in 2014 is not

made efforts the acceleration of equitable development as

reflecting the power of the export structure of Indonesia.

part of the strengthening of the people's economy.

Export product processing industry still relies on imported

Between the years 2011

raw materials. This condition is particularly vulnerable

many directed at areas outside Java by providing the

because it means Indonesia relies heavily on the

stimulation of a tax holiday. Thus, the Centre of economic

availability of raw world. Therefore the direction of

growth in the future is not just concentrated in Java but

economic policy in Indonesia starting in 2015 should be

also outside of Java. Other businesses that the Government

more clearly in line with the introduction of the free

does it, is to form a cluster for the construction of small

market of ASEAN.

medium enterprises in order to have competitiveness.

2013 investment Indonesia,

Therefore, the face of MEA 2015, Indonesia still has a

Not only the challenges that will be faced, but also

range of homework should be improved to have

opportunities. Sectors that will be seeded Indonesia in

competitiveness. For the social pillar of culture, Indonesia

MEA 2015 is natural resources (SDA), information

still need hard work considering there are still many

technology, and the Creative Economy. The third sector is

citizens of Indonesia who have yet to find out about

the strongest sector of Indonesia if compared to other

ASEAN. But one of the key successes of MEA is the

ASEAN countries. In addition, the impact of the influx of

connectivity or contact between one citizen with other

foreign labour (TKA) to Indonesia should certainly speak

ASEAN nationals. The understanding of the citizens in

Indonesia is good and correct.

Southeast Asia against the MEA is not yet up to 80

122 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

According to the Executive Director of the Center of the Reform

on

Economics

(CORE)

Hendry

Saparini,

have the benefits related to the medical services such as health insurance and work accident insurance.

Indonesia's readiness in the face of MEA new 2015 reached 82 percent. It identified four important issues that

III. Conclusion

need immediate Government in the face of anticipated

According to Wangke s paper (2014), a free trade deal

MEA 2015, namely: 1) Indonesia is potentially just a

with ASEAN, the first step the government should do is to

supplier of energy and raw materials to industrialization in

improve the competitiveness of Indonesia's products given

ASEAN, so that the benefits derived from the wealth of

the population Indonesia enormous potential to become a

natural resources is still minimal, but the deficit of the

market for similar products from neighbour countries.

trade balance of goods Indonesia which is currently the

Improvement of competitiveness of it includes both a

largest among ASEAN countries growing, 2) widen trade

superior product and is not seeded. In addition, Indonesia's

deficit in services as an increase in trade in goods , 3)

parliament could help the government with the task of

freeing the flow of labour so that Indonesia should

preparing a variety of regulations that aim to protect the

anticipate by preparing a strategy because of the potential

market from the Indonesia invasion of goods products the

flood of foreign labour (TKA), and 4) the influx of

ASEAN countries. Steps of this kind are not intended as a

investment to Indonesia from inside and outside ASEAN.

protection against Indonesia's market, but merely to seek a

Thus in free trade there will be positives and negatives that

balance between exports and imports.

will be experienced by each of the countries involved in it.

While Wuryandani (2014) says that the perpetrators of the

The challenge for Indonesia is currently realizing the

economy indirectly will face many problems in increasing

changes for society in order to be ready in the face of free

competitiveness in the era of the MEA. The limited

trade.

working capital, HR capacity is low, and the lack of

In addition to the results of the study, the authors also have

mastery

the views as follows:

technologies are some of the problems encountered.

1. Related to the implementation of the programs of the

Efforts to improve the quality of HR can be reached by the

national social security which was also imposed for the

efforts of synergy between Government, businessmen, and

shortest TKA worked for six months in Indonesia, the

academics

Government needs to prepare a regulation regarding

professionalism in each sector. Efforts to improve the

cooperation between social security governing body in

quality of HR to compete in the face of MEA 2015 should

ASEAN countries, given some ASEAN countries such as

be immediately implemented in order to achieve progress

the Philippines include also the migrant workers in the

and the pursuit of the backwardness from other countries.

social security system in his country.

Along with the positions and the role of labour is very

2. If it is not done, then either labour or industries will

important in the implementation of national development,

tend to the injured party (in terms of overpaid

the momentum of the enactment of the national agenda

contributions by the employers and/ employees as well as

should be the MEA in organizing Labour issues during

single benefit for beneficiaries although following more

this time. Therefore, the revision back in the Law No. 13

than one benefit program), especially on programs that

of 2003 concerning Manpower ever worth considering as

of

the

to

sciences,

set

foreign

standards

of

languages

competence

and

of

an umbrella law in raising the quality of Labour in General

123 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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in accordance with the dignity and the dignity of humanity.

The

new

paradigm

of

labour

quality

improvement rests on three main pillars, namely competency standards work, competency-based training and competency certification by an independent agency. In this framework, collaboration between the Government, the house of representative (legislators), and the actors (private)

effort

is

urgently

needed.

In

addition,

infrastructure both physical and social (law and policy)

[4] Krisna, Benedict,. Utami, Sinar. in http://lmfeui.com/data/8%20juli%202014%20Industri%20 RI%20Belum%20Siap%20Hadapai%20MEA.pdf [5] The Roadmap for an ASEAN Community 2009-2015. In http://inter.oop.cmu.ac.th/ASEAN/RoadmapASEANCom munity.pdf [6] Wangke, Humphrey. 2014. in http://berkas.dpr.go.id/pengkajian/files/info_singkat/Info% 20Singkat-VI-10-II-P3DI-April-2014-4.pdf [7] Wuryandani, Dewi. 2014. in http://berkas.dpr.go.id/pengkajian/files/info_singkat/Info% 20Singkat-VI-17-I-P3DI-September-2014-37.pdf

needs to be addressed. Attempt the upgrade as well as labour and competitiveness of companies in Indonesia for example, can be done by providing ease in acquiring an education/training and certification in the field of expertise. Thus, Indonesia can avoid as the audience in the country alone after the enactment of the MEA. In closing, the authors provide additional conclusions as follows: 1. Related to the implementation of the MEA, in order that the Government immediately focuses on capacity building of HR. 2. The continuation of bureaucracy reform towards effective & efficient bureaucracy that is free from corruption, collusion, and nepotism is indispensable in the MEA era competition. 3. Cabinet Affairs with minimal political intervention might be necessary in supporting the capacity building of human resources and the bureaucracy reform as mentioned above.

References [1] ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint. in http://www.asean.org/archive/5187-10.pdf [2] Bahasa Version of the ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint. in http://www.smecda.com/Files/Asean/Cetak%20Biru%20K omunitas%20Ekonomi%20ASEAN.pdf [3] Baskoro, Aryo.2014. in http://crmsindonesia.org/knowledge/crms-articles/peluangtantangan-dan-risiko-bagi-indonesia-dengan-adanyamasyarakat-ekonomi

124 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223    

MULTIMEDIA BASED APPLICATION DESIGN OF SELECTION EXAMINATION AS A SUPPORT FOR PAPERLESS OFFICE IN PPKD EAST JAKARTA Henri Septanto1,Petrus Dwi Ananto2 STMIK Bina Insani Jl. Siliwangi No. 6, Bekasi – Indonesia [email protected], [email protected]

PPKD albeit merely in vocational Computer

ABSTRACT

Operator Selection test potential trainees an early stage

Application design exam multimedia -based

that must be passed by the prospective

selection is expected to bring some positive

trainees

Computer

impacts, among others, about the inspection

Operator in East Jakarta . If they pass the test

saves time and also save paper exams and

of selection then they will be declared

answer sheets, further away from the exam

acceptable in Vocational Computer Operator

application

PPKD East Jakarta . Exam selection of

selection can help preserve nature because it

participants

saves material usage raw paper derived from

PPKD

aimed

Vocational

to

screen

potential

participants vocational training Computer

design

multimedia-based

nature that the trees in the forest.

Operator to produce the trainees who have the ability to match qualifications set by PPKD

Keywords: Aplication Design, Selection

East Jakarta.

Examination, multimedia, paperless office

Selection is done through two kinds of tests, the first test on paper contains questions about the basic knowledge of the computer after it conducted the interview. Application design exam multimedia-based selection we made is aimed at reducing the use of paper at the reception the selection of trainees so that the concept of paperless office that has been socialized can also be applied in East Jakarta

1.1 Introduction Since in recent years the government and the private sector has much to invest for the procurement and use of Information and Communication in organizations/institutions. PPKD East Jakarta as one part of the government

is

implement

and

required utilize

to

participate

information

and

communication technology in its operational activities in accordance with the duties and   125 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th ‐21th August 2015 

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scope of vocational training as a place for the

2. Review of Literature

community, especially for the graduate from

2.1 Multimedia

SLTA.

According to William Ditto in Ariasdi

Paperless Office is one of the benefits of the

application

of

Information

( 2013 ) that " the definition of multimedia in

and

science include some aspects of synergy ,

Communication Technology in the office,

between text , graphics , static images,

which is saving the use of paper in the

animations , movie and sound " .

activities of daily work in the organization. The

design

-based

research conducted by Francis M. Dwyer in

application was created as a form of support

Ariasdi ( 2013 ) as follows : " After more than

for the movement of the "paperless office" in

three days in humans generally can remember

PPKD East Jakarta. About the use of

the messages conveyed through writings by

multimedia applications is expected to reduce

10 % , 10 % audio message , visual 30 % and

paper consumption in East Jakarta PPKD

when combined with doing , it will reach 80

although it is still limited to the small scope is

% " .Some multimedia elements are Text ,

the selection exam in Vocational Computer

Voice ( Audio ) , Graph ( Figure ) ,

Operator, but can be the first step for the

Animation , Simulation , Video.

implementation

of

multimedia

One of the research on multimedia is the

of

Paperless

Office

movements in other parts.

2.2 Evaluation of Learning Sutopo Hadi (2009 ) says that "

1.2 Problem Formulation

teaching evaluations ( exams ) is required to

The formulation of the problem in this research is how to reduce the use of paper for the exam process selection in PPKD East Jakarta to support the movement of the paperless office ?

of learning is done manually , using paper media .

along with the development of ICT , testing

This study is limited regarding the design of programs

particular subject " . In general, the evaluation

Agus Santoso , et al (2010 ) says that

1.3 Scope of Research

application

measure student learning outcomes in a

exam

participant

selection PPKD multimedia based in East Jakarta to support the movement of paperless office through the use of the Adobe Flash.

using the computer starts much done . Computers used to perform test automation activities , initially using paper and then transferred into the computer so that the security of the exam becomes more assured,

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look better exam, exam results counting error

c . require the filing cabinet at USD 25,000

becomes smaller, accelerating the provision

with maintenance costs of USD 2,000 , and

of a test result value , reduce waste paper

d . a working unit lost 15 % of all of the

after exam lasted so it would also reduce the

documents they handle and spend 30 % of

cost of procurement of paper.

their time trying to locate the missing documents

2.2 Paperless Office Concept

In addition , wages are to be allocated is equal

2.2.1 Paperless Office Definition

to :

The concept of " paperless office "

a. USD 20 for management of a document ,

was first introduced by George Pake , head of

b . USD 120 to search the missing documents

Xerox Corp. 's Palo Alto , California , USA .

, and

Pake (1975 ) predicts that there will be major

c . USD 250 for a remake of the missing

changes in the management office . In 1995 ,

documents .

in the offices will be available screen monitor

" Paperless Office " is a work

and keyboard for the purposes of search and

environment which greatly reduced the use of

display documents necessary so that the entire

paper to a minimum and not eliminated

process was still using paper will be replaced

altogether . For the purposes of internal

by computers .

documentation of the company / institution ,

Ragnet (2008 ) proposed the concept

may be made the concept of " Paperless

of the less paper office , namely how to use

Office

the paper more responsibly , reduce the

documentation is still required for external

amount of paper used and effectively promote

parties companies / institutions . Therefore ,

the improvement of business performance

the implementation of the concept of "

from the standpoint of communication , cost

Paperless Office " is not really 100 %

and the environment .

eliminate the use of paper , but only reduce

A study conducted by Coopers and Lybrand

their use to a minimum . The concept of "

in McIndoo ( 2009) showed that :90% tugas

Paperless Office " conducted by converting

perkantoran adalah pengelolaan dokumen

documents and other papers into digital form

kertas,

.

a. the average office made 19 copies for each

2.2.2 Steps Achieve Paperless

document , b . offices have lost one of the 20 documents ,

"

.

But

the

form

of

paper

According to Walker (2009 ) in an article entitled " AchievingThe Paperless

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Office " there are three steps to realize the

smell of analog though everywhere pampered

concept of Paperless , namely :

with digital products . This may be caused by

1) Recognize your cost savings and revenue

the following:

gains from eliminating paper. Without the

1. The use of paper as a medium of writing is

right incentive, no organization will

still more practical than the digital product

choose to evolve

.

2) Look for systems that can eliminate the

2. The use of small amounts of paper as a

paper or reduce the need for paper in the

medium of writing is still considered to be

first place.

more efficient when compared to digital

3) Partner with a company who can provide

products .

the infrastructure, technology and service

3. The digitization process requires a certain

to deliver on the promise of a paperless

skill that not everyone is able to do so . 4. The level of public confidence in the use of

office.

paper is still larger than the digital product 2.2.3

Benefits

to

the

Company's

implementation of Paperless Office According to

Bambang

Supradono

(2010 ) there are some benefits offered by the use of paperless among others : cost efficiency , time efficiency , reduced paper

. 5. Most people are still not so fond of reading materials that are serious in front of the screen . They assume that for materials that are seriously better in paper form that can be read anytime and anywhere .

stacks , Assuring document security , document management and better working comfort , support the better decisions , monitoring

document

into

better

,

improvement in the image of the company in connection

with

the

improvement

of

management and service .

2.2.4 Barriers

to

Implementation

3. Research Objectives The purpose of this research is to reduce the use of paper in the process of selection

Paperless Office for the Company According to Bambang Supradono (2010 ) that humans as users still like the

in

East

Jakarta

PPKD

melaluipembuatan a draft application exam based selection of multimedia which is no longer

of

tests

required

a

lot

of

paper

dalampelaksanaan selection test so as to support the paperless office movement which is also one way to help preserve nature so that we can bequeath a sustainable nature green

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with trees that make the cool air and healthy

The questionnaire is one method of data

to our children in the future .

collection is done by providing written questions with answer options that have been

4. Research Methodology

provided . Based on the questionnaire , the

4.1. Methodology

collection of the data processing is done the

The methodology used in this study is simple

results are analyzed and become inputs in

descriptive qualitative methodology by means

making the selection of the application

of observation and interviews to compare the

program entrance exams based on multimedia

timing and amount of paper procurement

.

selection given exam using paper media to

4.1.4 Literature Review

the

test

results

using

a

selection

of

Literature Review is the method of data

multimedia -based application program , as

collection through literature , books ,

well as see the benefits resulting from the

scientific journals , and the Internet .

application of matter based multimedia . 4.2 Method Of Collecting Data

5.1 Results Program Application

4.1.1. Observation

a. The initial view

Observation is a method of data collection by way of a direct view of the work going on in the field. Observations made at the time of the prospective trainees work on the problems of selection entrance exam . In addition , the observation was also done when the participants were in the computer lab . 4.1.2. Interview Figure 5.1

The interview is one method of data collection is done through a question-and-

Description:

answer directly to the interested parties , such

Participant Selection Trials must include the

as the selection of participants and the

full name and click Ok

executive committee selection tests as well as

b. View 3

an instructor in PPKD East Jakarta

After filling the full name and clicking Ok

4.1.3 Questionnaires

button then comes the display as shown

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below. In this view the test participants were asked to read the clue ,

Figure 5.4 View of exercises

These exercises intended to make trainees

Figure 5.2 List Menu

familiar with the model exam . If examinees have tried the exercises then the next trainee

c. View 3

clicking the exam so comes the display as shown below.

1. View 5

Figure 5.3 Instruction Examination As a matter of processing instructions for examinees . Figure 5.5 View of the Examination d. View 4 Furthermore,

the

test

participants

are

encouraged to choose the exercises , so comes the display as

Agar soal ujian tidak dapat digunakan oleh sembarang orang maka dibuatlah menu password.

shown below.

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2. View 6

4. View 8 Test results can be stored and viewed as Figure 5.6 Examination questions

follows :

After entering the password then start the process of examination , the examinee simply select the correct answer to the question by clicking , if it has been completed then the

Figure 5.8 List of exam results

next comes the display as shown below. 3. View 7 Having completed the exam then comes the results are as follows :

5.2 Discussion Result 1. Trainees stated that the matter clearer view , particularly questions that accompanied the picture in the original color , in contrast with the results of photocopy paper display that is sometimes blurred and unclear . 2. The Instructors no longer need to make corrections answer because the value has been automatically stored and can be viewed at any time needed .

Figure 5.7 Examination Result

3. Saving the use of paper or Paperless Office can be achieved with the use of these multimedia -based application programs .

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5. Conclusions and Recommendations a.

Conclusions Based on the trial about the use of the

multimedia -based selection , the time wasted for sharing questions and answers correction no longer need to be done because the value is

automatically

able

to

dilihat.Selain

itupenghematan paper usage can be done so that the movement of paperless office is able to be applied in East Jakarta PPKD. b. Recommendations Multimedia -based selection exam is expected to be developed further in order to provide facilities essay questions in a simple form so that more varied forms of matter not only multiple choice questions . References Ariasdi. 2013. Multimedia Dalam Dunia Pendidikan. Diperoleh dari http://www.kompasiana.com tanggal 26 Maret 2013. Diakses tanggal 2 Desember 2013. Dastjerdi, B. N. 2009. Usage and Attitude Towards ICT Facilities: a Sstudy of The Students in Higher Education in India. Gyanodaya X, Vol. 2, No. 2, Ed. Jul-Dec. Pramoto, Gatot. 2008. Pemanfaatan Multimedia Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Pusat Teknologi Informasi dan Pendidikan, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Marsellia, Mira. 2012. Thinking Before Printing. Diperoleh dari http://www.kompasiana.com tanggal 24 Oktober 2012. Diakses tanggal 2 Desember 2013.

McIndoo., T. 2009. Paperless Office in Perspective: A Document management System For Today. White Paper, Speedy Solutions. Diperoleh dari http://www.techrepublic.com. Diakses tanggal 2 Desember 2013. Mustaji. 2011. Pemanfaatan Multi Media untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Pendidikan. Disajikan dalam seminar AKAL Interaktif di Toko Buku Gramedia EXSPO Surabaya tanggal 29 Januari 2011. Pake, G. 1975. The Office of The Future: An in-depth Analysis of How Word Processing will Resphare The Corporate Office. Business Week June 30, 1975. Diperoleh dari http://www.businessweek.com. Diakses tanggal 2 Desember 2013. Ragnet, F. 2008. The “Less Paper” Office: How to Reduce Costs, Enhance Security and be a Better Global Citizen. White Paper, Xerox Global Services. Diperoleh dari http://www.xerox.com. Diakses tanggal 2 Desember 2013. Septanto, Henri. 2013. Studi Komparasi Antara Media Evaluasi Berbasis Multimedia dengan Media Evaluasi Berbasis Kertas terhadap Hasil Ujian Pengenalan TIK pada Peserta Pelatihan Kejuruan Operator Komputer. ICT Jurnal Bina Insani, Vol. 1, No. 2, Hal. 99-112. Bekasi: STMIK Bina Insani. Supradono, Bambang. 2010. Pengembangan Kerangka Kerja Migrasi Sistem Paperless Office. Jurnal Media Elektrika, Vol. 3. No. 2. Semarang: Universitas Muhammadiayah Semarang. Sutopo, Hadi. 2009. Pengembangan Evaluasi Pembelajaran Berbasis Multimedia dengan Flash, PHP, dan MySQL. Jurnal Informatika, Vol. 10, No. 2, November 2009, Hal. 97-85. UNESCO. 2004. Schoolnettoolkit. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. UPTIK IPDN. 2011. Sosialisasi dan TOT Paperless Office oleh UPTIK IPDN. Bandung: UPTIK IPDN. Walker, Richard. 2013. Achieving The Paperless Office. Diperoleh dari http://www.effisinttech.com. Diunduh tanggal 2 Desember 2013.

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LAMPIRAN

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International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223  

OPTIMUM FEATURE FOR PALMPRINT IMAGE AUTHENTICATION Ratih Ayuninghemi1, Dwi Putro Sarwo Setyohadi2 Jurusan Teknologi Informasi, Politeknik Negeri Jember12, Jalan Mastrip Po Box 164 Jember JawaTimur 68101 12 [email protected] 1, [email protected] 2

In recognition of palm images, there are several

ABSTRACT Palm print authentications have become extensive

difficulties, particularly in image matching. This is because of

research in recent years. Some research discussing palm print

the different parameters of image acquisitions and image

authentication emphasize on matching of two feature vectors

matching. This problem can be solved in pre-processing and

of it. Problem faced by the research in this field is the

feature extraction of the images.

sampling process. Different position of hand geometry results Pre-processing is input transformation of raw data to

in different palm print image cause palm print to be

help computational and find features by reducing noise. One

unauthenticated. This research proposes an approach to solve

of the feature extraction methods is Wavelet Transformation

the problem by first making image dimension using Multi-

that is used to analyze signal or data. Wavelet Transformation

scale Wavelet Pyramid (MWP) to produce features represent

is a tool to sort data, function or operator in to different

palm print image. The next stage is feature matching by using

frequency components, and to study each component with a

Hamming Distance Similarity. Testing in several levels

suitable resolution. [6]

combination show that integration of level 1 and level 2 yields optimum feature. The evaluation result produce that

After pre-processing and feature extraction in process of

MWP has faster and better performance accuracy up to

palm authentication, there is a process which is very

77.93% with threshold 4700.

important to determine matching level of each palm image. One of methods that is proved to count the similarity level of

Key Words

palm image is Haming Distance [6].

Authentication, Palm print, Multi-scale Wavelet Pyramid, Hamming Distance 1.

Problem that faced in this research is in the process of image acquisitions. Many people, who are respondents of this

Introduction

research to take sample, put their palm in different way, so

Palms become very attractive to be developed as

position of palm geometry also different. This problem will

biometrics, because of the characteristics that relatively new.

lead into authentication error. Because two pictures of same

The characteristic of a palm is more than fingerprint. Palm

palm with different position will be considered as different

surface, that is wider than fingerprint, is expected to be easier

palm. This research proposes to generate image dimension

to distinguish [1-5]. Biometrics feature of palm include

using Multi-scale Wavelet Pyramid Method to make several

geometry feature, line feature, point feature, texture feature,

features that will result optimum features. After that continue

and statistics feature.

  134 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015   

Internnational Confference On Innformation Technology T A Businesss ISSN 24600-7223 And   by feature mattching processs of similarrity distance with opttimum featurres as an innput, so thee threshold value callculation will be b valid as thee result of authhentication. 1.

Multi-scalee Wavelet Pyyramid (MWP P) 1.1 Image Acquisition i the imagee acquisition process desccribed Problems in (a)

aboove can be seeen as the illusttration below..

(b)

Figure 2 (a)) Raw Image, (b) Image aftter pre-processsing ROI result is verry useful in feature extrraction, because it is focused f on thee observed seection which will be u used in the nexxt stage of imaage matching.

Figure 1. Illlustrations of image acquisiition with diffferent pposition. Figure 1 shows that image acquissition processs with diffferent positioon of palm geometry brring through error autthentication. It I is because different possition of the same pallm will considder as differennt palm. Datasett used in this research is taken t from Pooly_U PallmPrint Databbase [9]. 1.2 Pre-proocessing Figure 3. Pre-processinng

Pre-proocessing beginn by converting an RGB image i intoo greyscale image, greyyscale into binary, and then

Figuree 3 describe the process of o pre-processsing to

dettermine the ROI R (Region of o Interest). Figure F 2 show ws the

prepare input im mage by convverting an RGB image, thenn image

impplementation of morphologgy erosion annd normalizatiion of

n normalization and ROI deteermination to make binaryy image

imaage intensity by b ROI.

w which then to be b processed iin feature extrraction.

  135 | Internatioonal Conferences on Infoormation Technology andd Business (IC CITB), 20th -21 - th August 2015   

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   1.4 Determination of Optimum Feature

1.3 Feature Extraction

Optimum feature (F0) is determined by test by

Feature extraction process by Multi-scale Wavelet

assumptions as bellow :

Pyramid does not use optimum feature to set similarity



value, so it is possibly an authentication error. Feature

Image acquisitions with different angles to get a

extraction will be applied multiple times until n level

palm print (n kind of angles) [7-8] •

when the feature can not be extracted anymore to

Feature extraction of each image by certain angles

generate F1, F2, F3, ….. Fn.

with Wavelet, so that we get n features (n

All processes above can be seen in figure 4. Figure 4

dimensions).

shows that feature extraction result 2 outputs, i.e. feature vector for multi-features from decomposition wavelet

1.5 Haming Distance

and optimum feature tested by n rotation.

In this research, similarity level is measured by Haming Distance method. In this method, Euclidean distance is measured by comparing features of two images at the same position.

Figure 5. Authentication process of hand palm

Figure 4. Feature extraction flowchart.

  136 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015   

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   Authentication process of palm print in figure 5 is

represents image feature of palm image to solve problem of

not much different from pre-authentication process, especially

hand palm image authentication.

in pre-processing stage. Feature extraction of palm print 2.1 Training Trial

creates image dimension that can be assumed as dimension of pyramid to generate the optimum feature by wavelet of the

In the training tests, there are 3 times tests in full level (8

image dimension. Then to calculate the similarity level of to

levels), combination of level 1 and 2, and also combination of

get threshold value, so that image can be authenticated.

level 1, 2, and 3. Each test uses certain threshold value to get

2.

highest accuracy of 3 tests. Then, determination of best

Experiment

threshold values, the threshold with the best performance.

Some of scenario processes to get authentication

Best threshold value will be reference in determination of

result of highest accuracy palm print in shortest period, there

optimum feature, which then used in testing.

are 2 experiments, i.e. training test and testing. The experiments have different treatment in feature extraction, it

Table 1

is the level used in measurement of similarity level in Haming

Result of Training Test Accuracy

Distance. First experiment uses whole levels (8levels), second Level

experiment uses combination of level 1 and 2, meanwhile

Accuracy

Period

(%)

(Level)

4950

75.00

8

4700

76.92

2

4920

76.78

3

Threshold

third experiment uses level 1, 2, and 3. The all three experiments are conducted to answer the purpose of MWP to

Full Level (8

create multi-scale or multi-dimensional image where in the

Level)

process of testing is shown by combinations of several levels.

Level 1 and 2

This experiment is conducted by calculate authentication values of an image compared by 500 images in database.

Level 1, 2 and 3

All trials above use combination formulae of 1000 images of 50 samples (palm) from first acquisition (10 times) to be trained and second acquisition (10 times) to be tested. 2.2 Testing Trial

Each image will be treated similarly before calculating the Euclidean distance by image normalization, cropping the

In testing trial, there are not many differences from

ROI, and convert into binary image. After that the converted

training test. Testing is conducted with the same process in

image is extracted and then to calculate the distance. The

full level, combination of level 1 and 2, and combination oaf

accurate result of this tests is taken from percentage of best

level 1, 2, and 3. But, in testing trial, threshold value is the

threshold value. While for time speed is determined by how

best threshold value of each trial in training process. In trial

many levels the image get through before the authentication.

of full level using threshold value of 4950, combination trial of level 1 and 2 or multi-scale 1 using threshold value of

In training test, the result is used to determine an

4700, while in combination trial of level 1, 2, and 3 or multi-

optimum feature, i.e. the feature assumed as best feature with

scale 2 using threshold value of 4920.

highest accuracy and shortest period. Optimum feature

  137 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015   

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   [4] L. Zhang and D. Zhang, 2004, “Characterization of

Table 2

palmprints by wavelet signatures via directional context

Result of testing trial accuracy.

modeling”, IEEE Trans. on SMC-B, vol. 34, pp. 1335Level

Accuracy

Period

(%)

(Level)

4950

74.28

8

4700

77.93

2

Threshold

1347, June 2004. [5] Putra, Dharma, 2009. “Sistem Biometric (Konsep Dasar,

Full Level

Teknik Analisi Citra dan tahap Membangun Aplikasi Sistem Biometrika). Andi , Yogyakarta.

Level 1 and 2 (Multiscale 1)

[6] Malik, J., Dahiya, R., Sayinarayan, G., 2011. Fast Complex

Level 1, 2, and 3 (Multiscale

4920

77.34

Gabor

Authentication

3

.

Wavelet International

Based Journal

Palmprint of

Image

Processing (IJIP), Volume (5) : Issue (3)

2)

[7] Kokare, M., Biswas, P.K., Chatterji, B.N., 2007. Texture image retrieval using rotated wavelet filters. Pattern

4. Conclusion

Recognition Letter, vol. 28, pp. 1240–1249

Based on the experiments can be concluded that Multi-scale Wavelet Pyramid is able to process the authentication of hand

[8] Eka, R, Suciati, N, Wijaya, A. 2011. “Implementing

palm well that is 77.93% of accuracy in 4700 of threshold

Content Based Image Retrieval For Batik Using Rotated

value and shortest period, only requires 2 times of

Wavelet Transform And Canberra Distance”, Bisstech.

transformation, in level 1 and 2(Optimum feature).

[9]The PolyU Palmprint Database: http://www4.comp. polyu.edu.hk/biometrics/ (date download : Nov’ 2 2010)

References

[10] Ayuninghemi, Ratih, Zainal Arifin, A, Suciati, N. 2012. “Multiscale Wavelet Pyramid for Palmprint Image

[1] D. Zhang, 2004.“Palmprint Authentication”, Kluwer

Aunthentication”. KNSI SIKOM BALI

Academic Publishers, USA. [2] D. Zhang, W.K. Kong, J. You and M. Wong, Sept. 2003, “On-line

palmprint identification”,

IEEE Trans. on

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 25, pp. 1041-1050. [3] A. Kong and D. Zhang, 2004, “Competitive coding scheme for

palmprint verification”,

Proc. of

International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 520-523, Cambridge, UK.

  138 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015   

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223  

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN OF TOURIST ATTRACTION AND NEAREST FACILITY IN BANDAR LAMPUNG CITY Devi Kathina Rani1, Yulmaini2 Informatics Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science1 2 Z.A. PagarAlamStreet Number 93, LabuhanRatu, Lampung 351411 2 [email protected],[email protected]

ABSTRACT

1. Introduction

Tourism is one of the selling point that Bandar

Geographic Information System (GIS) is one of

Lampung City has. The information about the location of

technology development that been used by a lot of

tourist attraction and the supporting facility was given in

business field. The usage of geographic information

booklet and tourism map. The information distribution

system can be found in mining and petroleum section to

through those media haven’t use the technology that

find the spread of mining and petroleum potential point,

appropriate to the current development.

in agricultural and plantation section to find the potential

Some research methods were used in this research such as, data collection methods and system

point of suitable land to plant the plants and in health section to find the spread of a disease in a location.

design methods. The data collection methods were done

Tourism is one of business potential that Bandar

in several ways such as interview with the respondents,

Lampung City has. According to data that obtained from

literature study and observation. The system design

DinasPariwisatadanEkonomiKreatif, there are more than

methods use UML (Unified Modelling Language).

13 tourist attraction that spread across Bandar Lampung

The output from this research is a design of

City. Information about the tourist attraction in Bandar

geographic information system that interactive with the

Lampung City was given in booklet and tourism map. It

user and able to attract the tourist attention to visit Bandar

considered as less effective since the technology

Lampung City and the tourist attraction. With this design

development nowadays is able to give information in

hopefully can bring more information about a tourist

digital map or through website.

attraction in Bandar Lampung City and gain more tourist to visit Bandar Lampung City.

Previous research was done by (ArdiDwiSaputra, 2012) that titled Geographic Information System of Tourism in Lampung Province, the research made a

KEY WORDS

Geographic Information System of Tourism in Lampung

Geographic Information System, Design, Tourism

Province. The geographic information system is website based, it gives information about the tourist attraction, tourism map, activities, tour and travel agents, hotels, restaurants, souvenirs shop and art gallery.

  139 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015   

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   According

to

Riyanto

and

team

(2009),

Geographic Information System is a special information

the menu in the system. But only the administrator has access to login to the administrator system.(Figure 2)

system that used to process data that has spatial information. Or a computer system that can build, save, manage and show geographic referenced information. Widodo and Herlawati (2011) explain that “UML is abbreviation of Unified Modelling Language that means a standard modelling language. In iterative process, the developer do some steps repeatedly and every time it focused on different part of system”. UML is applied in some intent such as : 1) Designing a software 2) Communication tools between software and process 3) Explain the detailed system for analysis and find the system needs.

Figure 2. Use Case Diagram for Visitor Use case system for the administrator menu has 5 menus that displayed in the administrator menu, they are : tourist attraction update, facility update, district update, login data update and logout menu. (Figure 3)

4) Documenting the available system, processes and organisation. The purpose of this research is to produce a geographic information system design about tourist attraction and public facilities in Bandar Lampung city that can provide information and draw attention to prospective tourist to visit Bandar Lampung City.

2. Conclusion The method that used to design the system is UML method that consist of use case diagram, activity diagram, class diagram and sequence diagram.

Figure 3. Use Case Diagram for Administrator

2.1 Use Case Diagram There are two users that will use this system,

2.2 Class Diagram

they are visitors and administrator. Use case for visitors

Class diagram in administrator menu explained

menu has five menu that displayed in the system, the

about a group of objects from properties, characters and

menus are : show tourism map menu, show tourist

relations between the menu on administrator menu. Login

attraction list menu, show public facility list menu, about

object has relation with district, facility and tourist

us menu and login menu. Every visitors can access all of

attraction.

To

access

the data from the

  140 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015   

object,

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   administrator has to gain access from login class. District

2.3 Activity Diagram

class has relation with tourist attraction class and facility

Activity Diagram explain about the activity flow of a

class, where the district class in tourist attraction class and

system to another activity flow. Activity diagram of show

facility class gained from district class. (Figure 4)

tourism map explain about activity flow that happen in show tourism map menu. Visitor access the show tourism map menu. System will execute the activity and will show Bandar Lampung City tourism map. (Figure 6)

Figure 6. Activity Diagram to Show Tourism Map Figure 4. Class Diagram for Admin Visitors Class Diagram explained about group of object from properties, characteristic and relations between every menu in visitor main menu. The main menu has relations with every menu element in the system. The tourist attraction list class and the tourism map class has relation with each other. The data that used

Activity diagram of show tourist attraction list explain the activity that happen when user execute the tourist attraction list menu. System will display the tourist attraction list in Bandar Lampung city. Visitors can search for a tourist attraction name. When the search is done, system will do a data filter and show the list of the searched data. (Figure 7)

in tourist attraction list class is the same with the tourism map class. (Figure 5)

Figure 7. Activity Diagram to Show Tourism Destination List Figure 5. Class Diagram for Visitor

  141 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015   

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   2.4 Sequence Diagram

type the name of a tourist attraction in the search text

Sequence diagram is an image of step by step

field. System will find the tourist attraction in the

include the chronology (sequence) of interaction between

database that adjusted with the text that typed in the text

the objects that arranged according to time sequence.

field. System will show the list of the data if it’s stored, if

Tourism map sequence diagram explains about interaction

the data isn’t stored the list will show nothing. (Figure 9)

relationship between the visitors and tourism map menu. To access through the map, the visitors have to access the main menu and then choose the tourism map menu, from the tourism map menu, system will access the geographic information system database that stored in the server, from the previous process, system will show the data from the database that stored in the server and show the location and information to the tourism map. (Figure 8)

Figure 9. Sequence Diagram to Show Tourist Attraction List

2.5 Interface Design Interface design is the interface view that will displayed in the system when the application is running. The interface design for the first time application executed is divided by 5 menus. The menus aretourism map menu, tourist attraction list menu, facilities menu, Figure 8. Sequence Diagram show Tourism Map

about us menu and login menu. Tourism map menu will show the tourism map that contains the information of

Sequence diagram of tourist attraction list menu

tourist attraction and nearest facilities. Tourist attraction

explain about the interaction between the visitors with the

list menu contains the tourist attraction data that stored in

tourist attraction list menu. To access the tourist attraction

database, the data is displayed in a list. Facilities list menu

list menu, visitors firstly should access the main menu and

contains the facilities data that stored in database, there’s

choose the tourist attraction list menu. System will access

seven type of facilities that stored, the types are

the database that store the tourist attraction list data in the

restaurant, hotel, minimarket, station, tour and travel

storage. The stored database will be called and show to

agent, gas station and souvenirs shop. About us menu

the tourist attraction list interface menu. If the visitors

show the information about Bandar Lampung City and the

want to search one of the tourist attraction, visitors can

creator of the application. Login menu is to gain access to

  142 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015   

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   the administrator menu, the access was given to the

References

administrator only. (Figure 10) [1]PrabowoPudjoWidodo, Herlawati, Menggunakan UML (Unified Modelling Language) (Bandung, Informatika, 2011) [2] Eddy Prahasta, Sistem Informasi Geografi KonsepKonsepDasar (Bandung, Informatika, 2005) [3] ArdiDwiSaputra, Yulmaini, Perancangan Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) Pariwisata Di Propinsi Lampung, Jurnal Informatika Volume 12, 12, 2012, 136145

Figure 10. Interface Design for Main Menu Interface design in the show tourism map menu, this menu will show Bandar Lampung City map, tourist attraction location and nearest facilities location. The tourist attraction point in the map will show the information about the selected location. The nearest facilities point in the map will show the information about the facilities. There’s no submenu in this menu. (Figure 11)

Figure 11. Interface Design for Show Tourism Map

  143 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015   

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223  

LEARNING PROCESS OF INTRODUCTION TO LAMPUNG SCRIPT THROUGH ICT (INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES) FOR KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS OF TK RASYIDUL JANNAH BANDAR LAMPUNG ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015 Dharlinda Suri Jln Sukma No 21 Sukarame Bandar Lampung 35131 STKIP-PGRI Bandar Lampung 0721) 706940 / 08528232883 [email protected] ABSTRACT

teachers, the students and surrounding society who showed enthusiasm in the learning process. Meanwhile,

Problems proposed in this study are: (1) How is the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT? (2) What are supporting and inhibiting factors in the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT? The objectives of the research are: (1) to describe the learning process of introduction to Lampung script

the inhibiting factors are students’ difficulties in pronouncing the alphabets and some similar script writing shapes. In accordance with this research finding, it is recommended for the management of early childhood education to provide VCD of Lampung script learning animation and for the kindergarten teachers to carry out teaching Lampung script using the VCD as part of teacher’s professional skills.

for kindergarten students through ICT and (2) to describe supporting and inhibiting factors in the learning process

Keywords: Learning, Early Childhood, Animation,

of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten

Lampung script

students through ICT. This research was conducted at Rasyidul Jannah

1. Background

Kindergarten, Bandar Lampung. As the focuses of this

Each region in Indonesia has various cultures that

research are the kindergarten teachers and 24 students

can be explored as a learning vehicle and cultivation of

group B aged 5-6 years. This research took place in the

local cultural values in early childhood. As mentioned by

second semester of the academic year 2014-2015. This

Vigotsky (2007: 343) that the contribution of cultural,

study uses qualitative descriptive approach as the

social and historical interaction in the children’

researcher describes all the process related to the

mental/behavioral development influence on child

learning process of introduction to Lampung script done

development. Learning which is based on the cultural

by the teachers through ICT. This study used a

and social interaction that refers to the socio-historical-

qualitative descriptive approach, where researcher tried

cultural developmental aspects will greatly impact on the

to describe all the events in relation to the introduction of

children’s perception, memory and thinking. One of the

Lampung script done by teachers through ICT. The

principles in the DAP (Developmentally Appropriate

finding of this research suggested that ICT is effective to

Practice) concept states that early childhood learning

help these kindergarten students in the learning process

should be in accordance with the social and cultural

of introduction to Lampung script. The supporting

environment in which the child is living. Therefore,

factors in introduction to Lampung script learning are the

educators’ understanding against children’s socio-

  144 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015     

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   cultural background can be used as a reference for educators

in

preparing

learning

materials

and

instructional media that are relevant and meaningful to

(1) How is the learning process of introduction to Lampung script for kindergarten students through ICT?

the children. In addition, educators can also prepare

(2) What are supporting and inhibiting factors in the

children earlier to be individuals who can adapt to the

learning process of introduction to Lampung script

social and cultural environment.

for kindergarten students through ICT?

As a nation that has so much richness and diversity,

B. OBJECTIVES

including the richness and diversity of local cultures, it

In accordance with the above problems, the goals to be

will be isolated by itself if we do not early instilling a

achieved in this research are:

strong determination to strengthen and preserve our local

(1) to describe the learning process of introduction to

culture that is rich in noble values. Fears, either

Lampung script for kindergarten students through

consciously or unconsciously, of the impact of global

ICT and

education will gradually shift the position of the local

(2) to describe supporting and inhibiting factors in the

culture. This is contrary to the Lampung Provincial

learning process of introduction to Lampung script

Regulation No. 2 of 2008 on Lampung Cultural

for kindergarten students through ICT.

Maintenance. In Article 7 it is stated that Lampung language and script are cultural elements of culture to be

2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

developed. Furthermore, Article 8 point E stated that the introduction of Lampung language and script starts from kindergarten, elementary and secondary school levels, which the implementation complies with the provisions of the region, conditions and needs. Based on the problem above, one of the efforts that need to be done is to strengthen the local culture through learning. In this research, the instructional media used are learning animation. Animation learning media have the ability to explain a complicated or complex thing to be explained only by pictures and words. With this ability animated media can be used to describe a real material. Through the introduction of Lampung script learning using animation more children are expected to know and love the local culture so that they can grow

Pattern of regional language learning with the CBC is based

on

contextual

(Contextual

Teaching

approach, and

known

Learning).

as

CTL

Contextual

learning as described in SBC (MONE, 2006) is a concept of learning that helps teachers correlate the material and the topics he teaches with the situation in real life and encourages students to make connections of the knowledge possessed by the application in their daily lives.

Then,

Syaiful

Sagala

(2007:

88)

states

constructivism is the cornerstone of thinking in contextual approach, knowledge is built little by little, the result expanded through limited (narrow) and not abruptly context. Knowledge is not a set of facts, concepts or rules which are prepared to take and remember.

and develop optimally and that the local culture will be

Lampung script is a form of writing that has a

stronger.

relationship with South India’s Pallawa. Various kinds of

A.

FORMULATION OF PROBLEMS

phonetic writing syllables are the vowels as in Arabic characters by using signs as Fathah on the above line

Based on the background of the problems above, the

and kasrah on the bottom line. However they are not

formulation of the problem in this research are:

  145 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015     

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   using dammah on the front row but using the mark on

characters referred to as Kaganga. Lampung script

the back; each sign has its own name.

consists of three elements: Parent Letter, Child letters, and punctuation.

According to A. Effendi Sanusi (2013: 15) Lampung alphabets includes in syllabic writing system. The Figure 1 : Lampung Script (Parent Letter)

Source : A. Effendi Sanusi, (2013) Tata Bahasa Bahasa Lampung,Universitas Lampung In order to make the introduction to Lampung script

3. METHODS

learning for kindergarten students more interesting, the

The research method used is descriptive qualitative

researcher has created media animation of Lampung script learning in form of VCD containing about the types of script that is associated with the type of animals that have been known by the students. Learning

(1) Location of research was in TK Rasyidul Jannah Sukarame Bandar Lampung. (2) Time of research was on even semester of academic year 2014-2015.

animated media have the ability to be able to explain a

(3) The focuses of research are the teachers of the

complicated or complex thing to be explained with

‘Matahari’ Class (TK B) at TK Rasyidul Jannah

pictures and words alone. With this capability, the

Sukarame Bandar Lampung and 24 students (TK

animation media can be used to describe a real material.

B) of TK Rasyidul Jannah Sukarame Bandar Lampung aged 5-6 years.

According to Aaron and Zaidatun (2004: 5), animation, like other media, has its own role in education, especially to improve the quality of teaching and learning. In line with Wina Sanjaya (2012: 231), audiovisual learning is defined as the production and use of related materials with learning.

(4) Data collection tool was CD of introduction to Lampung script for early childhood students. Analysis of the data was by describing all the events in relation to the learning process of introduction to Lampung script done by teachers through CD of learning media animation.

Learning media of Lampung script learning includes in

Data were collected through: participant observation,

audio visual media types because there are motion

interview and document studies. Research instruments

pictures, floating letters, and voice.

consisted of: (1) free observation, field notes, cameras

  146 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015     

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   video cameras, (2) free interview, tape recorder, (3) school documentation.

B.

Discussion

Which became the source of information in this study

(1)

Learning Analysis

are: Kindergarten students, teachers and parents

Introduction to Lampung script learning is an activity to introduce Lampung script through the stimulus and the response of people on the children’s surroundings. The

4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION A.

introduction runs through constructivism process of building concepts through stages, connecting existed

Result

Lampung script learning for Kindergarten students

experience to the new experiences so that children are

through Learning Animation:

able to construct their own understanding. For example,

1.

2.

The purpose of this study was to obtain an

the introduction of animal names associated with the

overview of the implementation of Lampung script

Lampung script to stimulate the cognitive processes in

learning

children learning process will occur quickly.

for

kindergarten

students

through

animations. The tool used in this research is the

The learning process will be successful when students

VCD creation of introduction to Lampung script

are motivated to learn. In accordance with the teacher's

which was made by the researcher to help students

role as a motivator "to obtain optimal learning results,

recognizing 20 Lampung script parent letters.

teachers are required to creatively evoke students

Supporting

and

inhibiting

factors

in

'motivation' (Sanjaya, 2009: 29).

Lampung script learning for students kindergarten through Animated Learning:

When listening to and viewing the animation of

The supporting factors in learning are: (1)

Lampung script by using video, students are sitting on

kindergarten teachers who have high spirit of

the carpet with the semi-circle position facing the

dedication in teaching, (2) Students of TK

television. "Some teachers prefer the children to sit on

Rasyidul Jannah Bandar Lampung which have

the floor, especially when they are provided the floor

high spirit in the learning process, (3) Culture of

mat or carpet. They consider such an arrangement gives

Lampung people who is still maintained, (4) The

more pleasant climate and peace ". (Hidelbrand in

condition of the children’s learning environment

Muslichatun, 2004: 167).

which is very supportive. Furthermore, the factors that become obstacles in

Through VCD of Lampung script learning animation

Lampung script learning for kindergarten students

the teacher invites the students to listen to the rhythm

through animations in TK Rasyidul Jannah Bandar

and see Lampung script shapes. Goat (“kambing”)

Lampung include; (1) The shapes of the characters

represents script Ka, Ga (gajah), Nga, (singa), Pa

which are almost the same are hard to distinguish,

(paus), Ba (badak), Ma (macan), Ta (unta), Da (kuda),

this resulted in the teacher should repeat and

Na (ikan tuna), Ca (Capung),

pronounce the characters many times especially

(nyamuk), Ya (buaya), A (ayam) La (lalat) Ra (kura-

for difficult children. (2) Lack of Lampung script

kura), Sa (Sapi), Wa (walet),

learning CD which resulted in children rarely see

(gagak) In this animated it is seen that when the script

and hear the Lampung characters which are

is shown and voiced, at the same time the animals that

suitable with their minds.

have been known to the children appear. Further

Ja (jangkrik), Nya

Ha (harimau), Gha

  147 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015     

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   animation displays all characters that are 20 characters

Teachers encourage children to play by guessing the

in total followed by singing Lampung song. All students

types of scripts that are shown in accordance with the

sang happily following the Lampung script.

animals shown. (6) Playing the role. Role playing method is a game that carried out as the child play a

When Lampung script animation began to show, it

certain role. Teachers develop a child's imagination by

appeared that the children were so enthusiastic, full of

following the sound of the animals mentioned in the

concentration; that happy reactions of children to

script. (7) Motivating. Teachers give praise with smiles

Lampung script animation happy when uttering the

and words, as well as encourage children to clap

characters in unison. Sometimes they screamed or even

together as a tribute to those who can mention Lampung

laughed when there were funny animal pictures.

script properly. Using words like: good, nice, or smart,

Children were very happy if they could guess the

teacher also motivates children through advices which

animal that had to do with the script. The student’s

are based on the Islam and Lampung culture.

activity movement followed the rhythm of the

Therefore, based on the above description, Kindergarten

animation. By the end of Lampung language learning

teachers of TK Rasyidul Jannah Sukarame Bandar

activities through Lampung child song, the teacher

Lampung, in introduction to Lampung script learning

returned to direct interaction with the children using

process has used a variety of teaching methods that are

question and answer technique. Capability of teachers in

appropriate to the characteristics of Kindergarten

presenting and answering questions is very important.

students.

In this learning process, the teacher uses several

2. Supporting and inhibiting factors in Lampung script

methods: (1) Demonstration Method. Demonstration

learning for kindergarten students through Animation

means exemplifies or demonstrate how to perform or

Supporting factors in Lampung script learning for

undertake an activity or job. In this research,

kindergarten students through Animation which is based

demonstration method was used by the teachers when

on the analysis results of the study found that teachers

they wanted to introduce the Lampung alphabets to

are well aware of the importance of Lampung script

children. For example, teachers said and showed

learning for early childhood students. Teachers are

Lampung script and the students followed and watched.

people who take full responsibility in the learning

(2) Assignment Method. Method of giving the task is

activities for children in school. All kindergarten

when a task or exercise is intentionally inflicted on

teachers at TK Rasyidul Jannah have passed bachelor

children who should be executed properly. This method

degree so that they can teach well. Persistence and

gives children the opportunity to carry out duties under

genuine and sincere desire of kindergarten teachers are

the direct guidance that has been prepared by the

very influential to learn more about early childhood

teacher so that children can have a real experience and

education.

can thoroughly carry out the task. (3) Direct Practice

Lampung are very proud to have this formal education

Method. Teachers provide opportunities for children to

institution. Since this kindergarten was built, children's

practice the pronunciation of Lampung script via VCD

daily activities become managed. Children are able to

shown to the children. (5) Playing Method. Playing

go alone to school without being accompanied by their

method is a way of teaching that can cause a sense of

parents. Children willingness in learning the language,

pleasure and delight to children who are involved in it.

reading, writing, and numeracy under the guidance of

Students of TK Rasyidul Jannah Bandar

  148 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015     

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   teachers causing the majority of kindergarten result in the children being able to read fluently. Communities

The introduction to Lampung script literacy through

around this school in Sukarame Bandar Lampung is still

animation learning gives tremendous impact for the

bound by a strong local culture. Everything will be done

students’ cognitive, emotional, spiritual, and visual

at this school and discussed with the village officials.

development. In addition, children will understand the

The parents have understood that all the children in the

local culture so that they can become the generation that

kindergarten are their responsibility. The school

can preserve their culture, especially the culture of

environment is also quite comfortable and healthy for

Lampung.

the implementation of learning activities. Clean room conditions and sufficient sunlight make the atmosphere

B. Suggestions

calm and happy. Children can play and explore to

Kindergarten teachers can apply introduction of

develop their skills in introduction to Lampung script

Lampung script learning through VCD Animation

learning.

media of Lampung script as often as possible because it can give a lot of benefits. Schools should prepare VCD

Based on the data analysis, factors inhibiting the introduction of Lampung script learning through

of introduction Lampung script animation that can be used during school hours.

animation for early childhood students are that the pronunciation of characters in certain scripts are camouflaged by the students, for example, the Ra and Gha script which are almost the same in the

Bibliography Effendi Sanusi, (2013), Tata Bahasa Bahasa Lampung, Universitas Lampung

pronunciation, are very difficult to be spoken by kindergarten students who tend to pronounce vowels. It is also difficult for kindergarten students to distinguish characters who have almost the same shapes.

V. CLOSING

Depdiknas (2006) KTSP TK, Jakarta, Depdikbud Harun dan Zaidatun. (2004). Teknologi Multimedia dalam Pendidikan. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada. Moeslichatoen, (2004) Metode Pengajaran di Taman Kanak-Kanak, Jakarta, PT Andi Mahasatya Peraturan daerah Provinsi Lampung No 20 Tahun 2008 tentang ”Pemeliharaan Kebudayaan Lampung”

A. Conclusion Lampung script learning through animations is very favorable by the children. Learning materials which are presented through animation program are clearly for the students and can attract them well. Through animation the process becomes more interactive and helps teachers and students to perform two-way communication actively during the learning process. With animated Lampung script, the media can arouse

Sanjaya W, (2009) Strategi Pembelajaran Berorientasi Standar Proses Pendidikan, Jakarta, Kencana Prenada Media Group Sanjaya, Wina, (2012). Media Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Kencana.

Komunikasi

Sagala, Syaiful. (2007). Teori Belajar Pembelajaran. Jogjakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media.

dan

Vigotsky, Lev. 1992, Thought and Language, Massachusset, London: The MIT Press Cambridge

students' curiosity and stimulate students to react both physically and emotionally. Learning media can help teachers to make learning more alive, not monotonous or boring, and efficient in time and energy.

  149 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015     

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Improving Relay Matrices for MIMO Multi-Relay Communication Using Gradient Projection Apriana Toding Dept. Electrical Engineering. Universitas Kristen Indonesia Paulus, Makassar, Sul-Sel 90245, Indonesia Email: [email protected]

Abstract—In this paper, we design the optimal relay matrices for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication systems with parallel relay nodes using the projected gradient (PG) approach. We show that the optimal relay amplifying matrices have a beamforming structure. Using the optimal structure, the relay power loading algorithm is developed to minimize the mean-squared error (MSE) of the signal waveform estimation at the destination node. Simulation result demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed relay amplifying matrix with multiple parallel relay nodes using the PG approach in the system bit-error-rate performance. Index Terms—MIMO relay, parallel relay network, beamforming, non-regenerative relay, projected gradient.

I. I NTRODUCTION In order to establish a reliable wireless communication link, one needs to compensate for the effects of signal fading and shadowing. An efficient way to address this issue is to transmit signals through one or more relays [1]. This can be accomplished via a wireless network consisting of geographically separated nodes. When nodes in the relay system are installed with multiple antennas, we call such system multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication system. Recently, MIMO relay communication systems have attracted much research interest and provided significant improvement in terms of both spectral efficiency and link reliability. In [3]-[6], the authors have studied the optimal relay amplifying matrix design for the source-relay-destination channel. In [3] and [4], the optimal relay amplifying matrix maximizing the mutual information (MI) between the source and destination nodes was derived assuming that the source covariance matrix is an identity matrix. In [5] and [6], the relay amplifying matrix was designed to minimize the mean-squared error (MSE) of the signal waveform estimation at the destination. In [7], the author investigated the joint source and relay optimization for MIMO relay networks using projected gradient (PG) approach. However, in [2]-[7], the authors investigated the optimal relay amplifying matrix design for two-hop MIMO relay networks with a single relay node. In [8], some linear relaying strategies are presented for multiple relays in MIMO relay networks by making use of local CSI. In [9], the authors investigated the optimal relay amplifying matrices for two-hop MIMO relay networks with multiple parallel relay nodes with sum relay power constraints at the output of the second hop channel.

In this paper, we propose the optimal relay matrices for MIMO relay communication systems with parallel relay nodes using the projected gradient (PG) approach which significantly reduces the computational complexity of the optimal design. We show that the optimal relay amplifying matrices have a beamforming structure. In addition to the PG approach, we constrain the power at each relay node which is more practical compared to the constraints in [9] as that constraint may exceed the available power budget at the relay nodes. Simulation result demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed relay amplifying matrix with multiple parallel relay nodes using the PG approach in the system bit-error-rate performance. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we introduce the system model of MIMO relay communication system with parallel relay nodes. The relay matrices design algorithm is developed in Section III. In Section IV, we show some numerical simulations. Conclusions are drawn in Section V. II. S YSTEM M ODEL Fig. 1 illustrates a two-hop MIMO relay communication system consisting of one source node, K parallel relay nodes, and one destination node. We assume that the source and destination nodes have Ns and Nd antennas, respectively, and each relay node has Nr antennas. The generalization to the system with different number of antennas at each node is straightforward. To efficiently exploit the system hardware, each relay node uses the same antennas to transmit and receive signals. Due to its merit of simplicity, we consider the amplifyand-forward scheme at each relay. The communication process between the source and destination nodes is completed in two time slots. In the first time slot, the Ns ×1 source signal vector s is transmitted to relay nodes. The received signal at the ith relay node can be written as yr,i = Hsr,i s + vr,i ,

i = 1, · · · , K

(1)

where Hsr,i is the Nr × Ns MIMO channel matrix between the source and the ith relay node, yr,i and vr,i are the received signal and the additive Gaussian noise vectors at the ith relay node, respectively. In the second time slot, the source node is silent, while each relay node transmits the amplified signal vector to the

150|International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 destination node as xr,i = Fi yr,i ,

i = 1, · · · , K

(2)

where Fi is the Nr × Nr amplifying matrix at the ith relay node. Thus the received signal vector at the destination node can be written as yd =

K ∑

Hrd,i xr,i + vd

(3)

i=1

where Hrd,i is the Nd × Nr MIMO channel matrix between the ith relay and the destination node, yd and vd are the received signal and the additive Gaussian noise vectors at the destination node, respectively. Substituting (1)-(2) into (3), we have yd =

K ∑

(Hrd,i Fi Hsr,i s + Hrd,i Fi vr,i ) + vd

i=1

˜ +v ˜ = Hrd FHsr s + Hrd Fvr + vd = Hs

(4)

where Hsr , [HTsr,1 , HTsr,2 , · · · , HTsr,K ]T is a KNr × Ns channel matrix between the source node and all relay nodes, Hrd , [Hrd,1 , Hrd,2 , · · · , Hrd,K ] is an Nd × KNr channel matrix between all relay nodes and the destination node, F , bd[F1 , F2 , · · · , FK ] is the KNr × KNr block diag]T [ T T T , · · · , vr,K , vr,2 onal equivalent relay matrix, vr , vr,1 is obtained by stacking the noise vectors at all the relays, ˜ , Hrd FHsr as the effective MIMO channel matrix of the H ˜ , Hrd Fvr + vd as the source-relay-destination link, and v equivalent noise vector. Here (·)T denotes the matrix (vector) transpose, and bd[·] stands for a block-diagonal matrix. We assume that all noises are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian noise with zero mean and unit variance. The transmission power consumed by each relay node (2) can be expressed as ] H) ( [ H , i = 1, · · · , K E[tr(xr,i xH r,i )] = tr Fi Hsr,i Hsr,i + INr Fi (5) where E[·] denotes statistical expectation, tr(·) stands for the matrix trace, and (·)H denotes the matrix (vector) Hermitian transpose. Using a linear receiver, the estimated signal waveform vector at the destination node is given by ˆs = WH yd , where W is an Nd × Ns weight matrix. The minimal MSE (MMSE) approach tries to find a weight matrix W that minimizes the statistical expectation of the signal waveform estimation given by ( [( )H ]) )( MSE = tr E ˆs − s ˆs − s (( ) )( H )H H˜ ˜ ˜ = tr WHH−I Ns W H−INs +W CW (6) ˜ where C noise covariance matrix given by ] equivalent [ isHthe ˜ =E v ˜v ˜ = Hrd FFH HH C rd + INd . The weight matrix W which minimizes (6) is the Wiener filter and can be written as ˜ ˜H ˜ H + C) ˜ −1 H W = (H

(7)

where (·)−1 denotes the matrix inversion. Substituting (7) back into (6), it can be seen that the MSE is a function of F can be written as ([ ]−1 ) ˜ HC ˜ −1 H ˜ MSE = tr INs + H (8) III. M INIMAL MSE R ELAY D ESIGN In this section, we address the relay amplifying matrices optimization problem for systems with a linear receiver at the destination node. In particular, we show that the optimal relay matrices has a general beamforming structure. Base on (5) and (8), the relay amplifying matrices optimization problem can be formulated as ([ ]−1 ) ˜ −1 H ˜ ˜ HC min tr INs + H (9) {Fi } ( [ ] H) s.t. tr Fi Hsr,iHH sr,i+INr Fi ≤ Pr,i , i = 1, · · · , K(10) where (10) is the power constraint at the relay node, and Pr,i > 0 is the corresponding power budget availabe at the ith relay. A. Optimal Relay Design Using Projected Gradient (PG) Approach Let us introduce the following singular value decompositions (SVD) H , Hsr,i = Us,i Λs,i Vs,i

H Hrd,i = Ur,i Λr,i Vr,i

(11)

where Λs,i and Λr,i are Rs ×Rs and Rr ×Rr diagonal matrix. Here Rs , rank(Hsr,i ), Rr , rank(Hrd,i ), rank(·) denotes the rank of a matrix. The following theorem states the structure of the optimal Fi . THEOREM 1: The optimal structure of Fi as the solution to the problem (9)-(10) is given by Fi = Vr,1 Ai UH s,1 ,

i = 1, · · · , K

(12)

where Ai is an R × R diagonal matrix and R , min(Rs , Rr ).. PROOF: Without loss of generality, Fi can be written as ] [ ][ ] Ai Xi [ UH s,1 ⊥ Fi = Vr,1 Vr,1 H Yi Zi (U⊥ s,1 ) i = 1, · · · , K (13) ⊥ H ⊥ ⊥ H H ) =INr − Vr,1 Vr,1 , U⊥ (Vr,1 where Vr,1 s,1 (Us,1 ) =INr − H ⊥ ⊥ Us,1 Us,1 , such that [Vr,1 , Vr,1 ] and [Us,1 , Us,1 ] are unitary matrices. The matrices Ai , Xi , Yi , Zi are arbitrary matrices with dimensions of R × R, R × (Nr − R), (Nr − R) × R, (Nr − R) × (Nr − R), respectively. Substituting (13) back into H (9), we obtain that Hrd,i Fi Hsr,i = Ur,i Λr,i Ai Λs,i Vs,i and ∑ K H H H H H Hrd,i Fi FH H = U Λ (A A +X X )Λ U r,i r,i i i i i i r,i r,i . rd,i i=1 Thus we can rewrite equation (9) as ([ (K K ∑ ∑ H H H H MSE =tr INs + Vs,i Λs,i Ai Λr,i Ur,i Ur,i Λr,i (Ai AH i + i=1 H H Xi XH i )Λr,i Ur,i + INd

i=1

)−1

K ∑

H Ur,i Λr,i Ai Λs,i Vs,i

]−1  

i=1

i = 1, · · · ,K.

151|International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

(14)

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 TABLE I PROCEDURE OF APPLYING THE PROJECTED GRADIENT ALGORITHM TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM (15) - (16)

problem min ¯i A

(0)

1) Initialize the algorithm at a feasible Ai for i = 1, · · · , K; Set n = 0. (n) 2) Compute the gradient of (15) ∇f (Ai ); ˜ (n) = A(n) − sn ∇f (A(n) ) to obtain A ¯ (n) . Project A i i i i (n+1) (n) (n) (n) ¯ Update Ai with A =A + δn (A −A ) i (n+1)

(n)

i

i

Substituting (11) back into the left-hand-side of the( transmission power constraint (10), we have ) 2 H H tr Ai (Λ2s,i+ INr )AH i + Yi (Λs,i+ INr )Yi+ Xi Xi + Zi Zi . From (13), we find that Xi = 0R×(Nr −R) , Yi = 0(Nr −R)×R , and Zi= 0(Nr −R)×(Nr −R) , minimize the power consumption. Thus we have Fi = Vr,i Ai UH  s,i . The remaining task is to find the optimal Ai , i = 1, · · · , K. From (14), we can write the optimization problem as ([ (K K ∑ ∑ H H H H min tr INs + Vs,i Λs,i Ai Λr,i Ur,i Ur,i Λr,i Ai i=1 H H AH i Λr,i Ur,i + INd

]−1  H  Ur,i Λr,i Ai Λs,i Vs,i i=1

)−1

K ∑ i=1

(15)

( ) s.t. tr Ai (Λ2s,i + INr )AH i ≤ Pr,i , i = 1, · · · , K.

(16)

Both the problem (9)-(10) and the problem (15)-(16) have matrix optimization variable. However, in the former problem, the optimization variable Fi is an Nr × Nr matrix. In general, the problem (15) - (16) is nonconvex and globally optimal solution is difficult to obtain with a reasonable computational complexity. Fortunately, we can resort to numerical methods, such as the projected gradient algorithm [11] to find (at least) a locally optimal solution of (15) - (16). The procedure of the projected gradient algorithm is listed in Table I, where δn and sn denote the step size parameters at the nth iteration. max abs∥ · ∥ denote the maximum among the absolute value of all elements in a matrix, and ε is a positive constant close to) 0. ([ ]−1 ˜ HC ˜ −1 H ˜ THEOREM 2: If f (Ai ) = tr IN + H is s

chosen as the objective function, then its gradient ∇f(Ai ) with respect to Ai can be calculated by using results on derivatives of matrices in [13] as ( ∇f (Ai ) = 2 [Mi Ri ]T [Si Ci ]T + [Mi Ri ]T [Di ]T ) −1 T T ∗ −[EH i Gi Ri ] [Si ] i = 1, · · · , K. (17) PROOF: See Appendix A. ˜ i onto the feasible set of A ¯ i given The projection of A by (16) is performed by solving the following optimization

(18) (19)

By using the Lagrange multiplier method, the solution to the problem (18)-(19) is given by ¯i = A ˜ i [(λ + 1)IN + λΛ2 ]−1 A s,i r

i

3) if max abs ∥Ai − Ai ∥ ≤ ε, then end. Otherwise, let n := n + 1 and go to step 2).

Ai

s.t.

( ) ¯i −A ˜ i )(A ¯i −A ˜ i )H tr (A ( ) ¯ i (Λ2 + IN )A ¯ H ≤ Pr,i . tr A s,i i r

where λ > 0 is the solution to the nonlinear equation ( ˜ i [(λ+ 1)IN + λΛ2 ]−1(Λ2 + IN ) tr A s,i s,i r r ) ˜ H = Pr,i . [(λ+ 1)INr+ λΛ2s,i ]−1A i

(20)

Equation (20) can be efficiently solved by the bisection method [11]. The step size parameters δn and sn are determined by the Armijo rule [11], i.e., sn = s is a constant through all iterations, while at the nth iteration, δn is set to be γ mn . Here mn is the terminal nonnegative integer that sat(n+1) (n) isfies the following inequality MSE(Ai ) )−MSE(Ai )≤ ( (n) ¯ (n)−A(n) ) , where α and γ αγ mn realtr (∇f (Ai ) )H (A i i are constants. According to [11], usually α is chosen close to 0, for example αε[10−5 , 10−1 ], while a proper choice of γ is normally from 0.1 to 0.5. B. Simplified Design By introducing ¯ , Hrd F. F

(21)

The received signal vector at the destination can be equiv¯ +v ¯ , FH ¯ sr , and ¯ , where H alently written as yd = Hs ¯ r + vd . Considering (2) and (21), the transmission ¯ , Fv v power consumed at the output of Hrd can be expressed as ( [ ] H) ¯ HsrHH +IKN F ¯ E[tr((Hrd xr )(Hrd xr )H )] = tr F sr r ) ] ( [ H H . (22) ≤ tr(Hrd,i HH rd,i )tr Fi Hsr,iHsr,i+INr Fi Substituting (10) into (22) we have K K ∑ ( [ ] H) ∑ ¯ HsrHH +IKN F ¯ tr F ≤ P tr(Hrd,i HH r,i sr rd,i ). (23) r

∑K

i=1

i=1

Here i=1 Pr,i , Pr , is the total transmission power budget available to all K relay nodes. Using (23), the relaxed relay optimization problem can be written as ([ ] ) ¯ HC ¯ −1 H ¯ −1 (24) tr INs + H min ¯ F ) ( [ ] ¯ HsrHH +IKN F ¯ H ≤ P¯r , i = 1, · · · ,K(25) s.t. tr F sr r H where P¯r , Pr tr(Hrd HH rd ). Let Hsr = Us Λs Vs denote the singular value decomposition (SVD) of Hsr , where the dimensions of Us , Λs , Vs are KNr ×KNr , KNr ×Ns , Ns × Ns , respectively. We assume that the main diagonal elements of Λs is arranged in a decreasing order. Using Theorem 1 in ¯ as the solution to the problem [10], the optimal structure of F (24)-(25) is given by

¯ = QΛf UH F s,1

152|International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

(26)

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 where Q is any Nd × Ns semi-unitary matrix with QH Q = INs , Us,1 contain the leftmost Nb columns of Us , and Λf is an Ns × Ns diagonal matrix. The proof of (26) is similar to the proof of Theorem 1 in [10]. From (26), we see that the ¯ has a beamforming structure. In fact, the optimal optimal F ¯ ¯ up to a F diagonalizes the source-relay-destination channel H rotation matrix Q. Using (26), the relay optimization problem (24)-(25) becomes ([ ) ]−1 ]−1 ( )2 [ 2 min tr INs + Λf Λs Λf + INs (27) Λf

( [ ]) s.t. tr Λ2f Λ2s +INs ≤ P¯r .

(28)

Let us denote λf,i , λs,i , i = 1, · · · , Ns , as the main diagonal elements of Λf , Λs , respectively, and introduce [ ] ai , λ2s,i , yi , λ2f,i λ2s,i +1 , i = 1, · · · , Ns .(29) The optimization problem (27)-(28) can be equivalently rewritten as min y

s.t.

Ns ∑ i=1 Ns ∑

ai x i + y i + 1 ai xi yi + ai xi + yi + 1 yi ≤ P¯r

yi ≥ 0,

(30) i = 1, · · · , Ns (31)

i=1

where y , [y1 , y2 , · · · , yNs ]T . The problem (30)-(31) can be solved by an iterative method developed in [10], where in iteration, y is updated alternatingly by fixing the other vector. After the optimal y is found, λf,i can be obtained from (29) as √ yi λf,i = , i = 1, · · · , Ns . (32) 2 λs,i xi + 1 ¯ in (26), we have Using (21) and the optimal structure of F Hrd,i Fi = QΛf Φi , where matrix Φi contains the (i−1)Nr + 1 to iNr columns of UH s,1 . Then we obtain Fi =

H†rd,i QΛf Φi ,

i = 1, · · · , K

(33)

where (·)† denotes matrix pseudo-inverse. Finally, we scale Fi in (33) to satisfy the power constraint (10) at each relay node as ˜ i = αi Fi , F

i = 1, · · · , K

where the scaling factor αi is given by αi √ H Pr,i /tr(Fi [Hsr,i HH sr,i + INr ]Fi ), i = 1, · · · , K.

(34) =

IV. S IMULATIONS In this section, we study the performance of the proposed optimal relay beamforming algorithms for parallel MIMO relay systems with linear MMSE receiver. All simulations are conducted in a flat Rayleigh fading environment where the channel matrices have zero-mean entries with variance σs2 /Ns and σr2 /(KNr ) for Hsr and Hrd , respectively. The BPSK constellations are used to modulate the source symbols, and all noise are i.i.d Gaussian with zero mean and unit

variance. We define SNRs = σs2 Ps KNr /Ns and SNRr = σr2 Pr Nd /(KNr ) as the signal-to-noise ration (SNR) for the source-relay link and the relay-destination link, respectively. We transmit Ns × 1000 randomly generated bits in each channel realization, and all simulation results are averaged over 200 channel realizations. In all simulations, the MMSE linear receiver in (7) is employed at the destination for symbol detection. In our example, a parallel MIMO relay system with K = 2 relay nodes, Ns = Nd = 5, and Nr = 4 are simulated. We compare the BER performance of the propose optimal relay matrices using Projected Gradient (ORP) algorithm in (12) with ZF algorithm in [8], MMSE algorithm in [8], and the naive amplify-and-forward (NAF) Algorithm. While Fig. 2 demonstrates BER versus SNRs for SNRr fixed at 20 dB. It can be seen that the propose algorithm outperforms all competing algorithms in the whole SNRs range. V. C ONCLUSIONS In this paper, we have derived the general structure of the optimal relay amplifying matrices for parallel MIMO relay communication systems using the projected gradient approach. The proposed algorithm has less computational complexity compared to the existing techniques. Simulation result shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. VI. A PPENDIX H , Base on (11) and (12), we have Hsr,i = Us,i Λs,i Vs,i ∑K H H H =Ur,i Λr,i Vr,i , Fi=Vr,i Ai Us,i , i=1 Hrd,i Fi Hsr,i = ∑K ∑rd,i K H H H i=1 Hrd,i Fi Fi Hrd,i = i=1 Ur,i Λr,i Ai Λs,i Vs,i , and ∑K H H H i=1 Ur,i Λr,i Ai Ai Λr,i Ur,i . Thus f (Ai ) can be written as (K ([ K ∑ ∑ H H H H Ur,i Λr,i Ai f (Ai ) = tr INs+ Vs,i Λs,i Ai Λr,i Ur,i

]−1  H  Ur,i Λr,i AiΛs,i Vs,i i=1

i=1 K )−1∑

H H AH i Λr,i Ur,i+INd

i=1

(35) ∑ K H H H H Let us define ZH i , j=1,j̸=i Vs,j Λs,j Aj Λr,j Ur,j , and Yi , ∑K H H H j=1,j̸=i Ur,j Λr,j Aj Aj Λr,j Ur,j +INd . Then f (Ai ) can be written as ([ H H H H f (Ai ) = tr INs+(ZH i +Vs,i Λs,i Ai Λr,i Ur,i )(Yi +Ur,i Λr,i ]−1 ) H H −1 H Ai AH i Λr,i Ur,i ) (Ur,i Λr,i Ai Λs,i Vs,i +Zi ) (36) [ ] −1 Applying INs +AH C−1 A = INs −AH (AAH +C)−1 A. Then, (36) can be written as [ H H H H f (Ai ) = tr INs− (ZH i + Vs,i Λs,i Ai Λr,i Ur,i )((Ur,i Λr,i H H H H H Ai Λs,i Vs,i + Zi )(ZH i + Vs,i Λs,i Ai Λr,i Ur,i ) H H −1 +(Yi + Ur,i Λr,i Ai AH i Λr,i Ur,i )) ] H (Ur,i Λr,i Ai Λs,i Vs,i + Zi ) .

153|International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

(37)

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223 H Let us now define Ei , Ur,i Λr,i Ai Λs,i Vs,i + Zi , Ki , H H H Yi + Ur,i Λr,i Ai Ai Λr,i Ur,i , and Gi , Ei EH i + Ki . We can rewrite (37) as [ ] [ ] −1 H −1 f (Ai )= tr INs−EH .(38) i Gi Ei = tr INs−Ei Ei Gi

vr

Then the derivative of f (Ai ) with respect to Ai is given by [ ] ∂ ∂ −1 f (Ai ) = − tr Ei EH i Gi ∂Ai ∂Ai [ ] ∂ H −1 = tr G−1 i Ei Ei Gi Gi ∂Ai ∂ −1 H − tr[EH i Gi Ur,i Λr,i Ai Λs,i Vs,i ] ∂Ai [ ∂ H −1 = tr G−1 i Ei Ei Gi ((Ur,i Λr,i Ai Λs,i ∂Ai H H H H H Vs,i + Zi )(ZH i + Vs,i Λs,i Ai Λr,i Ur,i ) )] H +(Yi + Ur,i Λr,i Ai AiH ΛH r,i Ur,i ) −1 T H T −[EH i Gi Ur,i Λr,i ] [Λs,i Vs,i ] .

Defining we can rewrite (39) as

Ci,EH i ,

and

x2

. . .

• • •

y1

F2

• • •

y2

H rd

F

K

. . .



W

yNd

• • •

R elay

Source

(39)

• • •

. . .

H sr

x Ns

F

1

• • •

s

D estin atio n

Fig. 1. Block diagram of a parallel MIMO relay communication system.

H H Di,AH i Λr,i Ur,i ,

[ ∂ ∂ H f (Ai ) = tr Mi (Ur,i Λr,i Ai Λs,i Vs,i + Zi )Ci ∂Ai ∂Ai +Mi (Yi + Ur,i Λr,i Ai Di )] −1 T H T −[EH i Gi Ur,i Λr,i ] [Λs,i Vs,i ] .

NAF Algorithm ZF Algorithm [8] MMSE Algorithm [8] Optimal Relay Algorithm

−1

10

−2

10

(40) H Here Ri , Ur,i Λr,i , and Si , Λs,i Vs,i , we can rewrite (40) as ∂ ∂ f (Ai ) = tr [Mi Ri AiSiCi+Mi Ri AiDi] ∂Ai ∂Ai −1 T T −[EH i Gi Ri ] [Si ] . (41)

Finally, the gradient is given by ( ∇f (Ai ) = 2 [Mi Ri ]T [Si Ci ]T + [Mi Ri ]T [Di ]T ) −1 T T ∗ −[EH . i Gi Ri ] [Si ]

Average BER

H −1 Mi,G−1 i Ei Ei Gi ,

• • •

x1

vd

−3

10

−4

10

−5

10

0

5

10

15 SNRs (dB)

20

25

Fig. 2. BER versus SNRs while fixing SNRr = 20dB. Ns = Nd = 5, and Nr = 4.

(42)  R EFERENCES [1] R. Pabst, B. H. Walke, D. C. Schultz, D. C. Herhold, H. Yanikomeroglu, S. Mukherjee, H. Viswanathan, M. Lott, W. Zirwas, M. Dohler, H. Aghvami, D. D. Falconer, and G. P. Fettweis, “Relay-based deployment concepts for wireless and mobile broadband radio,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 80-89, Sep. 2004. [2] B. Wang, J. Zhang, and A. Høst-Madsen, “On the capacity of MIMO relay channels,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 51, pp. 29-43, Jan. 2005. [3] X. Tang and Y. Hua, “Optimal design of non-regenerative MIMO wireless relays,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 6, pp. 1398-1407, Apr. 2007. [4] O. Mu˜noz-Medina, J. Vidal, and A. Agust´ın, “Linear transceiver design in nonregenerative relays with channel state information,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 55, pp. 2593-2604, Jun. 2007. [5] W. Guan and H. Luo, “Joint MMSE transceiver design in nonregenerative MIMO relay systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 517-519, Jul. 2008.

[6] G. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wu, and J. Huang, “Joint linear filter design in multiuser cooperative non-regenerative MIMO relay systems,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Networking, vol. 2009, Article ID 670265. [7] Y. Rong, “Joint source and relay optimization for two-way linear non-regenerative MIMO relay communications,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, pp. 6068-6077, Dec. 2009. [8] O. Oyman and A. J. Paulraj, “Design and analysis of linear distributed MIMO relaying algorithms,” IEE Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Commun., pp. 565-572, Aug. 2006. [9] A. S. Behbahani, R. Merched, and A. M. Eltawil, “Optimizations of a MIMO relay network,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 56, pp. 50625073, Oct. 2008. [10] Y. Rong, X. Tang, and Y. Hua, “A unified framework for optimizing linear non-regenerative multicarrier MIMO relay communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 57, pp. 4837-4851, Dec. 2009. [11] D. P. Bertsekas, Nonlinear Programming. 2nd. Edition, Athena Scientific, Belmont, Massachusetts, 1999. [12] S. Boyd and L, Vandenberghe, Convex Optimizationh. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2004. [13] K. B. Petersen and M. S. Petersen, The Matrix Cookbook. [Online]. Available: http://matrixcookbook.com.

154|International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

30

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223  

DETERMINATION MODEL OF INDEPENDENT BUSINESS CREDIT "GRAMEENBANK" PATTERN USING SIMPLE ADDITIVE WAIGHTING (SAW) METHOD TO ENHANCING THE RURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Satria Abadi, Sri Hartati STMIK Pringsewu Jl.Wismarini 9. Pringsewu Lampung-Indonesia Email: [email protected] 1.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

Empowerment

of

rural

women

towards

the

This research aims to determine the aid credit

improvement of human capital is critical and strategic in

program "grameenbank" by

Additive

the development of rural areas (Anwar,2001), as it can

Waighting (SAW) method in rural communities as a

contribute to growth, improving efficiency and reducing

resource

towards

poverty (Todaro,2007). Empowerment of women in

economic development of the region. The determination

economic activities will face obstacles because basically

of the criteria is to perfom the weight on the

there is gender discrimination against female roles in the

existing.criteria which applied to the decisions making.

family and society. This gender discrimination causes

The software program can generate customers were

women have limited access to education facilities and

selected as recipients grameenbank aid credit program.

access to capital resources and other constraint, causing

The Independent Business Credit system is a replication

productivity

of the pattern ofcredit 'Grameen Bank' (Meaning Village

(Sulistiyani, 2002)

empowerment

of

using Simple rural women

female

relative lower

than

the

man

Bank developed in Bangladesh to serve the poor people) in

Based on the employment people in the district of

this

Pringsewu, agriculture is the most sector chosen by the

institutional adjusted to the conditions and the ability of

population to make a living, that is equal to 74.84

their poor, so that they are able to increase revenues and

percent, the trade sector (13.11%) and industry (6, 11%)

at the same time is able to be trusted because it can repay

were the second the sectors largest and third most widely

loans with discipline. These results indicate that the

chosen by Pesawaran people to work, data source from

method can

‘Sakernas’ Pringsewu in 2012. In the district Pringsewu,

effectively help in the decision making and to determine

there is existing alternative financial institution that is a

prospective customers that receiver program in rural

replication of the pattern of Credit "Grameen Bank" that

districts

program

prioritize credit for women. One of these institutions is a

enhancing empowerment of rural women towards

Independent Business Credit' or KUM which has been

economic development of the region.

implemented

who

have

adapted

Indonesia. Credit

Simple

their

package

Additive

Gemahripah

implementation

provided

through

Waighting (SAW)

Pringsewu.

This

in

the

district,

especially

in

rural

Gemahripah Pringsewu, is one of the products of BMT Keywords: Grameen Bank, Simple Additive Waighting (SAW) Method

(Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil) NINE SEVEN. Below is the development of customer BMT Nine Seven (Year 2010 2013):

155 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   Table 1 Data Development Customer Numbers and Total Financing Year 2010 - 2013 Year

2010

Total financing

Percentage (%)

be used as collateral, 2) So the poor illiterate can not fill

164

37

93.9

10.8%

out the forms complicated, 3) Bank prefer large loans in small numbers than small loans in large numbers

212

43

126.4

12.3%

257

58

134.5

285

69

178.6

15.6%

16.4%

Muhammad Yunus to set up a bank that can reach the

KUM credit system is a replication of the pattern of credit 'Grameen Bank' (Meaning

Village

Bank

developed in Bangladesh to serve the poor) which has implementation

lot of poor people who fall and depend on moneylenders which sets high interest. This bothered Professor

Source: BMT 97

adapted

the cost of Bank servicing. (Rahasan and Mat Thanksgiving, (2007), Suharto (2007)).This fact makes a

million

been

because make dificulties or Bank and contains a high risk, 4)Banking worried lending received can not cover

million 2013

1) Poor people do not have the goods or assets that can

Customer Kab. Pringsewu

million 2012

reasons:

Number Customer

million 2011

not serve women, the blind and the poor, because of

in

Indonesia. Credit

package provided through this institutional adjusted to the conditions and the ability of the poor, so that they are able to increase revenues and at the same time is able to be trusted because it can repay loans with discipline (Anwar, 2000) Package loans granted by credit institutions is preferred for women, because based on experience of the implementation of Grameen Bank both in his native Bangladesh and replication in Malaysia, it turns out women are more able to customers in terms of discipline to restore credit and real and can increase family income greater than with men (Suharto, 2007). Jatiningrum and Herlina (2013) proves that the customer returns KUM dominated by female customers have a smoothness level of the highest loan repayment compared with other rural credit bank customers. This shows that the community empowerment program especially women very feasible to be developed to improve the well-being of families, especially in the poor society.

poor. Granting credit assistance is very important so that they can increase their income.And it turns out they also were able to repay the loan (Suharto and Hafid, 2007). In Indonesia, the pattern of Grameen Bank credit has been replicated in the form of program Usaha Karya Mandiri (KUM) which has been implemented in several subdistricts Pesawaran, Lampung province. Three Principles KUM

is

(1)

does

not

require

collateral

and

guarantors; (2) the borrower subject to administrative costs, and (3) if the borrower dies, the heirs are not required to pay the remaining credit 3.Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) Multiple

Attribute

Decision

Making (MADM) is

a

method used to find the optimal alternative of a number of

alternatives

to

certain

criteria. The

essence

of MADM is determining weights for each attribute value, then proceed with the ranking process that will select the alternative that has been given. Basically, there are three approaches to find the value weights of attributes,

namely

approach

and

an

subjective integrated

approach,

objective

approach

between

subjectively and objectively. (Wibowo, 2009). Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. In the subjective approach, the weight value is determined

2.GRAMEEN BANK (Village Bank)

based on the subjectivity of the decision makers, so that

Grameen Bank (Village Bank) was established in

some of the factors in the ranking process can be

Bangladesh by Professor Muhammad Yunus, Chittagon

determined

University economics professor. The Bank founder

approach, the weight value is calculated mathematically

discouraged by existing banking kenyataaan Bangadesh

so

that

freely ignores

alternative. While the

subjectivity

the of

objective decision-

156 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

Internationaal Conferencce On Inform mation Technology And B Business ISSN N 2460-72233   makers. (Kusuumadewi, 20007). This reesearch purpooses

d customers are includedd in the cattegory is noot and

are: 1) Dettermine criteeria and weeights of KU UM

pro oblematic.

with "Grameeenbank" Patteern Using thee SAW Methhod



For Empoweerment of Rurral Women Resource R Tow ward

he output expeected from thiis research to get the modeel Th

Regional Ecoonomic Devellopment. 2) Create C a progrram

to determine thee relief work oof independentt businesses inn

to assist decision making to t determination of custom mers

rurral communities Gemahripaah district of Pringsewu. P

AW Banking with "Grameeenbank" patterrn using SA



Method.

m criteria to deetermine KUM M Vaalue and weighht taken from

4. Simple Meethod Additivee Waighting (SAW ) Meth hod

pro ogram that variables usedd by research hers, are :C1= =

Simple methood Additive Waighting W ofteen also knoown

Ag ge, C2 = Stattus of land ownership, C3 3= Number of o

term weighted summation method. The basic conceppt is

fam mily memberss, C4= Rate Inncome/Family y earnings C5= =

w sum mmation of ratting to find a metthod of SAW weighted

Nu umber of depeendents Familyy C6= Nearneess of business

the

all

faccilities C7= Conditions oof Housing C8= C Level of o

attributes. SA AW method requires r the decision maatrix

Ed ducation C9= = Type of Work, C10= = Benefit of o

normalizationn process (X X) to a scalee which can be

Op perations. Andd the existingg of criteria then t weightedd

compared witth all existing alternative raating.

and d then createdd software witth a range of assessment as

perform mance

of

each

alternnative

on

nalysis needs Output An

Criteria reequired

folllows:1) No Good (NG) = Value≥ 20 0, 2) Less of o Go ood (LB) = Value≥ 40; 3) Good En nough (GE) = Vaalue≥ 60; 4) Good (G) = Value≥ 80;;5)Very Goodd (VG) = Value≥ 100; Affter

the

seelection

proccess

criteriaa

through

a

queestionnaire off customers eeligible to giv ve answers too where rij is thhe normalized performance rating of

thee

alternatives on attribute Ai Cj; i = 1,2, ...., m and j = 1,,2,

queestionnaire annswers after caalculating the percentage of o

e alternativve (Vi) is giveen ..., n. Preferennce value for each

resspondents. Criiteria for deterrmining KUM M program aree:

as:

C1 1= Age, C2 = Status of

selected

criteria.

Based

on

ressults

of

thee

Land Own nership, C3= =

Nu umber of faamily membeers, C4= Ra ate Income / Fa amily earninggs, C5 = Number of dependents Familyy, C6 6= Type of Work W To obtainn these variab bles was madee Vi larger value indicatees that the alteernative Ai is

in a graph so moore clearly in tthe picture.

sellected. TB

KB

CB

B Baik

SB

20

40

60

80

100

1

In the studyy authors toook a samplle using randdom j judgment sam mpling methodd, ie random sampling baased on the considderation, the respondents r inn this study were w female custom mers KUM prrogram village of Gemahriipah

0 0

with some considerations c man, such as: Cuustomer wom residents whho live in Prringsewu Gem mahripah villlage Lampung, lonng been a cuustomer of moore than 2 yeears,

T and a Businesss (ICITB), 200th -21th Augu ust 2015 157 | Internaational Confeerences on Innformation Technology

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   Table 2 Determining of Customers

These results indicate that the Simple Additive Waighting

CUSTOMERS

Criteria

Age

5.CONCLUSION

Customer

Customer 2

Customer

(SAW) method effectively to determine prospective

1(A1)

(A2)

3 (A3)

customers that the receiver KUM program in rural

24

41

34

C1

Gemahripah

districts

of

Pringsewu. This

program

enhancing empowerment of rural women towards

Land ownership

C2

650 m

C3

3

2

250 m

2

900m

2

economic development of the region.

status Number of Family

5

7

Members

.REFERENCES

Income level / Family

C4

2.5 million

2.7 million/

3.6 million

/ month

month

/ month

Earnings

Amborowati,

Amardyah. 2007 Employee

Selection

Decision Support System Based on Performance

Total Dependent

C5

2

4

6

Achievement. National

Symposium

Technology Information

Family Type Of

C6

Work

farmer

entrepreneurship

farmer

on

Department

of

Informatics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic

University

of

Indonesiahttp://puslit.petra.ac.id/jurnals/industrial . Based on the data above can be formed applicants a

Anwar.A,,

2000. Labor

decision matrix X that has been converted with fuzzy

toward

numbers (Khoirudin,2008) , as follows:

Regional

Table 3 Determining of Customers

Materials

Human

Women's

Capital

Economic

Empowerment

Improvements

in

Development (Lecture

Research

Methodology)

Bogor. Unpublished

Criteria Alternative C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

A1

0.25

0.75

0.5

0.5

0.25

0.75

A2

0.75

0.25

0.5

0.75

0.5

1

A3

0.5

1

0.75

1

0.75

0.75

Anwar.A, 2001. Spatial Development Perspective (Spatial) Regional Rural Regional Development in order. Bogor. Not published. Anwar.A, 2007. Role of Microcredit for Alleviation of Poor People in Rural Areas (The Role of Microcredit Scheme for Provety Alleviation in

Provides decision-making weight, based on the level of importance of each criterion as follows: Vector Weight: W = [0.4, 0.8, 0.6, 1,00]. The criteria of customers who receive assistance KUM above by the following intervals: 0.0

- 1.99 = Less Good; 2.00 - 2.99 = Good;

Rural Areas). Not published. BPS of Pesawaran District. 2012. Pesawaran district in the numbers. BPS. Pesawaran BPS of Lampung Province. 2012. Lampung province in the numbers. BPS. Lampung.

3.0 - 4.00 = Very Good. The matrix multiplication W *

Fauzi, A. 2001. Principles of Social Research

R then get the results as: V 1 = 1.6056, V 2 = 2.382, V 3 =

Department of Socio-economic brief Economy

1.75, the largest value of the sum of the above matrix is

Bogor Agricultural University.

V 2, thus alternative A 2 (Client 2) is eligible banking customers to receive KUM program.

Jatiningrum, Citrawati. and Herlina. 2013. The Rural Women's

Empowerment

Resources

to

improvement of human capital In Regional Economic

Development. Grand

of

Research

Kopertis Region II.

158 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   Khoirudin, Akhmad Arwan. 2008. Determination of

Sustainable Development: From Concept International

Bank

for

Eligibility Decision Support System Prospective

to Action.The

International School Fuzzy Associative Memory

Reconstruction and Development / The

Method Department of Informatics, Faculty of

World Bank. Washington .C. USA.

Industrial Technology, Islamic University of

Sinha, BRK 2002. Measuring methodological Concept

Indonesia

of Human Resource Development. Regional

Kusumadewi, Sri. 2004. Fuzzy Quantification Theory for

and

Sustainable

Analysis of Relationship between Performance

Development.Kaniskha

Publisher. New

Assessment by Student Lecturer, Lecturer

Dehli. India.

Attendance

and

Graduation

value. Media

Planning

Suharto,

P

and

Hafid

A. Implementation

Informatics. Department of Informatics, Faculty

Patterns 2007. Grameen Bank in Bangladesh

of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of

and

Indonesia.

Finance Indonesian Bankers Institute. Jakarta.

Kusumadewi, Sri. 2005. Search Attributes Weight-

Malaysia. Monetasi

Rural. Anthology

Sulistiyani, Esti. 2002. Rural Women's Empowerment

In Multiple Attribute Decision Making with

Resources

Toward

Objective Approach Using Genetic

Regional

Economic

Algorithm.Accessed on 17 April 2009

Bogor Agricultural University.

from http://cicie.file.wordpress.com/2008/06/sri

Capital

Development Thesis

Development, Second

Community

Kusumadewi, Sri., Hartati, S., Harjoko, A., and Ward, R.

Edition. PT. Bina Rena Prawara. Jakarta. Todaro, MP. 2009, Economic Development in the

(FUZZY MADM). Yogyakarta: Graha Science

Third

Publishers.

(Translation). Jakarta. PT. Erland.

Munasinge, M. 2003. The Economic's Approach to Sustainable Development. The

in

Sumodiningrat, G. 2007. Regional Development and

kusumadewi-jurnal-genetika.pdf 2007. Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Human

World, Sixth

Wibowo, Hary., Amalia,

International

Riska.,

Edition Fadlum,

Andi.,

Arivianty, Kurnia. 2009. The decision to Define

Bank for Reconstruction and Development /

Scholarship

The World Bank Washington DCUSA.

Department of Informatics, Faculty of Industrial

Raharjo, Jani. 2002. Application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process in Selection Employee, Industrial

Technology

Retra

Christian University.

FMADM. SNATI

Winoto, J. 2008. Study Materials Regional Economic Planning of Rural. Jakarta. World

Bank.

2001, Engendering

Development:

Though Gender Equality in Rights, Resources

Rasahan, CA and Mat Thanksgiving. Usaha Karya Mandiri 2007. New

Using

Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia

Department of Industrial Technology. Faculty of

BRI

Directions

in

Rural

Reaching the Poorest Group, Institute of

and Voice (World Bank Research Report) A Copublication of the World Bank and Oxford University Press.

Bankers Indonesia. Jakarta. Saefulhakim, S. 2000. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Factors Analysis (FA). Modeling of Land Resources Development Planning, Land Juruan. Bogor Agricultural Institute. Serangadin, I and Andrew Steer. 2003. Epilogue: Expanding

The

Capital

Stock. Making

159 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223  

COMPOSITE STOCK PRICE INDEX (IHSG) MACRO FACTOR IN INVESTMENT IN STOCK (EQUITY FUNDS) Andi Desfiandi, Abshor Marantika Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Lampung Province, Indonesia [email protected] ABSTRACT

1.

INTRODUCTION

Investors often find it difficult to valuate and

The movement of stock price index can be

purchase stocks with good performance that provide

influenced by several external factors, either from within

optimum yields. Inadequate information regarding how to

country or from foreign countries (Ilham, 2014). The

make good investments is one of the main reasons why

factors come from within country can be formed as

people lose interest to invest in capital market. The

macroeconomic factors such as, the change of exchange

purpose of this research is to find a stock performance

rate, level of interest rate, inflation, and gross domestic

measurement model by using accounting and financial

product (GDP). Whereas, the factors come from foreign

management system that is made by using the information

countries are either globally integrated capital market or

from stocks turnover ratio and risk level of stocks. This

the economic situation in a country. Exchange rate is one

performance measurement model can be an important tool

of macroeconomic variables which influences the stock

for investors to identify the stock performance factor.

price index. When IDR is depreciated against USD, the

Therefore, investors can valuate and purchase stocks with

price of imported goods is more expensive which affects

optimum performance and yields.

domestic companies that use imported goods as their

US Dollar (USD)/ Indonesian Rupiah (IDR) rate

production factors. The price level also has an impact on

has significantly negative influence on Indonesian

the movement of stock price because inflation reduces the

Composite Price Index (IHSG) movement since a

value of money. According to Tandelilin (2010), inflation,

depreciation of IDR discourages investors to invest in

relatively, is a negative signal for investors in capital

Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). Therefore, the investors

market. If the investors are discouraged to invest in a

divert their investments from stock market to foreign

company, it will decrease the stock price of that company.

exchange market to arbitrage. Straits Times Index (STI)

Regional stock price index in Asia which is used

has significantly positive influence on IHSG since

as a reference for investors to make investment in

Singapore and Indonesia share common investors that

IDX is STI. Singapore is one of the most developed

causes the movement of STI is followed by the movement

countries in Southeast Asia and located near

of IHSG.

Indonesia. Therefore, the economic situation in Singapore could affect the economic situation in

KEYWORDS: Performance, Mutual Funds, Risk Stock.

Indonesia.

  160 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   equity at present time purposely to gain profit 2.

LITERATURE REVIEW

from a difference in equity price or to gain

2.1 Random Walk Theory

dividends, as a reward from the time spent and

Random walk theory states that the

risk taken related to the investment, in the

change of a stock price (equity) or the whole

future. According to Tandelilin (2010:12), the

market which has been incurred cannot be used

decision process of investment consists of five

to predict the stock price movement in future.

decision levels that run until the best decision

The change of one stock price has no influence

for the investment is made.

on other stock prices and has similar probable 2.4 Mutual Funds

distribution (Mills, 1999). According to him, if the market is efficient, it means that the current

The first mutual fund in the world was

marketable security price cannot be reflected

Massachusetts Investors Trust, which was

from the price in the past. Therefore, he

established on 21 March 1924, had two

concludes that the marketable security price is

hundreds investors in the first year with total

random

assets worth of USD 392,000. In 1929, when the

or

disordered

(Sunariyah

book,

2011:186).

capital market crashed, the growth of mutual funds industry was slowed. Pozen (1998) states

2.2 Domino Theory (Contagion Effect Theory)

that “A mutual funds is an investment company

Indonesia, as one of the developing

that pools money from shareholders and invest

countries in Asia, still depends on the economic

in a diversified of securities.”

condition of foreign countries in terms of

Investing

investments. As a consequence, the condition of

in

developed

funds

attracts

and monitor the market condition continuously

foreign conditions, particularly the condition of market

mutual

investors because they do not have to analyze

capital market in Indonesia is influenced by

capital

through

and do not require huge capital to invest. The

countries

investment

(Wandobio, 2006). The Domino Effect is the

is

made

and

monitored

by

intermediary, that is, investment manager.

chain reaction which is happened when there is a change, either small or big, that causes a similar change nearby in which will cause another similar changes too. The Domino Effect can be used to describe the chain reaction for a certain activity.

3.

STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS H1 : Rate to Composite Stock Price Index (IHSG) H2 : Inflation to Composite Stock Price Index (IHSG) H3 : Dow Jones Index to Composite Stock Price Index (IHSG)

2.3 Investment Tandelilin

H4 : Straits Times Index to Composite Stock Price (2010:2)

states

that

Index (IHSG)

investment is a commitment of funds or other resources which is made at present time to obtain yield in the future. An investor purchases

  161 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   4.

RESEARCH METHOD

3) The effect of DJIA to IHSG model IHSG = β0 + β2DJIA + µ .......................................................... This linear model is used to answer the Hypotheses 3 which state that there is a positive correlation between DJIA movement and IHSG movement.

The purpose of data analysis is to classify the data based on variable and respondents, and to make data tabulation based on variable of all respondents, providing data of each controlled variables and making calculation to test the hypothesis.

4) The effect of STI to IHSG model IHSG = β0 + β2STI + µ ............................................................ This linear model is used to answer the

4.1 Data Collection The data which is used for this research

Hypotheses 4 which state that there is a

is secondary data since the author observes not

positive correlation between STI movement

directly from the investors but from IDX data

and IHSG movement.

and literature reviews that are related to this research. The data can be obtained from IDX, Bapepam-LK, and Bank of Indonesia websites.

The model used in this research uses estimation model which is applied to form multiple linear regression with ordinary least square (OLS) method.

4.2 Methodology Table 4.1 OLS (Ordinary Least Square) Estimated Result

In this research, there is one dependent variable and four independent variables. The independent variables or variables (X) are USD/ IDR rate, inflation, Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), and STI. The dependent variable or variable (Y) is Composite Stock Price Index (IHSG). Partial regression test model in this research as follows:

Source : Data Processed year 2015

1) The effect of exchange rate to IHSG model

From the result of estimated data by using OLS method from Table 4.1, the linear model as follow: IHSG = 43.06447 - 0.189684RATE 4076.530INFLATION + 0.041405DJIA + 0.876591STI

+ µ IHSG = α + β1R .............................................................. (4.2.1) This linear model is used to answer the Hypotheses 1 which state that there is a negative correlation between USD/ IDR rate and IHSG movement. 5. 2) The effect of inflation to IHSG model IHSG = β0 + β2I + µ ............................................................... (4.2.2) This linear model is used to answer the Hypotheses 2 which state that there is a negative correlation between inflation and IHSG movement.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Conclusion 1) The influence of USD/ IDR rate to IHSG movement Current depreciation of IDR towards USD shows that the prospect of economic in

Indonesia

will

be

gloomy.

  162 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

The

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   depreciation presents when Indonesia’s

3) The influence of Dow Jones Industrial

economic fundamental is weak. Therefore,

Average (DJIA) to IHSG movement

USD grows stronger and reduces the level

DJIA has no significant correlation to

of IHSG. When IDR depreciates, it

the IHSG movement. It shows that there is

increases the price of imported raw

no integration between American capital

materials. The increasing production costs

market and IDX during this research period.

will dissipate domestic companies’ profit.

It might be caused by several factors, such

The USD/ IDR rate has negative correlation

as, the economic recovery in Indonesia

and significant to IHSG Movement for -

which was faster compared to economic

0.189684. It means if USD/ IDR rate (in

recovery in America prior global financial

this case, IDR is depreciated) by 1, IHSG

crisis in 2008 (Report, BI). During 2010–

will declined for 0,189684 bps. The

2011, the economic condition in USA was

increase of USD/ IDR rate gives a negative

recovering. However, during 2012–2013

signal to the capital market, which leads the

the economic growth in USA still moved

investors to divert their investments from

slower than Indonesia. In 2014, the

equity market to foreign exchange market

economic condition in USA moved better

as it allows them to gain more return.

than before.

2) The influence of Inflation to IHSG movement This paper shows that inflation has no

4) The influence of STI to IHSG movement The Strait Times Index (STI) has positive and significant correlation to IHSG

significant correlation to IHSG Movement.

Movement

It means that inflation has no direct impact

0.876591. It means that if STI increases by

on investors’ decision to invest in equity or

1 bps, IHSG will increase by 0.876591 bps.

stocks in IDX. The investors have the

This result shows that Singapore and

tendency to wait for other signals, for

Indonesia

example, domestic interest rate and USD/

Therefore, a robust change in STI could be

IDR rate, simultaneously before they make

transmitted to IDX. The growing trend of

decision to invest in IDX. Moreover,

capital inflow from Singapore causes STI

inflation has no correlation to IHSG

movement influences IHSG movement.

with

share

coefficient

value

common

of

investors.

movement might because the inflation is still considered low (less than 10 percent per year). As long as the inflation growth

5) The influence USD / IDR rate, Inflation, DJIA, and STI IHSG movement

has not reached 10 percent or above, IHSG

The Depreciation of IDR tends to give

will continue to grow without being

pressure to IHSG movement. The growth of

affected by inflation.

exchange rate influences the expected inflation

in

society,

specifically

for

imported goods, and the pricing decision by

  163 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   domestic companies. The deprectiation of IDR towards USD and inflation can be considered

as

shocks

for

Indonesian

economy and influence the movement of IHSG in IDX. Simultaneosly, the USD/ IDR rate, inflation, DJIA, and STI affect IHSG movement for 16.52085. It shows that if there is an increase in USD/ IDR rate,

inflation,

DJIA,

and

STI

simultaneously by 1 bps, IHSG will increase by 0.876591 bps. 5.2 Recommendations 1.

The government of Indonesia should establish

more

cooperation

economic

with

other

investment countries,

specifically with USA, Singapore, and other developed countries, in order to boost capital inflows. 2.

Investors should be aware of the movement of USD/ IDR rate and STI movement that influence the performance of capital market in Indonesia. It is useful for investors to determine the ideal position, whether they should buy, sell, or hold their stocks. Moreover, investors should not be worried about the inflation level as inflation has no influence to the capital market, as long as the inflation growth is less than 10 percent per year. Investors should also not be worried by the movement of DJIA as long as the economic condition in USA is stable.

REFERENCES Hadi, Nor. 2013. Acuan Teoritis dan Praktis Investasi di Instrumen Keuangan Pasar Modal. Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta. Hamid, Abdul. 2009. Pasar Modal Syariah. Lembaga Penelitian UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta.

Husnan, Suad. 2009. Dasar-Dasar Teori Fortofolio dan Analisis Sekuritas. Edisi Ke-3. Penerbit AMP YKPN, Yogyakarta. Ilham, Andry. 2013. Analisis Pengaruh Variabel Makro Ekonomi Terhadap Indeks Harga Saham Sektoral Pada Bursa Efek Indonesia. UGM, Yogyakarta. Ishomuddin. 2010. Analisis Pengaruh variabel Makroekonomi Dalam dan Luar Negeri terhadap Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan (IHSG) di BEI periode 1999.1-2009.12 (Analisis Seleksi Model OLS-ARCH/GARCH). Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang. Jogiyanto. 2010. Teori Portfolio dan Analisis Investasi. Edisi Keenam BPFE, Yogyakarta. Martalena dan Maya Malinda. 2011. Pengantar Pasar Modal. Penerbit Andi, Yogyakarta. Nezky, Mita, 2013. Pengaruh Krisis Ekonomi Amerika Serikat terhadap Bursa Saham dan Perdagangan Indonesia. Buletin Ekonomi Moneter dan Perbankan (Bank Indonesia), Jakarta. Nopirin. 2011. Ekonomi Moneter. BPFE UGM, Yogyakarta:.Prayitno, Benedictus Budi. 2013. Pengaruh Indeks Bursa Saham Global, Harga Komoditas Dan Nilai Tukar Mata Uang Asing Terhadap Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan. Universitas Atma Jaya, Yogyakarta. Sidiq, Ahmad. 2010. Pengaruh Indeks Saham Sti, Taiex, Kospi, Hangseng Terhadap Pergerakan Indeks Saham Gabungan Pada BEI. STIE Atma Bhakti, Surakarta. Sunariyah. 2011. Pengantar Pengetahuan Pasar Modal. Edisi keenam. Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Manajemen YKPN, Yogyakarta. Sukirno, Sadono. 2012. Makro Ekonomi Teori Pengantar. Edisi ketiga. PT Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta. Sugiyono. 2009. Metode Penelitian Bisnis, Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R&D. Cetakan Kedua belas. CV Alfabeta, Bandung. Tandelilin, Eduardus. 2010. Analisis Investasi dan Manajemen Portofolio. BPFE UGM, Yogyakarta. Wijayanti, Anis. 2013. Pengaruh Beberapa Variabel Makroekonomi Dan Indeks Pasar Modal Dunia Terhadap Pergerakan Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan (IHSG) Di BEI. Universitas Brawijaya, Malang. Winarno, Wing Wahyu, 2011. Analisis Ekonometrika dan Statistik dengan Eviews, UPP STIM YKPN, Yogyakarta

  164 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223  

THE ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTIVE ASSETS QUALITY ON BANK HEALTH RATING OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN INDONESIA Angrita Denziana1, Haninun,Erwin Octavianto2 Bandar Lampung University Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

play a role in influencing the health of banks, according

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of

to Bank of Indonesia regulations, scoring system for

the quality level of the productive assets of the bank. In

determining the condition of a bank is stipulated by

daily

intermediation

Bank of Indonesia through the rule of Bank of Indonesia

institution that is as an institution that gathers and

No. 6/23/DPNP/Date May 31, 2004 which was renewed

distributes funds from surplus unit to deficit unit.

through the rule of Bank of Indonesia No. 13/24 /DPNP

Channeling funds into bank unit deficit is done through

Date October 25, 2011 on the Procedures for

a wide range of credit products offered both to credit

Assessment for Commercial Banks, where in the

used to personally or company. The owned credit bank

attachment of Bank Indonesia the determination of the

it’s assets productive or assets generate but not just

financial health of banks is seen in six aspects known as

credit as the only productive asset owned by the bank

analysis

there are other productive assets owned by the bank that

Management, Earnings Liquidity, Sensitivity to Market

the bank funds placement with other banks, securities

Risk).

activities

functioning

bank

of

CAMELS(Capital,

Asset

Quality,

owned, investment capital, acceptance speeches are

In day-to-day activities a bank functions as an

bills, bills and derivatives, as well as administrative

intermediary institution that raises and channel funds

account transactions.

from surplus units to deficit units. Distribution of funds to the bank of deficit units is done through a variety of

KEYWORDS: Productive Assets Quality, Bank Health

loan products offered forced it that is used both for

Level

personal or company. Credit owned by a bank is productive assets or assets that generate, but credit is not

1. Background

the only productive assets owned by banks. There are

The Case of Century Bank at the end of 2008is

other productive assets owned by banks: placement of

pretty much public attention in Indonesia. Until now the

funds in other banks, securities owned, equity, bill

case is still rolling. On 20 November 2008 Century

acceptances, derivative receivables, as well as balance

Bank as a merged bank was declared by Bank Indonesia

sheet transactions.

as a failed bank. It was based on data held by Bank Indonesia as of October 31, 2008 stating that the Capital

2. Literature Study and Hypotheses Development

Adequacy Ratio(CAR) of Century Bank was minus up

2.1 Theory of Productive Assets Quality

to 3.52%.

Siamat(2004: 135) argues that, the productive

In the case of Century Bank, bank’s health is

assets quality is a state of principal payment or principal

viewed from capital adequacy ratio, but whether these

installment and loan interest by the customer as well as

aspects can be considered sufficient to measure the

the level possibility of acceptance of the re-invested in

health of banks or are there other aspects that may also

securities or often called as the collectability. Kuncoro

165 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015    

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   and Suhardjono(2002) suggests that, the quality of

deposits, certificates of deposit, credit, and other

earning assets shows asset quality with respect to the

similar funds investment.

credit risk faced by the bank due to credit and

4. Equity is a bank investment in the form of shares in

investment funds in different portfolios in which each

banks and companies in other financial sectors as

bank fund investment in productive assets is quality

stipulated in the laws and regulations in force, such

assessed

as leasing companies, venture capital, securities

by

determining

whether

the

level

of

collectability runs smoothly, substandard, doubtful or

companies,

even loss.

settlement and storage, including investment in the

According to Bank of Indonesia regulation number:

14/15/PBI/2012,“productive

asset

is

insurance,

clearing

institutions

of

form of mandatory convertible bonds with stock

the

options(equity

options)or

certain

types

of

provision of funds from a bank to earn income in the

transactions that result in the bank has or will have

form of loans, securities, inter bank placements, bill

as take in the bank or finance company engaged in

acceptances, bills of securities that is repurchased under

other financial sectors.

agreements to resell (reverse re purchase agreements), derivative

receivables,

investments,

5. Acceptances are claims a rising as a result of

administrative

acceptances made to the futures draft.

accounts transactions and other forms of funding that

6. Derivative Claims are claims for the potential

can be equated with that." Siamat (2004: 134) suggest

benefit of an agreement/contract of derivative

that the productive assets is all the investment of funds

transactions(positive difference between the contract

in rupiah and foreign exchange intended to earn income

value and fair value of derivative transactions on the

in accordance with its function.

date of the report), including mark to market profit

According to Bank of Indonesia regulation number: 14/15/PBI/2012,the types of productive assets

potential of spot transactions that are still running. 7. Administrative

Accounts

Transactions

are

are:

commitments and contingencies include the issuance

1. Credit is the provision of cash or equivalent based

of guarantees, letters of credit, standby letters of

on agreements between bank lending and other

credit, undrawn credit facilities or commitments

parties who require the borrower to pay off debts

liabilities and other contingents.

after a certain period of time with interest, including:

8. Certificates of Bank of Indonesia, here in after

a. Overdraft, the negative balance on current

referred to as SBI, are securities denominated in

account customers which cannot be paid in full at

rupiah issued by Bank of Indonesia in recognition of

the end of the specified time.

short-term debt.

b. Expropriation bill in order for factoring activities

9. Government Securities are here in after referred to as SUN are securities in the form of debt instruments

and

denominated in rupiah and foreign currencies issued

c. Take over or credits purchase from other parties 2. Securities are debt instruments, notes, bonds, credit

and guaranteed in payment of interest and principal

securities, or any derivative thereof, or other

by the Republic of Indonesia according to the

interests or an obligation of the issuer, in the form of

validity period. In assessing the productive assets, referring to

commonly traded in the capital market and money market. 3. Placement is a bank investment in other banks in the form of demand deposits, interbank call money, time

the

Bank

of

Indonesia

regulation

number:

14/15/PBI/2012,namely: 1. Credit quality assessment is assigned based on the factors of business prospects rating, the debtor's

166 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015    

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   performance, and the ability to pay that is

collectability of productive assets in principle is based

determined to be:

on:

a. Current

1. To loans based on the accuracy of the repayment of

b. In special attention

principal and interest and the borrower's ability in

c. Substandard

terms of the relevant circumstances.

d. Doubtful

2. For other productive assets based on the level of

e. Loss

likelihood of returned receipt of funds invested in

2. Assessment of the quality of securities

other productive assets and income level.

3. Assessment of quality placement

Therefore,

in

terms

of

collectability

4. Bill assessment on securities purchased under

assessment, productive assets are classified of four

agreement to resell with the underlying asset such as

components, namely: current, substandard, doubtful,

SBI, SUN(government securities), and or other

and loss. This is done after the bank makes a judgment

placements

on collectability of productive assets in order to obtain

in

Bank

of

Indonesia

and

the

government set to have a current quality.

uniformity

5. Equity Assessment is assessed by:

in

reporting.

wijaya(2009:153)

a. Cost method:

According

assessment

of

the

to

Denda

quality

of

productive assets can be measured with the formula:

1) Current, if the investee makes a profit and is not on the cumulative loss based on the last

PPAPWD

fiscal year's financial statements audited. 2) Less

current,

if

the

investee

KAP = PPAPYD x 100%

suffered

cumulative losses of up to 25% (twenty five percent) of the capital of the investee based

2.2 Theory of Healthy Bank Rating There are some definitions of healthy bank

on last fiscal year's financial statements

suggested by experts. They are as follows:

audited.

1. According to Riyadi(2006) definition of healthy

3) Doubtful, if the investee had cumulative

bank is an assessment of a condition of banks

losses of more than 25% (twenty five

financial statements at the period of time specified in

percent) up to 50% (fifty percent) of the

accordance with the standards of Bank of Indonesia.

capital of the investee based on last fiscal

The decree Board of Directors on Bank of

year's financial statements audited.

Indonesia's dated 30 April 1997regarding the

experienced

procedure of health rating assessment of commercial

accumulative loss of more than50% (fifty

banks, enhanced with SK Board of Directors of

percent) of the capital of the investee based

Bank of Indonesia 30/277/KEP/DIR dated March

on last fiscal year's financial statements

19, 1998onchanges to the Decree of Board of

audited.

Directors of Bank of Indonesia no. 30/11/KEP/DIR

4) Loss,

if

the

investee

b. Quality of capital investment assessed under the

dated 30 April 1997 regarding the assessment

equity methodor is measured at fair value is

procedure of commercial bank health rating which

determined current.

includes factors of capital, management, earnings, productive asset quality and liquidity.

6. Assessment of quality of temporary capital Prasetia(2010)

stated

that

the

quality

productive asset of a bank is assessed based on its collectability.

Determination

of

the

level

2. According

to

Bank

of

Indonesia

Regulation

Number: 13/1/PBI/2011,the health of banks is the

of

167 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015    

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   result of the assessment on the condition of bank conducted to the risk and bank performance.

3. Forward trend/capital adequacy requirements projection

Bank health rating is the bank condition assessment result on various aspects affecting the condition or performance of a bank through the

4. Productive assets as classified are compared to bank capital 5. The ability of banks to maintain capital

assessment of capital, asset quality, management,

requirements

earnings, liquidity, and sensitivity to market risk in

earnings)

derived

from

profits(retained

accordance with the applicable bank in gregulations.

6. Plan of bank capital to support business growth

Assessment on bank health rating factors is conducted

7. Access to sources of capital

through quantitative and qualitative assessment after the

8. Share holders financial performance to increase

account of judgment based on the materiality and significance of assessment factors and the influence of

bank capital b. Asset quality

other factors. Quantitative assessment is an assessment

Assessment of this factor is done because the

of the position, development, and projection of financial

quality of assets is one of the most important aspects

ratios of banks.

that influence market interest income. Good asset

Element of judgment is based on materiality

management includes procedures of reliable credit

and significance of each component assessed while the

provision

qualitative assessment is an assessment of the factors

quantitative and qualitative approaches of asset

that support the results of the quantitative assessment,

quality factor is done through an assessment of the

implementation, risk management ,and compliance of

following components:

banks consisting of adherence to the Lending Limit, net

1. Assets as classified are compared to total earning

open position, and know your customer principle. October

25,

2011on

the

Procedures

credit

control.

Assessment

of

assets

Based on Bank of Indonesia Letter no. 13/24/DPNP dated

and

for

Assessment for Commercial Banks health rating, it can be explained that the factors of bank health rating includes six main factors called CAMELS, which

2. Debtor of credits core beyond related parties is compared with the total credit 3. Development of earning assets/non-performing assets compared to productive assets 4. The level of adequacy of allowance for uncollectible accounts(PPAP)

consist of:

5. Adequacy

a. Capital Assessment

of

capital

factor

is

done

of

policies

and

procedures

of

productive assets

considering that the adequacy of capital is in

6. The review system internally to productive assets

dispensable to the survival of the daily operations of

7. Documentation of productive assets

the bank where the capital is used as a buffer when it

8. Handling performance of earning assets

is in a loss. Assessment of quantitative and

c. Management

qualitative approaches to capital factors, among

Assessment of these factors is done to see the

others, is done through an assessment of the

role of directors and commissioners in establishing

following components:

risk management policies, over see implementation,

1. Adequacy

fulfillment

of

capital

adequacy

requirements (CAR) of the applicable provisions 2. Composition of capital

the quality of management information systems, internal control systems, short term strategy, medium and long, leadership issues including efforts to provide a cadre of leaders. Assessment of

168 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015    

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   management factors, among others, is done through an assessment of the following components: 1. General management

6. policy and liquidity management ( assets and liabilities management / ALMA ) 7. The ability of banks to gain access to the money

2. Implementation of a risk management system

markets, capital markets, or other sources of

3. Bank compliance with applicable provisions

funding

bank and commitment to Bank of Indonesia and or other parties d. Profitability(Earnings) Assessment of the earnings factor is carried out

8. Stability of third-party funds f. Sensitivity to market risk Assessment of quantitative and qualitative approaches to market risk sensitivity factors, among

to measure the ability of banks to set a price that is

others, is done through an assessment of the

able to cover the entire cost. Profit allows banks to

following components:

grow, in addition to a large profit generated, the

1. Capital or reserves are established to cover

quality and source of profit is also the object of

fluctuations in interest rates compared with

research. Income generated stable and tum

potential losses as a result of fluctuations

1. Return on asset (ROA)

(adverse movements) in interest rates;

2. Return on equity (ROE)

2. capital or reserves established to cover exchange

3. Net interest margin (NIM)

rate fluctuations compared to the potential losses

4. operational costs compared to operating income

as a result of fluctuations (adverse movements)

5. development of operating profit

of exchange rate; and

6. Composition of portfolio of productive assets and income diversification 7. The application of accounting principles in the recognition of income and expenses 8. Prospects of profit e. Liquidity Assessment of the liquidity factors is done

3. Adequacy of market risk management system implementation. According to Bank of Indonesia Regulation Number: 13/1/PBI/2011, banks health ranking is divided into 5 (five) assessment in accordance with the composite assessment, the final ranking results of the bank health rating which are as follows:

considering the bank assets is mostly not liquid with

1. a very healthy level of health is equivalent to

source of funds with shorter durations. Therefore,

composite rank 1 (PK-1) It reflects that the bank is

liquidity is used to measure the capability of the

in excellent condition and is able to overcome the

bank to meet its obligations especially short-term

negative effect of economic conditions and the

and long-term. Assessment of quantitative and

financial industry.

qualitative approach of liquidity factors, among

2. equivalent health level is equivalent to composite

others, is done through an assessment of the

rank 2 (PK-2) It reflects that the bank is in good

following components:

condition and able to overcome the negative effect

1. Liquid assets of less than one month is compared

of economic conditions and the financial industry,

with the liquid liabilities of less than one month 2. 1- month maturity mismatch ratio 3. Loan to deposit ratio (LDR)

but the bank still has weaknesses that can be addressed by routine actions. 3. a fairly healthy level of health is equivalent to

4. Cash flow projection in the next three months

composite rank 3 (PK-3) It reflects that the bank is

5. dependence on funds between banks and core

in fairly good condition but has weaknesses that can

depositors

169 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015    

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223   lead to deteriorated composite ratings if the bank does not take immediate corrective action.

b. Handling

of

problem

loans

intensively

and

effectively if the bank is having problems of asset

4. an unhealthy level of health is equivalent to

quality factors such as the increasing number of non-

composite rank 4 (PK-4) Banks are classified as less

performing loans that are expected to significantly

well and are very sensitive to the negative effect of

influence other factors.

economic conditions and the financial industry or

c. Improvement

of

internal

audit

function,

the banks have serious financial weakness or

improvement of separation of duties and the

combination of several unsatisfactory factors that if

effectiveness increase of corrective actions based on

there is no effective corrective action taken, it could

audit

potentially have difficulty endangering its survival.

management problem such as weak implementation

5. An unhealthy level of health is equivalent to the

findings

when

the

bank

experienced

of internal control.

composite rank 5 (PK-5) Banks are not well

d. Improvement of bank efficiency if the bank is

classified and very sensitive to the negative effect of

having problems of profitability, so that the

the economy and the financial industry as well as

profitability is decreasing and affecting other factors

experiencing difficulties.

significantly. e. Improvement of access to the money markets,

Table 1. Levels of Bank Health Rating

capital markets, or other sources of funding if the

Credit Value

Levels

bank is experienced liquidity problems such as

81 - 100

Healthy

declining adequate liquidity(liquidity shortage) that

66 < 81

Healthy Enough

51

7,994. If compared to ttable at a significant level

ttable = 1,667. Therefore, it can be concluded that

that is 0,05, so tcount = 7,994 > ttable = 1,667.

hypothesis that states there is an effect of

Therefore, it can be concluded that Ha is

Remuneration (X2) on Employee s Performance

accepted because there is an effect between

(Y) or Ha is accepted.

Education and Training Employee s

Performance

variable (X1) on short,

The regression equation between X2 and Y is

Education and Training variable (X1) affects

that Y = 10,705 + 0,588X2, which means that

Employee s

every increase one point to working motivation

Performance

(Y).

In

variable

Kinerja

Pegawai (Y).

will be followed by Employee s Performance variable as 0,588 point.

The regression equation between Education and Training

variable

(X1)

and

Employee s

3.

Calculation of Effects of Education and

Performance variable (Y) is Y = 5,607 +

Training (X1) and Remuneration (X2) on

0,789X1, which means that every increase as one

Employee s Performance (Y)

point to X1 will be followed by the increase of

The correlation between Education and Training

X1 as 0,789 point.

and Remuneration and Employee s Performance is as 0,749, it means that the three variables have

2.

Calculation of Effects of Remuneration (X2)

a tight and positive effect. In other words, the

on Employee s Performance (Y)

better Education and Training and Remuneration,

Based on the result of calculation of the

the higher Employee s Performance.

correlation level between variables using SPSS 22 program, it is obtained that the amount of

KD = R = 0,7492 = 0,561 = 0,561 x 100% is

correlation level between X2 and Y as 0,645. If it

56,1%. It can be concluded that the amount of

is consulted to the interpretation table of

the effect of Education and Training and

235 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Remuneration on Employee s Performance is as

proposed states that there is Education and

56,1%, and the rest is explained by another factor

Training

which is not examined in the research.. Based on

simultaneously affects Employee s Performance

t-test, it is obtained tcount for Education and

(Y), it is proved that Ha is accepted.

Training variable (X1) as 4,721 and Remuneration

variable

(X2)

as

(X1)

and

Remuneration

(X2)

tcount for 3,430.

If

5. Conclusion

compared to ttabel at the significant level as 1,667,

Based on the data analysis and discussion previously, it

so

can be concluded:

tcount is bigger than ttabel (tcount > ttabel).

Therefore, it can be concluded that Education

1.

There is an effect of Education and Training on

and Training and Remuneration affects the

Employee s Performance at SMK-SMTI Bandar

Employee s Performance.

Lampung,

Based on the above table, then it is obtained as

Determination Coefficient between Education and

follows:

Training and Employee s Performance is 48,4%.

Y = 3,564 + 0,546X1 + 0,319X2.

Hypothesis test using t-test (partial test) it is obtained

1. Every increase of the value on Education and

the value of tcount between Remuneration and

Training variable as one point, the value of

Employee s Performance as 7,994, and the result of

Employee s

tcount =7,994> ttable = 1,667. This result indicates that

Performance

variable

will

increase 0,546 point.

is

proved

by

the

amount

of

there is an effect of Education and Training on

2. Every increase of the value on Working

Employee s Performance at SMK-SMTI Bandar

Motivation as one point, the value of Employee s

it

Performance

variable

will

Lampung. 2.

increase 0,319 point.

There is an effect between Remuneration variable on Employee s Performance at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung,

it

is

proved

that the

amount of

Based on the above explanation, it can be

Determination Coefficient between Remuneration

concluded that the value of regression coefficient

(X2) and Employee s Performance (Y) is 41,6%.

X1 as 0,546 is bigger than regression coefficient

Hypothesis Test using t-test is obtained that the value

X2 as 0,319. It indicates that the effect of

of tcount between Remuneration and Employee s

Education and Training variable is higher and

Performance is 6,954 and tcount > ttable is 1,667. The

more dominant compared to Remuneration in

result

improving Employee s Performance at SMK-

Remuneration on Employee s Performance.

SMTI Bandar Lampung.

3.

indicates

that

there

is

an

effect

of

The result of simultaneous hypothesis test and working motivation toward Employee s Performance is proved by the calculation result of Fcount as 42,892

4. Simultaneous Hypothesis Test From ANOVA s test or F-test it is obtained F-

which bigger than Ftable as 3,130 at the significant

count is 42,892 with the significant level as 0,00.

level 5% with Dk = 70. So, Fcount is bigger than Ftable

Because the probability is much less than 0,05,

as 3,130. The amount of Determination Coefficient

education and training (X1) and remuneration

between X1 and X2 on Y is 56,1%. The result

(X2)

indicates that there is an effect of Education and

simultaneously

affect

Employee s

Performance (Y). Therefore, the hypothesis

236 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Training

and

Remuneration

on

Employee s

Performance at SMK-SMTI Bandar Lampung.

REFERENCES [1] Depdikbud, Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. (Jakarta, Balai Pustaka, 1992)

[2] Dharma, Surya, Manajemen Kinerja : Falsafah Teori dan Penerapannya. (Jakarta, Pustaka Pelajar, 2005)

3] Notoatmodjo, Soekidjo, Perkembangan Sumber Daya Manusia. (Jakarta, Rineka Cipta, 2003)

[4] Simamora, Henry. Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia (Yogyakarta, STIE YKPN, 1997)

237 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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COMPETITIVE BUSINESS INDONESIA M. Apun Syaripudin1 Lecturers The State Islamic Raden Intan Lampung Indonesia [email protected] a benchmark to assess the success of the company, for

ABSTRACT

example by using the Return on Investment (ROI), Return The purpose of this study was generally is to answer the

on Equity (ROE), and Economic Value Added (EVA). The

problem formulation grains, namely: 1) To analyze how

system mentioned above is able to give satisfactory

the Balanced Scorecard through financial and non-

results. But assessing the company's performance is not

financial perspectives (customer, internal business process

solely from the financial aspect alone. Good financial

and learning and growth) is used to assess the performance

performance is now created for the long-term interests of

of the Human Resources companies as part of the

the

company's business strategy; 2) To analyze how the

performance has drawbacks, namely the inability to

influence

measure the performance of intangible assets (intangible

of

Non-Financial

perspectives

(customer,

company.

measuring

financial

assets)

the performance of the company's corporate Human

resources)companies.Measurement

Resources. From the perspective of learning and growth of

financial performance can not describe the condition of the

compensation indicator indicates that the compensation

company and does not reflect to lead the company towards

received by employees in the form of salaries and

the better. In anticipation of such limitations that are

allowances and a maximum deemed not to be scaled back

above, Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton proposed

so that employees can be more motivated to work.

Balanced Scorecard concept to develop a benchmark of

Meanwhile,

employability

financial and non-financial. The advantages of the

(competency) of employees as well as the involvement and

Balanced Scorecard is the approach that seeks to translate

active participation of employees and career development

the mission and strategy into operational objectives. With

within the company has been considered relatively.

the Balanced Scorecard, business unit performance

of

skills

and

intellectual

the

internal business process and learning and growth) affect

indicators

and

Besides

treasures of

the

(human company's

measurement is not only expressed in financial measures KEY WORDS: Business Performance, Competition And

but towards further elaborated into measures to encourage

Balance Scorecard

business units to create value for the company that is now and in the future. In addition to improving internal

1. Background

capabilities such as the effectiveness of investment in

The development environment of the industrial age to the

human resources, systems and procedures are needed to

information age has changed the outlook on the success of

obtain better performance in the future.

a company. To increase the success of their business, enterprise performance measurement based on the

Thus it can be said that the concept of the Balanced

fulfillment of customer satisfaction. However, in practice

Scorecard

the current financial information has strong dominance as

performance of companies from the aspect of its human

approach-can

be

used

to

measure

238 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

the

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

resources as one of the company's assets. At this

From the description above, it can be formulated grain

globalization era where every company is required to be

existing problems in this research:

able to take quick decisions and precise in order to compete

with

other

companies,

especially

1.

How Balanced Scorecard through financial and

foreign

non-financial perspectives (customer, internal

companies that already have the latest methods definitely

business process and learning and growth) is used

better than traditional methods. Aspect which has been

to assess the company's business performance?

used only a financial perspective. Other third perspective

2.

How does the influence of Non-Financial

is not used because the company had not yet realized that

perspective

affect

the

the three perspectives also have an impact on the

performance company?

company's

business

performance and accuracy are also implications for the company's existence in the long term so that it will make

2. Theoretical Basis

the results of performance measurement for the better.

A. Human Resource Management in Companies

Especially in this case, the company's overall performance

According to Milkovich and Boudreau (1997) Human

is very important to be evaluated to be able to be seen any

Resources Management is an integrated series of decisions

weakness in its management in order to be considered for

that shape the employment relationship in which their

future corrective measures. Especially in terms of the

quality directly contributes to the organization and its

company's HR performance measurement are very rarely

employees to achieve their goals. While Werther and

used by Balanced Scorecard approach to it in the

Davis (1996) says that the purpose of the Human Resource

discussion of this research Balance Scorecard concept will

Management is to increase the productivity of the

be focused on three other aspects linked to the company's

employees of the organization in terms of strategic, ethical

HR management strategy which includes the financial

and social responsibility. Of the opinions above, the writer

aspects,

can draw a conclusion that Human Resource Management

internal

business

and

customers.

is to generate contributions from employees of the B. Problem Formulation

company or organization where she worked.

According to Kaplan and Norton (2001) said that the concept of the Balanced Scorecard approach used in

Human Resources Management can vary from one

perspective 4 1 3 financial perspective and non-financial

organization to another organization, but in general they

perspective in measuring the performance of companies,

have a similarity in the process of Human Resources

including assessing the performance of one of the

Management. According to Milkovich and Boudreau

company's assets, namely human resources in the

(1997) activities in Human Resources Management is as

company. Therefore in this study although the discussion

follows:

will explore all four perspectives in the Balanced

Staffing. These activities include the recruitment and

Scorecard, but will be more emphasis or focus on the

selection of employees.

discussion of the performance appraisal of human

Development. These activities include an increase in

resources in the companies reviewed by non-financial

employee skills.

perspective.

Compensation. This activity is payment to employees in the form of salary, bonuses, incentives and others.

239 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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Employee / Union Relations. This activity aims to

3.

Internal Business Process Perspective: what

establish a good relationship between employees and

processes should be favored to achieve the

management.

company's success? 4.

Learning and Growth perspective: how are we

B. Measuring Business Performance in the Information

going to sustain the ability to change and

Age

improvement?

During the industrial era success is determined by how

E. Consep Mindset

well companies exploit the benefits of scale and scope of

With underlies the development of increasingly rapid

economic (economies of scale and scope). In the industrial

globalization

era of the financial control system was developed to

competition, requires every company must prepare its

facilitate and monitor the allocation of financial and

performance with optimal in order to win the competition,

physical capital efficiently. With gauges of financial,

or at least able to survive in this competitive era .

internal capital companies may be directed to use the most

As disclosed by Vincent Gasperz (2005) under the concept

effective and efficient use of financial and physical capital

of the Balanced Scorecard as one instrument more often

by the various operating divisions can be monitored in

used today to assess the performance of a company

order to create additional value for shareholders.

comprehensively visits of 4 (four) perspectives that are

era

with

an

increasingly

globalized

tailored to the vision and mission and strategy of the C. Balance Scorecard

company, respectively financial perspective, customer

Balance Scorecard broaden perspectives covered in the

perspective and internal business process perspective and

strategic planning, of which previously confined to the

learning and growth perspective. Briefly, the concept of

financial

other

frame of mind in this research is to look at the Balanced

perspectives: Customer, Business Process / Internal, and

Scorecard concept as a Performance Management System,

Learning and Growth. Expansion perspective strategic

but due to limitations of existing problems, then

plan to non-financial perspective resulted in the following

performance will be focused only on Human Resources in

benefits:

the company's performance.

perspective,

expanded

to

three

a. Promising financial performance and long-term doubled b. Enable the company to enter the complex business

3. Research Methodology

environment

A. Methods

According to Kaplan and Norron (1992) in Vincent (2005)

Library Research and Field Research

argued that in the measurement of organizational performance through the Balanced Scorecard approach can

B. Population and Sample

be done through four perspectives, include:

The number of population in the PT Suryaikady Jaya

1.

2.

The Financial Perspective: how do we satisfy

Mandiri employees as many as 1,125 employees were

shareholders?

then sampled as respondents using sampling formula

Customer Perspective: how do we satisfy the

proposed by Slovin.

customer?

n = N_ = 1,125

240 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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n

= 1+ ne

2

N

_

=

1.125

2

= 295,08

1 + 1.125 (0,05)

Financial Perspective In the financial perspective, balance scorecard enables executives to establish the size that evaluate the long-term

The calculation above, obtained sample was of

success of the companies in this study are SuryaikadyJaya

295 employees. Of the 295 samples of employees

MandiriPT and various variables that are considered most

are then distributed by simple random sampling.

important to create and encourage the achievement of long term goals. Various themes used financial objectives so as

C. Data Analysis Techniques

to enable the achievement of the linkages among the four

The analysis technique used is using the Balanced

balanced scorecard perspectives is increased revenue, cost

Scorecard approach, which focuses on aspects of

savings

Human Resources that the Learning and Growth

utilization and risk reduction.

and

increased

productivity,

increase

asset

perspective, but it also discusses other perspectives, although not too deep.

In this discussion, used the assumption that the company has implemented a Balanced Scorecard well. So the results

The three (3) important aspects of learning and growth

of the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard is

perspective by Vincent Gasperz (2002) are:

expected to give some indication of the importance,

1.

Competence Employees

among others:

2.

Infrastructure Technology

- The revenue increases

3.

Company Culture

- Assets and equity increased - Financial ratio improved

4. Analysis Of Results And Discussion A.

Balance

Scorecard

In

Measuring

Business

Analysis of Revenue Growth

Performance Company from the Perspective of

In analyzing the financial perspective, the first benchmark

Financial and Non-Financial

is the revenue generated. So as to know how the company's ability to earn income begins with:

Balance Scorecard method emphasizes that all financial

- Analysis of the level of sales, because success in

and non-financial measures should be part of the

achieving increased revenue depends heavily on the

information system for workers at all levels of the

success of generating revenue. From the analysis of sales

company. Process management is built around the

is expected to be known causes of the rise and fall of

Balanced Scorecard is the basis for good corporate

income, whether due to internal factors such as the

governance in today's information age.

inability of the company to enter the market or because

However, in the discussion of the object of analysis more

the market was not conducive.

stress to the analysis of non-financial perspective refers to the performance of human resources, namely learning and

Analysis of the costs, such as cost of sales, cost of sales

growth perspective. The following description of each

and general administrative costs. Because although the

perspective in the method of Balance Scorecard on

greater sales generated but will not give any influence if

performance Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri PT.

the company can not control or reduce the cost incurred to get the sale. As we all know is the difference between

241 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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sales revenues with costs, ie, the greater the difference, the

For operating profit / sales: 7% obtained realization of 7%

greater the revenue to be received.

For net income / sales: 3% obtained the realization of 4% For operating income / equity: 13% obtained the

Reason determination that all income should give a

realization of 12%

positive result increases and the entire load must give a

For net profit / equity: 6% obtained realization by 7%

negative result is merepresetansikan purpose companies

For net profit / assets: 0.04% 0.06% obtained realization

that want to achieve shareholder wealth maximization. With this concept, a public company that has been selling

In the Year 2013

shares on the stock exchange, must pay attention to the

For gross profit / sales: 16% obtained by the realization of

value of the company's shares, while the value of the

17%

company's shares slag to rely on the company's

For operating profit / sales: 9% obtained the realization of

performance. Where good performance can be achieved if

8%

the

For net income / sales: 6% earned by 7% realization

above

factors

can

be

achieved.

From the application of the Balanced Scorecard obtained

For operating income / equity: 16% obtained the

on the financial perspective Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri, then

realization by 14%

it can be reinforced with the following data:

For net profit / equity: 9% obtained the realization of 8% For net profit / assets: 7% obtained realization of 7%

Broadly speaking, from a financial perspective can be

Table Assessment Financial Perspective (In percentage)

obtained

a

description

that

financial

performance

Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri in the period 2012 and 2013 had

Plans

Realization

Plans

Realization

2012

2012

2013

2013

Gross Profit/ Sales

13

14

16

17

Gross Profit/ Sales

7

7

9

8

Net Income/ Sales

3

4

6

7

Gross Profit/ Equity

13

12

16

14

and

Net Income/ Equity

6

7

9

8

Performance

Net Income/ Total

4

6

7

7

As a measurement system, the Balanced Scorecard is

0,04

0,07

0,1

0,9

OPERATING

improved.

B. Analysis of How Non-Financial Perspective (Growth Learning)

Can

Improve

Company

Assets ROI

applied in order to provide motivation to all employees to implement corporate strategy well. Companies that

Source: Financial Statements

can translate the strategy into a measurement system From the results of the assessment of company

will have ease in carrying out its strategy. This is due

performance through the Financial Perspective can be seen

to the company has communicated the goals and

that through the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard

targets to its employees. So their focus to triggers vital

can be seen from the planning side of the business ratios:

performance

and

allow

companies

to

balance

investments initiatives and actions in line with the achievement of strategic objectives.

In the Year 2012 For gross profit / sales: 13% obtained by the realization of

So

that

there

are

linkages

between

performance

14%

measurement system with a strategy that has established

242 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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the company as expected, the following principles should

This process then by questioning whether the internal

be used as guidelines in designing the measurement of the

processes that must be controlled companies in order to

Balanced Scorecard.

produce a special performance of the delivery of goods on

a. Performance Effects

time. To achieve this goal, the company may need to

That the performance of an activity is the result of

pursue the achievement of short cycle times in various

the previous activity and performance as motivation

operating processes and high quality internal processes,

for the next activity.

factors that can be the size of the Scorecard in an internal

b. Performance Triggers

perspective. By train and improve the skills of workers

Used benchmarks that can assess the results to be

operating a goal that can see how the whole chain of

achieved along with the driver of performance in

causal a can be created as a vertical vector through four

accordance with the strategies that run the company.

perspective Balanced Scorecard.

c. Financial Relations

Before discussing in more distantly connected with the

Benchmark performance in the Balanced Scorecard

Learning and Growth perspective of the Balanced

must be connected with the company's financial

Scorecard method in PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri, it will

objectives for the estuary of all the strategies that run

be discussed first link between assessment performance

the company is none other than to improve the

through growth and learning with the vision and mission

welfare of owners as stipulated in the financial

of PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri.

objectives. Thus the analysis of the specific non-

In achieving the vision of a predetermined clear that the

financial perspective of human resources through

management of PT Jaya MandiriSuryaikady required to

learning and growth should still be connected also

continuously improve performance possessed by each item

with the financial perspective. It is closely linked

defined missions that defined vision can be achieved.

with the use of the budget in the process of growth

Balanced

and learning in corporate HR.

companies do to achieve what the wishes of the

scorecard

shows

every

employee

what

shareholders and consumers for that purpose is required by The strategy is a set of hypotheses regarding the causal

the good performance of employees.To that end, a

relationship. Measurement system should make the

balanced scorecard showing a comprehensive strategy that

relationships that exist in various companies so that it can

consists of three activities

be managed. The chain of causation must include four

- Comunicating and educating

perspectives Balanced Scorecard. Factors driving this size

- Setting Goals

can be repeated purchases and sales to customers wider

- Linking Rewards to Performance Measures

than they are today, as a result that occurs because of the high loyalty of the customers. Customer loyalty is

Balanced scorecard

therefore included in the Balanced Scorecard. Work done

Through the Balanced Scorecard management of PT

by the company to improve the timeliness of delivery of

Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri can perform strategic action

goods is expected to increase the company's performance

towards achieving the company's vision through the

higher than before. Thus, customer loyalty and timely

implementation of the mission of each item. With the

delivery of goods incorporated into the customer's

improvement of employee performance as a corporate

perspective Balanced Scorecard.

human resources would be able to improve production

243 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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processes impact on the failure rate of production and

Customer retention is supported by adequate product

improving the quality of products that affect the cost

quality and delivery ofproducts that are always cultivated

efficiency and timeliness of delivery of orders from

on time. The entire costs incurred by variables

customers that will be achieved in customer satisfaction.

Nonfinancial include aspects of Growth and Learning,

Thus it can be said to be learning and growth perspective

Customer, Internal Business Processes directly affect the

becomes very important in this regard. Balance Scorecad

income of the company so that ROI ratios and other

should be able to explain the business unit's strategy well.

companies, too affected. Supposedly Nonfinancial factors

Balance Scorecard should be able to identify the stages of

can minimize losses than expected, but the dependence on

the states with explicit hypotheses about the causal

imported raw materials purchases using the US dollar and

relationship between the various outcome measures and

foreign currency debt structure is quite dominant cause

the driving factor. Each size is chosen to be included in the

Nonfinancial factors are not effectively saved the company

Balanced Scorecard should be an element in a chain of

from losses.

causality that communicates the meaning of the strategy to all managers and employees see the facts on the company

From the foregoing description it can be seen that

studied, it can be stated that the variables Nonfinancial of

Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri PT in the number of its human

the company PT Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri activities

resources by recruiting back and relocate and train new

include learning and growth process which illustrates that

employees, especially in the production and production

the company did a lot of hiring new employees where in

support such as the master and crew substitute for several

2012 the number of employees at the management level as

subsidiaries. Qualification experience and skills in the

many as 121 employees increased to 183 employees. In

production process of processed foods from the basic

addition, the employees in the operator increase of the

material is emphasized marine products company. Despite

number of 1,100 employees in 2012 to 1,150 employees in

all the efforts to achieve a high level of efficiency has

2013. Therefore the impact on the increase in salary and

begun to show results but Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri PT

benefits, it also shows the company is pursuing a strategy

remains realistic that the operational efficiency still feels

of expansion given the magnitude of the market share of

rudimentary until conflict in internal company subside and

processed food exports marine materials.

labor composition bias back to normal.

Operationally, the burden of the cost of products

However can be expressed indirectly the company make

decreased, due to the high quality of human resources also

efforts in line with the concept of efficiency Balanced

affects the percentage reduction in product damage and

Scorecard as assumed by the authors, although not as

decreasing levels of damaged goods. It is inevitable that

expected. Analysis Indicators that exist in the Learning

the cost of quality testing will determine the quality of

and Growth Perspective To Improve Performance

internal processes, but from year to year costs for

Corporate Human Resources at PT Suryaikady Jaya

promotion, advertisement, communication senantiasas

Mandiri in line with the statement of Vincent (2005) can

cultivated decreased. It contributes customer retention as

be seen in the following description:

well as the high samakin exported products in 2012 and

1. Effective Compensation

2013.

In line with the answers of 295 respondents were asked relating to the compensation system in the company

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include the salaries and allowances can be concluded

the strong economy of the world is uncertain at this

that there is an increase in the amount of salaries and

time.

benefits paid to employees. But nevertheless need

employees in the company

Participation

and

active

involvement

of

clarity of the opinion of the employees relating to compensation in the company. From the results of

From the results of respondents' answers with regard

respondents' answers indicate that the majority of

to indicators of participation and active involvement

employees as the respondents have the perception that

of employees in the company showed that the

the compensation received by employees in the form of

majority of respondents from the 295 employees who

salaries and allowances and a maximum deemed not to

work in production shows that when compared to

be scaled back so that employees can be more

2012, then in 2013 there was an increase in the

motivated to work. From result of respondents still

company's efforts to further involve the participation

found indications that the compensation they received

of employees actively in the company. As many as

was deemed less where 40% of respondents answered

40% of employees responded that they have been

less and 60% answered sufficiently. It needs to be a

involved with sufficient by the management company

major concern for company management to continue to

at work. While as many as 25.5% of employees said

improve the system of compensation which has been

they lack the involvement and active participation of

executed at this time in order to have an impact on

employees in the company. So that any changes in

increasing employee motivation, which in turn will

policy or standard of work in the company is not too

have an impact on improving the performance of

they understand. While the remaining 34.5% of

human resources in the company as a whole due to the

respondents answered relatively good. In another

creation of job satisfaction on the employee PT

sense that generally employees as respondents gave a

Suryaikady JayaMandiri independent, in particular the

statement that indeed there is an increased effort and

production employees.Employee motivation in the

involvement and participation of employees in the

work would need to be maintained so that the level of

company in 2013 when compared to 2012. With

employee satisfaction in work well-preserved. Thus it

paritisipasi employee involvement and actively in the

can be said that through the provision of a good

company would assist management in delegating any

compensation and meet the expectations of employees

authority of the work so that the implementation can

include salaries and employee benefits can certainly

work feels lighter without reducing oversight led to

improve the performance of employees in the work. If

his subordinates. With these results in general will

visits to the scope of work Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri PT

have an impact on improving the performance of

turns in 2013 and although there is an increasing

Human Resources in the company.

amount of salary and benefits that simply because an increasing

number

of

employees

are

working.

Employee Skills (HR competencies)

However, if observed in detail the company does not

Especially for employees' skills, periodically the PT

give rise to significant salary and benefits. It is not

Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri continues to increase the

independent of the company's financial condition is

frequency of training for its employees. Particularly for

also not fully recovered as a result of the economic

production employees, relating to the adaptation of the

crisis and prolonged monetary situation coupled with

use of advanced technology based tools required high

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capacity and skills to use these tools. So far indeed

The effectiveness of human resources through career

employees feel their skills and employability needs to

management though difficult to do, but it is very important

be developed at any time given the ever-growing

to be implemented. Career management is essential to

demands

time.

improve and develop employees in particular and the

From the results of 295 respondents' answers also show

company in general. Although there are still many

that the efforts provided by the PT Suryaikady Jaya

traditional working relationship, the implementation of a

Mandiri was considered sufficient where as much as

career

55% of respondents answered enough that the

effectiveness of employees. In addition, the relationship

company's management efforts to improve the skills

between employees, managerial, and organizational

and abilities of employees are always carried out to

support the success of career management. Career

meet the challenges of competition is so competitive

development within the company is very closely related to

that is required to has the human resources that have a

policy management. Career development program in the

high work competence. While as many as 30% of

company PT Jaya MandiriSuryaikady consists of several

respondents answered either and only 15% of

elements or systems, when it has been able to identify the

respondents who answered less. In general, it is known

function of each element of the relationship between these

that every year the management of PT Suryaikady Jaya

elements can be imaged more clearly and can walk with

Mandiri always improve skills and employability of its

nature. The elements of the career development program

employees as management realizes that the employees

are:

as one of the company's assets, namely human

1. Program Orientation:

of

the

job

at

any

management

program

will

improve

the

resources (HR) must continue to be improved to be

This program is intended for employees who are newly

able to answer the challenge of work that continues to

recruited by the company or companies. The objective

increase every year , With the improvement of skills

of this program is to give an overview about the

and employability (competency SDM) is good and

philosophy and objectives of the company, gave an

increasing it will improve the performance of

overview of how the structure of the workforce earned

companies in general. This is in line with the Balanced

set by the company, and introduces the possibility of a

Scorecard

career path that is run by employees.

assessment

of

learning

and

growth

perspective in which employees in the company will

This orientation program is expected to broaden new

continue to grow and expand and continue to be

employees so as to realize the career development

studied to improve its ability to meet the challenges of

opportunities that exist in the company, to understand

increasing work requirements at any time.

how the objectives of the company, corporate culture and performance of individuals into penitng factor in

Career Development Employees in Company Related to human resource development program

developing a career. 2. Assessment System Works:

(SDM) certainly can not be denied that one of the

Work appraisal system aims to pour all the

factors that motivate employees to work in addition to

opportunities in the company into a procedure and

a good compensation would open broad opportunities

performance demands for each job. Assessment system

for every employee to develop his career.

can work if the system is running ekfektif able to describe the expected performance company for a job

246 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

are clearly good for the employees as the holder of the

training is the provision of knowledge, discussion,

job as well as other parties concerned, the system was

and application.

able to provide an assessment of the performance

c. Giving Assignment, usually given to employees who

generated an incumbent compared to what expected the

have undergone training with the aim of improving

company. The system was able to provide feedback to

the

the various efforts undertaken an incumbent in the

opportunity to recognize the complexity of a task

realization of the expected performance, and ultimately

completion.

the assessment system works can recommend a variety of

actions

necessary

by

providing

an

5. Succession Planning:

potential.

to the employees to a higher job responsibilities and

Implementation of the scoring system works requires

authority, even to some of those promotions come too

time and participation of all line managers, but the

fast and occur more frequently than others.

system is very important for the career development

For those who occupy strategic positions should be

program.

prepared from the beginning, because they must have

development

the

employees

Many companies are found career success is promotion

and

improve

of

current

performance

to

ability

3. Career Path Patterns:

the ability and skills to handle changes in the future.

Pattern career path aims to provide a clear picture of

The ability and the skills can only be prepared if the

the sequence of work that must be passed employees to

company doing succession planning. Activities and

achieve a certain position. Clarity of the pattern of

what system is used in succession planning depends on

career paths within the company is very influential on

the size and type of companies that do. Basically the

the success of the career development program for

expected results of the process of succession planning

directing the development pattern of employee career

is the anticipation of the needs of managerial personnel

paths and become the basis of career planning is made

and efforts to develop highly skilled employees.

every employee. 4. Professional Development (Skills):

From the results of answers 295 employees were included

To carry out individual development plans, employees

as survey respondents indicate that each of as many as

need assistance and professional development system

60% of employees said enough and 30% of employees

which consists of the provision of information, training

responded that career development within the company

and assignment.

has been carried out properly. As for the remaining 10% of

a. Provision of information, aimed at informing

employees answer is still lacking. Thus it can be said that

employees about a new knowledge and shows the

in general the career development of employees in the

relationship between the knowledge that the

company

performance of the work and performance of the

relatively sufficient and good. It can make a good effort in

company

growthemployee motivation in the work well. Will thus

b. Pemberintraining, is something that is deeper when compared with the provision of information. The

PT

Jaya MandiriSuryaikady

felt already

influenced the improvement of employee performance as the Human Resources in the company.

training aims to integrate the development of the knowledge and ability to perform the application of such knowledge. Usually the techniques used in the

247 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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5. Conclusion

the cost of quality testing will determine the quality of

Balance Scorecard provides a comprehensive framework

Internal Business Processes.

to translate vision and strategy into a comprehensive set of integrated performance measures, which are arranged into

Customer retention is supported by adequate product

four perspectives of financial, customer, internal business

quality and delivery of products that are always cultivated

process and learning and growth.

on time, it can be seen in the decline in the cost to delay penalties.

Financial perspective to see how the financial performance achieved by the company. Perspective customers see how

Can be implied that the company PT Suryaikady Jaya

the company's efforts in seeking and retaining targeted

Mandiri make efforts efficiency in line with the concept of

customers.

the Balanced Scorecard as assumed by the authors,

Based

on

the

data

obtained,

as

the

implementation of business retain customers, sales from

although not as expected.

repeat customers of all sales (export and domestic sales). Internal business perspective to see how the process of

From the perspective of learning and growth of

innovation, operation and after-sales service.For the

compensation indicator indicates that the compensation

production activities of production failure an average of

received by employees in the form of salaries and

3% each year from 2012 and 2013. While the learning and

allowances and a maximum deemed not to be scaled back

growth perspective seeing how labor productivity and

so that employees can be more motivated to work.

satisfaction improve company performance.

Meanwhile,

indicators

of

skills

and

employability

(competency) of employees as well as the involvement and In the operating companies face a variety of risks that

active participation of employees and career development

affect performance include: government policy, business

within the company has been considered relatively.

climate, market production, raw materials, changes in currency exchange rates.

6. Suggestions Necessary to improve on the achievements that have been

Based on the facts in the studied company described in the

achieved so far by the company, especially in the

analysis and discussion, it can be stated that the variables

performance of non keuangna perspective of growth and

Nonfinancial of the company that includes the learning

learning are closely linked to the performance of HR

and growth process by looking at several indicators

companies.

include effective compensation, employee involvement and active participation in company, increase employee

Improved

performance,

including

non-financial

job skills (competencies), as well as the career

perspective learning growth and create more loyal

development of employees in the company. Meanwhile,

consumers, production costs will be lower and productive

from the perspective of Internal Business company, it can

employees as a factor that could affect the company's

be seen that operationally expenses decreased product, it is

performance improvement can generally be used optimally

influenced by the high quality of human resources that

in order to elevate company in generating financial

influence the percentage reduction in product damage and

performance.

decreasing levels of damaged goods. It is inevitable that

248 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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The need for further research on the Balanced Scorecard as a management system, as a means to help interpret and implement the strategy at the corporate level or enterprise. References [1].

Ahmad Fauzi&Saleh, MohdYasin. 2004. Human Resource Management for the Company. Jakarta: King GrafindoPersada. [2]. C. Merle Johnson. William K. Redmon. Thomas C. Mawhinney. 2004. Analysis Behavior & Management (translation). Jakarta: RajaGrafindoPersada [3]. Garry Dessler, 1991 Personnel / Human Resources Management, Prentice Hall International Editions [4]. Gaspersz, Vincent 2005. Integrated Performance Management System Balance Score Card With Six Sigma, Scholastic Press, Jakarta [5]. Henry Maintzberg and James Brian Quinn, 1992. The Strategy Process, Prentice Hall International Edition [6]. Robert S Kaplan and David P Norton.1996 The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy Into Action, Boston: Harvard Business School Press [7]. Mulyadi 2007. Integrated Systems Based Personnel Performance Management Balanced Scorecard, UPP STIM YKPN, Yogyakarta [8]. Oswald D Bowlin, John D martin David F Scott, 1990. Guide to Financial Analysis McGraw Hill Publishing Company, Second Edition [9]. Pareek, U. 1984. Organizational Behavior (translation). Jakarta: L.P.P.M. PearceII, JohnAandRoinson Richard B JR 1996. Strategic Management Published by Richard D Irvin Inc. [10]. Philip Kotler, 2000. Marketing Mangement, Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control. Prentice Hall International Editions, 8th Edition

[11]. Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong, 1994.Principles of Marketing, Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall [12]. Rachmat, Jalaluddin. 1985. Psychology of Communication. Bandung: Youth Work. [13]. Siagian, Sondra P, 1995 Analysis and Policy and Strategy Formulation Organization, TokoGunungAgung, Jakarta [14]. Siagian, Sondra P, 1997. Human Resource Management, Earth Literacy, Jakarta [15]. Simamora, Henry, 1995. Human Resource Management Edition 1, Matter to-1, College of Economics YKPN, Yogyakarta [16]. Sudarwo, H IndriyoGito. 2000 Production Planning and Control Systems Second Edition, BPFE Yogyakarta [17]. Sugiarto, 2001. Sampling Techniques, PT GramediaPustakaUtama, Jakarta [18]. Umar, H. 2003. Research Human Resources in Organizations. Jakarta: GramediaPustakaUtama [19]. Ward, Keith. 1992. Strategic Management. Published by Heinemann Ltd. Butter Worth Jordan Hill Oxford [20]. Financial Statements Suryaikady Jaya Mandiri PT 2012 and 20011

249 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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AN ANALYSIS OF SECURITY AND SERVICE QUALITY TOWARD PURCHASE DECISION ON E-COMMERCE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS OF CONSUMER LOYALTY Ardiansyah1 Master of Management, Informatics & Business Institute Darmajaya [email protected]

largest number of Internet usersin the world. But the

ABSTRACT

majority of the total number of Internet users in Indonesia In the marketing world, especially through internet

who are using the facility to send and receive electronic

marketing or what is known as e-commerce, an e-marketer

mail and who are interested in doing online transactions

cannot ignore the role of the online shop as a medium for

and purchases are only about 6% , that is, 5.0220.000 of

their

marketing

total Internet users there. This was due to the absence of

activities via e-commerce is currently being favorable by

security guarantees from the government of Indonesia in

the people in Indonesia. However transaction through e-

the activities of buying and selling via the Internet or e-

commerce has the fairly high riskpotential. Therefore the

commerce for businesses and internet users. Things

factor of security and service quality become a benchmark

whichare

on purchasing decisions through e-commerce. The purpose

transactions through e-commerce are the lack ofpayment

of this study is to analyzewhether security factordirectly

guarantee through money transfer system and the

influences purchasing decisions through e-commerce,

confidentiality

service quality factor directly influences purchasing

information (Security).

marketing

communications,

where

considered

by

guarantee

consumer

of

data

in

and

conducting

consumer

decisions through e-commerce, security and service quality factor directly influences purchasing decisions through e-

Aside from the security factor, qualified Service

commerce, as well as security and service qualityfactor

Qualityhas not been developed by some e-commerce

gives significant effect on e-commerce consumer loyalty.

businesses because businesses have not providedtimeliness

This research was conducted by taking samples of e-

guarantee in receiving product or service booked by the

commerce users in Indonesiawhich were most active to

consumers and certainty that goods will be accepted by

purchase online products or services in 2014.

consumers, so that consumers are reluctant to make transactions through e-commerce. Many consumers prefer

KEYWORDS: E-commerce, Security, Service

to purchase offline to online purchase transactionbecausein

Quality, Purchasing Decisions, Loyalty

e-commerce transaction itis often happened that the product received is not aswhat has been described on the

1. Introduction

online store sites

According to market research agency, e-marketer.com, the population of Internet users (netter) in the country reached

In addition to the above information,it is explained also

83.7 million at the end of 2014. The figure applies to every

that to conduct trading transactions and purchases through

person who accesses the internet at least once a month. It

the Internet, or e-commerce, has the high riskpotential. In

makes Indonesia is ranked 6th after Japan in terms of the

this regard, it turns out that a consumer s purchase

250 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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decision in e-commerce transaction related directly to

2.2. Security

security and service quality which can create loyal

Raman Arasu and Viswanathan (2011), through a study

customers in e-commerce. Consumer s loyalty cannot be

conducted on online consumers in Malaysia, found that the

built within one day or a few days, yet should be cultivated

safety factor has a positive and significant influence to the

gradually. Smooth first transaction will determine a

purchasing decisions of consumers on a product or service

consumer to make online purchases in the future or not. If

that is done online, which we are familiar with as e-

this transaction runs as expected by consumer, it is not

commerce. Security policy is a set of rules established in

impossible that he will become a loyal customer at a

all the security activities in every segments, such as

particular shop online

domain security (security of online shop website address) which aims to provide security to the absence of spurious

2.

THEORETICAL BASIS

or

similar

domain,

the

data

security

of

each

2.1. E-commerce

customer spersonal information in an online shop which is

According to Abdul Kadir (2014: 315), e-commerce is the

aimed to give a sense of security to the consumer so that

activity of purchasing, selling, and marketing products or

the confidentiality of personal data information is not

services with the provision of information via the internet.

leaked and misused by irresponsible parties, and security

In line with CitaYulisia (2013: 9) e-commerce or

made aiming to give consumers confidence to make

electronic commerce is the buying and selling goods or

purchases via e-commerce. The indicators of security or

services over the Internet or other electronic media which

safety in an online shop on e-commerce consist of the

include communication, transaction and settlement of a

confidentiality/privacy, personal data management, and

payment mechanism in accordance with the basic

confidence/security guarantee.

principles that apply to the trading, where the buyer and

Indicators of security above can be explained that:

seller exchange goods or services to the media in form of

1. Confidentiality / Privacy

cash payments.

Confidentiality / Privacy means that e-commerce actors act in a manner guaranteeing whether the information sent

In electronic purchasing or e-commerce there are 8 major

by a consumer on the personal data cannot be opened or

characteristics, namely: (1) Using the internet as the main

known by others who do not have the authority to know.

media in the trading process, (2) Most use of electronic

2. Management of Personal Data

transactions as a means of transaction, (3) There is the

There is guarantee of the data consistency which is still

exchange of products (goods or services) and electronic

intact in accordance with the original or not, so the efforts

information , (4) Sellers and buyers do not need to meet in

of people who are not responsible to duplicate and destruct

person, (5) Payments are made online (transfer account,

the data can be avoided.

payment by credit card, payment by using internet

3. Providing Security Guarantee

banking, etc.), (6) Delivery of products can be made online

Providing security on e-commerce transaction process,

(non physical / digital tangible products) or via freight

from the confidentiality of each customer spersonal data,

(tangible products), (7) Products sold can be either

ensures only the relevant consumers that can change and

physical or non-physical, (8) the target consumers are

access their personal data, giving security guarantees in

mostly teenagers and adults who are literate to technology.

the process of payment transfer, mastercard, internet banking or other transaction system.

251 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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2.3.

call us to interact directly as the consumer and the online

Service Quality

Service quality is very important to business sales of

shop.

products and services either done directly through online

3. Empathy

system since the quality of service is directly related to

Empathy here refers to how the companies concern and

customer

in

give attention to each consumer to make consumers feel

Abdurrahman AdiSukma (2012) suggested that service

extra appreciated and how online businesses apply

quality is the level of good or bad servings provided by the

empathy by providing services such as chat or customer

seller in order to satisfy consumer to give or convey or

service to help individual consumers who have difficulties

express a desire or consumer demand higher than what

in making online purchases of products or services can

consumers expect. Raja Arcana and Vandana in their

usually be accessed by consumers during 24/7.

satisfaction

and

loyalty.

Lovelock

research (2012) state that the current price and promotion are no longer able to determine the purchase decision for

2.4. Buying Decision

consumers. According to them, this time consumers also

According to Kolter (2009) it is the act of consumers

make an assessment on the quality of service when making

purchasing decisions to buy or not to buy the product or

online purchases of products or services. Raje Arcana and

the service. Based on the definition presented by Kolter it

Vandana (2012) mention that the quality of online services

can be concluded that the purchase decision is an act done

can be assessed by the three indicators, namely: reliability,

for the consumer to purchase a product or service.

responsiveness and empathy. Indicators of service quality

Therefore, the customer purchase decision is a process of

can be conducted online, consisting of three main

selecting one of several alternatives of problemsolvings

indicators,

with the real follow-up.

namely,

reliability,

responsiveness,

and

empathy.

The indicators used for this variable are: Introduction: customer perception that e-commerce

Indicators of service quality above can be explained as the

vendor that the search for information on products or

following:

services through e-commerce is available

1. Reliability

Search: customer perception that e-commerce vendor

Reliability refers to how businesses conduct their good and

that conducts transactions through e-commerce is easy

right services to consumers so that they can be trusted and

to do.

relied upon by consumers. It is very important to note

Evaluation of purchase: customer perception that e-

because by giving a true service impression it can give you

commerce vendor that provides good security and

the confidence of consumers in making purchasing

quality of service.

decisions of the products or services. In e-commerce the form of reliability can be implemented by seeing quest and

2.5. Consumer Loyalty

answer feature on the features provided by each online

In e-commerce creating a close and strong relationship

shop.

between the company and its customers is the key to invite

2. Responsiveness

the consumers who are willing to purchase products or

Responsiveness refers to the speed of the company in

services in a long term. According to Oliver in Etta

giving response to problems experienced by consumers by

MamangSangadji and Sopiah (2013: 104) customer loyalty

providing clear and complete information on products and

is the last in-depth commitment to re-subscribe or re-

services. In e-commerce consumers can choosechat us or

purchase of products or services which are consistently

252 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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selected in the future, although the influence of the

3.

situation and marketing efforts have the potential to cause

According Sugiyono (2009: 01), research method is

changes in behavior.Grifin in Etta MamangSangadji and

basically a scientific way to get data with a specific

Sopiah (2013: 104) states "loyalty is defined as non

purpose and usefulness, which means a scientific manner

random purchase expressed over time by some decision

research activities are based on the characteristics of

making unit" which means that loyalty rather refers to a

science which are rational, empirical, and systematic.

form of behavior of decision-making units to perform

Meanwhile, according to WiratnaSujarweni (2014: 05) the

continuous purchase of goods or services of a company

research methodology is a scientific way (rational,

that is chosen.

empirical and systematic) used by the perpetrators of a

The indicators used for this variable are:

discipline to do research. The research method is closely

Methodology

Loyalty (Y4): customer perception that he has a

related to the research procedures, techniques, tools, and

preference taste to purchase products or services

design used. In the design it is described that the research

through

methods include procedures or steps that must be taken,

e-commerce

compared

to

conventional

purchases.

time studies, data sources, and in what way the data are

Resilience (Y5): customer perception that he cannot be

obtained and processed or analyzed.

affected by the supply of products or goods in

So far there has been no accurate data that can put the

conventional trade.

number of users of e-commerce in Indonesia. Therefore,

Recommendation (Y6): customer perception that he

the size of the population in this study is unknown, so the

willingly promote to make purchases through the

sampling technique used is the category of non-probability

medium of e-commerce.

sampling. In this study, the sample size was adjusted to the analysis model used, that is Structural Equation Model

2.6. Framework

(SEM). In connection with this sample size for SEM using model of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is in the range of 100-200 samples. As for the types of variables used in this study are as follows: a. Exogenous variables (Free)is a variable that affects or causes the change or the emergence of the dependent

Figure 1 Conceptual Framework Research

variables. The independent variable is given the symbol (X).

HYPOTHESIS H1: Security factor influences on purchasing decisions through e-commerce. H2: Service quality factor influences the purchase decision through e-commerce. H3: Security factor affects on customer loyalty. H4: Service quality factor affects customer loyalty. H5: the purchase decision through e-commerce affects on customer loyalty.

The independent variables in this study are: Security Variable Service Quality Variable b. Endogenous variables (Bound) are variables that influence or effect, because of the existence of independent variables. The dependent variable is given symbol (Y). The dependent variables in this study are: Variable ofcustomer sdecision in making transactions by using e-

253 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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commerce and loyalty variable of customer that makes

Measurement modelis a model that connects the latent

transactions using e-commerce (Y).

variables with manifest variables. In this study, there are

Table 1 Operational Definition and Research Variables

four latent variables with 12manifest variables. Analysis of

Variables

the measurement models is used to test the validity and

Indicators Confidentiality The management

Security

of personal data

Code

X2

Reliability

X4

Responsiveness

X5

Empathy

X6

Introduction

Y1

Purchase

Search

Y2

decision

Purchase

4.

in

his

book

Structural

Equation Model (SEM) variable it is mentioned that good validity of the constructs or latent variables is if the value

RajeArchana and Vandana

of t loading factor is greater than the critical value of t or t count and loading factor default value has construct

(2012)

reliability (CR) which is greater than 0.07 and the value of variance extracted (VE) is greater than 0.05. Kolterandkeller (2009)

Y3

evaluation

Loyalty

AccordingtoHaryadiSarjono

ArasuandViswanathan

X3

guarantees

Quality

reliability of each indicator that form latent variables. Raman

(2012)

Security

Service

Source

X1

Loyalty

Y4

Kolter and keller (2009) and

Resilience

Y5

Etta

Recommendation

Y6

MamangSangadiandSopiah (2013)

Results and Discussion

Normality test aims to determine whetherdata distribution of is normal or not. To that end, done by using Liliefors test, normalitytesting of each variable was done with a view to determine whether the distribution of the data of

Figure 2 Structural Model T -Value Re Estimation

each variable does not deviate from the characteristics of

Table 3 Loading factor value per indicator after re-

the data that are normally distributed. Normality Tests

estimation

conducted on the estimated regression errors on X1 Y2, Y2 on X2, Y1 on X1, X2 and Y2 Y1 on top of Y1, which

Constructs Security

can be shown by the following table.

Indicators

Cod

Loading

e

Factor

X1

1,39

data

X2

2,79

Security guarantees

X3

1,02

Reliability

X4

3,71

Responsiveness

X5

8,95

Empathy

X6

3,56

Confidentiality The management of personal

Table 2 Summary of Estimated YX Normality Test Errors Service Quality No

Estimation

Lo

Ltabel(0.05)

Decision

Notes

1

Y2 on X1

0,036

0,047

Accept H0

Normal Purchase

2 3

Y2 on X2 Y1 on X1

0,044 0,038

0,047 0,047

Accept H0 Accept H0

Normal

decision

Normal

4

Y1 on X2

0,046

0,047

Accept H0

Normal

5

Y2 on Y1

0,028

0,047

Accept H0

Normal

Loyalty

Introduction

Y1

1,91

Search

Y2

0,96

Purchase evaluation

Y3

0,83

Loyalty

Y4

1,09

Resilience

Y5

2,93

Recommendation

Y6

1,17

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Based on the re-estimation result as shown in table 4.30, theloading factorof every indicator is not less than 0,50. Thus, all indicators are considered valid and model evaluation process can be continued.

Based on estimation method of satorra-bentler robust maximum

likelihoodwhich

has

been

previously

explained,linear structural relational (LISREL) produces output indexto be the basis in doing fit test of goodness of

Figure 3 Re-estimation of structural Model of T-Value

fit-GFTI as a whole. This test was done to find out whether the model is already appropriate in portraying the relation ofeach variable being studiedso it can be categorized as having good fit.

Model result

Critical Value

Conclusion

Chi-Square

217,23

high

Good

Probability

0.31

0,05

Good

RMSEA

0,13

0,08

Good

GFI

on Security ( SC ) is 2.52 , Purchase Decision ( KP ) on Service Quality ( SQ ) is 1.71, Loyalty ( LS ) on Security (

Table 4 Goodness of fitIndex Calculation Result Criteria

The image above shows TValue Purchase Decision ( KP )

0,95

0,90

Good

AGFI

0,93

0,90

Good

CMIN/DF

1,48

2,00

Good

TLI

0,98

0,95

Good

CFI

0,96

0,95

Good

SC ) is 1.71 , Loyalty ( LS ) on Service Quality is 2.51 and Loyalty ( LS ) on Purchase Decision ( KP ) is 2.62 . Table 6 Hypothesis Testing Result Hypothe sis

Variable 2

ue

Purchase H1

H2

H3

Security

decision

Service

Purchase

Quality

decision

Security

2,52

1,71

Loyalty

1,71

Loyalty

2,51

Loyalty

2,62

Service

In line with the table above, it can be seen that all testing H4

criteria show good result, where the chi-square model shows low critical value, probability model result, GFI,

Tval Variable 1

Quality Purchase

H5

decision

PV

Notes

0,00

Signific

0

ant

0,00

Signific

0

ant

0,00

Signific

0

ant

0,00

Signific

0

ant

0,00

Signific

0

ant

AGFI, TLI and CFI show higher result than the critical value, and the model result of RMSEA and CMIN/DF

4.2. Security Influence on Purchasing Decisions

show lower result than the critical value. Model testing

The results showed that there is partially a direct effect

done produces good confirmation on every factor

between security factors on purchase decisions through e-

dimension and causal relation between the factors. Thus,

commerce.This happens because every vendor of e-

the model can be accepted.

commerce has been aware that the security of its online shop becomes a determiner ofe-commerce customer who

4.1. Hypothesis testing

will make the purchase decision. This is in line with the

In order to prove whetherSecurity and Service Quality

articles written by Muhammad Firmanand Muhammad

variables give direct and positive impacts on customer s

Chandrataruna (2009) revealing that an online shop

purchase decision and loyalty, hypothesis testing should be

security from hacker attacks and data stealing that converts

done.

each of its customer have enormous influence to give a sense of trust and security in transactions through e-

255 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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commerce. Other than that the transfer payment system is

personal data from people who do not have the rights to

also a benchmark in determining customer purchases

know and payment transactions through transfer system

through e-commerce. It is necessary for the confidentiality

(not by direct system), it is most likely that he will make

of data for each e-commerce customer not to be known by

transactions back. It supports the research by Raman

others on behalf of the vendor who later transfers amount

Arasuand Viswanathan (2011) who found that the security

of money into the wrong account. From the description it

has a direct influence on customer loyalty in purchasing

can be concluded that the safety factor is an important

through e-commerce.

consideration for customers when making decisions in the purchase of products or services through e-commerce. It

4.5. Loyalty Effect on Service Quality

supports

Arasuand

The results showed that partially there is a direct influence

Viswanathan (2011) who found that the security has a

between service quality and customer loyalty in e-

direct influence on consumer decisions in purchasing

commerce. As we know that the purpose of a business

through e-commerce.

selling products or services is to satisfy the needs of its

the

research

done

by

Raman

customers, but today the community in Indonesia prefer 4.3. Influence of Service Quality on Buying Decision

not the quality of products or services alone but rather

The results showed that partially there is a direct influence

want the quality of services provided, since it is the quality

of service quality factor on e-commerce customer

of services excellence which becomes the key to induce

purchasing decisions. The magnitude of the effect caused

customer loyalty attitude. It supports the research

by service quality shows that currently the majority of the

conducted by RajeArchana and Vandana (2012) that the

people in Indonesia begin to reveal the charges against the

customer of e-commerce is no longer just consider the

prime ministry, where they no longer require a qualified

price and promotion when deciding to purchase via the

product at an affordable price, but also happy to enjoy the

Internet, but the more important consideration is the

services provided. Besides good service quality will give a

quality of services provided.

strong boost to e-commerce customers to make decisions in purchasing. It supports the research conducted by

4.6.

RajeArchana and Vandana (2012) about the influence of e-

The results showed that partially there is direct influence

service quality towards online shopping behavior, where

between the purchase decision and the customer loyalty in

the research states that the customer of e-commerce is no

e-commerce. As we know the attitude of customer loyalty

longer just considers the price and promotion when

would arise when he has never made a purchase products

deciding on a purchase over the internet, but more

or services, when a customer makes a purchase the product

importantly is considering the quality of services provided.

or service and get a positive impression then it is not

Influence Purchase Decision Consumer Loyalty

impossible that he will make a purchase products or 4.4. Security Influences Loyalty

services on other days, as well as vice versa, when a

The results showed that partially there is a direct influence

customer who is in the purchase of products or services

between the customer loyalty and security of e-commerce.

gets bad impression, then it is most likely that the next

This happens because every vendor of e-commerce has

time he will not make purchases of products or services in

been aware that the security of its online shop can increase

the same place. From this analysis it is proven that

the loyalty of e-commerce customer. When e-commerce

purchasing decisions will determine the level of customer

customers feel secure in the confidentiality of their

loyalty. The results of this study are consistent

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withTjiptonotheory(2011) that there is relation between

impact on the increase in purchases and the emergence of

the first impressions experienced by customers with a level

customer loyalty and vice versa. If any e-commerce

of loyalty.

vendor ignores it, it will have an impact on the decrease in customer loyalty. In this regard it is recommended to every

5.

Conclusions and Recommendations

e-commerce vendor increase the customer s loyalty

Conclusion about the research problem refers to the

through

statements of research and hypotheses proposed. In this

empathy.

increasing

reliability,

responsiveness

and

study it can be drawn the following conclusions: 1. Security in a transaction through e-commerce has a

BIBLIOGRAPHY

direct influence on the purchasing decisions of e-

[1] The Word, Muhammad, and Muhammad Chandrataruna., 2009, "South Korea, China, and Singapore is a country that Most Online Payment Believe", Viva News, accessible http://teknologi.news.viva.co.id/news/read/ 114860keamanan_picu_maraknya_belanja_online. [2] Kim, DJ, Ferrin, DL, and Rao, HR,.The antecedents of Consumer Trust in B to C Electronic Commerce, AMCIS 2003. Paper 21, 2003, p 157-167. [3] Park, Chung-Hoon., And Young-GulKim., "The Effect of Information Satisfaction and Relational Benefit on Consumers Online Site Commitmennts", Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, 4 (1), 2006,p 70-90 [4] Raje, Archana., And Vandana, TandonKhanna. Impact of E-Service on cunsumerxxxxxPurchase Behavior in an Online Shopping, IJCSMS International Journal of Computer Science and Management Studies, Paper 12 (02), 2012. [5] Raman, Arasu, and Viswanathan, A, .Web Services and E-Shopping Decisions: A Study on the Malaysian EConsumer, IJCA Special Issue on: Wireless Information Networks & Business Information System p. 54-60, 2011. [6] Dachlan, Usman,Complete Guide -level essentially Structural Equation Modeling(Semarang,Lantern Sciences,2014). [7] Daryanto, Tutorial Mode of Conscience Sejahtera (Bandung,Sari Marketing Management Lecture,2013) [8] Kotler, Philip, and Keller KL, The 13th edition of Marketing Management Volume 1 (Jakarta, the publisher, 2009) [9] Kotler, Philip, and Keller KL,The 13th edition of Marketing Management Volume 2, (Jakarta, the publisher, 2009) [10] Kadir, Abdul, Introduction to Information Systems Revised Edition(Yogyakarta,Publisher Andi,2014) [11] Dizzy, ES, and Sopiah, Consumer Behavior,(Yogyakarta,Publisher Andi, 2013) [12] Sarjono, Haryadi and WindaJulianita, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) (Jakarta, Salemba Four, 2015)

commerce customers in Indonesia. 2. Service quality in a transaction through e-commerce has a direct influence on the purchasing decisions of ecommerce customers in Indonesia. 3. Security in a transaction through e-commerce has a direct influence on customer loyalty of e-commerce in Indonesia. 4. service quality in a transaction through e-commerce has a direct influence on customer loyalty of e-commerce in Indonesia. 5. Decision purchases made by customers through ecommerce has a direct influence on customer loyalty of ecommerce in Indonesia.

SuggestionsFor Business World 1. Security in e-commerce gives direct positive influence on the purchasing decisions made by prospective buyers of a product or service e-commerce, which means that if any e-commerce vendor provide security in its online shop it will have an impact on the increase in purchase and customer s loyalty and vice versa. If any e-commerce vendor ignores security in its e-commerce it will have an impact on the attitude of trust and decreasing purchases of products or services and e-commerce customer loyalty. 2. Service quality provided in e-commerce gives direct positive influence on purchasing decisions made by prospective buyers of a product or service in e-commerce, which means that if any e-commerce vendor provides the best quality services in its online shop it will have an

257 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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[13] Serfiani, CY, Serfianto DP, and ISWI, Hariyani.,.Business Online & Electronic Transaction(Jakarta,GramediaPustakaUtama,2013) [14] Sujarweni, VW. Methodology Research(Yogyakarta,New Library, 2014) [15] Sugiyono, Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods R & D (Bandung, Alfabeta, 2009)

[16] Tjiptono, Fandy and Gregory Chandra, Service Quality &statisfaction 3rd Edition (Yogyakarta,Publisher Andi, 2011) [17] Wulandari, Agustina,Wealthy Become the King of Online Business (Jakarta,FlashBooks, 2014)

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AN ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION AND COMPENSATION ON LECTURERS JOB PERFORMANCE AT INFORMATICS AND BUSINESS ISTITUTE (IBI) DARMAJAYA Besti Lilyana1 Lecturer in Computer Science Study program of Management Department Informatics and Business InstituteDarmajaya Jl. Z.A. PagarAlam No. 93 LabuhanRatu Bandar Lampung [email protected] more dominant that compensation variable in affecting

ABSTRACT

lecturers job performance. The research is aimed at knowing the influence of motivation

and

compensation

on

lecturers

job

performance at Informatics and Business Institute (IBI)

KEY WORDS :Motivation, Compensation, and Job Performance

Darmajaya Bandar Lampung. The problems of the research are 1) Do motivation and compensation received

1.

by the lecturers of IBI Darmajaya have an effect on their

1.1. Background of the Problem

job performance? 2) How far is the relationship between

The suitability between responsibility quantity and

motivation and compensation and job performance? 3)

compensation quantity for lecturers is a base of

Which factor is more dominant between motivation and

consideration to decide whether or not to accept duties.

compensation that affects the job performance?

Fulltime lecturers can work well if the compensation

Introduction

given to them is able to support their lives. It has been This research uses double linear regression analysis

done by IBI Darmajaya to determine the amount of

method. The variables of the research are motivation and

compensation for fulltime lecturers. It is hoped that by

compensation

determining

as

independent

variables

and

job

the

amount

of

compensation

and

performance as dependent variable. To know the

responsibility it can improve the job performance.

influence of independent variable on dependent variable is

According to Hanafi (Widodo, 2007:8) compensation is

partially used ttest and to know the influence of

aimed at improving the job performance of the lecturers,

independent variable on dependent variable used Ftest.

improper compensation can make a trouble to job

This research is a population research or a census study

performance and cause loss to the institution.

where 51 respondents taken out of the whole number of active fulltimelecturers at IBI Darmajaya.

At informatices and Business Institute Darmajaya, there is a lecturers monitoring activity where they are evaluated

The result of the research indicates that motivation and

by their students to be used a standard for the lecturers in

compensation variable affects lecturers job performance,

teaching. Besides, there will be a reward as an

both simultaneously and partially. In addition, in the

appreciation to the best lecturer on his/her achievement in

result of the research it is found that motivation variable is

performing his/ her job. The lecturers will also receive salary as a compensation. The compensation is usually

259 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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determined by IIBI Darmajaya, all is oranized in

2.2 Definition of Compensation

accordance with the regulation ot the institution based on According

basic salary, and other allowances. From some concitions it shows the importance of effort to be done to gain the hgihest quality job performance by knowing factors that influence the lecturers

job

performance. Therefore, the writer aims to know further the factors of compensation that influence the job performance at IBI Darmajaya.

to

Henry

Simomoran

(1995

:

411)

compensation has a distinctive meaning to every individual. It depends on one s perspective. As lecturers, they probably think compensation is a return to efforts or a wage for a satisfacotory work. It may indicate the nearest value the institution entitles to skills and competence of the lecturers. 2.3 Definition of Job Perfomance

1.2. Limitation of the Problem In this research the writer tries to analyze motivation and

Simanjuntak (2005 says that job performance is a level of

compensation given to the active fulltime lecturers at IBI

work achievement for the duties given to a person or a

Darmajaya.

group of people in an organization

which fits their

responsibility to obtain the goal of the organization 1.3. Objective

legally , or it meets the morality and etiquette.

The objectives of the research are as follows:: 1.to know whether there is an effect of motivation and

3. Research Method

compensation on the job performance of the lecturers at IBI Darmajaya. 2. to know how much motivation and compensation affectfulltime lecturers at IBI Darmajaya.

3.1 Variables of the Research The variables of the research are: 1.

The dependent variable(Y) in the research is job

3. to know whichof motivation or compensation is a

performance.

more dominant factor in affecting the job performance of lecturers at IBI Darmajaya.

Dependent Variable

2.

Independent Variable The independent variables in the research are motivation (X1) and compensation (X2).

2.Literature Review To measure the dependent variable is done by scoring 2.1 Definition of Motivation

technique based on liker tscale. It is used to measure

Malayu S.P Hasibuan (2003:143) says that motivation is a

attitude, and perception of a person or a group of people

gifted drive which create one s desire to work, so he/she

about social phenomena (Arikunto, 2002 : 214).

can cooperate, work effectively and integratedly with the efforts to gain satisfaction.

3.2 Data Analysis Technique The research uses questionnaire as instrument in

Motivation will give a meaning of one s effort. Striving and working hard to reach the goal and to meet the needs. On the contrary, someone who has low motivation will not ever reach his/her goal or gain something better than

collecting data, but sometimes Measurement erroroccurs, so the questionnaire needs to be examined by using validity

and

reliability

teststo

have

an

internal

consistency. It can be said that if the questions in the

the strength of his/her motivation.

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questionnaire measure the aspects, it can describe the

where nis the total number of respondents and k is the

problem to be measured.

number of variables (Sugiyono, 2013).

3.3 Hypothetical Test

4. Result and Discussion

Determination Coefficient Test (R2)

4.1 Effects of Motivation and Compensation on Job Performance

Determination coefficient (R2) basically measurs how far the model competence

in describing the variety of

dependent variable. The determination coefficient value is from 0 to 1. The small value of R2means competence.

Motivation hypothesis above says that the sigFtable, so Ho is refused andHa is accepted.

Effects

of

Motivation

Compensation Based on the result of

the analysis above, it can be

concluded that Fcount>Ftable(13,783 > 4,50). It means that motivation and compensation affect the lecturers job performance at IBI Darmajaya. Based on the research it can

be

seen

that

motivation

and

compensation

collaboratively affect the lecturers job performance. As a result, if the fulltime lecturers have high motivation and good compensation, they will work well or they will conduct a better job performance. Based on the result of ttest it is obtained the motivation variable significance (0,000) >compensation (0,034) at the level of 0,05, which means motivation is a more dominant variable than compensation variable in affecting the job performance.

3.6.1

Partial Test (Ttest)

Ttestis done by comparing tcount with ttable .to determine ttable .to

and

determine the value of ttable is determined by the

significance level 5% with the freedom leveldf = (n-k),

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1. From the research result motivation and compensation

5. Conclusion and Suggestion

simultaneously affect the job performance of the 5.1 Conclusion

lecturers.

Based on the result of the research and explanation, it can

2. The writer suggest IBI Darmajaya should give more

be concluded that:

efforts to increase motivation and compensation

1. Motivation affects the job performance of the fulltime

variable factors of the lecturers.

lecturers at IBI Darmajaya where it sometimes means aperson s inner drive to behave and work better. 2. Compensation affects the job performance of the fulltime lecturers at IBI Darmajaya, 3. Motivation

and

compensation

affect

the

job

performance of the lecturers at IBI Darmajaya. 4. Even though motivation is more dominant than compensation but both are the factors that can collaboratively affect the job performance of the lecturers at IBI Darmajaya. 5.2 Suggestion

References [1] Hasibuan, Malayu, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Dasar dan Kunci Keberhasilan (Jakarta, PT.Gunung Agung) [2] Mariati, Erny ,Analisis Pengaruh Motivasi Dan Kompetensi Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai Inspektorat Provinsi Lampung, Tesis, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Lampung, Lampung, 2009. [3] Rosari. 2007. Menetapkan Rencana Kompensasi. Skripsi. UGM. Yogyakarta.

Based on the result of the research, it is suggested that:

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THE EMPLEMENTATION OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE PLANNING (EAP) MODEL FOR INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AT HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT Halimah Yunus1 Lecturer at Computer Science Study Program of Information System Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. Z.A. PagarAlam No. 93 LabuhanRatu Bandar Lampung [email protected]

affairs and not focused on the application or technical

ABSTRACT Investment failure in the field of information technology

design.

to improve the company performance mostly happens because the planning is maximal. One method to

KEY WORDS

: EAP, Enterprise Architecture

overcome this investment failure is by developing a planning process of information system development,

1.

INTRODUCTION

consisting of data architecture, application architecture,

Background of the ProblemHuman Resources bureau in

and architecture.

an institution is a vital organizational asset; its existence

The

method

used

in

constructing

the

enterprise

therefore cannot be replaced by another resource. Indeed,

architecture model is Enterprise Architecture Planning

how little information in an enterprise is valuable in a

(EAP). EAP explains about data, application, and

decision making process by the leader.

technology which will be required to support the business process at the Human Resource (SDM) bureau where it will be able to produce a blueprint for data architecture, application and technology as well as the plan implementation aimed at providing the needs with sustainable detail level in applying the idea of the system built.

Realizing the importance of information system role in an organization, prior to applying it, it is necessary to do the enterprise architecture development based on vision an mission as well as a base in the development of information system, so it finally can measure the process and the result of the implementation.

In architecture EAP explains about data, application and

IBI Darmajaya, one of educational institutions, should

technology to be used to support the business process at

have a design of information system development at

Human Resource bureau where it will produce a blueprint

SDM bureau that supports the service activities for either

for data architecture, application and technology as well

employees or stakeholders to reach vision and mission of

as implementation plans aimed at providing the needs

the organization and the organizational goal. Based on

with the sustainable detail level in applying the idea to

the explanation above, it is important to construct an

build the system.

enterprise architecture model from existing business components at IBI Darmajaya to promote an integrated

The construction of the enterprise architecture model of

information system.

SDM bureau at IBI Darmajaya is limited on employee

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1.1. Limitation of theProblem

a way to support the business cycle and to reach the vision

In the research the problems are limited as follows:

of information system and organization.

1.

It will only discuss the construction design of blueprint, instead of implementation phases.

2.

Model to be constructed is enterprise architecture model using enterprise architecture planning methods as follows: a.

Data Architecture Model

b.

Application Architecture Model

c.

Technology Architecture Model

Basically, EAPdoes not design business and architecture. In EAP, the architecture explains about data, application, and technology required to support the organizational business. Related to the explanation above, Steven H Spewak states that the term architecture consists of data architecture, application architecture, and technology architecture. In this case, architecture means blueprint, description, or model The components of EAP methods, according to Spewak, use

1.3. Objectives The main objective expected in the research is to construct a conceptual model of enterprise information architecture to support an integrated information system specifically in SDM bureau so that it can be used a

a base of two layers from John Zachman framework i.e. Ballpark and Owner s review phases. The EAP result is the highest level blueprint for data, application, and technology for overall enterprises to be used at the design process and the next application.

standard in determining planning and development at SDM bureau at IBI Darmajaya. 3. 2.LITERATURE REVIEW

RESEARCH METHOD

The approach used to analyze enterprise is Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) approach at the level of data

2.1 Enterprise Architecture Enterprise architecture is a description of stakeholder mission in which it includes information, functions /uses,

architecture, application architecture, and technology architecture as integrated application supports as well as an application plan of enterprise architecture.

location, Organization and performance parameter. Enterprise

The enterprise analysis done is an initial application to use

architecture describes a plan to develop a system or a

EAP components, i.e. a design initiation as an initial

collection of systems (Osvalds, 2001).

phase in the development of architecture model. This phase is very important, because in this phase the scope

2.2 Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP)

and design of activities or work plans are defined.

Enterprise Architecture Planning(EAP), is a method used to construct an inforamtion architecture. According to

The approach method used in planning a information

Steven H. Spewak,

system architecture and information technology at SDM

Enterprise Architecture Planning is a method of data

bureau of IBI Darmajaya is in accordance with the

quality planning approach oriented to business needs and

explanation previously mentioned on aa approach method,

also how the implementation of architecture is done such

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i.e. Architecture Planning Methodology, consisting of

To describe relationship between entities, the description

four phases as follows:

of conceptual relation will use E-R diagram. E-R diagram for Human Resources is a logic data conceptual model

1.

Planning Initiation

2.

Business Modelling and Current Technology

3.

Data Architecture, Application Architecture and

4.

indicating relationship among entities in SDM bureau of IBI Darmajaya.

Technology Architecture

4.2 Application Architecture

Implementation

Application architecture to be identified is used to help the main business function of the organization. It will be

4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Data Architecture Data architecture defined, in this case, a definition of

done to define application needed by the organization, they are as follows: 1.

Determining candidate application

2.

Connecting the application with the business function that has been defined.

data usage to be used in the application architecture that will be delivered at this phase suitable with EAP phases in data architecture, they are as follows: 1.

A list of entity candidates

2.

Entity definition, attribute and relation.

3.

Connecting the application with the organizational units at IBI Darmajaya.

4.2.1 Determining Application Candidates To define application candidates, it will use Four Stage

4.1.1 List of Entity Candidates

Life Cycle as a tool for predicting needs for this

Entity candidates are entities that will be parts of

application. From stewardship decomposition it can be

enterprise architecture planning, so the determination can

seen what applications have to be constructed to help the

be based on the condition of main business function at

main business process to meet the organizational needs at

value chain that has been previously defined. Therefore,

IBI Darmajayain fulfilling Human Resources Information.

the entities to be defined are business entities that will be defined as data entities. According to the condition of

Based on what is obtained from four stage life cycle at

value chain, the list of business entities can be identified

stewardshippart with the reference in table 3.1 about four

as follows:

stage life cyclefor supporting business function of Teaching

Report

Center

Management

(PLPP)

1.

Employee Recruitment Entity

danFinancial management that will be an object of this

2.

Employee Affairs Operational Entity

research, so from the decomposition it can be seen what

3.

Employee Dismissal Entity

application to be constructed to help the main business

4.

PLPP Entity

process to fulfill the organizational needs of SDM bureau

5.

Finance Entity

of IBI Darmajayain fulfilling the needs of employee

6.

ICT-Center Entity

affairs information.

4.1.2 Definition of Entity, Attribute and Relation

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5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

References

5.1 Conclusion

[1] Boar, Bernard H., Constructing Blueprints for Enterprise IT Architectures, (Canada, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2009)

After finishing a series of research phases, the writer can conclude that: 1.

[2] IBM, Business System Planning : Information System Planning Guide (IBM, 1981)

The main business modeling described in value chain, has a main activity i.e. employee recruitmen, employee operational and employee dismissal.

2.

Enterprise architecture Model using Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) can be used as a

[3] Osvald, Gundars Definition of Enterprise Architecture-centric Models for the Systems Engineer (TASC, Inc., 2001) [4] Spewak, Steven. H., Enterprise Architecture Planning (Developing a Blueprint for Data, Application and Technology), (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1992)

reference to determine planniing and development of information system at SDM bureau of IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung. 3.

Based

on

the

result

of

definition

to

enterprisearchitecture at SDM bureau and suited to the limitation of the problem, there are 17 data entities and 14 application supplements. 5.2 Suggestion Based on the result of research discussion, there are some suggestions, they are as follows: 1.

For the integrated development needs of the system at employee affairs of SDM bureau of IBI Darmajaya, it should involve relevant departments related to IT so that the system development will be better planned and accomplished.

2. There

should

be

efforts

for

documenting

all

information systems, either the existing ones or to-be constructed ones in order that the human resource information will be well organized.

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THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL CAPACITY ON BUDGETARY SLACK USING PARTICIPATIVE BUDGETING AS MODERATING VARIABLE AT IBI DARMAJAYA LAMPUNG Pebrina Swissia1 Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. Z.A. PagarAlam No. 93 LabuhanRatu Bandar Lampung [email protected]

performance, so budgeting is an important activity in

ABSTRACT

public sector organization to increase the bureaucratic This research discusses the effects of organizational

organizational performance and the success relies on the

culture and individual capacity on budgetary slack using

cooperation within the system (Maksun, dkk., 2007).

participative budgeting as moderating variables that are organizational commitment, organizational culture and individual capacity. The respondents chosen were based on structural position in IB Darmajaya as 53 respondents. The data collected through survey method in the form of questionnaire also measuring the reliability test on all

Budgeting plays an important role in planning, controlling, and making decisions. Budget is also used to increase coordination and communication. The use of budgetingfor the company to show the management about: a. Profit rate expected by the company. b. the expected resources can be produced or used during

variables and correlation analysis.

the period of future budgeting. The result of the research based on correlation analysis

c.

Budget

also

informs

the

management

about

indicates the correlation level where the correlation

consequences of an alternative action series which give

analysis of all variables indicates the strong level of

bases to make the best decision.

correlation. In addition, the participative budgeting positively affects budgetary slack. On the contrary,

The

correlation

organizational commitment and organizational culture

management is that budgeting is a management tool to

weakened the correlation between participative budgeting

help running the functions. Because budgeting is merely a

and budgetary slack. Besides, high or low individual

tool of management, the existence of management is

capacity is not able to moderate the correlation.

absolutely needed even though budgeting has been perfectly

KEY WORDS

:

Budgetary

Slack,

Organizational

Culture, Participative Budgeting

1.

Introduction

Background of the Problem

made.

between

A

good

the

and

customers

perfect

and

the

budgeting

cannotguarantee that the implementation and realization will be good and perfect, too without being organized by skillful management. In the conduct of educational activities, IBI Darmajaya mostly uses the income derived from students tuition fee

Budget is an accountability instrument in public financial

and external earnings, while in allocating the expenses it is

organizing system and a basic public service. Public

done per unit. Financial mechanism done at IBI

service is a process of bureaucratic organizational

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Darmajaya is based on Standard Operating Procedure

1.2. Budgetary Slack

(SOP) that has been determined.

The concept of budgetary slack in the agency theory can

Financial management is a whole activity in gaining fund,

lead to misallocated organizational resources.Budgetary

asset management, then using the fund and allocating it to

slack tend to be done by agents who participate in

finance investment activity or purchases done by the

budgeting by doing underestimate revenue or overestimate

company effectively to gain high earnings with a

expenditure. Budgetary slack is defined as an action by the

minimum risk level possibly to give prosperity to the

agent to lower the productive capability because it has the

owner of the company and the shareholders.

opportunity in determining the working standard (Young, 1985).

Organizational culture and individual capacity factors really determine a good budget determination in an organization. An ideal budgeting is the final goal to be achieved by the company because by the ideal budgeting the company can manage the profit effectively and efficiently. However, there is often a deviation in the budget making process in an organization or company, calledbudgetary slack, so the budget made does not reflect needs of a company or an organization.One of determining factors of budgetary slack is an information asymmetry, an information difference owned by an agent a principal, so the principal is not really able to monitor the competence

2.

Research Method

According to Sugiyono (2006:01) research method is a scientific method to gain data with specific aim and use. This research used an associative method, a research which uses at least 4 correlated variables. The associative method in the research used is to find out how much effect of participative budgeting on budgetary slack with organizational

culture

and

individual

capacity

as

strengthening and weakening factors. The type of research target used was Causal research. It is used to examine hypothesis on cause-effect correlation.

of the agent. According to Dunk (1989), if the agent s performance is evaluated based on whether or not the

3.

budgeting target is reached, the agent will be motivated

1.

Result And Discussion Based on the result of hypothesis test 1, it is found

not to give all information he owns at the budgeting

that there is a significant effect between X1 and X2

planning.

or between organizational culture and participative budgeting as 70.5%. the result of the test, if X3

Based on the above explanation, the writer is interested to examine whether organizational culture and individual capacity affect budgetary slack using participative budgeting as moderating variable at IBI Darmajaya Lampung.

increased, X1 quality or organizational culture should be first improved. In other words, the increasing the participative budgeting dynamics is affected mostly by the increase of organizational culture. The efforts to improve organizational

1.1. Definition of Budget According

quality or participative budgeting wants to be

to

Mulyadi(2001:488)

in

his

book

AkuntansiManajemen budget is a work plan which is communicatively stated, measured in a monetary standard and another unit of measurement, including a one-year period of time.

culture (X!) is by bettering the elements of the indicators of X1 as follows: A. Mission B. Consistency C. Adaptability

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D. involvement

The effort to decrease budgetary slack (Y) is by

and the elements connected with X3 revision or

improving the indicator elements of participative

participative budgeting through X3 indicator:

budgeting (X3) as follows:

A.

A.

B.

The participation of central responsibility

Participation

of

central

responsibility

manager in making budgeting and the

manager in making budgeting and his

involvement in giving opinions.

involvement in giving opinions.

The frequency of the top manager in asking for

opinions

of

central

B.

responsibility

Frequency of the top manager in asking for opinions of the central responsibility in

manager in the process of budgeting

making the budgeting.

making.

Therefore, by the increase of participative budgeting, it is expected that the ideal

2.

Based on the result of hypothesis test, it is found

budgeting will be reached.

there is a significant effect of individual capacity (X2)onparticipative budgeting (X3). The amount of the effect is as 0.026 % (based on ßcoefficient). 3.

that there is no significant effect of organizational

Based on the result of the discussion in chapter IV, it can

culture (X1) on budgetary slack (Y) through

be concluded that:

effect is as 39.97 % (based on ß coefficient).

Based on the data processing, the writer tries to do an analysis and make some conclusions as follows:

Based on the result of hypothesis test, it is found that there is no significant effect of individual

1. it is about the amount of the effect of organizational

capacity

culture and individual capacity on participative budgeting

(X2)

on

budgetary

slack(Y)

throughparticipative budgeting (X3). The amount of the effect is as 1.47 % (based on ß coefficient). 5.

5.1 Conclusion

Based on the result of hypothesis test, it is found

participative budgeting (X3). The amount of the

4.

5. Conclusion And Suggestion

Based on the result of hypothesis test, it is found that there is a significant effect of participative budgeting (X3) on budgetary slack(Y). The amount of the effect is as 56.7 % (based on ß coefficient).

The results of tests show that if budgetary slack (Y)

that can be described in the following explanation: a.

That organizational culture has a partial and significant effect on participative budgeting as 0,705 or70,5 %

b. that individual capacity has a partial but not significant effect on participative budgeting as 0,026or 2,6 %

wants to be minimized; participative budgeting

2. It is about the amount of the effect of participative

(X3) should be first improved. In other words, the

budgeting on budgetary slack indicating that participative

decrease of budgetary slack is affected by the

budgeting has a partial and significant effect on budgetary

increase of participative budgeting.

slack as 32,1 % Therefore, based on the above explanation, it can be gained the indirect effect as follows:

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a)

The effect of organizational culture variable on participative budgeting through budgetary slackis

5.

For the advancement of science, it is suggested to do researches using the research variables such as

0,705 x 0,567

information

0,3997or39,97 %

organizational commitment.

asymmetry

information

and

b) The effect of individual capacity variable on participative budgeting through budgetary slackis 0,026 x 0,567

[1]. Maksun, 2007, AkuntansiSektorPublik, 2007, BPFE Yogyakarta

0,0147or1,47 % 3.

References

The individual capacity variable does not significantly affect participative budgeting at IBI Darmajaya, it is

[2]. Mulyadi, 2001, AkuntansiManajemen :Konsep, ManfaatdanRekayasa, EdisiKetiga, SalembaEmpat. Jakarta

because the implementation of budgeting planning [3]. Young, S.M. (1985). Participative Budgeting : The Effects of Risk Aversion and

process uses a centralized method. 5.2 Suggestion Based on the discussion, it can be suggested: 1.

To keep increasing a positive organizational culture at IBI

Darmajaya,

by

implanting

vision

of

the

organization, and work consistency of every work unit at IBI Darmajaya. 2.

For individual capacity to give a positive effect on a better budgeting planning and to minimize budgetary slack. The head of IBI Darmajaya should be able to accommodate suggestions in budgeting planning in every work unit in IBI Darmajaya, so the heads of work units have sense of belonging related to the operational at their work unit.

3.

To avoid ineffectivebudgetary slackin the budgeting planning, it is better to involve work units because based on the previous research by the writer, individual capacity does not have a significant effect.

4.

As indirect effect through participative budgeting variable that organizational has a significant effect on budgetary slack. In this regard, IBI Darmajaya has to give effects more and look for such an effort on how to optimize individual capacity of respective work unit in IBI Darmajaya.

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QUALITY AUDIT IN BANKING INDUSTRY Tulus Suryanto1 Faculty Of Islamic Economic and Business The State Islamic Institute of RadenIntan Lampung, Indonesia Email: [email protected] existence of opinion fraud committed by management or

ABSTRACT This study examines the relationship of ethics

audittoward

auditorprofessionalismand

professional

auditors' dysfunctional

opinion: behavior

as

intervening Variable. This research was conducted at the bankingindustryfirm in Bandar Lampung and auditors as the sample. The data was collected by using a questionnaire. This research represents the empirical test which used censuc sampling. Data analysis uses SEM Amos programs.

Result of hypothesis examination

indicate that from three

the business world, or may reduce the ability of the company to maintain its viability. The existence of these risks requires the auditor to perform the prevention and detection of fraud committed by the company (Amrizal, 2002). In the detection of fraud, the auditor is required to obey the code of professional ethics and professional manner in order to determine the audit opinion. Given the role of the auditor is required by the business

all of it

world, it is encouraging auditors to understand the

Accepted hypothesis 1, there is a positive

implementation of ethics in their profession. Professional

relation between professional ethics audittoward auditors

ethics is an organizational factors that will affect the

opinion:, hypothesis 2, auditorsprofessionalismis as

performance of an auditor. There are several important

moderated variable professional ethics audittoward

elements that must be owned by the auditor, namely: (1)

auditors' opinion:. hypothesis 3, disfunctional behavior is

expertise and understanding of accounting standards or

as negative moderated variable professional ethics

standards of financial reporting, (2) the standard

audittoward auditors' opinion.

inspection / auditing, (3) professional ethics, (4) an

accepted.

hypothesis raised,

employees of the company can reduce the reputation in

understanding of the business environment that is audited KEYWORDS: Qoality Audit, Ethics Audit ,and SEM

. So the main requirements that must be owned by an

Amos Program

auditor is required to adhere to the applicable rules of professional ethics. Therefore, professional ethics is a

1.

Introduction

means of self-regulation which is crucial for the implementation of the profession of an auditor.

The risk of fraud committed by management or employees of the company can reduce the good name /

The success of the auditor in performing the audit process

reputation in the business world, or may reduce the ability

and provide an opinion of course not separated from the

of the company to maintain its viability. The existence of

auditor behavior as implementing the audit. Research

these risks requires the auditor to perform the prevention

conducted by Wiyantoro (2009) showed that in the

and detection of fraud committed by the company

implementation of activity often occurs a deviant behavior

(Amrizal, 2002). In the detection of fraud, the auditor is

or intentional violations outside of the rules and

required to obey the code of professional ethics and

procedures are usually done by implementing the so-

professional manner in order to determine the risk audit.

called

dysfunctional

behavior.

Application

271 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

audit

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professionalism demanded a complete understanding of an auditor in performing their duties. With the dysfunctional behavior of course will negatively affect the audit process. 2. Theory and Hypothesis 2.1. Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) This study aimed to describe the relationship between attitudes and behavior of individuals, especially the auditors in carrying out the audit process. In the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) proposed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) is a theory that relates to the attitude and behavior of individuals in carrying out the activities / actions are

2. People can not be expected to assess the quality of services provided by the profession 3. Increased competition among members of the profession Indonesian Accountants Code of Conduct is a code of behavior that consists of: 1. The general provisions in the code of ethics of public accountants have the power in terms of the emphasis on positive activities to produce high quality work. The disadvantage is difficult to impose an ideal general behavior in the absence of minimum standard of conduct.

grounded (reasoned action). An auditor is required to be profesional and comply with audit ethics in carrying out

2. Special rules have pejabaran excellence in detail, so

the audit process for which this theory would explain the

as to imposition of minimum standards of conduct

attitude of auditors in the process of its activities whether

and performance. The disadvantage is likely to

auditors do their job with professionalism and whether

provide interpretation on the practitioners as a

there is an element of dysfunctional behavior in the

minimum standard maskimum instead.

working process. 1.2.

Audit opinion is given by the auditors opinion on the

Relations Professional Ethics Audit of the Audit

fairness of the presentation of the financial statements of

Opinion

the company where the auditor to audit. Audit opinion delivered in the opinion paragraph that was included in

One way to realize the public accounting profession professional conduct one of which is the effect of the implementation of professional ethics established by the IAI talahie Accountants Code of Indonesia. Ethics can be defined as a set of moral principles or values (Elder et al., 2011), in terms of ethics, a profession should have a high moral commitment as outlined in the form of a special rule. This rule is a rule execute or carry out the profession, which is commonly referred to as code ethics. Code of Conduct created with the aim to establish standards of conduct for accountants, especially CPAs. Code of professional conduct large is due to the following reasons: 1. The need for public confidence in the quality of

the audit report section. Therefore, the audit opinion is an integral part of the audit report. The audit report informs users about what information the auditor and the conclusions obtained. "Statement of the auditor's opinion must be based on the audit carried out by auditing standards and on its findings." (SA Section 508, IAPI, 2011). There are five types of statement of opinion may be provided by a public accountant who audited the financial statements. As for the statement described in section 508, SPAP (2011), that an unqualified opinion, unqualified opinion with an explanatory language, qualified opinion, the opinion is not fair, and the statement did not give an opinion.

services rendered.

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Basic things that must be considered by the auditor is

factors affect the auditor's judgment in determining

ethics in the profession. Implementation of professional

opnininya, among others: Professionalism Auditor, the

work can not be separated from ethics for professional

more professional an auditor then consideration will be

conduct required of all professions that profession lived

better and the ethics of the profession, with the

won the trust of the community. The American Heritage

implementation of Professional Ethics at each execution

Directory in Gusti and Ali (2008) stated ethics as a rule or

of the task, then the auditor will not commit fraud in

standard that determines the behavior of members of a

determining the level of materiality. Research Herawaty

profession. With high ethical awareness, then an auditor

and

tend professional duties and carry out their duties in

Knowledge Public Accountant in Detecting Errors,

accordance with the professional code of ethics and

Professional Ethics and Materiality level considerations.

auditing standards, so that the results of the audit would

The results showed that the regression coefficient

be more indicative of the actual situation in the provision

Professionalism has a positive value (0.231) and

of audit opinion.

significant.

Suraida research results (2005) show empirically that the

With the professional ethics referred to by impersonating

ethical factor giving a positive effect on the accuracy of

the auditor is expected to increase the level of

the auditor's opinion. Results were a reference to the

professionalism of the auditors in the audit pass to

author that ethics also affect the accuracy of opinion by

produce reasonable opinion without cheating and

the auditor's provision. Based on these descriptions, the

manipulation to improve their professional level. In this

proposed hypothesis is as follows:

case the hypothesis developed as follows:

H1: There is a relationship between ethics with precision

H2: The effect of the professional ethics of the audit

giving opinions

opinion is mediated by the professionalism of the audit

1.3.

1.4. Relations professional ethics audit, dysfunctional

Relationsprofessional ethics audit, professional auditors and audit opinion

Susanto

(2008)

investigated

Professionalism,

behavior and audit opinion

Simply put, professionalism means that the auditor shall

Auditors work processes in generating opinion will not be

perform his duties with sincerity and accuracy. As a

successful if it is not accompanied by the behavior of the

professional, the auditor should avoid negligence and

individual (auditors) that support the audit process.

dishonesty. Arens et al. (2003) in Noveria (2006) defines

According to Jaworski and Young (1992) dysfunctional

professionalism as an individual responsibility to behave

behavior can be defined as "an act done less than the

better than compliance with laws and regulations existing

maximum effort to manipulate the elements of the control

society. Professionalism is also an element of motivation

system with the desired destination. Her logic is not

that contribute to a person that has a high task

professional ethics will help produce a reasonable audit

performance (Guntur et al, 2002 in Ifada and M. Jafar,

opinion if influenced by factors dysfuntional behavior by

2005).

an auditor. Referring to research Soobaroyen (2006)

In determining the level of the opinion the financial statements required considerations are not easy. Many

which proves that the behavior dysfuntional direct negative effect on the performance and results of the

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output of a process, then the hypothesis is formulated as

to measure a questionnaire which is an indicator of

follows:

variables

H3: The influence of the professional ethics of the audit opinion negatively mediated by dysfuntional behavior.

or

constructs.

Reliability

measurements

performed with Cronbach Alpha test. A construct said to be reliable if the Cronbach Alpha value

0.60 (Nunnaly,

1967 Ghozali 2004). The

research

model

that

describes

a

conceptual

framework as well as guide grooves thinking can be seen in Figure 2.1

Validity test used to measure whether a valid or invalid questionnaires.

A

questionnaire

as

valid

if

the

questionnaire is able to reveal something that will be measured by the questionnaire. Validity test is done by bivariate correlation between each score total indicator constructs. If the total correlation constructs showed significant results, then each indicator is a valid question Test the hypothesis using multivariate techniques Structur Equation Model (SEM). SEM modeling consists of a measurement model (measurement model) and the structural model (structural model). Structural model is intended to examine the relationship between exogenous and endogenous constructs. While the measurement model is intended to examine the relationship between indicators of the constructs / latent variable Ballen (1989) in Imam Ghozali (2005). The software used in this study 3. Research Methodology

is Amos ver 20.

3.1. Population and Sample

4. Results and Discussion

The population in this study is the banking industry in the

4.1.StatistikDesriptif

city of Bandar Lampung. As for the sample is internal auditors 3.2. Data Collection Technique

4.1.1. Delivery and Returns Questionnaire The data collection of this study using a questionnaire as an instrument collector, primary data. Primary data is the

Data collection techniques or patterns of sampling in the

answer of the respondent. The questionnaire used in this

study is to use the census sampling method, namely by

study is delivered directly to the respondent by visiting

taking all the existing samples for examination.

the respondent. Questionnaires distributed a total of 66

3.3. Data quality test

questionnaires. Of the 66 questionnaires distributed, a total of 7 pieces not be returned because of busy at work

Data quality test conducted on the test reliability and

and 2 incomplete. Thus, at the end of the study the

validity test with SPSS version 18.0 Solfware (Statistical

number of questionnaires collected was 57 questionnaire.

Product and Service Solutions). Reliability test intended

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4.1.2. characteristics of Respondents Characteristics of respondents obtained based on data derived from the questionnaire. In summary it can be seen in the following table 4.1:

Validity test is done by bivariate correlation (Pearson correlation) between the respective indicator scores with a total score of the construct. An indicator of the question as valid if the correlation between each of the indicators showed significant results. Results of test validity can be seen in table 4.3.

4.3. Hypothesis Testing Having tested for normality and outliers using Amos ver 5.0, the data can be submitted for filing hypothesis. 4.2. Quality Test Data Test data quality include the reliability and validity of the test. Reliabitas test conducted with Cronbach alpha test

Summary comparison of models built with the cut of the goodness of fit indices are defined, appears in the following table 4.4:

using SPSS. A construct said to be reliable if it gives Cronbach alpha values> 0.60 (Nunnaly, 1967 Ghozali, 2004). Reliability test results are presented in table 4.2.

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Index criteria showed a good level of acceptance that all

regression weight) between Professional ethics audit

show the value of the corresponding fit. To test the

(PEA) of the Audit Opinion (AO) showed positive effect

hypothesis, it can be seen the magnitude and probability

1.231, with the value of the critical ratio (CR) of 3.359

of Critical Ratio and the output of the following

and p-value of 0. The CR value is far above the critical

regression weight in table 4.5

value of ± 1.96 with a significance level of 0 (ie significant) that p is under significant value 0:05. Thus the first hypothesis can be accepted. These results are consistent with research Kusuma (2012) where his research concluded that the professional ethics positive and significant effect on the level of materiality considerations of public accountants in providing an opinion. In addition, these results also reinforce the research done Sukmawati (2014) that professional ethics related to the audit opinion. Every public accountant is also expected to uphold the Professional Ethics which has been established by the Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants, so that the situation of unfair competition can be avoided. Without ethics, the accounting profession would not exist as a function of accounting is a provider of information for business decision-making process by the business. By upholding the Professional Ethics is not expected to occur cheating among public accountants, so it can provide the auditor's opinion that really fit with the financial statements

Which is

presented by the client. PEA

= Professional Ethics Audit Hypothesis 2

AP

= AuditorProfesionalism

DB

= Dysfunctional Behavior

AO

= Audit Opinion

Hypothesis two stated Effect of the Professional ethics audit (PEA)of the audit opinion (AO) is mediated by the auditor professionalism (AP). For two hypotheses in this study developed a model that connects directly influence 4.6. Discussion

the construct Professional ethics audit (PEA)) through intermediate variables auditor professionalism (AP) to the

Hypothesis 1

audit opinion (AO)

The first hypothesis (H1) stated that there is a relationship between ethics with precision giving opinions. The test results of the estimation parameters (standardized

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Without ethics, the accounting profession would not exist as a function of accounting is a provider of information for business decision-making process by the business. By upholding the Professional Ethics Audit, the level of auditor professionalism will be higher, because the professional audit will prevent fraud among public accountants, so as to give an audited opinion that really fit The direct effect is the loading factor or lambda value of each indicator that form the latent variables are analyzed (Agusty,

2001).

To

determine

the

influence

of

Professional ethics audit (PEA)) through intermediate variables auditor professionalism (AP) to the audit

with the financial statements presented by the company. The results of this study are consistent with the results of research Herath and Susanto (2009), which gives evidence that the positive effect of Professional Ethics Audit for consideration Materiality level. This study also supports the results of research conducted Wahyudi et al.

opinion (AO).

(2014) which proves that the audit professionals is one of the decisive factors in the provision of audit opinion. Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis three stated Effect of the professional ethics audit of the audit opinion negatively mediated by dysfunctional behavior. For three hypotheses in this study developed a model that connects directly influence the construct Professional Ethics Audit (EA) through intermediate variables dysfunctional behavior (DB) to the Audit Opinion (OA).

The magnitude of the indirect effect of ethics audit of the audit opinion by the auditor professionalism for 0.779. Positive sign tesebut give meaning that audit professionals proved to mediate between ethical audit and audit opinion. Hypothesis two stated Effect of the professional ethics of the audit opinion is mediated by the audit professionalism accepted Public

accountants

are

expected

to

uphold

the

Professional Ethics audit which has been established by the Indonesian Institute of Certified Public Accountants, so that the situation of unfair competition can be avoided.

The magnitude of the indirect effect of ethics audit of the audit opinion by Dysfunctional behavior of 1,370. Positive sign ofgive meaning that dysfunctional behavior

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proved negative mediate between ethical audit and audit

business. By upholding the Professional Ethics

opinion. Hypothesis three states influence the professional

Audit is not expected to occur cheating among

ethics of the audit opinion negatively mediated by

public accountants, so it can provide the auditor's

dysfunctional behavior be accepted.

opinion that really fit with the financial statements presented by the client.

Process audit activities will not succeed in generating opinion if it is not accompanied by the behavior of the

2.

between the audit and the audit opinion. The

individual (auditors) that support the process. According

results of this study are consistent with the

to Jaworski and Young (1992) dysfunctional behavior can

results of research Herath and Susanto (2009),

be defined as "an act done less than the maximum effort

and supports research conducted Wahyudi et al.

to manipulate the elements of the control system with the

(2014) which proves that the audit professionals

desired destination. Ethics auditor if accompanied

is one of the decisive factors in the provision of

dysfuntional attitude will certainly have a negative impact

audit opinion. By upholding the Professional

on the process of the audit work. Dysfunctional attitudes

Ethics Audit, the level of professionalism the

will lead to a breaking ethical and professional attitude

audit will be higher, because the professional

shows that the results of their audit opinion had become

audit

incompatible with the real situation occurs in the

will

prevent

fraud

among

public

accountants, so as to give an audited opinion that

companies they audit. In summary ethical auditors to

really fit with the financial statements presented

audit opinion will not be effective when it is influenced

by the company

by factors dysfuntional behavior. This is consistent with research that has been done by Soobaroyen (2004) and

Professional ethics audit proved to mediate

3.

Dysfunctional behavior proved negative mediate between

Wiyantoro (2006) which proves that the behavior

ethical

audit

and

audit

opinion.

Dysfunctional attitudes will lead to a breaking

dysfuntional direct negative effect on the performance or

ethical and professional attitude shows that the

the outcome of the process.

results of their audit opinion had become 5. Conclusions and Recommendations

incompatible with the real situation occurs in the companies they audit. In summary ethical

5.1. Conclusion

auditors to audit opinion will not be effective The results of this study prove that: 1.

when it is influenced by factors dysfuntional behavior. This is consistent with research that

There is a positive relationship between ethics

has been done by Soobaroyen (2004) and

with precision giving opinions. These results are

Wiyantoro (2006) which proves that the behavior

consistent with research Kusuma (2012) and also

dysfuntional direct negative effect on the

strengthen the research done Sukmawati (2014)

performance or the outcome of the process.

that professional ethics related to the audit opinion.

Without

ethics,

the

accounting

profession would not exist as a function of

5.2. Suggestion

accounting is a provider of information for business

decision-making

process

by

the

1.

For auditors, need to increase the additional knowledge that can support the auditor's

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judgment in determining an opinion on the financial statements. 2.

Relations with colleagues need to be improved to establish good communication, so there is no difference between the auditor's perception of the other

auditors

and

prevent

dysfunctional

behavior behavior that will affect the outcome of the opinion the financial statements. 3.

In performing its duties, the auditor must comply with the Professional Ethics Audit which has been established by professional organizations, so do not act according to personal preference.

4.

It should be the development of research instruments, ie adapted to the conditions and environment of the object to be studied.

5.

For further research on the same topic should use statistical tools based SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) as LISREL.

Refferences [1]. Arrens.,Loebbecke.2002. Auditing .Terjemahan. EdisiKedua. SalembaEmpat. Jakarta [2]. Elder, Randal J., et al. 2011. Jasa Audit dan Assurance: PendekatanTerpadu (Adaptasi Indonesia), Buku 1. Jakarta: PenerbitSalembaEmpat. [3]. Ghozali, Imam. 2006. AplikasiAnalisis Multivariate dengan program SPSS. Cetakan IV. BadanPenerbitUniversitasDiponegoro. Semarang [4]. Ghozali, Imam. 2004. Model persamaanstructural ,konsepdanaplikasidengan program AMOS Ver.5.0 .BadanPenerbitUniversitasDiponegoro, Semarang. [5]. Gusti, MaghfirahdanSyahril Ali. 2008. HubunganSkeptisismeProfesional Auditor danSituasiEtika ,PengalamansertaKeahlian Audit denganKetepatanPemberianOpini Auditor olehAkuntanPublik . JurnalSimposiumNasionalAkuntansi XI. [6]. HerawatidanSusanto. (2009). PengaruhProfesionalisme, PengetahuanMendeteksiKekeliruandanEtikaProfesit erhadapPertimbangan Tingkat MaterialitasAkuntanPublik. JurnalAkuntansidanKeuanganVol.11 No. 1 [7]. Ifadadan M. Ja far. (2005). PengaruhSikapProfesionalisme Internal AuditorTerhadapPeranan Internal Auditor

dalamPengungkapanTemuan Audit.JurnalBisnis, ManajemendanEkonomi. Vol.7 No. 3 [8]. InstitutAkuntanPublik Indonesia. 2011. StandarProfesionelAkuntanPublik 31 Maret 2011. Jakarta: PenerbitSalembaEmpat. [9]. Jaworski, B.J., and S.M. Young. 1992. Dysfunctional Behavior and Management Control: An Empirical Study of Marketing Managers . Accounting, Organizattion and Society 17 (1): 17-35 [10]. Kusuma, NovandaFriska. 2012. PengaruhProfesionalisme Auditor, EtikaProfesidanPengalaman Auditor terhadapPertimbangan Tingkat Materialitas,Skripsi. UniversitasNegeri Yogyakarta. [11]. Noveria. (2006). PengaruhProfesionalisme Auditor Internal terhadap WorkOutcome Audior Internal. Skripsi. TidakDipublikasikan. UNPADBandung [12]. Sukmawati, Ni. LuhGede, dkk. 2014. Pengaruhetikaprofesi, kecerdasanintelektual, kecerdasanemosionaldankecerdasan spiritual terhadapopini audit (Studiempirispada Kantor AkuntanPublik Wilayah Bali. e-JournalS1 AkuntansiUniversitasPendidikanGaneshaJurusanAk untansi Program S1 (Vol:2 No:1 Tahun 2014) [13]. Suraida. (2005). Uji Model Etika, Kompetensi, Pengalaman Audit danResiko Audit TerhadapSkeptisismeProfesional Auditor. JurnalAkuntansi. Th IX/02/Mei [14]. SoobaroyenTeerooven. 2006. Management Control System and Dysfunctional Behavior: an Empirical Investigation . Accounting Behavior. Email: [email protected] [15]. Wahyudi, Putra. Dwi,. 2014. Hubunganetikaprofesi, keahlian, pengalamandenganketepatanwaktupemberianopinid alam audit laporankeuanganmelaluipertimbanganmaterialitasd anskeptismeprofesional auditor. JurnalAkuntansi Review [16]. Wijayanti, GersontanLewi. 2012. PeranKecerdasanEmosional Dan Kecerdasan Spiritual DalamMeningkatkanKinerja Auditor. DalamJurnalIlmiahMahasiswaAkuntansiVol 1, No.2 [17]. Wiyantoro, Lili S. 2008. Hubunganantara system pengendalianmanajemendenganperilakudysfunction al :budayanasionalsebagaivariabel moderating. SNA XII Pontianak

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AN AUDIT ANALYSIS ON SERVICE INFORMATION SYSTEM AT ACADEMIC ADMINISTRATION BUREAU OF INFORMATICS AND BUSINESS INSTITUTE DARMAJAYA BANDAR LAMPUNG THROUGH COBIT 4.1 Amnah1 Lecturer of Computer Science Study Program in Informatics Engineering Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. Z.A. Pagar Alam No. 93 Labuhan Ratu Bandar Lampung email: [email protected] there are still some TI processes below the international

ABSTRACT

standard, so it requires recommendation to increase the Academic Administration Bureau is a bureau considered as

conformity between TI goal and institutional goal to reach

standards for giving service to all students of Informatics

a higher level.

and Business Institute Darmajaya (IBI Darmajaya). Information system at this bureau plays an important role

KEY WORDS: Maturity level, Expected, Information

in providing service to the students and is expected to be

System, Asset Management, COBIT

able to improve job performance and service quality. For the time being the implemented service information system

1.

at Academic Administration Bureau has not been much

Background of the Problem

benefited and not known whether it is in accordance with

Like other universities in Indonesia, IBI Darmajaya is

the vision and mission of the institution.

responsible for carrying out education properly in which

INTRODUCTION

the academic service becomes the main priority. Academic To

make

the

service

offered

by

the

academic

service at universities includes 3 main processes; they are

administration bureau relevant to the business goal of the

teaching, research,

and internal or external service

institution, it is required to know the conformity level

activities (Harniyati Kusniyati, 2009).

between TI goal and Institutional goal. To obtain the conformity level between TI goal and institutional goal, it

According to management aspects, the three processes are

needs a measurement of conformity level between the two

products and services offered by the institution to the

goals by using COBIT 4.1.

consumers. To have them more effective, it needs to analyze the previous audit processes.

The result finding of the research is the conformity level

Based on the explanation, it is important to do an Audit

between TI goal and institutional goal is obtained and

Analysis

stands at Defined level because the average of TI processes

Administration

has been above the international level standard as 2.5

Lampung.

on

Information Bureau

of

System IBI

at

Academic

Darmajaya

(Guldentops, 2000). Even though the average of TI processes has been over the international level standard,

280 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

Bandar

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Limitation of the Problem

which also has 34 high level objectives and 6

In this research the problems includes:

publications.

DS domain in DS1 process. DS DS domain in DS10 process DS DS domain in DS12 process

Scope of the Problems This research involves the Service Information System Audit at the academic administration bureau by analyzing the gap and recommending an improvement toward the service audit that has been done.

Objectives of the Research The objectives of the research to be reached ate as follows: 1.

To do an analysis on service information system at academic administration bureau at IBI Darmajaya by Figure 2.2. COBIT Domain Framework

using framework COBIT 4.1 2.

To become a reference for the improvement of service quality at the academic administration bureau.

3. OBJECTIVES AND USES OF THE RESEARCH 3.1. Objectives of the Research

2 . LITERATURE REVIEW

The objective of the research is to analyze service information system at the academic administration

2.1. Objectives of Audit The objective of information system audit is to evaluate whether the service information system

bureau using COBIT 4.1. framework

at IBI

Darmajaya Bandar Lampung

control has been able to give proper assurance on time, accuracy, correctness, asset security, data integrity,

effectiveness,

efficiency,

,availability,

3.2. Uses of the Research 1.

existing problems easily.

compliance, and reliability. 2.2. Audit Phases

2.

audit process phases such as: planning, fieldwork,

3.

Management and placement of assets are correct.

4.

For the users or students, their needs for optimal service will be continuously filled up.

reporting, follow-up. COBIT designed consists of 34 control objectives reflected on 4 domains, namely: Plan and Organize (PO), Acquire and Implement (AI), Deliver and

For the management, it can help identify what is needed by students.

There are several phases in information system audit process. Many opinions delivered by experts on the

For the management, it can be used to know the

5.

For the students, they will hardly get difficulties in getting services at the academic administration bureau.

Support (DS), and Monitor and Evaluate (ME). Those four domains can be illustrated in the below figure

281 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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4, RESEARCH METHOD

5.1. Result of Current Maturity Level Evaluation (Performance)

4.1. Research Design

Current Maturity Level (Performance) and expectancy at

The research design is by doing literary study on Documents of IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung consistent with vision and mission, objectives and

the academic administration bureau where respondents are management category can be illustrated in the radar graph below:

strategic plans of the institution. Scope of Information System Audit The scope of COBIT framework starts from the interview conducted by the researcher to relevant parties, and questionnaires distributed to all sections of the management.

CURRENT USER

DS1.1 DS12.5 5 DS1.2 4 DS12.4 DS1.3 3 2 DS12.3 DS1.4 1 0 DS12.2 DS1.5 DS12.1 DS10.4 DS10.3

Objectives of the Research By conducting an information system audit at the

CURRENT MGT Expectacy User

DS1.6 DS10.1 DS10.2

Expectacy MGT

academic administration bureau using COBIT 4.1. framework at IBI Darmajaya Bandar Lampung it can be taken as a reference for service improvement

Figure 5.1. Current Maturity Level (Performance) and

at the bureau..

expectancy user & management category

Research Contribution The research gives positive contribution to the

In table 5.4 it can be seen the result of computation

institution especially to the academic administration

obtained from users and management at current maturity

bureau. In addition, this audit done is aimed at

level and expectancy, so it is obvious that the gain of

dilakukan dengan tujuan :

current maturity level reaches the gap resulted from users

a.

and management.

Helping the director monitor job performance of the academic administration bureau.

b.

Giving maximum service to the students.

c.

Helping all students services optimally.

5. EXPECTED RESULTS DOMAIN

PROCESS

DS1

Current Maturity Level

Expected Maturity Level

User Gap

Man. Gap

user

Mgt

user

Mgt

define and manage service levels

3.50

4.45

4.38

4.65

0.88

0.2

DS10

Manage problems and incidents

3.44

4.41

4.30

4.66

0.86

0.25

DS12

Manage Facilities

3.66

4.60

4.48

4.70

0.82

0.1

5.2. Analysis of Management Gap

5.3. Analysis of User Gap

The result of current maturity level computation for the

The lowest current maturity level at DS1 process is

current academic administration bureau is still below the

determining and managing the service levels to users at

expected maturity level.

level 3.39, due to DS1.3 process i.e. service treaty, while

282 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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the highest current maturity level in DS12

process is

managing facilities at level 3.57.

6. FOLLOWING PHASE PLANS The next activities to be done are socializing audit results, completing data when needed, delivering audit results to stakeholders via announcement board, and making final report(s).

IT Governance Institute (2000), Executive Summary, COBIT 3rd Edition, http://www.isaca.org, 14 Juli 2003. IT Governance Institute (2000), Audit Guidelines, COBIT 3rd Edition, http://www.isaca.org, 14 Juli 2003. Weber, Ron (1999), Information Systems Control and Auditing, The University of Queensland, Prentice Hall.

7. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 7.1. Conclusion The audit activity once done has reached satisfactory values, but it still needs developing by adding domains related to the services. 7.2. Suggestion The management of IBI Darmajaya has to demand the academic administration bureau to do some improvement as follows: 1. IBI Darmajaya periodically has to do analysis of audit results. 2. IBI Darmajaya has to analyze KPI and KGI to obtain better results. 3. it is important to add other domains to strengthen audit results.

References Bambang, Uji Publik draf Sarana dan Prasarana Pendidikan Tinggi, Rubrik Berita, Jakarta, 2009. Boyke Hidayat, (2011), Evaluasi Itegrated Toll Collection System Dengan Menggunakan FRAMEWORK COBIT, Institut Pertanian Bogor Data Perguruan Tinggi Indonesia, http://www.evaluasi.dikti.go.id. 23 Februari 2012. Gunadarma, Prosedur Peminjaman Barang NOC, Jakarta, Desember 2009 Harni Kusniyati, Strategi Peningkatan Layanan IT di Universitas Mecu Buana, Jakarta, 2009.

283 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

IMPLEMENTATION OF NAÏVE BAYES CLASSIFICATION METHOD TO PREDICT GRADUATION TIME OF IBI DARMAJAYA SCHOLAR Ketut Artaye1 Informatics Engineering IBI Darmajaya Lampung Z.A. Pagar Alam Street No.93 Bandar Lampung email : [email protected]

To receive and to maintain that predicate is not an easy

ABSTRACT

task, because of that needed a strategy to maintain quality Quality of a university can be seen in the average of how

that has been achieve throughout the process. Quality of a

long a collage student take to graduate, how long for

college can be seen from graduation time and also getting a

graduates to have a job also can be seen in study time in

job also can be seen from study time of the scholar.Every

university. Every university study time will variate with

college will have variation of graduation time from

different student in the university.Every major responsible

different scholar. The scholar is one of important aspect in

for study development of scholars.They also have a task to

evaluation of college s major accomplishment. Monitoring

predict study time length of every college student to decide

the student s entry, progress of the student, student s

and anticipate student who skip class that will cause a bad

achievement, the graduation ratio of he number of student

result in major performance.

passing, and competency of graduates should be getting a

It is important to be done, especially in Informatics and

serious

Business Institute Darmajaya to maintain quality and

appreciate

performance of each major. Because of that reason, writer

Engineering is one of major program at IBI Darmajaya and

did research with title Implementation of Naïve Bayes

one of favorite major choices in 2008 until 2011 with

Classification Method to Predict Graduation Time of

average of 250 scholars each year.However in 2012-2014

IBI Darmajaya Scholar to understand about average

this major program going through a degradation seen from

study time of each college student.

interest quantity of scholar whom took the major program.

attention to receive trust from stakeholder in and

alumnus

requirement.

Informatics

Furthermore average level of graduation is decreasing. Key Words: Naïve Bayes Classification, Predict, Scholar

Major Program responsible to monitoring study progress of

Graduation.

the scholar. They also have task to predict study time for each student to decide and anticipating student from skip class which reason of bad major perform.

1. INTRODUCTION Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya is one of leading private college institution in LAMPUNG province,

2. LITERATURE STUDY

founded in 1995. The credibility given by society, local

1. Data Mining

government

and

central

government

(DIKTI),

IBI

Darmajaya has growth and developed to be a big college and have a good reputation as education institution.

Based on Kusrini (2009) Dataminingisa term used to find hidden knowledge in database.Dataminingi s a semi-automatics process using statistics, math, artificial intelligence, and machinelearningto extract and identify

284 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015

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potential knowledge information and become a benefit in

In this research will be implemented Naïve Bayes

bigger database.

Classifier Method to predict time of graduation which this

Data mining is not an entirely new field. One of the difficulties of defining data mining is the fact that data

research can determine exactness of study time in informatics engineering major.

mining inherited many aspects and techniques from the different fields of science that are already well established in advance. Data mining has long roots from the field of science such as artificial intelligence (artificial intelligent), machine learning, statistical, database and also information

System analysis presented in this paper is a whole description of the obstacles in application in Naïve Bayes Classification algorithm in deciding study time of IBI Darmajaya scholar. As for attribute used in predicting time of graduation cover:

retrieval.

a. Gender 2. Naïve Bayes Classification

Variable gender only have two possibilities, which is male and female.In research by Purwanto (2007) in

The bayes theory is the fundamentals statistic approach in

Lampung with 230 scholar samplewhom worn in

the introduction of a pattern recognition. This approach based

on

the

quantification

of

trade-off

different position andgradeon plantation show that their

between

salary depend on gender.

classification various decisions made by the use of

b. Hometown

probability and the charges caused in those decisions.

Hometown variable divide into Bandar Lampung City Bayesianclassification is statistic classification that can be

and Outer from Bandar Lampung City. Whom the

used

a

hometown is in Bandar Lampungthen classified the

class.Bayesianclassification based on Bayes theory that has

data inn DALAM KOTA while the others is LUAR

classification

KOTA .

to

predict

probability

ability

of

same

membership

with

of

decisiontreeand

neuralnetwork.Bayesianclassification proved had accuracy

c. Type of Shcool

and high velocity when applied in database with massive

Type of Scholl variable contain all the possibility of

data(Kusrini, 2009). Bayes T h e o r y have general form

school typebefore university entrance. Value

: X = Data with unknown class H= Hypothesisd a t a fromXwith specific class

that determined on the software depend on the

P(H|X)=Probability of H Hypothesis based on x fact

classification result, which is for senior high school

(posteriori prob.) P(H) = Probability of H Hypothesis (prior prob.)

classified to general and the others to vocational. d.

School Location School location variable classified become from inner

P(X|H)=Probability ofXbased on current condition P(X) = Probability of X

city of Bandar Lampung or outside Bandar Lampung City. If the school location is in inner city of Bandar Lampung then classified the data in

3. RESEARCH METHOD

DALAM

KOTA other than that classified in LUAR KOTA . e. Economic

285 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015

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Economicis a variable contain about family welfare. Choices in this software are divided into three parts,

g.

Decision

which is high, middle, and lower.

Decision variable is a data that functioning to decide the result.In data classification already fixed, so there is no mistake in calculation of the software. Decision

Table 3.1 Family Welfare No

Penghasilan

Keterangan

1

Penghasilan Rp.1500.000

In this stages, begins with getting data samples from

Sedang

student whom already graduate to be used as data training.

dan < Rp.3.000.000/Bulan 3

Penghasilan

>

Rp.

Used data already clean up and transformed into

Tinggi

category.In this test data sample collected from 2011-2012

3.000.000/Bulan

generation that already graduate. From 191 student data, 50 record taken as data training.Based on data processing

f. Grade-Point Average of every

from the sample data, it classified into fast category is 21

semester already taken by student. The size of the GPA

students, on time category 6 student, and late category 23

of every student take effect to amount of SKS in the

students.

GPA variable is Grade-Point Average

next semester. Thereforethe amount of SKS will take big effect

to student study time. GPA variable

and test data.In Naïve Bayes Classification algorithm,

classified into 3 parts.

traning data used to create table of probabilities, and test

Table 3.2 Student GPA No

IPK

In testing process, the data divide into two parts, training

Keterangan

1

IPK > =3

3

2

IPK >= 2 dan IPK < 3

2

3

IPK < 2

1

data used to test the probability table. The datac a n b e s e e n a s b e l o w o n t a b l e 4.1.

Table 4.1 Student Data Training JENIS KELAMIN

KOTA LAHIR

TIPE SEKOLAH

KOTA SEKOLAH

IPK

EKONOMI

WAKTU KELULUSAN

L

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

P

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

TEPATWAKTU

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

LUAR KOTA

3

TINGGI

CEPAT

L

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

L

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

LUAR KOTA

2

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

LUAR KOTA

2

SEDANG

TEPATWAKTU

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

286 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

2

SEDANG

TELAT

L

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

2

SEDANG

TELAT

P

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

2

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

LUAR KOTA

2

SEDANG

TELAT

L

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

P

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

P

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

TINGGI

TEPATWAKTU

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

LUAR KOTA

2

SEDANG

TELAT

L

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

TEPATWAKTU

L

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

2

SEDANG

CEPAT

P

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

TEPATWAKTU

L

DALAM KOTA

KEJURUAN

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

2

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

2

SEDANG

TELAT

P

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

2

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

L

DALAM KOTA

KEJURUAN

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

TEPATWAKTU

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

2

TINGGI

CEPAT

P

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

P

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

P

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

DALAM KOTA

2

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

LUAR KOTA

KEJURUAN

DALAM KOTA

2

SEDANG

CEPAT

L

DALAM KOTA

UMUM

DALAM KOTA

2

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

L

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

TELAT

P

LUAR KOTA

UMUM

LUAR KOTA

3

SEDANG

CEPAT

to create probability table.The next step will be given the

5. TESTING This testing intend to understand the

Naïve Bayes

test data to test the table of probability.

Classificationalgorithm in data classification into class

Based on training data on table 4.1, it can be classified if

which has been specified.On this test, training data given

the student data given input in gender, school type, School

287 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

location, economic welfare, and GPA using Naive Bayes

P(IPK= 3 | Y=Late)=14/23

Classification algorithm.This is the example of student

P(Economic= Middle| Y=Fast)= 19/21

data of IBI Darmajaya majoring Information Engineering

P(Economic= Middle| Y=On Time)=5 /6

that the class are unknown.

P(Economic= Middle| Y=late)=23/23

Gender

= Male

Hometown

= Inner city

School type

= Vocational

School Location = Inner city GPA

=3

Economic

= Medium

3. Multiplied all the result of fast variable, on time variable, and late variable. P(Male\Fast) x P(Inner City\Fast) x P(vocational\Fast) x P(2.8\Fast) x P(Inner City\ Fast) x P(Middle\ Fast). = = 0.7143 x 0.2381 x 0.2381 x 0.5238 x 0.7619 x

Based on the test data, it can be decide by this few steps :

0.9048

1. Calculating Number of class / label

=0.0146

P (fast) = 21/50

The amount of dataFastin data

training divided by all amount of data . P (On Time) = 6/50 The amount of dataOn Timein data training divided by all amount of data .

P(Male \On time) x P(Inncer City\on time) x P(vocational\on time) x P(2.8\ on time) x P(inner city\ on time) x P(middle\ on time). =

P (Late) = 23/50

The amount of datalatein data

training divided by all amount of data .

=0.0667 x 0.5000 x 0.3333 x 0.1667 x 0.8333 x 0.8333

2. Calculating the amount of the same case with the same class :

= 0.0129 P(Male\late) x P(inner city\late) x P(vocational\late) x

P (Gender = Male| Y=Fast) = 15/21

P(2.8\ late) x P(Inner city\late) x P(middle\late).

P (Gender = Male|Y=On Time) = 4/6

=

P (Gender = Male|Y=Late) = 20/23

=0.8696 x 0.2174 x 0.3043 x 0.3478 x 0.6087 x 1

P(Hometown= Inner City | Y= Fast)=5/21 P(Hometown= Inner City | Y= On Time)=3/6 P(Hometown= Inner City | Y= Late)=5/23

= 0.0122 4. Compare the result from fast, on time, and late.

P(School Type= Vocational | Y=Fast)=5/21

From the result above, we can see the highest

P(School Type= Vocational | Y=On Time)=2/6

probability value belongs to class (P|Fast), so we can

P(School Type= Vocational | Y=late)=7/23

conclude that the student graduate fast.

P(School Location= Inner City | Y=Fast)=11/21 P(School Location= Inner City | Y= On Time)=1/6

6. RESULT

P(School Location= inner City | Y= Late)=8/23

According to the implementation result using 50 training

P(IPK= 3 | Y=Fast)=16/21

data which from every class with total percentage 42%

P(IPK= 3 | Y= On Time)=5/6

288 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015

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Fast class, 12% on time class and 46 late class. From three

4.

The period of study or in this case accuracy of

class, late class got the highest point. Next step is doing

study period every university student can be

the testing for 20 test data then obtained 20% fast class,

predicted according to the high school they

35% on time class and 45% late class. From every class,

attend before, genders and academic data and

the subclass was taken as comparison, such as gender

also personality in university.

subclass and school city subclass. SUGGESTION According to the testing data, the result is woman tend to

1.

Total data that used as training data or testing data can be added until the result obtain a better algorithm

graduate faster or on time rather than male that more late

function.

dominant. The same result as school city, where university student from another region/city tend to be late

2.

For the future developing, there s possibility to do

rather than university student that come from the city. The

more trials with another algorithm and the result can

student university that come from the city tend to be fast

be compared and analyzed.

or on time to graduate. 3.

Predictor variable that used can be added more and

7 CONCLUSION

the data value variation can be more and data

According to the problem background and the discussion

consistency can be noted.

on the previous section, the conclusions are : 1.

REFERENCES

Training data percentage that used is 42% Fast class, 12% on time class and 46% late class. The determination of training data can be the rule for data testing.

2.

[1] Han, J., Kamber, M. (2000). Data mining: Concepts and Techniques New York: Morgan- Kaufman. [2] Budi S.(2007). Data mining: Teknik Pemanfaatan data untuk keperluan bisnis. Teori & Aplikasi. Garha

According to testing result using 20 testing data

Ilmu: Surabaya.

with gender subclass obtained : male that graduate fast 1 person, on time 4 person and late 8 person. On the other side, female that graduate fast 3 person, on time 3 person and late 1 person. From that result, female has bigger opportunity to graduate fast or on time. 3.

Naïve

Bayes

probabilistic

algorithm science

and

supported

statistic

by

science,

decision of classification. In Naïve Bayes algorithm, every attribute will give contribution in decision making with attribute integrity that important

and

2009, hlm. 6

11.

Klasifikasi status gizi

menggunakan Naive bayesian classification . [4] Amir Hamzah (2012).SNASTPeriode III Klasifikasi Teks Dengan Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC)

is

especially in using guide data to support the

equally

[3] Sri Kusumadewi (2009).CommIT, Vol. 3 No. 1 Mei

every

untuk Pengelompokan Teks Berita dan Abstract Akademis , Yogjakarta. [5] Fithri, A.L(2013): Jurnal SIMETRIS, Vol 4 No 1 Nopember

2013

Sistem

Pendeteksian

Penyimpangan Tingkah Laku Anak Usia 0 sampai 3 Tahun Dengan Metode Bayesian .

attribute

independent one and another.

289 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

[6] Bustami,(2013)TECHSI: Jurnal Penelitian Teknik Informatika Penerapan Algoritma Naive Bayes Untuk Mengklasifikasi Data Nasabah Asuransi . [7] Salim,Y. (2012): Media SainS, Volume 4 Nomor 2, Penerapan Algoritma Naive Bayes

Untuk

Penentuan Status Turn-Over Pegawai [8] Rosmala D, Wulandari.(2014). Konferensi Nasional Sistem Informasi 2014, No Makalah : 050 Implementasi Crisp-Dm Dan Naïve Bayes Classifier Pada Datamining Churn Prediction . [9] Kusrini , L. Taufiq Emha . 2009. Algoritma Data Maining, Edisi Pertama. Andi Yogyakarta. [10] S.Yeffrianjah (2012). Media SainS, Volume 4 Nomor 2, Oktober 2012 Penerapan algoritma naive bayes Untuk penentuan status turn-over pegawai [11] Sutrisno, Widianto, Afriyudi.(2013).Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Informatika Ilmu Komputer Vol.x No.x, 4 November 2013 : 1-11

Penerapan data

mining pada penjualan menggunakan metode clustering

study

kasus

pt.

Indomarco

Palembang .

290 |International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th-21stAugust 2015

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USING QUALITY OF SERVICE VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) ON E-KTP BANDAR LAMPUNG Novi Herawadi Sudibyo1,Muhammad Said Hasibuan2 Institute Business and Informatic Darmajaya1,2 Jln ZA Pagar Alam no 93 A Bandar Lampung1, 2 [email protected], [email protected]

security concern. One utilization of network security in

ABSTRACT

the use of Virtual Private Network (VPN)[1]. Implementation e-ktp in Bandar Lampung , there are several

obstaclesin

the

field,

among

others,

are

oftendelays inthe exchange of databetween theserverthatis locatedin the districtandthat is inthe centralserver. Tofind the cause ofthese obstaclesand the importance ofthe quality

ofnetwork

servicesit

is

necessary

todothemeasurementthatcanbeusedtomeasurethePerforma nce of/qualityofnetworkservice VPN that isused in the implementation of E-Ktpin Bandar Lampungon each eachin the district, the main problemin this studyis" Identification

of

QualityofService

Virtual

Private

Network (vpn) on the Implementationof Electronic-Ktp" in Bandar Lampung. By using Axcent Net Toolsand methods used action research model with QoSmonitoring system. KEYWORDS: Network VPN, Quality Of Service, ActionResearch

The application of electronic-identity card (e-KTP) in Bandar Lampung has been implemented in 2011, was conducted in 13 districts in the city float, each district has two client computers and one computer server. Each server that is districts directly connected to an existing data center in jakarta. To support the connection between the server districts with data center servers require a data communications network that is fast and safe. For that in the implementation of E-Ktp used VPN network to transfer media data from the server to the server data center districts, but in. implementation are still many obstacles that arise. Some problems were encountered of which are data access and data transfer results from the data recording many people still retained in the server districts, despite the use of special lanes or VPN. Some of the factors that cause these problems include the effect of bandwidth, the device used, the number of clients and

1. Introduction

others. The purpose of this study was to determine the

Background

performance of services or Performance of VPN network

Internet use is currently a need for all aspects of human

used in the implementation of E-KTP associated with

life, ranging from the world of business, education,

bandwidth, delay, and packet lost in every district in the

government and entertainment. Along with the growing

city of Bandar Lampung in order to support the successful

needs of Internet network access it is necessary to

implementation of E-KTP card.

network performance is excellent and reliable internet. In addition to the speed of the bullet the other hand is a

291 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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2. Literature Review

ability of the network to provide better service to certain

Computer network

network traffic channeled through a different technology -

The computer network is a collection of computers,

different. QoS is a major challenge in IP-based networks

printers and other equipment that is connected in one unit.

and the Internet as a whole. The goal of QoSAdalahuntuk

Information and data moving through wires or wirelessly,

meet the needs - the needs of different services - different,

allowing users of computer networks can exchange

which uses the same insfrastrukut. QoS offers the ability

documents and data, print on the same printer and jointly

to define the attributes - attributes of the service provided,

use hardware / software connected to the network[2].

both qualitatively and quantitatively. Computer network

Each computer, printer or peripherals connected to a

performance may vary due to several problems, such as

network is called a node. A computer network can have

bandwidth, latency and jitter that can make a big enough

two, tens, thousands or even millions of nodes.

effect for many applications.

Internet is a combination of a variety of LAN and WAN

3.Research Methods

computer network located throughout the world. Thus

3.1 Research Time

forming a network with a broader scale and global terms

This study start in January 2015 until February 2015

typically the Internet network using TCP / IP protocol to

3.2 Research Methods

transmit Internet data packets originating from the

The method usedinthis study using Action Research (AR),

(interconnected

the

the method it that theory and action may be closed prakti

relationship of a variety of computer networks in the

integrated with the learning of the results integrated with

world are integrated with each other to form a

the learning of the results of the intervention planned after

communications global terms.

detailed diagnosis of the problem context. Division,

networks)

which

means

that

Martinsons and Kock (2004, in Chandrax2008), while the

Understanding VPN IP VPN is a special type of VPN services that transmit Internet Protocol (IP) infrastructure through public private

phases of the Action Research in this research are: 1.

identifying the principal - the principal issue that is

IP or Internet. Which became a key benchmark is the IP

to be the basis of research by analyzing the existing

VPN IP service delivery to the end user. With IP VPN

VPN network system on each server - each district

data networking possible privately and securely over public

networks

or

private

IP

networks

for

communication users remote access, site-to site, or

perform diagnostics

that became the object of research. 2.

Actionplanning Understand that there are fundamental analysis and

corporate-to-corporate.

then develop a plan of action that is appropriate to

Understanding Quality of Service (QoS)

analyze the testing of the performance of existing

Quality of Service (QoS) is defined as a measure of how

VPN networks in districts.

well the network and is an attempt to define the

3.

Taking action

characteristics and nature of a service. QoS refers to the

292 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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Implementing an action plan that had been developed by testing the VPN network performance used in the district wit with h a reference standard of Quality of Service parameters. 4. 4

Evaluation To evaluate the results of implementation, in this stage to see how the results of the performance testing standards based Quality of Service.

5. 5

Learning In the learning stage researchers provide information and research results to the district for consideration

Figure 2 network monitoring axecennettolsPro5.0

and further basic improvement. 4.2 Monitoring Results After

conducting field monitoring directly the data

obtainedis expected that bandwidth,, delay, and packet Lostin the VPN network used in the implementation of Electronic Identity Card(e Card(e-ID) of each

eac district.

4.2.1Bandwidth Of the monitoring process hat has been done in the districton the parameters of bandwidth, bandwidth the bandwidth capacity of every point of the network services Vpn existing in the districtis not in accordance with the standard provided from the network provider or ISP standards (Internet Service Provider) (Internet Provider that is equal to128kbps, to128kbps, the Figure 1: 1 The network topology E-Ktp

source cross-Arta Arta, Bandwidth measurement is done using an application AxcentNetToolsPro5, AxcentNetToolsPro5, the measurement

4. Discussion 4.1NetworkPerformanceAnalysis

results asf ollows. ollows Table3.1 Value Bandwidth Int he District Network

Monitoring is doneasthe user interface of network applications, applications serves totake thetraffic data packets. packets As for monitoring

the traffic information data packets for

Quality of Service parameters were performed on each sub-district sub which is the objectof researchas follows follows:

293 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 2200th -21th August 2015

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4.2.2Throughput

Table3.4 Value Packet Loss In the District Network

Throughput is the ratio between data packets successfully to the destination or can also be regarded as actual measured bandwidth during transmission of data. Throughput measurement is done by testing the delivery or burden some data packets from one sub-district point and point by using a central server AxcentNetToolsPro5 software. Table3.2.throughput Value in each district

6.

Conclusion

From the results of measurements, observations, and analysis of QoS that has been done, it can take some conclusions as following. 1.

From

the

measurement

results

of

the

comparison between the available bandwidth 4.2.3 Delay

capacity with the actual bandwidth for each

Based on the measurement results of delay that has been

location in the sub-district results are still below

done in each - each subdistricts linked to the quality / vpn

the bandwidth capacity

network performance, can delay value in the average -

2.

Based on standardization TIPHON large packet

average dalama unit of millisecond (ms), the value of the

loss for Kemiling and sukabumi districts

measurement results of delay as in the following table:

classified in the degradation of good, for the king districts bases, cape coral reefs eastern and

Table3.3ValueDelayInthe DistrictNetwork

western promontory classified in moderate degradation. 3.

Low bandwidth and throughput that exist in the district due to the shape / layout goegrafis of each - each district and pengakat supporters. 4. For existing packet loss in the districts as a

4.2.4 Lost Packet

whole, including in the medium category with

Results of measurement of packet losson networks that

an average of 13%, however, still needs

existin the district vpn in 5 districts in the city of Bandar

improvements to further improve services.

Lampung, in the value of Packet Loss dam can count percentages(%) for each district. The measurement results foreach districtas follows:

294 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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References

[9]Kamarulla, A. (2009), Penerapan metode Quality Of Service Pada jaringan trafik Yang Padat ,

[1]Patton, 1980 (Dalamlexy J. Moleong 2002:103) Dan

Jurnal jaringan computer universitas sriwijaya.

Taylor, (1975: 79) Buku analisis Data

Diakses pada tanggal 13 Januari 2015, Dari (Www.Unsri.Ac.Id)

[2]Sofana. I. 2010, Cisco Ccna &Jaringan komputer, Informatika Bandung, Bandung.

[10] Dewo, S. (2010), Bandwidth dan Throughput. Diaksespadatanggal 11 Desember 2014, Dari

[3]Artikel Non-Personal,(2013), Axencenettools Pro 5.0, Diakses 8 Mei 2013,

(Http://Www.Ilmukomputer.Org/Wp-

Dari(Http://Www.Axencesoftware.Com)

Content/Uploads/2006/08/-Dewobandwidth.Zip.)

[4]Binus, 2007. Teknologi informasi jaringan komputer.

[11]

R. Er en, Virtual Private Networks, 2012.

[12]

P. T. Bakardjieva, Introduction To Computer

(Http://Library.Binus.Ac.Id/Ecolls/Ethesis/Bab1/ 2007-2-00166 If_Bab%201.Pdf :Diakses 12

Networking, Pp. 1 23.

April 2013)

[5]Chandra, 2008. Action Research.

[13]

Jaringan Internet Berbasis Hsdpa Indosat Im2

(Http://Chandrax.Wordpress.Com/2008/07/05/Ac

Wilayah Maguwoharjo Depok Sleman, Pp. 1 21,

tion-Researchpenelitian- Tindakan/ :Diakses 25

2011.

Desember 2014) [14] [6]Fatoni, 2012.Analisis Kualitas layanan jaringan Intranet. Dosen Universitas Bina Darma,

A. Irawan, Analisis Teknis Kualitas Layanan

R. S. Lubis And M. Pinem, Analisis Quality Of Service ( Qos ) Jaringan, Vol. 7, No. 3, Pp. 131 136, 2014.

Palembang

[7]Sesindo, 2011. Pengukuran kinerja jaringan. (Http://Digilib.Its.Ac.Id/Public/Its- Paper19953-Paper.Pdf : Diakses 10 Januari 2015)

[8]Sisitirahayu, 2013.Monitoring Tools. (Http://Sisitirahayu.Blogspot.Com/2013/03/Netw ork-Monitoringtools.Html :Diakses 29 Desember 2014)

295 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF ENTERPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATIVE ENTERPRENEUR S ROLES TO CONTINUAL DEVELOPMENT (A Literary Study) Mieke Rahayu Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Bandar Lampung enterpreneur s roles in implementing the continual

ABSTRACT Principally, if an enterprise is growing and keeps making innovations with a well structured pattern, the

development and the enterpreneur s roles in the success in managing innovation.

strategies to be done will be more focused and surely

It is concluded that the concept of continual

reduce the expenses. It means that innovation as a

enterpreneurship

competitive source can give a positive response to

environmental factors, so it will lead to the existence

customers and certainly to continual enterpreneurship.

of innovative eneterpreneurship and entrpreneur s

This

behavior, too.

framework

enterpreneurship

is

based

typology,

on

and

a

is

continual

included

should

consider

innovative

in

developing a social and institutional entrpreneurship. It

In the paper entitled,

means

the

determinants , a study at Small-Medium Businesses

enterpreneusrship approach to reach the social goal

(Priya Dharmija Gupta et.al,2013) explains that to

and to gain changes connected to markets as well as

build an economy is to criticize Small-Medium

continuing

gives

Business for being creative, introduce innovation and

continual

implement them ( Curran and Blarkburn,1994). In the

innovation and to reach continual enterpreneurship in

previous century, there were 60 % innovations gained

the continual development.

from Small-Medium Businesses and most of failure is

references

that

the

implementation

innovation. to

managers

This to

of

framework introduce

Firm growth and its

cause by professional incompetency and collaboration

1.

Introduction

with another enterprise ( Rotwell 1986, Noteboom

The literature review elaborates the conceptual

1991;Bougrain

approach

innovative

Schumpeter (1934) elaborates that entrepreneurs have

enterpreneur s roles to continual development. Based

to possess innovation, creativity, and risk taking

on the relevant literature review, the first part of this

attitude. Pajarinen, et.al(2006) says that entrepreneurs

review is describing a conceptual approach of

with high academic background use the most updated

enterpreneurship in the context to the continual

model and technique should be more innovative in

development. The perspective in the implementation of

running their business.

of

enterpreneurship

and

and

Haudeville,2002)

,

while

continual development is the success in managing the innovation, explaining the model as well as the

296 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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Furthermore,

in the paper,

Peran inovasi :

environment and developing new competence which

Pengembangan Kualitas produk dan Kinerja Bisnis ,

causes a competitive

Sri Hartini ( Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan ,

performance.

keunggulan and superior

Vol 14,No.1,Maret 2012:63-90), says that the research is aimed at explaining impacts of innovation on product quality and business performance of SmallMedium business in East Java. The result of the research indicates there is an effect of innovation on product quality and an effect of product quality on business performance. It indicated the importance of Small-Medium Business to be innovative and to produce high quality products to succeed in the global competition. By doing innovation, an enterprise expects to be able

In this conceptual review, some researchers explain innovative competence to the enterprise and gives an impact on continual development and competitive superiority. Each researcher gives different insights, but mainly every enterprise has its own characteristics, has priorities superior from vision and mission of the enterprise and at last, approaches that will be done through the products, management even strategies in the enterprise itself. 2.

Literature Review

to create new or distinctive products different from the

Some literature reviews can be described as follows:

previous ones or to make make-up or modified

Conceptual Approach of ecopreunership, social-

products as the improvement of the previous products

prneurship and Continual Enterpreneurship.

or to make products as betterment for the previous products. In consuming a product, a consument not

The

only looks at the value or function of a product needed

enterpreneurship is similar to a superior role or an

but he also needs to pay attention to additional value

innovative behavior or organization in business sector

and advantages of the product compared to another

which looks at the environmental aspect as the main

similar product.

goal and competitive superiority.

In consuming a product, a consument not only looks at

Ecopreneurs proves that environmental innovation,

the value or function of the product needed, but he also

market

pays attention to additional value or advantages

innovations will produce new service and products

compared to another similar product. Keinginan inilah

(Lober

yang harus dimengerti oleh produsen sebagai landasan

&Schallegger 2002 a,13)

untuk melakukan proses inovasi. The development of innovation which is successful will be the correct strategies to keep the product in the market, because most of competitor products appear static from year to year (Steve Kensinger, 1997, p.60). In addition, Hurley dan Hult (1998, p. 42) in the previous study concludes that an enterprise with a high innovation competence will be successful in responding to its

term

ecopreneurship

opppurtunity,

1998,

and

and

26;

environmental

implementation

Pustakia

of

1998,157;Petersen

Most writers do not define ecopreneurship for the environment-oriented

organization

or

intrapreneurenvironment in an existing organization. On

the

contrary,

ecopreuneurial

most

organization,

definitions a

consider

organizational

behavior, ecopreneurs ecopreneurial. Besides, most of the writers agree that ecopreneurship is a matter of implementing those innovations.

297 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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According to Schaltegger & Petersen 2000; Petersen &

environment and essence of the enterprise live

Schaltegger 2002.a ; Petersen & Schaltegger 2002 b;

environment.

Volery 2002 ; Azzone & Noci 1998; Isaak & Keck 1997 ; Isaak 1999;Lober 1998; Pastakia 1998; Farrow et.al 2000; Learson 2000; Welsch 1998),strategic problem is one of categories for ecopreneurship views. The ecopreneurial activities give a contribution to the competititive superiority. Some of the contribution in

Both categories determine the entrepreneurship to be used as a medium to change the society. (Anderson 1998, 142; Kyro 2001,24) In table 1 ecopreneurship conceptual approach can be elaborated below:

the category looks into the main characteristics of

Table 1.Existing conceptual approaches of

ecopreneurship and ecopreneurs by seeing the

ecopreneurship

environmental issues as one of their main business goal (Azzone & Noci 1998,99; Isaak 1999, 89; Schaltegger & Petersen,2000) Schaltegger

&

Petersen

(2000,12)

proves

Perspective

Strategic

Cognitive

Research question

Which features characterise an ecopreneurial strategies are in use?/Why and how should they be fostered?

Addressing innovation

Environmental innovation is viewed as a competitive advantage

Authors

Schaltegger & Petersen 2000; Petersen & Schaltegger 2002a; Petersen & Schaltegger 2002b; Volery 2002; Azzone & Noci 1998; Isaak & Keck 1997; Isaak 1999, Lober 1998, Pastakia 1998, Farrow et al. 2000, Larson 2000, Welsh 1998

How can identifying environmental opportunities be fostered? / Which role play environmental commitment or attitudes for ecopreneurshi p? Concentrating on the first stage of innovation: opportunity recognition; innovative climate is an important factor of fostering environmental innovation Krueger 1998; Hostager et al. 1998; Keogh & Polonsky 1998

that

ecopreneurship as the actor who introduces, create, and make use of the market which appear from ecological innovation. Some approaches of this category discusses factors that support and bother

ecopreneurship (Isaak

1999,pp.107;Petersen&Schaltegger

2002a,pp.15

;

Azzone&Noci1998,pp.108; Lober 1998,pp.27) The second group of writers took cognitive approaches asking how support ecological opppurtunity to support intrapreneursip (Krueger 1998; Hostager et.al.1998), or attitude. Role and ecopreneur (Keogh&Polansky 1998). Besides, Hestager et.al (1998) shows model, perception, opppurtunitys and ecological factors and innovative activities (Krueger 1998,179; Hostager et.al,1998, 14, 17) The third category was made by two writers, approaching to the topic and perspective sociohistoris (Anderson 1998,Kyro 220). Kyro (2001), supports economic environment and

Sociohistoric Which role plays ecopreneurs hip in society?

Ecoprene urship as instrumen t for social change (social innovatio n)

Anderson 1998, Kyrö 2001

entrepreneurship, while Anderson (1998) analyzes

298 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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The

above

finding

entrepreneurship

describes

means

that

innovative

the

social

behavior

Focus

or

Non-profit

Business

organization

organization

organization engaged in business and social aspects as

Research

What

the main goal.

question

differences

business

between

entrepreneur

businesses and

profile

It is true that a social entrepreneur is defined as business doer who combine social mission and business competence as innovation source, identifying and benefiting resources and also creating services. (Leadbeater

1997,8;Dees

1998,6;

Thompson

et

al.2000;328,Bent Goodley 2002,291)

are

the

How

can

the social

be

non-profits

and

described? Which

what

they

criteria

can

learn from each

characterise

other? Which are

business

the

entrepreneurs?

skillsand

social

However, there are two obvious differences between

characteristics of

What examples of

social concept of entrepreneurship and ecopreneursip.

social

business

First, the term social is used broadly with the word

entrepreneurs?

enterpreneurship

How can social

be fostered?

society , incluing environmental issues. In some approaches

social

entrepreneurship

enterpreneurship

includes

in the voluntary

ecopreneurship as sub-category (Dees,1998a,56)

sector Second, it is different from ecopreneursip approach which

discusses

business

organization

social

be

fostered?

and

environment.

Addressing

Innovation

innovation

means to respond

means

different groups of business doers up to non-profit.

to unmet social

profit in order

The main characteristics to identify social enterpreners

Needs

to pursue social

Most social enterpreship approaches are hangling

as

Innovation

as

to

are that their main goal is non-profit goal ( Drucker

objectives;

1989,89;Leadbeater 1997,19;Brinckerhoff 2000 pp.1)

as tool for

make

profit

social change The discussion of social entrepreneurship approaches in business sector can be seen in the following table.

Authors

Dees

1998a;

Drucker Dees

1989; 1998b;

Fowler 2000;

Schäfer

2003;

Tenenbaum 1996, Hodgkin 2002

Amalric

1998; Thompson 2002; Thompson Table 2 Existing conceptual approaches of social enterpreneurship

et

al.

2000;

Leadbeater 1997; Bent-Goodley

299 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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causes

2002

changes

gradually

based

on

the

next

development. The first category, the man goal integrating business organization and social entrepreneurship is non-profit organizational goal (Dees 1998 a,Drucker 1989,Dees 1998 b, Fowler 2000; Amalric 1998, Thomson 2002, Thompson et al.2000;Leadbeater 1997,Bent Goodley 2002) The

second

catergory,

there

are

3

The classification of innovation includes product innovation (product and service), process innovation and social innovation (Thom 1992:8) ; the last refers to social changes in the organization (Thom 1992) or in the society (Zapf, 1989)

social

enterprenurship contribution in business sector, that are by creating a business social entrepreneurship frame, by integrating three concepts: continual development of society, social responsibility, and socal enterpeuneurship (Hodgkin,2002,pp.35). The main goal of social entrepreneurship

is not

earnings, but more than the power of values (Hodgkin,2002,79) Innovation Role in Continual Development Figure 1. Categories and examples of innovations Innovation accrding to a narrow perspective is defining

concerning mobility passenger cars

the meaning of innovation for commercial exploitation (Hauschildt 1997,6), while in a broad meaning it means to find out and disseminate ideas (Brockhoff

The continual development discussion is initiated with the report WCED(World Commossion on Environment and Development,1987,8) . Varied interpretations that

1994,28)

exist are considered valid ( Hardtke&Prehn 2001,58) Innovation is defined as adoption and diffusion of an ideal product, intended to reach the continual market success.

Innovation

success

happens

when

an

entrepreneur reaches a competitive superiority in innovation, such as level of renewal or fits the innovation goal itself.

There are three aspects that are broadly accepted (Brand&Jochum

2000,175).

Intergration

aspect

focuses on ecological dimention, economic and social development

(Boersema&Bertels

2000,85,92,MCNeill,2000,17), demanding to consider the three inter-related dimentions. This perspective on

Mersch(1977,56) differentiate between fundamental

the assumsion base is current global problems that

and incremental. According to Merch, fundemental

cannot be solved separately, but it needs to be treated

innovation causes a radical change such as technology

as inter-related elements of complex problems

or socioculture which will be different in searching the

(Siebenhuner,2001,61;Dryzek,1997,7-8)..

existing alternatives, while incremental innovation

300 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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The keadilan aspect among generation from the

consumption pattern of quantitative growth procedure.

continual

In other words, consistency means compatibility or

development

concept

emphasizes

on

responsibilities to the next genetion. It demands a

correspondence.

long-term protection over natural resources (Brand

consistency refers to a compatible material flow with

2002,19). The aspect of intra-generational equity

natural resource cycle (Huber 1995,138). Efficiency

focuses on distribution of questions (either in a country

Strategy is aimed at reducing the number of materials,

or between countries) and is responsible for reserving

while consistency strategy is aimed at changing the

natural

quality of material flow (Huber,1995,139). Therefore,

resource

access,

nutrition,

health

and

education.

In

the

continual

development,

the aim of innovation is substituting compatible material flow to material flow. It is based on

Strategies needed in establishing the continual

fundamental innovation (Huber,1995:156).

development and innovation. Huber(19195) explains three

main

strategies

to

reach

the

continual

These three strategies cannot be separated. On the

development, i.e. : sufficiency , efficiency and

contrary, the success of strategic implementation is

consistency

due to combining the three strategies.

Strategic sufficiency is the limitation of natural resources which implicitly means limitation of economic growth (Sachs 1999,39). The question How many have been sufficient?

is an sufficiency of

order, either consumption or production. Then, the change of today s life style is based based on preventive principles, humble and economical, and it is the welfare key (Sachs 1999 pp 209,Huber 1995,123). It is clear that sufficiency focuses on social innovation to do the continual development (Huber 1995,125). Efficiency strategies are based on the concept of resource productivity (Sachs 1999,175). Economic principles are determined in ecological and social

Figure 2 The role of innovation for implementation strategies of sustainable development

contexts (Huber 1995,131). The effect of continual development efficiency is

Innovation Process Actor Promotor Model

criticized because of lack of resources usage in micro

One of continual development success factors is

or macro and the increase of resource consumption

innovation (Huber,1995,156), and it indicates that the

caused by the effect of volume and growth increases

existence of promoter refers to promoter model

(Huber 1995, 134, Sachs 1999,183).

proposed by Eberhard Witte ( 1973 ). The basicidea of

Consistent strategies are different from other two strategies. It concentrates more on material quality and

this model is that an innovation is obstacled by obstacles that exist during the innovation process and

301 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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two or more promoters work together to overcome

Entrepreneurs

those obstacles ( Witte, 1973 ). This promoter model

process for a continual development

Promotors in the innovation

assumes that this finding has existed at the level of The role of entrepreneurs and promoters is as

adoption innovation.

innovative actors in the continual development; Obstacles in innovation are due to lack of individual

therefore, to apply those innovations, there are two

willingness and individual competence to innovate and

promoter models to be considered; they are first,

overcome

technological innovation promoter model prepared for

these

obstacles

connected

with

the

individual himself (Witte,1973,15).

explaining technology-based innovations, and the second is promotor models that explain the innovation

Promotor adalah an actor atau doer that actively and intensively supports the process of innovation (Witte,

process in an organization, so it is needed a cooperation between the organizational types.

1973,15-16). There are two kinds of promoter, authority promoters who are hierarchically ensuring,

Promotor models for entrepreneurship specifically

supporting and motivating others involved in the

plays a role in business organization, while boadly it

innovation process and giving a material contribution

plays a role in considering a cooperation between

and non-material supports and also tolerate mistakes(

organizational

Witte,1973,17-18).

organizations and non-profit organizations.

Technological promotors support the innovation

From governmental perspectives, it can be seen that

process with their specific knowledge and give

the fight role is authority promoters, because they have

arguments

the power to determine specific regulatory framework,

that

(Witte,1973,18,19).

support In

the

addition,

innovation

Hauschild

types

including

governmental

dan

while the business organization tends to appoint

Chakrabarti (1988,384) adds that process promoters

technological promoters, because of being addicted to

are promoters that construct the relationship between

networks and communication.

promotor s competency and promotor s skill. The main responsibility of process promotor is to

3.

Discussion

accomplish the process of communication, motivation

Several experts elabote the relationship between

and coordination.

entrepreneurship and continual development and also connected

By

adding

these

promoters,

it

has

expanded

perspectives among organizations (Gemunden & Walter 1995,972;Gemunden & Walter 1999,114). It is meant that process promoter has a relationship between organizations via social networks to provide access between the resources (Gemunden & Walter 1995,976). The process promoter helps overcome the

andindirectly

with

continual

foundational

socialpreneurship

enterpreneurship.

The

environment-oriented continual entrepreneurship is often ecopreneurship (Blue, 1990; Bennett, 1991; Berle, 1991; Anderson dan Leal, 1997; Staber, 1997; Keogh dan Polonsky, 1998; Lober, 1998; Pastakia, 1998; Isaak, 1999; Schaltegger, 2002; Lehmann et al, 2005.; Cohen, 2006).

obstacles in cooperation among the organizations.

302 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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However,

the

existing

changes

in

business

and the framework is well structured, the strategies

environment have insisted enterprises being able to

done will be more focused and it will reduce the

create new insights, new opinions, and offering

expenses. It means that innovation as a competititve

innovative products. Therefore, innovation has more

source can give a positive response to customers and

important meaning, it is not only a medium to maintain

surely to continual entrepreneurship.

the existence of the enterprise life, but it is also superior in the competition. This paper is relevant to the following literature

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307 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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THE EFFECT OF SPECIAL PRICE GIVING ON THE LAMPUNG POST DAILY NEWSPAPER ON COLLEGE STUDENTS BUYING INTEREST IN BANDAR LAMPUNG (A Study Case at students of IBI Darmajaya) Zuriana Lecturer in Computer Science Study Program at Management Department Informatics and Business Institute Darmajaya Jl. Z.A. Pagar Alam No. 93 Labuhan Ratu Bandar Lampung [email protected]

ABSTRACT

variable (X) has a positive effect on the buying interest with regression coefficient as 1.380 meaning

The effort of marketing strategies are meant to

that if the special price variable increase 1, so the

maintain the compnay life, so it is necessary to

buying interest will increase as 1.380. there is a

determine the right marketing strategies in order that

positive and significant effect of special price on the

the market segment of the Lampung Post daily

Lampung Post (X) on buying interest of the students

newspaper (SKH Lampung Post) can be maintained

od IBI Darmajaya because tcount > ttable ((7,998)>t table

or increased. The Lampung Post needs to determine

(1,662) nilai sig 0,000
rtablel, is valid and if countg < rtable, so it is invalid.. Instrument Reliability Test The questionnaire reliability test uses alpha Pada

Data Collecting Technique

pengujian realibilitas chronbach formula. If alpha

There are some techniques used to collect the data:: 1.

chronbach score > r tabel it means it is reliable. In the research the result of the test from the first phase to the final phase indicates that all data for

Documentation It is used to obtain data on promotion media,

special price variable (X) and buying interest have met

customers, products and others.

the

validity

and

instrument

reliability

requirements. While the normality test result shows 2.

Questionnaire

that both variables are normally distributed.

It is a primary technique used to collect data in the research. The data collecting from independent

variable

questionnaire

with

is

done

likert

scale,

using the

questionnaire is used to sort brand image

5. 5.1

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Conclusion Based on the result of data analysis and hypothetical test, it can be concluded that ::

310 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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1.

The result of normality and homogeneity

REFERENCES

tests shows that specific price variable

Kotler, Philip. (2000), Manajemen Pemasaran Jilid 2

(X)

and

buying

interest

(Y)

are

Edisi Millenium. Indeks Jakarta

distributed normally with homogeneous Mowen, Jhon C dan Michael C Minor. 2002.

variants. 2.

Perilaku Konsumen. Penerbit Erlangga

The regression eqwuation dained is Y=0,218+1,380X

price variable (X) has a positive effect on buying

Jakarta.

meaning that special

interest

with

Effendy,

regression

Onong

Uchyana

(2002).

Pegantar

Komunikasi Massa. Rineka Cipta Jakarta

coefficient as 1,380 which means that if the special price variable increases one point, so the buying interest will increase

Sugiyono,

(2005),

Statistika

Untuk

Penelitian,

Bandung: Alfabeta.

as 1.380. 3.

The number of special price effects on buying interest is 40,5% while the rest is 50,5% influenced by other factors which are not examined (R2=0,405)

4.

The result of ttest obtains the value of tcount as 7,998, maning that because thitung > ttabel ((7,998)>t table (1,662) so it means there is a positive and significant effect of special price (X) on the Lampung Post (X) on buying interest of the students of IBI Darmajaya.

5.2 Suggestion Based on the conclusion, it can be suggested that: 1. The Lampung Post cam develop marketing strategiy especially in determining price because it is proved that the special price can attract the students aattention to buy the Lampung Post. 2. The

enterprise

should

maximaize

the

promotion to support the special price giving to the students so that there wil be more students who will know about the special price giving.

311 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

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MEASUREMENT OF SERVICE QUALITY AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION (APPLICATION MODEL ON SERVICE COMPANY)

Mohammad Machrus STIE Satu Nusa Lampung Jl. Cut Mutiah No. 19 A Bandar Lampung e-mail: mohammadmachrus25@yahoo.co.id

Customer Satisfaction, E= Customer Expectation,

ABSTRACT

and P = Perceived Performance. Success of a company in marketing service, is determined by service quality that must be satisfy the

KEY WORDS: Servqual, Customer satisfaction,

customers. Management should commit to maintain

Tangible,

service quality to keep customer satisfaction, because

Assurance.

Empaty,

Reliability,

Responsiveness,

service quality and customer service is dependant each other. So it is necessary to measure them

1.

periodically.

positive

Success of a company in marketing services, is

correlation with service quality and customer

determined by service quality that must be satisfy the

satisfaction

i.e.:

customers. Management should commit to maintain

Tangible, Empathy, Reliability, Responsiveness, and

service quality to keep customer satisfaction, because

Assurance. Beside that, there five gaps that caused

service quality and customer service is dependent

service

customer

each other. So it is necessary to measure them

satisfaction, those gaps are: 1) Gap between

periodically. Service marketing as a system, is

Customer Expectation and Management Perception,

combination of operating system and service

2) Gap between Management Perception and

presentation, by media in purpose to communicate

Servqual Specification, 3) Gap Between Servqual

the services to the customers (Lovelock: 1991).

Dimensions

are

quality

that

summarized

cannot

in

fulfill

have

TERRA,

the

Introduction

Specification and Service Delivery, 4) Gap between Service Delivery and External Communication, 5)

In order to do a service to satisfy the customer

Gap between Expected Service and Perceived

perfectly, so the operating system should be

Service. Service quality can be measured by

supported by service marketing mix, which is a

Performance and Important Ratio (PIP) model.

service marketing tool that can be controlled by

Meanwhile, customer satisfaction can be measured

management to serve aimed market segment.

by model function : S = fs (E,P), where : S =

According to Zaithami (1990), service

marketing

mix consist of 7P, i.e.: Product, Place, Price,

312 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

Promotion, Physical Evidence, Ppeople, Participant,

4.

Responsiveness is attention to respond the

and Promise. According to Zaithami (1990), service

customer in case of giving service, e.g.:

marketing mix terdiri dari 7 P , yaitu : product,

readiness, friendliness, and skilled officers.

place, price, promotion, physical evidence, people,

5.

participant, promise.

Assurance is guarantee from management to customer, in correlation of giving service, e.g.: security and safety.

2.

Service Marketing Dimension

There are cohesiveness between process and system

Customer satisfaction is function and closeness of

in service marketing that is resulted by three inputs,

customer expectation and perceived performance.

i.e. : a) People as customer; b) material as service

Based on that closeness, customer satisfaction can be

marketing support; c) information as a system.

formulated as follows.

Service business is a combination of operating system

and

service

delivery

system.

Service

S = fs ( E, P)

marketing emphasize at service delivery system, that

where:

has to concern at 4 service characteristics, i.e.:

S = Customer satisfaction;

uncorporeal, cannot be saved, cannot be separated,

E = Customer expectation;

and changeable. In correlation with those four

P = Perceived performance.

characteristics, service quality is relative and the success of service marketing is determined by service

Customer satisfaction (S) will be achieved if the

quality (Servqual). Service quality that customer

service that customer experience (P) beyond the

receive, fundamentally is customer satisfaction level.

expectation (E). In short, service quality can be found

So that, customer satisfaction is a dimension to

by

measure service quality that company offer. Service

perceived performance. Process of gap and the

quality can be divided through service quality

correlation with servqual dimension can be seen at

dimension, i.e.: Tangible, Empathy, Reliability,

figure 2 (Rust T. Roland: 1996).

Responsiveness, and Assurance (TERRA). 1.

Tangible is the availability of physical supporting infrastructure, e.g.: building, the area, machine, office equipment, etc.

2.

Empathy is an impression in offering service, e.g.: attention, clear and accessible information, adequacy of customer needs, etc.

3.

Reliability is the level of trust from management to the customers in correlation of

service,

e.g.:

service

comparing

the

customer

expectation

and

Customer Expectation Gap 1 Management Perception Gap 2 Servqual Specification Gap 3

Expected Service :

Service Quality Determination Tangible Empathy Reliability

Service Delivery Gap 4 External

suitability,

punctuality, keeping promises, etc.

Figure 2: Model Service Quality

313 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

case, company pays too much servqual cost. 3.

This is not very efficient.

Service Quality Measurement

A good service quality is able to increase company s

2.

If the measurement result is in the area of

image, thus company ought to measure the service

optimum, service performance and customer

whether it can satisfy the customer or not. Service

importance are equal. It means, service

quality measurement can be done by TERRA

quality has reached the optimality, and

variables or by models as follow.

company has meet the customer satisfaction.

1.

Function model

3.

If the measurement result is in the area of

Service quality (S) = Service performance

under optimum, service performance has not

(P)

meet the customer satisfaction. It means

Customer Expectation (E).

If the result is positive, then service quality

service quality is not optimum yet.

good rated and customer satisfaction is

2.

reached. In reverse, if the result is negative,

4. Measurement of Customer Satisfaction

the service quality bad rated. It means

Customer satisfaction can be measure by TERRA

customer satisfaction is not reached yet.

dimension, by comparing the values of service

Performance and Importance Ratio ( PIR )

performance (P) and customer expectation, as

Model

follows.

This model measures the service quality by TERRA variables. Diagram below illustrates the measurement by the model.

Service Performance

Over Optimum

If : 1.

Optimum

Measurement result < 1, it means the service performance cannot fulfill the customer satisfaction.

2.

Under Optimum

Measurement result = 1, it means the service performance satisfaction.

fulfill The

the

customer

customer

expectation

equals to service performance.

Customer Importance 3.

Figure 3: Measurement of Service Quality

Measurement result > 1, it means the service performance

beyond

the

customer

Based on measurement of service quality by TERRA

expectation.

Customer

gets

extremely

dimensions using PIR model, three result alternatives

perfect service.

are obtained as follow. 1.

If the measurement result is in the area of

5.

Conclusion

Over Optimum, the service performance is

Based on analysis and theoretical studies, the

far above the customer expectation. It means

conclusions are:

customer satisfaction is over fulfilled. In this

314 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015

International Conference On Information Technology And Business ISSN 2460-7223

1.

2.

Service marketing mix has 8 P, i.e.: Product,

Zaithaml, Valerry,

A. 1990. Delivery Quality

Price, Place, Promotion, Physical Evidence,

Service, Balancing Customer Perception and

Process, People, and Promise.

Expectation. Free Press, New York.

The concern variable to measure the service quality is TERRA dimension, that are: Tangible,

Empathy,

Reliability,

Responsiveness, and Assurance. 3.

Service quality (servqual), is an important aspect to reach the success of service marketing, and service quality affects customer satisfaction and loyalty. So that management should measure the service quality periodically by several models as follow. a.

Function model: S = fs ( P : E ).

b.

PIR scheme model, that is comparing service

performance

and

customer

importance by TERRA dimension.

Reference

Fandi Ciptono : 1996. Manajemen Jasa. Penerbit Andi, Yogyakarta Kotler Philip. 1994. Marketing Management. Eight edition. Prentice Hill International, USA. Lovelock Christhoper, H. 1991. Service Marketing, Harper Collins College Publisher, USA. Fredy, Rangkuti, 1997. Riset Pemasaran, Gramedia, Jakarta. Rust T, Roland. 1996. Service Marketing. Prentice Hill International, USA. Sucherly. 1998. Faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh Terhadap Pemasaran Jasa. Desertasi, PPS UNPAD, Bandung. J. Supranto. 1997. Pengukuran Tingkat Kepuasan Pelanggan Untuk Menaikkan Pangsa Pasar. Rineka Cipta, Jakarta.

315 | International Conferences on Information Technology and Business (ICITB), 20th -21th August 2015