Short-term effects of dietary-fat ingestion on energy ...

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ingestion on energy expenditure and nutrient balance13. Chuck. Bennett, ...... ex- penditure. Figure. 5 shows the calculated daily energy balance during the two .... rather than as differences in the proportion of excess fat that is stored vs that.

Short-term expenditure Chuck

effects of dietary-fat ingestion and nutrient balance13

Bennett,

ABSTRACT more than

George

Joule forjoule, or carbohydrate.

protein

whether

the

would

increase

W Reed,

addition

John

fat to a standard

expenditure

physical

a greater

after the ingestion Adding fat did not either

during

following level.

the

Acutely,

immediate true

would less fit subjects. or energy expenditure period

regardless

fat ingested

of the

in excess

dietary

or over

subject’s

the

rate

of

Being physically fit in avoiding short-

Am J C/in Nutr

fat.

1992;55:

107 1-7.

whether

composition The

ability

ofsome

Obesity,

whole-room aerobic

calorimeter,

substrate thermic

oxidation,

effect

of

dietary fat, maximum

food,

capacity

of dietary

self-selected

dietary

gested

in excess

occur

if there

excess after

Introduction

and

protein

hydrate

oxidation

and

fat intake

protein

developed rates

are

intakes.

dietary

carbohydrate.

An important

that

the oxidation

rates

by changes

in the

but that fat oxidation in fat intake. Flatt the

respiratory and

fat. They expenditure

found or

the

fat was

extra

surement.

intakes

again

after

stored

of protein

from

this

model

is

This

tient.

Additionally,

amount

is seen

and

carbohydrate,

subjects

for 9 h after

breakfast

with

body

during

the

50 g added

period

human

jects. They found the 24-h respiratory

no change quotient

that

ofthe

fate

Am J C/in Nutr

ofall

1992;55:lO7l-7.

fat was Printed

to be stored in USA.

increased sensitivity.

a higher

the excess

with effects

the

capacity

with

possible

fat. Second,

sub-

of exercise

on

fat oxidation total daily fat

is known

a higher greater

for lipolysis two

quo-

for a given

untrained

by lower

than ways

total

that

insulin

Because ininsulin concen-

insulin an

to increase

plasma

(11

tolerance tests lower circulating with

by the

untrained subjects) (6In addition to pro-

exercise

glucose effects, subject

to at least

is greater

that

is evidenced

aerobic

respiratory

as compared

as compared with this is controversial.

be associated

dietary

in the

in the

differences

ofboth acute (ie, greater and chronic (ie, greater

This

later

of fat as a fuel

decrease

evidence

immediately

meals

of maximum

use

could

to which

individual

of 50-60%

in trained

a trained

leads

such

fat oxidation,

could

have

whether them. the

This

extent

either

use of fat as a fuel

is some

concentrations during sulin has antilipolytic

This

oxidation between

as a gradual

may consist of exercise)

insulin

in the

).

lipolytic sensitivity

untrained trained

rate may subject. subjects

First, they may show an imwhen given the meal containing they

may

show

no increase

in fat

of men-

subjects

for

in daily energy expenditure or in during the last 36 h, again suggesting

excess

fat

or

in main-

is that there dietary fat in-

vs oxidized.

periods

could show greater fat oxidation. mediate increase in fat oxidation

a low-

fat did not change either energy quotient, suggesting that all of

et al (4) studied

is stored

the wide

oxidation role

hypothesis to which

diet

balance.

despite fat

an important

Our extent

increases the

There

Thus,

play

differences

activity

ofexercise (5).

moting

(12).

3 d and two nights in a whole-room calorimeter. Subjects were fed a mixed diet during the first 24 h and were given an additional 4126 Id (987 kcal) of fat during the next 36 h. The extra fat was given as a supplement to the four meals consumed by the sub-

the

body.

lean either

of diet to de-

to which

of energy

that

balance. in the

or during

aerobic

trations

are rapidly

influenced by changes energy expenditure and

the same

in the

Schutz

not by

oxidation

carbohydrate

of protein

in human

that the added the respiratory

Similarly,

and

is not immediately et al (3) measured

quotient

fat breakfast

prediction

ofprotein

by carbo-

is determined and

must

fat stimulates

progressively

extent

to remain

individual

oxidation in trained 10) effects, although

(1, 2), carbohydrate

determined

oxidation

in intake

and

affected

largely

Fat

but by the difference

by Flatt

intake

importance balance and

in the

suggests

day. Our goal is to determine exist and if so, what causes

jects

to the model

fat

relative energy

maintenance

of fat oxidation are

its ingestion

fat oxidation after a bout

According

differ for

individuals

availability

Sustained

WORDS

0 Hill

individuals

is important

capacity

KEY

and James

taming long-term energy are individual differences

fitness

of its usual

to be stored in the body. to provide an advantage

of excess

termine the

in fat oxidation

6-h postprandial

was

dietary

appears appear

storage

increase

Sun,

Our interest was to determine the composition as a factor influencing

or over the ensuing 18 h. with a high level of aerobic

of the extra fat than increase fat oxidation

18 h. This

oxidation does not term

show

during

Ming

in the body.

© 1992 American

Society

From the Departments ofPediatncs, Preventive Medicine, and Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, and The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati. 2 Supported by grants DK42549, DK26657, and RR00095 from the National Institutes of Health. 3 Address reprint requests to JO Hill, Department of Pediatrics, D4130 Medical Center North, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232. Received September 25, 1991. Accepted for publication December 4, 1991. for Clinical

Nutrition

1071

Downloaded from www.ajcn.org at Commax Group on July 10, 2011

period subjects

would

N Abumrad,

breakfast

or fat oxidation

immediate 6-h postprandial We also determined whether fitness

Naji

dietary fat may promote obesity In this study we determined

of 50 g dietary

energy

C Peters,

on energy

1072

BENNETT

oxidation

after

greater the

the

ability

with

excess

dietary

fat but

fat in the postabsorptive

tested

a greater

in this experiment

is that

to immediately

oxidize

capacity

trained excess

fat, even when not exercising, than do untrained subjects were studied after a period of abstinence to avoid

any

may

have

periods

a

during

acute

effects

of an exercise

bout

subjects dietary

subjects. All from exercise

on fat oxidation.

Eight

nonobese

(< 25%

body

fat)

of Human

Subjects.

Subject

three

or more

4) had V02 engaging in planned

ported

All

subjects

mo

before

The

were the

y of age

-

min

and

times

nonsmokers

and

are

shown

maximum

.

in

an activity

engaging

to ensure

The

equivalence

study

involved

of food

studying

equal

24-h

of the

calories

and two

15% from meals at

measured

for

6

in energy

coming

energy

expenditure

content

from

to that

on both

and

of his usual

food intake). Twentyin a breakfast meal (with

carbohydrate,

30%

protein) at 0830 and the remainder 1500 and 1800. The procedure was

meal

calories protein.

days

with

from

fat,

was given identical

in on

was provided

order

of diets group

felt modules

tical

composition

during

his second

on both

so that

meal

and

diet

General

half

ofthe

sub-

the

basic

plus on each

for all days

with

all

Clinical

of the

after 836

food

was

between

Thermic TEF

effect

Center

fixed

at 55%

kcal) diet.

the

meals

each

and

was caculated

baseline percentage

The

subjects’

as the increase

bohydrate, and fat were calculated oxygen consumed, carbon dioxide gen excreted

(14).

Nutrient

balance

as intake

minus

oxidation

usual

idenenergy

in energy

over the produced, over

expenditure

above

and was expressed rates of protein,

as a car-

6-h period from the and urinary nitro-

the 6-h

was

de-

during the last 18 h ofeach measurement by placing subjects in a whole-room

cal-

of each

period

nutrient.

for 6 h after indirect Corp, men-

Energy

expenditure

in the whole-room

Energy expenditure period was determined

BMI5

index.

The

ofan

from this 5-d period. There any subject during this 5-d

for 6 h after the breakfast meal of ingested energy. Oxidation

Weight

mass

of the

provided. were

on the Vanderbilt which was described

calorimeter

University previously

General CRC. (15), is a live-

1 characteristics

Body

(CRC)

offood

orimeter located The calorimeter,

7 8

test and

period.

entered a for men-

6

fat first. test day.

prepared

Research

diet

consuming kJ (200

to the control

period. Six hours after indirect calorimeter

1 2 3 4 5

was detector

received

the breakfast were made

intake was determined as the average was no change in body weight for

surement whole-room

Subject

days.

from carbohydrate, 30% from fat, and 15% from were able to request additional food modules were

6-h

a

in the whole-room

intake

a control

hungry

food

and

caonmeter was instructed

the caorimeter

vs untrained)

received collections

energy

by a radar

randomized

composition

coming Subjects

inside

cab-

amount

similar

measured

the first test

by Vanderbilt The

activity

was

half urine

ate

system (SensorMedics 2900, SensorMedics CA). Subjects were supine throughout the

TABLE Subject

usual

The

record was

over

in the

of their

this

activity

(trained

and

calorimetry Anaheim,

subjects below)

physical

ofusua/food

termined

a ventilated-hood

breakfast (described

time

times.

the first day

to use

of movement

subjects

dietitians.

during

asked

ofvoluntary

5 d before

and reper week.

stable

that

Cakulation

untrained

weight

the second day except that an extra 50 g fat (butter) in the breakfast meal. The thermic effect of food (TEF) was measured the breakfast

in each

The

subject on two different days, sepwere asked to refrain from exercise On one day the subject was given

diet (determined from 5 d of measured five percent ofenergy intake was given 55%

The

if they

oxidation for each by 24 h. All subjects 36 h before being tested.

an amount

(13). jects

min’ once

study.

was

by results

meals,

oxidation

the

remainder

at specified

record

and

stay

For

the

eaten

substrate

During

of food provided in the whole-room each day. In addition, the subject

breakfast first Twenty-four-hour

aerobic

reported

per week.

were

gave

which was apfor the Protec-

max < 45 mL#{149} kg exercise no more than

=

substrate for

to keep

and

period.

received meals

composition was identical calorimeter

Procedures

arated

subjects

24-h

Age

Height

y

cm

kg

33 21 25 47 37 22 21 31

185.4 178.0 196.2 181.0 179.1 181.6 186.0 180.3

74.5 65.8 82.3 70.2 82.8 74.5 84.4 98.2

Percent %

22 21 21 21 26 23 24 30

13.5 13.0 19.5 15.1 23.3 14.2 2 1.9 22.7

fat

VO2 max mL.kg’.min’ 59.0 57.6 56.9 64.0 35.4 41.0 42.4 41.1

Downloaded from www.ajcn.org at Commax Group on July 10, 2011

exercise

(n

4) had

=

.

subjects

21-46

characteristics

1. The trained subjects (n (V02 max > 55 mL kg

in planned

men

in the study, Committee

expenditure

of the

in two

verified

their written consent to participate proved by the Vanderbilt University

capacity

of energy

remainder

intake

Subjects

Table

surement the

Methods

tion

AL

rimeter,

day. The hypothesis

have

meal

to oxidize

ET

DIETARY TABLE Resting

2 metabolic

rate (RMR)

and the thermic

FAT

AND

NUTRIENT

1073

BALANCE

effect of food (TEF)* Baseline

Subject

RMR

TEFt

kJ.kgFFM’.h’

%

1 (trained) 2 (trained) 3 (trained) 4 (trained) 5 (untrained) 6 (untrained) 7 (untrained) 8 (untrained) Average (all) Average (trained) Average (untrained) C

6.06 5.48 5.43 4.68 5.02 5.35 5.27 4.68 5.25 ± 0.16f 5.41 ± 0.28 5.08 ± 0.15

RMR

in calorimeter vision, and chamber

was

the

described

for 6 h (kJ/6

for oxygen

measurement rates,

above.

h above

carbon

period.

and

The

and

accuracy

bon dioxide production properties of the gas.

kJ.kgFFM’.h’

and

nutrient

the 6-h measurements 1 8-h measurements

5.64 5.39 5.39 4.39 4.93 5.31 4.68 4.64

6.14 ± 1.08 4.48 ± 1.54 7.80 ± 1.1 1

5.05 ± 0.16 5.20 ± 0.28 4.89 ± 0.15

balance

were

contents

were

sub-

calculated

as

is checked

by

determining consumption

predicted energy

telethe

expenditure,

balance

the

match and car-

values based on the expenditure, substrate

determined

with the ventilated with the whole-room

aerobic

An estimate from

the

ject’s

expired

5.70 4.46 6.94

0.96 1.17 1.39

± ± ±

by combining

hood system calorimeter.

weight

in air and

water

was

Detecto

(Webb

City,

MD)

Gardens, a large

NY) spring tank of water

the

specific

ofthe

measured

subject’s V02

air while

stepwise the

max.

ofphysical

This

involved

Residual

lung

derwater method.

weight Nitrogen

tralizer.

voluntarily

was

collecting

or running

and

terminated to continue

ofcardiac

fitness

made

the

sub-

on a treadmill.

slope the

test.

the test

irregularity,

ofthe

Subjects

as long

exertional

treadmill

certain spiratory

time

oxygen

with certainty quotient

sumption) be near

consumption

subject’s

Underwater Body underwater

in response test serves fitness

reaches

the maximum (carbon dioxide

should be at or slightly the predicted maximum,

consumption mL/kg. This

25 g with

Chatillion

(Kew

procedure

estimated

Lohman

was

determined

simultaneously

with

un-

by using a closed-circuit, nitrogen-dilution was measured with a Med-Science 505-D was

from

repeated

body

8-. 10 times.

density

by using

Percent

the

Nibody

equations

of

et al(18). methods

a plateau.

aerobic threshold, production/oxygen 1 .0, the heart and the increase

to the final workload should as a reliable and reproducible

weighing

estimated

to

determine

from body

body

density

volume

used

vs untrained)

size, nonparametric Wilcoxon test for ferences

to compare

Unpaired

I tests

differences. tests paired)

between-meal were

used

Because

differences

to compare of the

group

small

sample

(Mann-Whitney test for unpaired, were used to confirm significant dif-

(19).

To

as-

the

recon-

rate should in oxygen be < 1.2 measure

by using (17).

Neither

resting

metabolic

rate

nor

test meal was affected by the addition 2). Overall, TEF (expressed as percent

level.

was

(trained

or

weighing composition

were

individuals.

Results

intolerance,

>

within

t tests

were

as possible.

suppressed functional capacity was cause for test termination by the supervising physician. During the test, oxygen consumption increases linearly with workload until a maximum is reached at which

nearest

and

scales, respectively. Each subject entered while wearing a bathing suit. The subject

volume

The

Paired

continuously during the test. A to conduct the tests, which involved

in the speed

beforehand

indication

level

he was walking

increases

subject

encouraged

to the

platform

sat on a chair attached to a scale. The subject was asked to hold his breath for 20 s while he was sitting on the chair underwater.

fat was

and

measured

capacity

rate was also monitored protocol (16) was used

of the

1.04 6.24 5.54 5.00 5.29 3.94 9.84 8.67

ingested).

Statistical Maximum

Any

%

0.00 5.53 7.03 5.34 5.19 6.72 9.65 9.63

by energy

telephone, and exiting

of the calorimeter

and the Total 24-h

divided

dioxide

Energy

nutrient

propane inside the room and the measured amount ofoxygen

oxidation,

RMR

with a bed, desk, toilet, recorder. Air entering

analyzed

oxidation

burning between

energy

equipped video-cassette

throughout

until

TEFt

Body

the

thermic

effect

of the

of 50 g dietary fat (Table of ingested energy) was

not significantly different between days. The average difference between days (baseline high-fat meal) was 0.44 ± 0.44% of ingested energy (NS; P > 0.40). Moreover, trained and untrained subjects

did

not

differ

in resting

metabolic

rate

or TEF

between

days. Substrate after

the

oxidation meal,

the whole-room period. There

eight

subjects

calculated

subsequent

for

the

18 h (while

calorimeter), and finally, were no significant differences

substrate oxidation fore, Figure 1 shows the

was

for the

due to group (trained substrate oxidation considered

as a single

for

6 h immediately subjects

were

in

the entire 24-h in any aspect of

vs untrained). Thereon the two test days for group.

The

top

panel

Downloaded from www.ajcn.org at Commax Group on July 10, 2011

t Percent of ingested t I ± SE.

Heart Bruce

breakfast

4 per group.

=

strate

High-fat

_

1074

BENNETT

-

100

4.50

80 60

:2

I

c

20

Ii

Fat

.

Ii

CHO

and

the whole

over

Pro

50g

fat

the

0

6 h after

Fat

CHO

to appear.

For

five

of positive pared with

fat balance the baseline

and

500

I

I

the

18 h (Fig

4).

untrained

subjects

penditure. Figure

5 shows

two

days.

test

was

there

did

was

energy

group

fat.

total

However,

over begin

in the

(P

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