EQEC 2009

Secure multiparty quantum communication over telecom fiber networks Jan Bogdanski, Johan Ahrens, Nima Rafiei, Alma Imamovic, Mohamed Bourennane Department of Physics, Stockholm University S-10961 Stockholm, Sweden

Splitting a secret message in the way that a single person is not able to reconstruct it is a common task in information processing and high security applications. For instance, let us assume that the launch sequence of a nuclear missile is protected by a secret code and it should be ensured that a single person is not able to activate it but at least two persons need to cooperate in order to carry out the launch. Another example is a joined banking account. The account is set in such a way that withdrawing cash is possible when all of parties cooperate by generating a code required by an automated teller machine (ATM) or by a banker. A solution for this problem and its generalization, including several variations, is provided by classical cryptography and is called secret sharing. It consists of a way of splitting the message using mathematical algorithms and the distribution of the resulting pieces to two or more legitimate users by classical communication. However, all ways of classical communication currently used are susceptible to eavesdropping attacks. As the usage of quantum resources can lead to unconditionally secure communication, a protocol introducing quantum information scheme to Secret Sharing has been developed. This protocol provides information splitting and eavesdropping protection. However, his scheme is in practice non-scalable since it used multipartite entangled states that are difficult to generate and transmit. Furthermore the use of polarization encoding is impractical for applications over commercial birefringent single mode fibers (SMF) networks. A new protocol solving the above mentioned problems was proposed in [1]. The protocol requires only a single qubit for quantum information transmission, which allowed for its practical experimental realization and scalability. We report the first fiber quantum secret sharing experiment in three, four, and five-party implementations, in the plug & play and Signac interferometer setups using single photons with phase encoding. We have achieved in plug & play setup a secure secret sharing transmission distance of 66:1 km for three-party with quantum bit error rate (QBER) of 7:1%; 40:5 km for four-party with QBER of 6:6%; and 6:7 km with QBER of 2:7%, suitable for local area network (LAN) applications, for five-party [2]. In Sagnac interferometric setup, our experimental data in the three-party implementation show stable (in regards to birefringence drift) quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 55-75 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 2.3-2.4%for the mean photon number μ = 0.1 and 1.7-2.1% for μ = 0.3. In the four-party case we have achieved quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 45-55 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 3.0-3.7% for the mean photon number μ = 0.1 and 1.83.0% for μ = 0.3. The stability of quantum transmission has been achieved thanks to our new concept for compensation of SMF birefringence effects in Sagnac, based on a polarization control system and a polarization insensitive phase modulator [3]. The reported work also includes first, to the five-users quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment with phase encoding over switched fiber networks in both star and tree configurations, using the BB84 protocol [4]. The achieved secure quantum transmission distances in our five-user experiment have been between 25 and 50 km. The measurement results have showed feasibility of quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber networks in Plug & play and Sagnac configurations, using standard fiber telecom components. References [1] Ch. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, Ch. Kurtsiefer, M. Żukowski, and H.Weinfurter “Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing”, Physical Review letters 95, 230505 (2005). [2] J. Bogdanski, N. Rafiei, and M. Bourennane, “experimental quantum secret sharing using telecommunication fiber”, Physical Review A 78, 062307 (2008). [3] J. Bogdanski, J. Ahrens, and M. Bourennane, “Sagnac secret sharing over telecom fiber networks” Optics Express, 17, 1055, (2009). [4] ] J. Bogdanski, N. Rafiei, and M. Bourennane, “Multiuser quantum key distribution over telecom fiber networks” Opt. Comm. 282, 258 (2009).

978-1-4244-4080-1/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

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Secure multiparty quantum communication over telecom fiber networks Jan Bogdanski, Johan Ahrens, Nima Rafiei, Alma Imamovic, Mohamed Bourennane Department of Physics, Stockholm University S-10961 Stockholm, Sweden

Splitting a secret message in the way that a single person is not able to reconstruct it is a common task in information processing and high security applications. For instance, let us assume that the launch sequence of a nuclear missile is protected by a secret code and it should be ensured that a single person is not able to activate it but at least two persons need to cooperate in order to carry out the launch. Another example is a joined banking account. The account is set in such a way that withdrawing cash is possible when all of parties cooperate by generating a code required by an automated teller machine (ATM) or by a banker. A solution for this problem and its generalization, including several variations, is provided by classical cryptography and is called secret sharing. It consists of a way of splitting the message using mathematical algorithms and the distribution of the resulting pieces to two or more legitimate users by classical communication. However, all ways of classical communication currently used are susceptible to eavesdropping attacks. As the usage of quantum resources can lead to unconditionally secure communication, a protocol introducing quantum information scheme to Secret Sharing has been developed. This protocol provides information splitting and eavesdropping protection. However, his scheme is in practice non-scalable since it used multipartite entangled states that are difficult to generate and transmit. Furthermore the use of polarization encoding is impractical for applications over commercial birefringent single mode fibers (SMF) networks. A new protocol solving the above mentioned problems was proposed in [1]. The protocol requires only a single qubit for quantum information transmission, which allowed for its practical experimental realization and scalability. We report the first fiber quantum secret sharing experiment in three, four, and five-party implementations, in the plug & play and Signac interferometer setups using single photons with phase encoding. We have achieved in plug & play setup a secure secret sharing transmission distance of 66:1 km for three-party with quantum bit error rate (QBER) of 7:1%; 40:5 km for four-party with QBER of 6:6%; and 6:7 km with QBER of 2:7%, suitable for local area network (LAN) applications, for five-party [2]. In Sagnac interferometric setup, our experimental data in the three-party implementation show stable (in regards to birefringence drift) quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 55-75 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 2.3-2.4%for the mean photon number μ = 0.1 and 1.7-2.1% for μ = 0.3. In the four-party case we have achieved quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 45-55 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 3.0-3.7% for the mean photon number μ = 0.1 and 1.83.0% for μ = 0.3. The stability of quantum transmission has been achieved thanks to our new concept for compensation of SMF birefringence effects in Sagnac, based on a polarization control system and a polarization insensitive phase modulator [3]. The reported work also includes first, to the five-users quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment with phase encoding over switched fiber networks in both star and tree configurations, using the BB84 protocol [4]. The achieved secure quantum transmission distances in our five-user experiment have been between 25 and 50 km. The measurement results have showed feasibility of quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber networks in Plug & play and Sagnac configurations, using standard fiber telecom components. References [1] Ch. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, Ch. Kurtsiefer, M. Żukowski, and H.Weinfurter “Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing”, Physical Review letters 95, 230505 (2005). [2] J. Bogdanski, N. Rafiei, and M. Bourennane, “experimental quantum secret sharing using telecommunication fiber”, Physical Review A 78, 062307 (2008). [3] J. Bogdanski, J. Ahrens, and M. Bourennane, “Sagnac secret sharing over telecom fiber networks” Optics Express, 17, 1055, (2009). [4] ] J. Bogdanski, N. Rafiei, and M. Bourennane, “Multiuser quantum key distribution over telecom fiber networks” Opt. Comm. 282, 258 (2009).

978-1-4244-4080-1/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

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